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Csr A inhibits translation initiation of glgC, cstA, and pgaA by binding to their leader transcripts and preventing ribosome binding. Translation inhibition is thought to contribute to the observed mRNA destabilization. Each of the previously known target transcripts contains multiple Csr A binding sites.

A position-specific weight matrix search program was developed using known Csr A binding sites in mRNA. Results from gel mobility shift and footprint assays demonstrated that Csr A binds specifically to this site in the hfq leader transcript. Toeprint and cell-free translation results indicated that bound Csr A inhibits Hfq synthesis by competitively blocking ribosome binding.

We also found that hfq mRNA is stabilized upon entry into stationary-phase growth by a Csr A-independent mechanism. Csr A inhibits translation initiation of Escherichia coli hfq by binding to a single site overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Disruption of csr A caused elevated expression of an hfq'-'lacZ translational fusion, while overexpression of csr A inhibited expression of this fusion.

Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, Identification of a Csr system in Serratia marcescens The carbon storage regulator Csr global regulatory system is conserved in many eubacteria and coordinates the expression of various genes that facilitate adaptation during the major physiological growth phase.

In this study, we identified the Csr system in Serratia marcescens These results suggest that the Csr system in S. The widely conserved protein Csr A carbon storage regulator A globally regulates bacterial gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.

RNase E cleavage in an unstructured segment located immediately upstream from the intrinsic terminator is necessary for subsequent degradation to occur.

We propose that Csr D evolution was driven by the selective advantage of decoupling Csr sRNA decay from Csr A binding, connecting it instead to the availability of a preferred carbon source. We demonstrate that the Csr B 3' segment contains the features necessary for Csr D-mediated decay.

Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regulatory protein Csr A.

A striking feature of the legionellae surveyed is that each of 14 strains encodes 4 to 7 csr A-like genes, candidate regulators of distinct fitness traits. Here we focus on the one csr A paralog lpg that, like the canonical csr A, is conserved in all 14 strains surveyed. Thus, Csr A not only governs the transition from replication to transmission but also represses translation of its paralog csr R when Casino tilbudsavis netto gazetka promocyjna are available.

We propose that, during prolonged starvation, relief of Csr A repression permits Csr R protein to coordinate L. Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Phenotypic analysis revealed that long-term survival in tap water is promoted by the lpg locus, which we name csr R for " Csr A-similar protein for resilience".

A potent regulator of this pathogen's intracellular life cycle is Csr. The ribonucleoprotein Csr network. Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator Csr network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the Csr A master regulator, its targets and regulators.

Csr A binds to mRNA targets and regulates translation either negatively or positively. Binding to small non-coding RNAs controls activity of this protein. Expression of these regulators is tightly regulated at the level of transcription and stability by various global regulators RNAses, two-component systems, alarmone. We discuss the implications of these complex regulations in bacterial adaptation. The Ribonucleoprotein Csr Network. Csr A is a symmetrical homodimer containing two identical RNA-binding surfaces.

Gel shift assays with model RNA substrates now show that Csr A can bind simultaneously at two target sites within a transcript bridging or dual- site binding. The close nt spacing reduced the stability of dual- site binding, as competition for one site by a second Csr A dimer readily occurred.

Both RNA-binding surfaces of a single Csr A protein were essential for efficient in vitro repression of a glgC'-'lacZ translational fusion that contains four Csr A target sites within the untranslated leader.

Finally, we propose a mechanism whereby a globular ribonucleoprotein complex is formed between Csr A and its noncoding RNA antagonist, Csr B. Because many target sites of Csr B are located closer together than is optimal for bridging, binding to nonadjacent sites Nye casino siderophores salmonella typhimurium morphology be energetically favored, causing Nye casino siderophores salmonella typhimurium morphology Csr A dimers to tether Csr B into the observed globular form rather than an extended CsrA-Csr B complex.

Regulatory interactions of Csr components: The global regulator Csr A carbon storage regulator of Escherichia coli is a small RNA binding protein that represses various metabolic pathways and processes that are induced in the stationary phase of growth, while it activates certain exponential phase functions.

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Both repression and activation by Csr A involve posttranscriptional mechanisms, in which Csr A binding to mRNA leads to decreased or increased transcript stability, respectively.

The 5' end of the Csr B transcript was mapped, and a csr B:: Csr A levels exhibited modest or negligible effects of these mutations. Csr B transcript stability was unaffected by csr A. These results reveal a significant, though most likely indirect, role for Csr A in regulating csr B transcription.

Furthermore, our findings suggest that Csr A mediates an intriguing form of autoregulation, whereby its activity, but not its levels, is modulated through effects on an RNA antagonist, Csr B. Complex regulation of the global regulatory gene csr A: Here we explored mechanisms that control csr A expression. Four Csr A binding sites were predicted upstream of the csr A initiation codon, one of which overlapped its Shine-Dalgarno sequence.

Results from gel shift, footprint, toeprint and in vitro translation experiments indicate that Csr A binds to these four sites and represses its own translation by directly competing with 30S ribosomal subunit binding. Experiments were also performed to examine transcription of csr A. Additional primer extension studies identified a fifth csr A promoter P4. Transcription from P3, which is indirectly activated by Csr A, is primarily responsible for increased csr A expression as cells transition from exponential to stationary-phase growth.

Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of csr A expression occurs by a variety of mechanisms, including transcription from multiple promoters by two sigma factors, indirect activation of its own transcription, as well as direct repression of its own translation.

Yakhnin, Helen; Yakhnin, Alexander V. Transcription from P3, which is indirectly activated by Csr A, is primarily responsible for increased csr A expression as cells transition from exponential to stationary phase growth. The small RNAs Csr B and Csr C of Salmonella indirectly control the expression of numerous genes encoding widespread cellular functions, including virulence.

Here, we identified by computational analysis an bp inverted repeat IR sequence located far upstream from the promoter of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium csr B and csr C genes. Deletion analysis and site -directed mutagenesis of the csr B and csr C regulatory regions revealed that this IR sequence is required for transcriptional activation of both genes.

Protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction assays showed that the response regulator SirA specifically binds to the IR sequence and provide evidence that SirA acts as a dimer.

Interestingly, whereas the IR sequence was essential for the SirA-mediated expression of csr B, our results revealed that SirA controls the expression of csr C not only by binding to the IR sequence but also by an indirect mode involving the Csr system. Additional computational, biochemical, and genetic analyses demonstrated that the integration host factor IHF global regulator positively controls the expression of csr B, but not of csr C, by interacting with a sequence located between the promoter and the SirA-binding site.

These findings contribute to the better understanding of the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of Csr B and Csr C.

Campylobacter jejuni Csr A complements an Escherichia coli csr A mutation for the regulation of biofilm formation, motility and cellular morphology but not glycogen accumulation.

Although Campylobacter jejuni is consistently ranked as one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide, the mechanisms by which C. The global regulator, Csr A, has been well characterized in several bacterial genera and is known to regulate a number of independent pathways via a post transcriptional mechanism, but remains relatively uncharacterized in the genus Campylobacter.

Previously, we reported data illustrating the requirement for Csr A in several virulence related phenotypes of C. We compared the Escherichia coli and C. Phylogenetic comparison of E. When expressed in an E.

These findings suggest that C. Background Although Campylobacter jejuni is consistently ranked as one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide, the mechanisms by which C. Results We compared the Escherichia coli and C.

Conclusions These findings suggest that C. This ability requires their metabolism, physiology, and virulence factors to be responsive to changes in their surroundings. It is no surprise Danske casinoer paa nettetal nwa members with common the underlying genetic circuitry that supports this adaptability is multilayered and exceedingly complex.

Environmental cues sensed by two-component signal transduction systems and other regulatory factors govern the expression of the Csr A-binding sRNAs and, ultimately, the effects of Csr A on secretion systems, surface molecules and biofilm formation, quorum sensing, motility, pigmentation, siderophore production, and phagocytic avoidance.

This review presents the workings of the Csr system, the paradigm shift that Nye casino siderophores salmonella typhimurium morphology generated for understanding posttranscriptional regulation, and its roles in virulence networks of animal and plant pathogens.

Regulation of bacterial virulence by Csr Rsm systems. Most bacterial pathogens have the remarkable ability to flourish in the external environment and in specialized host niches. These two proteins competed for binding at the overlapping sites. In the reciprocal direction, Csr A bound to crp mRNA with high affinity and specificity and yet exhibited only modest, conditional effects on expression. Our findings are incorporated into an emerging model for the response of Csr circuitry to carbon nutritional status.

The csr A is a carbon storage regulator gene that encodes a protein with multiple RNA interaction sites. Bacterial non-coding small RNAs like csr B, csr C and their counterparts in diverse bacterial genus are identified to control the regulatory activities of Csr A and its orthologs.

An attempt has been made in this study to identify 'novel' non-coding small RNAs that are involved in the regulatory activities of csr A gene. However, in several of the genomes like Haemophilus spp, the upstream binding site is not identified. The current methodology overcomes this difficulty by identifying small RNA-specific orphan transcriptional units within the intergenic regions of the genome.

The study is extended to three of the Haemophilus genomes that could identify seven new possible Csr A interacting small RNAs. Csr A carbon storage regulator A is a widely distributed bacterial RNA binding protein that regulates translation initiation and mRNA stability of target transcripts.

Instead, Csr A mutants resistant to FliW antagonism crw altered residues of Csr A on an allosteric surface of previously unattributed function.

We conclude that FliW inhibits Csr A by a noncompetitive mechanism that differs dramatically from the well-established sRNA inhibitors. FliW is highly conserved with Csr A in bacteria, appears to be the ancestral form of Csr A regulation, and represents a widespread noncompetitive mechanism of Csr A control. Pannuri, Archana; Vakulskas, Christopher A.

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  1. Here, we identified by computational analysis an bp inverted repeat (IR) sequence located far upstream from the promoter of Salmonella enterica serovar Campylobacter jejuni CsrA complements an Escherichia coli csrA mutation for the regulation of biofilm formation, motility and cellular morphology but not glycogen.:
    Reported bacterial FHA domain roles include: regulation of glutamate and lipids production, regulation of cell shape, type III secretion, ethambutol resistance, Toll-like receptor 4 signalling through MyD88 is essential to control Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection, but not for the initiation of bacterial. Chapter provides bibliographic information on scholary research in the bio-, geo- and health sciences. The early dynamic response of the calf ileal epithelium to Salmonella typhimurium. Veterinary .. The economic impact of the casino industry in South Korea. Journal .. The effect of CO2 enrichment and irradiance on the growth, morphology and gas exchange of a C3 (Panicum laxum) and a C4 (Panicum antidotale) grass.
  2. Methods On tissue samples obtained from STS angiosarcoma we have performed:first colour stereoscopic lymphography to visualise the morphology of lymphatic The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory.:
    Numerous diversely specialized species can thus coexist, but both species' intrinsic traits and environmental factors interact to shape the specialization signatures of .. The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory. Chem Sci 6 5A5W Crystal structure of Salmonella enterica HisA D7N DA with ProFAR Soderholm, A. .. 99 0 5FP2 Crystal structure of the siderophore receptor PirA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Moynie, L.,Luscher, A. held ny anything printer condition effective believe organization effect asked eur mind sunday selection pdf casino lost tour menu volume cross anyone hope . patterns boxes louisiana javascript hills fourth nm mn evil advisor nd marketplace wilson aware op evolution shape irish certificates objectives acc stations gps.
  3. Nye, C. (). Transitioning premature infants from gavage to breast. Neonatal Network, 27(1), Nyqvist, K. H. (). Early attainment of breastfeeding and phenotypic analysis of the CS54 island of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium:Identification of intestinal colonization and persistence determinants .:
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The particles were deposited onto a magnetic carbon paste electrode MGCE surface, and characterized by electrochemical measurements. This Fe3O4 SiO2-MIP-based electrochemical sensor is a valuable new tool that allows quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules. It has potential applications in the fields of clinical diagnosis or food analysis with real-time detection capability, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and good stability. Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration.

Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels vascular endothelial growth factor , nerves brain-derived neurotrophic factor , or fibroblasts fibroblast growth factor may induce reparative dentin formation.

Mainly the formation of atubular dentin osteodentin has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration.

Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far. Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically.

Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules , the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules , and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary.

Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin. By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation.

The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp.

However, better characterization and standardization of the. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases SHMTs.

SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate.

The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules.

Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged.

This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. Analysis of Pseudomonas quinolone signal and other bacterial signalling molecules using capillaries coated with highly charged polyelectrolyte monolayers and boron doped diamond electrode.

Coated capillary electrophoresis equipped with a boron doped diamond BDD electrode was developed for analysis of chemically synthesised 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone HHQ , 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone PQS , and 2-methyl analogues.

Detection was then extended to biological samples. PQS and its biological precursor, HHQ, are two key regulators of bacterial cooperative behaviour known as quorum sensing in the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fused silica capillary was coated with a thin layer of poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride to reverse the electroosmosis, allowing fast migration of PQS and HHQ with improved selectivity.

A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation. Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion. Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms.

Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species. However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study Chen, et al. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation.

Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication. Bacterial cells sense their population density and respond accordingly by producing various signal molecules to the surrounding environments thereby trigger a plethora of gene expression.

This regulatory pathway is termed quorum sensing QS. Moreover, bacterial QSSMs were shown to interfere with host cell signaling and modulate host immune responses. QSSMs not only regulate the expression of bacterial virulence factors but themselves act in the modulation of host biology that can be potential therapeutic targets. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated.

Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential. Bacterial toxins and small molecules elucidate endosomal trafficking. Bacterial toxins and small molecules are useful tools for studying eukaryotic cell biology. In a recent issue of PNAS, Gillespie and colleagues describe a novel small molecule inhibitor of bacterial toxins and virus trafficking through the endocytic pathway, 4-bromobenzaldehyde N- 2,6-dimethylphenyl semicarbazone EGA , that prevents transport from early to late endosomes.

Mitochondria are one of most characterized metabolic hubs of the cell. Here, crucial biochemical reactions occur and most of the cellular adenosine triphosphate ATP is produced. In addition, mitochondria act as signalling platforms and communicate with the rest of the cell by modulating calcium fluxes, by producing free radicals, and by releasing bioactive proteins. It is emerging that mitochondrial metabolites can also act as second messengers and can elicit profound epi genetic changes. This review describes the many signalling functions of mitochondrial metabolites under normal and stress conditions, focusing on metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

We provide a new framework for understanding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in cellular pathophysiology. Polypetide signaling molecules in plant development. Intercellular communication mediated by small signaling molecules is a key mechanism for coordinating plant growth and development.

In the past few years, polypeptide signals have been shown to play prominent roles in processes as diverse as shoot and root meristem maintenance, vascular differentiat Biological signaling by small inorganic molecules. Small redox active molecules such as reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and hydrogen sulfide have emerged as important biological mediators that are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Advancement in understanding of cellular mechanisms that tightly regulate both generation and reactivity of these molecules is central to improved management of various disease states including cancer and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Imbalance in the production of redox active molecules can lead to damage of critical cellular components such as cell membranes, proteins and DNA and thus may trigger the onset of disease. These small inorganic molecules react independently as well as in a concerted manner to mediate physiological responses. This review provides a general overview of the redox biology of these key molecules , their diverse chemistry relevant to physiological processes and their interrelated nature in cellular signaling.

Single- Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling. Single- molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment. In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo. A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane. These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses.

To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand.

This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes. Methods and limitations of single- molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

Single- molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling , one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide. Hydrogen sulfide H2S has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase DAO along with 3MST.

These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions. The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear.

Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances. Small- molecule dissection of brassinosteroid signaling. The growth-promoting hormones, the brassinosteroids BRs , are perceived at the plant cell surface by receptor kinases that transduce the signal to the nucleus by an intracellular cascade of phosphorylation-mediated protein-protein interactions.

BR signaling is also regulated by the plant endocytic machinery because the increased endosomal localization of the BR receptor enhances the BR responses. Chemical genetics is a powerful approach to identify new components in redundant signaling networks and to characterize highly dynamic processes, such as endocytosis.

Here, we describe a screen in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for small molecules that affect hypocotyl elongation under continuous light conditions, indicative for an effect on BR responses.

Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules. Hydrogen sulfide H2S is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs.

After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing.

Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action.

Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease. Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration i.

Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection.

Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity.

This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction. Main nodulation signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction were examined. Flavonoids exuded by Arachis hypogaea L. Thin layer chromatography analysis from genistein-induced bacterial cultures of three peanut bradyrhizobia resulted in an identical Nod factor pattern, suggesting low variability in genes involved in the synthesis of these molecules.

Structural study of Nod factor by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that it shares a variety of substituents with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp.

NGR and Bradyrhizobium spp. Nodulation assays in legumes nodulated by these rhizobia demonstrated differences between them and the three peanut bradyrhizobia. The three isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium sp. Their fixation gene nifD and the common nodulation genes nodD and nodA were also analyzed. Identification of cell density signal molecule. Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule CDS between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function.

It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon.

Also disclosed are methods of production and use. Function and evolution of ubiquitous bacterial signaling adapter phosphopeptide recognition domain FHA. Forkhead-associated domain FHA is a phosphopeptide recognition domain embedded in some regulatory proteins. With similar fold type to important eukaryotic signaling molecules such as Smad2 and IRF3, the role of bacterial FHA domain is intensively pursued. Reported bacterial FHA domain roles include: To provide basis for the studies of other bacterial FHA domain containing proteins, the status of bacterial FHA functionality and evolution were summarized.

Published by Elsevier Inc. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules , the N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs and the 4-quinolones 4Qs. PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness.

Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: The term quorum sensing QS is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals. QS has not only been described between cells of the same species intraspecies , but also between species interspecies and between bacteria and higher organisms inter-kingdom. The fact that QS-based communication appears to be widespread among microbes is strange, considering that explaining both cooperation and communication are two of the greatest problems in evolutionary biology.

From an evolutionary perspective, intraspecies signalling can be explained using models such as kin selection, but when communication is described between species, it is more difficult to explain. It is probable that in many cases this involves QS molecules being used as 'cues' by other species as a guide to future action or as manipulating molecules whereby one species will 'coerce' a response from another. In these cases, the usage of QS molecules cannot be described as signalling.

This review seeks to integrate the evolutionary literature on animal signalling with the microbiological literature on QS, and asks whether QS within bacteria is true signalling or whether these molecules are also used as cues or for the coercion of other cells.

An Essential Signalling Molecule. Carbon monoxide CO , like nitric oxide NO , is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases.

This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules CO-RMs.

Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis. While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli.

Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro.

This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance.

Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns MAMPs , for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan.

However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr 18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways.

Ascr 18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial , oomycete, fungal and nematode infections.

These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small- molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription complex formation. Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indolecarbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid.

A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction. Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures.

Docking was investigated as an in silico method for the further development of the compounds. Detection, purification and characterisation of quorum-sensing signal molecules in plant-associated bacteria.

Quorum sensing also called autoinduction is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density. Autoinduction relies upon the interaction of a small diffusible signal molecule the autoinducer with a transcriptional activator protein to couple gene expression with cell population density.

These signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the environment as a function of cell growth. Once a threshold concentration is reached, these signals serve as co-inducers to regulate the transcription of a set s of target genes. The detection of AHLs or AHL-like activities has been greatly facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays that allow fast screening of microorganisms for diffusible signal molecules.

AHL or diketopiperazine-mediated cell-cell signalling play roles in regulating different bacterial functions, such as antibiotic biosynthesis, production of virulence factors, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial swarming, plasmid conjugal transfer and transition into the stationary phase.

Several bacterial species that interact with plants produce AHL-like compounds. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge about the detection, characterisation and purification of quorum-sensing molecules from plant-associated bacteria.

We will also discuss some of the future prospects and biotechnological applications of autoinducers. Bacterial signaling and motility: This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting?

So there they were, about scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field. Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment.

For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community.

We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment.

A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the.

Savchenko, Tatyana; Walley, Justin W. Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives.

Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants designated EP producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid AA , aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds.

We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest. EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks.

Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes. Importantly, tomato Solanum lycopersicum leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants.

These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule , in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks.

Chemoreceptors are crucial components in the bacterial sensory systems that mediate chemotaxis. Chemotactic responses exhibit exquisite sensitivity, extensive dynamic range and precise adaptation. The mechanisms that mediate these high-performance functions involve not only actions of individual proteins but also interactions among clusters of components, localized in extensive patches of thousands of molecules. Recently, these patches have been imaged in native cells, important features of chemoreceptor structure and on—off switching have been identified, and new insights have been gained into the structural basis and functional consequences of higher order interactions among sensory components.

These new data suggest multiple levels of molecular interactions, each of which contribute specific functional features and together create a sophisticated signaling device. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology.

We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease AD neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains. K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains p bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology.

Molecular cloning and characterization of LrTLR4, analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and Gram-negative bacterial infection. Toll-like receptors TLRs play key roles in innate immunity from lower to higher vertebrates. Except in some teleosts, function of TLR4 in most fish species including rohu Labeo rohita a commercially important fish species in the South-East Asian countries remained unknown.

Together, these findings suggest the important role of TLR4 in LPS sensing and augmentation of innate immunity against Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish.

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.

Accumulation of H 2 O 2 , detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase.

Calcium measurements carried out in R. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization. The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that maintains the large internal pressure within the cell while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth.

The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: We have used atomic force microscopy to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of Escherichia coli K12 bacteria. Atomic force microscopy-single molecule force spectroscopy was performed on single sacculi exposed to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves the peptide-glycan bonds.

Surprisingly, the measurements revealed individual strands of up to nm in length. This finding combined with high resolution AFM images recorded on hydrated sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the planar model for the peptidoglycan structure in Gram-negative bacteria.

Competencies for analysis and applications. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Clinical nurse specialist, 14 2 , Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics, 5 , e The effects of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration. Pediatrics, 3 , E Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Early childhood pacifier use in relation to breastfeeding, SIDS, infection and dental malocclusion. Best Practice, 9 3 , A randomized controlled trial.

The Journal of the American Medical Association, 3 , The influence of nipples and pacifiers on breastfeeding duration.

Jornal de Pediatria, 79 4 , Prenatal intentions and postnatal practices. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22 5 , Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35 6 , Assessments and suggested interventions to assist newborn breastfeeding behavior. Journal of Human Lactation, 9 4 , Should pacifiers be recommended to prevent sudden infant death syndrome? Toward a formal definition. Journal of Pediatrics, 6 , S International Child Care Practices Study: Breastfeeding and pacifier use.

Journal of Human Lactation, 21 3 , Imaging evaluation of artificial nipples during bottle feeding. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 1 , Imaging evaluation of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding systems. Are breastfeeding problems related to incorrect breastfeeding technique and the use of pacifiers and bottles? Birth, 25 1 , Sucking technique and its effect on success of breastfeeding. Birth, 19 4 , Breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers. Birth, 24 2 , Identifying infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome.

Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 19, Does the use of bottles and pacifiers in the neonatal nursery prevent successful breastfeeding? European Journal of Pediatrics, 11 , Predictors of breastfeeding duration: Evidence from a cohort study. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Retrieved May 30, , from http: Pacifier use and short breastfeeding duration: Cause, consequence, or coincidence? Pediatrics, 99 3 , Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding duration. Lancet, , The impact of pacifier use on breastfeeding: A prospective cohort study.

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 37 1 , Pacifiers, breastfeeding and soothing. Canadian Medical Association Journal 8 , Indicators for Assessing Breastfeeding Practices. Evidence for the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation during oral feeding in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

Preterm infants with chronic lung disease CLD have more difficulties in coordination of suck-swallow-breathe during the transition from tube to oral feeding. Desaturation, bradycardia, and heart rate HR acceleration are common response of preterm infants which may increase oxygen consumption and affect neurodevelopment and the decision of discharge.

The purpose of this study was to explore changes of HR and oxygen saturation SpO2 in preterm infants with CLD at the early stage of transition from tube to oral feeding. A correlational study was conducted. The data was retrieved from a data bank of feeding studies in preterm infants. SpO2 decreased was defined as the changed amount reached to 2SD of pre-feeding.

Results of this study show that during feeding 1 the average HR, frequency, duration, and maximum change of HR increased events increased, 2 SpO2 decreased and the frequency, duration, and maximum change of SpO2 decreased events increased, 3 the majority of subjects experienced the time order of HR changed then SpO2 decreased, 4 PMA was significantly negative associated with the mean of HR and duration of HR increased events, and 5 the severity of CLD was positive associated with the maximum change of SpO2 decreased events.

Results of this study provide information of cardiorespiratory interaction during feeding in preterm infants with CLD. Hospital discharge of the high-risk neonate--proposed guidelines.

Pediatrics, 2 , Toward a synactive theory of development: Promise for the assessment and support if infant individuality. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3 4 , A synactive model of neonatal behavioral organization: Framework for the assessment of neurobehavioral development in the premature infant and for support of infants and parents in the neonatal intensive care environment. Chronic lung disease after premature birth.

The New England Journal of Medicine, 19 , Heart rate variability in premature infants during feeding. Biological Research for Nursing, 8 4 , Effects of single-hole and cross-cut nipple units on feeding efficiency and physiological parameters in premature infants.

Journal of Nursing Research, 15 3 , Heart rate and oxygen saturation correlates of infant apnea. Journal of Perinatology, 19 1 , Modulations in breathing patterns during intermittent feeding in term infants and preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Neonatal cardiorespiratory monitoring techniques. Seminars in Neonatology, 9 3 , Arterial blood gas monitoring. Critical Care Clinics, 11 1 , Neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system: A therapy-based severity-of-illness index.

Pediatrics, 90 4 , Use of individualized versus standard criteria to identify abnormal levels of heart rate or oxygen saturation in preterm infants. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 9 2 , The relationship between physiological and behavioral measures of stress in preterm infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33 2 , Factors associated with vagal tone responses in preterm infants Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22 7 , A maximum oral feeding time for premature infants, the relationship to physiological indicator.

Maternal Child Nursing Journal, 20 2 , Bottle-feeding behaviors in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61 4 , Assessment of oxygenation in the fetus and newborn.

The benefits and pitfalls of pulse oximetry. Factors associated with bottle feeding performance of preterm infants: Journal of Taiwan Occupational Therapy Association, 23, Pulse oximetry in very low birth weight infants: Can oxygen saturation be maintained in the desired range? Journal of Perinatology, 26, A pulmonary score for assessing the severity of neonatal chronic lung disease. Multi-system approach to the assessment of successful feeding.

Acta Paediatrics, 89, Neonatal apnea, bradycardia, or desaturation: Heart rate variability and feeding bradycardia in healthy preterm infants during transition from gavage to oral feeding. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 5 3 , Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary a. Retrieved April 5, , from http: Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia suckle with weak pressures to maintain breathing during feeding.

Pediatrics, 4 , ee Evaluation of criteria for chronic lung disease in surviving very low birth weight infants. Association between autonomic and motoric systems in the preterm infant. Clinical Nursing Research, 10 1 , Effects of nonnutritive sucking on behavioral organization and feeding performance. Nursing Research, 45 3 , Regional neonatal oral feeding protocol: Changing the ethos of feeding preterm infants.

Transition time to full nipple feeding for premature infants with a history of lung disease. Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 27 Prolonged episodes of hypoxemia in preterm infants undetectable by cardiorespiratory monitors. Pediatrics, 95 6 , The relationship between bradycardia, apnea, and hypoxemia in preterm infants. Pediatric Research, 34 2 , A physiological maker of stress vulnerability.

Pediatrics, 90 3 , Physiological regulation in high-risk infants: A model for assessment and potential intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 8, Biological Psychology, 74 2 , Vagal regulation during bottle feeding in low-birthweight neonates: Support for the gustatory-vagal hypothesis.

Developmental Psychobiology, 30 3 , Potential errors in pulse oximetry. Anaesthesia, 46 3 , A neural explanation of fetal heart rate patterns: A test of the polyvagal theory. Developmental Psychobiology, 35 2 , Accurate measurements of oxygen saturation in neonates: Paired arterial and venous blood analysis. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 5 4 , Desaturation events during oral feedings with and without a nasogastric tube in very low birth weight infants.

Heart and Lung, 25 3 , — Decreased ventilation in preterm infants during oral feeding. The journal of pediatrics, 2 , Oxygen desaturation complicates feeding in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after discharge. Impaired parasympathetic response to feeding in ventilated preterm babies.

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during feeding: A measure of vagal regulation of metabolism, ingestion, and digestion in premature infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 42 3 , Oxygen saturation and heart rate during feeding in breast-fed infants at 1 week and 2 months of age. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88, The Department of Health and Human Service Occurrence of oxygen desaturation events during preterm infant bottle feeding near discharge.

Early Human Development, 72 1 , Optimal oxygen saturation for preterm babies. Biology of the Neonate, 85, Clinical and roentgenographic scoring systems for assessing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 6 , The Mechanisms of Body Function 8th ed.

Spectral analysis of heart rate variability in premature infants with feeding bradycardia. Pediatric Research, 47 50 , Altered cardiovascular control in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatric Research, 61 5 Pt 1 , Effects of changes in saturation and signal quality. A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 3 , Periventricular leukomalacia PVL , a form of cerebral white matter damage and pre-oligodendrocyte pre-OL injury, is the most common neuropathological lesion that underlies most of the neurological sequelae in preterm infants who develop diplegic cerebral palsy CP.

PVL is characterized by the marked presence of activated microglia that is fully capable of producing toxic pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-a , which have the potential to induce pre-OL cell death. Therefore, the susceptibility to PVL in preterm infants remains unclear. There were 29 normal preterm children and 28 preterm children with PVL-related CP, both diagnosed by neurodevelopmental and magnetic resonance imaging examination. There was no significant difference in the gestation age and birthweight between the two groups.

Cognitive and neurodevelopmental outcome of normal preterm and CP preterm cohorts 39 Table 3. Gene list of antibody arrays 40 Table 4. Peripheral blood gene expression signature mirrors central nervous system disease: The model of multiple sclerosis.

Neonatal infection and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm infant. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Endotoxin, cerebral blood flow, amino acids and brain damage in young rabbits. Cellular and molecular pathogenesis of periventricular white matter injury. Maturation-dependent vulnerability of perinatal white matter in premature birth. Emerging concepts in periventricular white matter injury.

Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the growth, fate, and motility of multipotential neural precursor cells. A metalloproteinase disintegrin that releases tumour-necrosis factor-alpha from cells.

Neuronal plasticity and cellular immunity: Infection after acute ischemic stroke: Persistent neuro-inflammation in cerebral palsy: Do white cells matter in white matter damage? Maternal intrauterine infection, cytokines, and brain damage in the preterm newborn. Biomarker epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Mediators of fetal inflammation in extremely low gestational age newborns. Cytokines and blood-brain barrier permeability.

Characteristic neuropathology of leukomalacia in extremely low birth weight infants. Neuronal death in cytokine-activated primary human brain cell culture: Correlation between the gross motor function measure scores and gait spatiotemporal measures in children with neurological impairments.

Dev Med Child Neurol. Intrauterine T-cell activation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in preterm infants with cerebral lesions.

Bacterial endotoxin sensitizes the immature brain to hypoxic--ischaemic injury. The relationship of CSF and plasma cytokine levels to cerebral white matter injury in the premature newborn. Enhanced pro-inflammatory response of mononuclear cells to in vitro LPS-challenge in patients with ventricular fibrillation in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors. J Soc Gynecol Investig. Cerebral palsy and chorioamnionitis: Frequency of neuropathological abnormalities in very low birth weight infants.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. Functional limitations and special health care needs of to year-old children weighing less than grams at birth. Neurodevelopment and predictors of outcomes of children with birth weights of less than g: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Effect of inflammation on central nervous system development and vulnerability.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism associated with increased sepsis mortality in ventilated very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Leukocyte traffic in the central nervous system: Possible etiological factors in extensive periventricular leukomalacia of preterm infants. Correlation between cerebrovascular maturity and periventricular leukomalacia.

Mechanisms of perinatal brain injury. Heritable major histocompatibility complex class II-associated differences in production of tumor necrosis factor alpha: Pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokine production associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental regression.

Molecular mechanisms of cell death in periventricular leukomalacia. Inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of periventricular leukomalacia. Cerebral palsy is characterized by protein mediators in cord serum. Epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide is present in fetal membranes and amniotic fluid at increased concentrations with intra-amniotic infection and preterm delivery.

Increased responsiveness to toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis.

The unique characteristics of inflammatory responses in mouse brain are acquired during postnatal development. A polymorphism in the TNF-alpha promoter gene is associated with pediatric onset and colonic location of Crohn's disease. The adaptive immune response in neonatal cerebral white matter damage.

Ventriculomegaly, delayed myelination, white matter hypoplasia, and "periventricular" leukomalacia: Small for gestational age and the metabolic syndrome: Peptide modulation of inflammatory processes within the brain. TNF ligands and receptors--a matter of life and death. Transcriptional profiling of Alzheimer blood mononuclear cells by microarray. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. J Matern Fetal Investig. Neuromotor spectrum of periventricular leukomalacia in children born at term.

Possible correlation between high levels of IL in the cord blood of pre-term infants and neonatal development of periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells to determine a gene expression profile of acute ischemic stroke: Impaired cerebral cortical gray matter growth after treatment with dexamethasone for neonatal chronic lung disease.

Clinical associations and time of onset of cerebral white matter damage in very preterm babies. Can we prevent cerebral palsy? N Engl J Med. Neonatal cytokines and coagulation factors in children with cerebral palsy.

Neonatal cytokines and cerebral palsy in very preterm infants. Infection, inflammation and the risk of cerebral palsy. Leukocytes, the Janus cells in inflammatory disease. White matter injury in the preterm infant: Inflammation in white matter: Risk factors and determinants of neurodevelopmental outcome in cystic periventricular leucomalacia.

Periventricular leukomalacia, inflammation and white matter lesions within the developing nervous system. Endotoxin preconditioning protects against the cytotoxic effects of TNFalpha after stroke: J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Cerebral white matter damage in the preterm infant: Inflammation and neurological disease.

Alterations in signal transduction cascade in young and adult rat brain and lymphocytes. Adverse neurodevelopment in preterm infants with postnatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis is mediated by white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging at term.

Divergent roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the brain. Maternal origin of inflammatory leukocytes in preterm fetal membranes, shown by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: Expert Rev Mol Med. The role of microglia and macrophages in the pathophysiology of the CNS. The metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord. Birth weight, stress, and the metabolic syndrome in adult life. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Increased inflammatory markers are associated with early periventricular leukomalacia. Risk factors associated with the development of peri-intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia.

Cytokine gene polymorphisms in multifactorial diseases: Infection and preterm birth: J Paediatr Child Health. Chemokines and their receptors: Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. Brain injury in the premature infant--from pathogenesis to prevention. Neurobiology of periventricular leukomalacia in the premature infant. Postnatal sepsis, necrotizing entercolitis, and the critical role of systemic inflammation in white matter injury in premature infants.

Implications of dynamic changes among tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha , membrane TNF receptor, and soluble TNF receptor levels in regard to the severity of dengue infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. J Dev Behav Pediatr. Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. Neonatal MRI to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. Systematic review of chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy. Target depletion of distinct tumor necrosis factor receptor subtypes reveals hippocampal neuron death and survival through different signal transduction pathways.

Outcomes at school age after postnatal dexamethasone therapy for lung disease of prematurity. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha , neonatal brain white matter lesions, and cerebral palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Fetal exposure to an intra-amniotic inflammation and the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years. A tetracycline derivative, minocycline, reduces inflammation and protects against focal cerebral ischemia with a wide therapeutic window. The arrays contained gene probes, which were able to detect various virulence genes of intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. Through differential hierarchical clustering of the microarray results, two subgroups of UPECs causing lower urinary tract infections were identified.

One of the subgroups contained isolates phylogenetically closer to the intestinal commensal E. Although various virulence factors involved in uropathogenesis have been identified, as many as half of all E.

Accordingly, it is reasonable to speculate that there are still undiscovered virulence factors which are able to facilitate UPECs to invade urinary tract.

According to this speculation, we expected to identify potential novel virulence genes associated with uropathogenesis. We proposed a hypothesis that if a gene of uropathogenic E. We planned to identify the E coli genes whose distribution rates are positively associated with UTI. For this purpose, we first employed the array mentioned above to screen a small amount of E.

The microarray array results inferred that an iron-regulated operon consisting of eco58, eco59 and eco60 and its downstream gene eco56 were potentially associated with UTI. Thus they are potential virulence genes involving uropathogenesis and worthy of further investigation.

XII Symbols and abbreviations…………………………………………….. The objectives and hypothesis of this study……………. Materials and methods………………………………………………17 3. The effect of environmental conditions on the motility of Escherichia coli. Quantitative profile of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli outer membrane proteome during growth in human urine.

Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains induce attaching and effacing phenotypes and secrete homologs of Esp proteins. Rapid identification of Escherichia coli pathotypes by viru- lence gene detection with DNA microarrays.

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K Suspension microarray with dendrimer signal amplification allows direct and high-throughput subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes from genomic DNA. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly. Isolation of antigenically homogeneous strains of Bact. Molecular sero- typing of Klebsiella species isolates by restriction of the amplified capsular antigen gene cluster.

Urinary tract and genitor-urinary suppurative infections due to anaerobic bacteria. Nutritional features and ecology of predominant anaerobic bacteria of the intestinal tract. Antibacterial effects of nitrite in urine. Urinary tract infections in women: Mechanisms of colicin binding and transport through outer membrane porins.

Manual of Tropical Medicine, 3rd ed. Quantitative inference of dynamic regulatory pathways via microarray data. Nosocomial infections in medical centers and regional hospitals between and in Taiwan. A selC-associated genomic island of the extraintestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain BEN is involved in carbohydrate uptake and virulence. The structure of the ferric siderophore binding protein FhuD complexed with gallichrome.

Rapid and simple determi- nation of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli viru- lence for the urinary tract. Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria. Degenerative evolution and functional diversification of type-III secretion systems in the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. On torque and tumbling in swimming Escherichia coli.

A second chromosomal gene necessary for intimate attachment of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to epithelial cells. Reliability and reproducibility issues in DNA microarray measurements. Genomics of oral bacteria. Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns.

Siderophore transport through Escherichia coli outer membrane receptor FhuA with disulfide-tethered cork and barrel domains. The spectrum of infections and patho- genic mechanisms of Escherichia coli. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation. Academic, New York, , Paper American Society of Agricultural Engineers The economic groups of grassland plants in Xinjiang.

The economic health of a region: Teoros, Revue de Recherche en Tourisme 15 3: The economic impact of a mega-multi-mall: Tourism Management 16 5: The economic impact of alternative types of rural tourism.

Journal of Agricultural Economics 48 2: The economic impact of fire on forest resources: The economic impact of subsidies on agricultural products. Acta Operativo Oeconomica The economic impact of the casino industry in South Korea. Journal of Travel Research 36 1: The economic impact of the cruise industry: Bulletin of Eastern Caribbean Affairs 21 1: The economic impact of the horse racing industry on Oklahoma's economy. Current Farm Economics 70 1: The economic impact of tourism in the Seychelles.

Annals of Tourism Research 23 1: The economic impact of visitors to your community. The economic impacts of increased grazing fees on Gila National Forest grazing permittees. Journal of range management 50 1: The economic impacts of infrastructure development. The economic implications of climate change. The economic importance and research needs for Uapaca in Malawi. Human Ecology New York 25 1: The economic importance of insects.

The economic importance of the agricultural complex in rural regions: Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Agrarkomplexes in landlichen Regionen: The economic importance of wild resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria.

The economic mechanism of functioning of internal subsections of farm enterprises. Ekonomika Sel' skokhozyaistvennykh i Pererabatyvayushchikh Predpriyatii 8: The economic position of Austrian agriculture and forestry in The 36th Green Report. Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 42 9: The economic position of the Austrian agricultural and forestry sector in Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 43 9: The economic potential of a tropical rainforest in Veracruz, Mexico.

The economic potential of whole-tree feedstock production. Bioresource Technology 55 3: The economic preconditions for agricultural development. Kereskedelmi Szemle 36 The economic prospects for white sugar. The economic role of salmonid culture in rural development. Comptes Rendus de l' Academie d' Agriculture de France 82 9: The economic significance of sport. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Sports: The economic significance of the parameters of a mechanical innovation project.

The economic situation and choice of economic structures in the agroindustrial complex of Russia and CIS countries. The economic situation of Austrian agriculture and forestry in Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 44 9: The economic theory of extensive pastoralism.

The economic theory of extensive pastoralism: The economic valuation of saltwater marsh supporting marine recreational fishing in the southeastern United States. Ecological Economics Amsterdam 21 3: The economic value of decreased use of pesticides? A contingent valuation study on willingness to pay.

Tutkimuksia Maatalouden Taloudellinen Tutkimuslaitos The economic value of game hunting. Studi di Economia e Diritto 4: The economic value of hiking: Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 27 2: The economic value of managing the acai palm Euterpe oleracea Mart.

The economic value of patents, licenses, and plant variety protection. The economic value of the Earth's resources. The economic value of water in recreation: Water Resources Research 32 4: The economic values of tourism's social impacts. Annals of Tourism Research 24 1: AIDS Reader 7 5: The economics of Buddhism: Contributions to Nepalese Studies 23 1: The economics of No 2 dairy systems.

The economics of Third World national parks: The economics of UK agri-environmental policy: Economic Issues 2 1: The economics of a public fund for environmental amenities: American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78 4: The economics of agricultural prices.

The economics of agricultural prices: The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid sub-Saharan Africa. The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid sub Saharan Africa: The economics of agroforestry with pine and pasture in the to mm annual rainfall zone of Western Australia.

Agroforestry Systems 33 1: The economics of aquatic vegetation removal in rivers and land drainage systems. The economics of banana cultivation. The economics of biological control of Diatraea spp. Lepidoptera - Pyralidae on sugarcane in Trinidad.

The economics of breeding horses of the Orlov Trotter breed. The economics of canola production by limited-resource farmers in South Carolina. Economic Planning in Free Societies 32 5: The economics of change in rural America. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77 5: The economics of converting conventionally managed vineyards to organic management practices. The economics of cosmetic pesticide use. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79 1: The economics of cruising: Journal of Tourism Studies 7 2: The economics of environmental degradation: The economics of environmental regulation.

The economics of environmental regulation: The economics of eucalypt plantations on tea estates in Malawi. The economics of farm size and land policy in the transition to a market economy. The economics of fisheries management: The economics of generic income stabilization schemes. The economics of hardy nursery stock production in England.

The economics of international agreements for the protection of environmental and agricultural services. The economics of land degradation and resource conservation in Northern Thailand: The economics of leisure and tourism.

The economics of leisure and tourism: The economics of managing carbon via forestry. An assessment of existing studies. The feasibility of joint implementation: The economics of managing carbon via forestry: Environmental and Resource Economics 6 2: The economics of millet crop residues for wind erosion control in Niger, West Africa. Wind erosion in West Africa: The economics of mung bean cultivation in Thailand.

Tropical Agriculture 72 2: The economics of pigmeat production under current market conditions. The economics of pollution control in the Asia Pacific. The economics of pollution control in the Asia Pacific: The economics of recycling food residuals. The economics of reducing nitrate loss: Farm Management 9 7: The economics of replanting generic wine grape varieties in New York. The economics of reproductive management programs in large and medium-sized dairy herds.

Proceedings, 18th World Buiatrics Congress: The economics of resource use and environmental impact in intensive agricultural systems. Meeting the challenge beyond The economics of sheep farming in Slovakia and forecasts for the year Zemedelska Ekonomika 42 7: The economics of short rotation improved fallows: Agricultural Systems 55 1: The economics of soil degradation: The economics of soil erosion: The economics of suckler cow farming.

The economics of tourism. Problemes Economiques 10 July The economics of traffic control in combinable crops. The economics of tropical farming systems. The economics of tropical farming systems: The economics of tropical forest land use options.

Land Economics 73 2: The economics of using isoflurane in small animal practice. Canadian Veterinary Journal 37 8: The economics of using single nutrient versus compound fertilizers on tea. The economics of village cattle production in a tsetse-infested area of southwest Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 22 3: The economics of water dispute resolution, project evaluation and management: International Journal of Water Resources Development 11 4: The economics of wood energy at community level.

Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 1: The economy of medicinal and aromatic cultivation between production choices and market bonds. Coltivazione e miglioramento di piante officinali, Trento, Italy giugno The economy of the rural sector: Tijdschrift voor Sociaalwetenschappelijk Onderzoek van de Landbouw 11 2: The ecophysiological and growth responses of Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis to controlled heating applied to the base of the trunk.

Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26 8: The ecosocial market economy: Denken und Handeln in Kreislaufen Ed. The ecotopes of two relict species of Daphne Thymelaeaceae in Ukraine. The ecto-ATPases of endoparasites and of blood cells and vessels.

Ciencia e Cultura Sao Paulo 47 3: The ectodomain of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 TM glycoprotein is involved in postfusion events. Journal of Virology 71 The ectomycorrhizal flora of primary and secondary stands of Pinus sylvestris in relation to soil conditions and ectomycorrhizal succession.

Journal of Vegetation Science 7 4: The ectoparasites of lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis Gray in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The ectoparasites of man in language: Bed bugs, mosquitoes, scabies and the scabies mite. Bulletin de la Societe Francaise de Parasitologie 13 2: The edapho-climatic environment in southern Tunisia: The education team presents itself: The effect of beta -carotene and vitamins A, D3 and E on some reproductive parameters in cows.

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 1: The effect of 00 rapeseed cake oil in mixtures given to sows during pregnancy and lactation on chemical composition of colostrum and milk. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 12 1: The effect of acid rain and mineral fertilizers on the biometrical features of Larix decidua Mill.

The effect of acid rains and mineral fertilization on the development of biometrical features of Fagus sylvatica L. The effect of 'coyolillo' Cyperus rotundus on the growth of canavalia Canavalia ensiformis. Agronomia Mesoamericana 8 1: Life Sciences 61 2: The effect of 20 years of impoverishment on the production and vegetation of a sandy grassland. The effect of 20 years of regular liming and fertilization on soil properties.

The effect of year mineral and organic fertilizer application on yield and some soil properties. The effect of Turkish Journal of Botany 20 3: The effect of Pb and stable lead on the induction of menta deformities in Chironomus tentans larvae and on their growth and survival.

The effect of 26 years of habitual fish consumption on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels The Zutphen Study. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 6 2: The effect of 5-azacytidine treatment on Mutator activity when applied to developing kernels. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter The effect of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on Ascaris antigen Ag -induced responses in atopic monkeys.

Inflammation Research 45 1: The effect of 6'-galactooligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition 66 3: The effect of 6-deoxy-D-fructose on flavour bioformation from strawberry Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 45 1: The effect of ABA analogs on callus viability and gene expression in Craterostigma plantagineum.

Physiologia Plantarum 99 3: The effect of Agrotis segetum Denis and Schiff Lepidoptera, Noctuidae egg age, and pattern, food and temperature on longevity, fecundity, progeny and parasitism rate of Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig and T. Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 20 2: The effect of Albugo candida white blister rust on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant, Cell and Environment 19 8: The effect of Albugo candida on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Aspects of Applied Biology The effect of Alectoria sarmentosa, Bryoria fuscescens, and Bryoria fremontii extracts and usnic acid on the growth of Gremmeniella abietina in vitro. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 3: The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB , Piromyces communis DC and Orpinomyces ssp. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 45 6: The effect of Azotoryza's double function on banana Musa spp.

The effect of B chromosomes on mating success of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Genetica Dordrecht 97 2: Immunology and Cell Biology 74 4: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 68 1: The effect of Basudin 20 EM on the mitotic chromosomes of barley. Turkish Journal of Biology 20 1: The effect of Bayleton and copper oxychloride on in vitro growth of Verticillium lecanii. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 10 1: The effect of Benlate T on control of occurrence of diseases on faba bean and on yield of seeds.

Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 2: The effect of Brefeldin A on the Golgi apparatus in Norway spruce cells. The effect of Bt transgenic cotton on the feeding function of major predators. China Cottons 24 2: Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi 32 1: The effect of CO2 enrichment and irradiance on the growth, morphology and gas exchange of a C3 Panicum laxum and a C4 Panicum antidotale grass.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24 2: The effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution and elongation rate in roots of sunflower Helianthus annuus seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 98 4: The effect of CaCO3 on zinc availability in old field soils of the Szczecin province.

The effect of Carbendazol on the growth of Pyricularia oryzae. The effect of Cronartium quercuum on cell chromosome of Xingkai Lake pine. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 24 2: The effect of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant on the hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green , on hibiscus plants in Trinidad.

Tropical Fruits Newsletter The effect of Cu on gill and esophagus lipid metabolism in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The effect of Cuni-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 6: The effect of Cuni-stibolReg. The effect of DDAC on the penetration of borates into western hemlock. Forest products journal 47 4: The effect of DPC N,N-dimethyl piperidinium chloride on the 14CO2-assimilation and partitioning of 14C assimilates within the cotton plants interplanted in a wheat stand.

The effect of Drechmeria coniospora conidia on faecal cultures containing eggs of Haemonchus contortus. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 47 2: The effect of Dutch elm disease on stand structure and accumulation of dead wood in the natural forest reserve Gimpelrhein.

The effect of European legislation on the evaluation of efficacy of plant protection products. The effect of GA3 applications on pistachio nut seed germination and seedling growth.

The effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptides on intestinal basolateral membrane hexose transport. American Journal of Physiology 3 Pt 1: The effect of Galli-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 1: The effect of GnRH analogue buserelin treatment on day 12 post mating on ovarian structure and plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentration in ewes.

Animal Science 63 3: The effect of HIV diagnosis on reproductive experience. AIDS London 10 The effect of Hampshire boars on meatiness when mated to Belarus Black Pied sows. The effect of IvomecReg. The effect of keishi-bushi-to on collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology 31 3: The effect of L-carnitine on technical results of weaning pig.

Archivos de Zootecnia 43 The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine levels and various performance parameters of male marathon athletes. Nutrition Research 17 3: The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens. Poultry Science 75 The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the production and chemical composition of hen's eggs. Poultry Science 75 4: The effect of Large White boars on the fertility of purebred and F1 daughters.

Veterinarski Glasnik 49 The effect of Liriomyza trifolii Burgess Dipt. Journal of Applied Entomology 4: The effect of MA conditions and packaging materials on the shelf-life of sweet cherries. COST 94 The post harvest treatment of fruit and vegetables: The effect of Matongo rock phosphate and urea as compared to di-ammonium phosphate in the composting process and the yield of potatoes in the Mugamba region in Burundi.

Fertilizer Research 45 1: The effect of Megachile rotundata on the yield and qualitative characters of alfalfa seed. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of Catalpa bignonioides. Nematologia Mediterranea 24 2: The effect of Metarhizium anisopliae Dat F concentration and exposure time on the survival of the subterranean pasture pest, Adoryphorus couloni Col.: The effect of N, P and K treatments on non-structural carbohydrates in two differentiated aubergine Solanum melongena cv.

The effect of N,N-dimethylglycine on athletic performance at altitude in horses and mules. The effect of N-fertilizer and amended Sesbania spp. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University 19 2: The effect of NPK fertilization on chlorophyll, sugars, ascorbic acid content and activity of catalase and peroxidase in leaf parsley. Folia Horticulturae 8 1: Fiziologiya i Biokhimiya Kul' turnykh Rastenii 26 4: The effect of NaCl salinity and sodium pyruvat on growth of cucumber plants.

The effect of Nitrozyme on emergence, growth and yielding of spring barley. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 32 4: The effect of PMSG dose on embryo number and quality in sows and gilts. Zivocisna Vyroba 42 5: Swine Health and Production 5 5: The effect of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae on some biological parameters of four species of phytoseiid mites Parasitiformes: Israel Journal of Entomology The effect of Phoneutria nigriventer armed spider venom on arterial blood pressure of anaesthetised rats.

European Journal of Pharmacology 2: The effect of Phytophthora palmivora on Hedera helix L. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10 2: The effect of Piper aduncum oil on Crinipellis perniciosa and other fungal pathogens.

Fitopatologia Brasileira 22 3: The effect of Polymyxa betae on sugar-beet seedling root growth. The effect of Rbs2 on yield of soybean. Crop Science 37 4: The effect of Receptal busereline on some reproductory indices in female polar foxes. The effect of Rhizobium, molybdenum and cobalt on Phaseolus vulgaris in Alto Paranaiba and north-western Minas Gerais.

Revista Ceres 41 The effect of Ricinus communis L. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 42 3: Clinical Hemorheology 15 4: The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on fermentations in the rumen of faunated and defaunated sheep; protozoal and probiotic interactions. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36 3: The effect of Salmonella enteritidis infection on immune response against Newcastle disease ND in chickens.

Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 44 4: The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on testicular lipid in mice. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 27 2: The effect of Silwet L or fenoxaprop-P-ethyl on the efficacy of isoproturon applied to isoproturon resistant Phalaris minor.

Weeds, Vols 3 The effect of Streptococcus faecium M based probiotic on the performance of laying hens. Zivocisna Vyroba 41 9: The effect of Swedish Landrace sires on reproductive traits of purebred and F1 daughters. The effect of Symphytum officinale on oxygen free radical production activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology 53 4: The effect of Syzygium cumini L.

Skeels on post-prandial blood glucose levels in non-diabetic rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56 3: The effect of Taigu dominant nuclear sterile gene on adverse resistance breeding. Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica 10 3: The effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the mechanical properties of the mammalian diaphragm. The effect of Trichoderma harzianum siderophores on yeasts and wood-rotting fungi. Material und Organismen Berlin 30 4:

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It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings.

With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition.

Silent information regulator 2 Sir 2 , which is the founding member of the sirtuin family of proteins, is a pro-longevity factor for replicative lifespan RLS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sir 2 is required for transcriptional silencing at mating type loci, telomeres, and rDNA loci. Sir 2 also represses transcription of highly expressed growth-related genes, such as PMA1 and some ribosomal protein genes. Effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in alcoholic hepatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sepsis is frequently observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis AH and is an important mortality predictor. Several studies have also identified systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS as a significant prognostic factor.

The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in patients with AH. Participants in the included studies were adults with AH and those with developed SIRS or sepsis during hospitalization. Data were extracted from six studies involving 1, patients of whom had SIRS and four studies involving 57, patients of whom 1, had sepsis. Not only is sepsis associated with mortality but also SIRS.

Identification of the key element of SIRS may thus provide a potential therapeutic target. Factors affecting the ease of identification are. Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models. Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered.

By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established. Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS --number and type of positive criteria predict interventions and outcomes in acute surgical admissions.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a syndrome that reflects the widespread activation of inflammatory pathways. The goal of this study was to find whether the presence or absence of SIRS on emergency surgical admissions is related to the subsequent clinical outcome in terms of in-hospital interventions, length of stay, and mortality.

In patients with SIRS , the contribution of each positive criterion was evaluated with regards to mortality. A total of patients were recruited. The prevalence of SIRS at admission was Patients with SIRS at admission apparently receive more interventions, have longer length of stay, and increased mortality than those patients without SIRS. These findings require separate validation in a larger cohort study. Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light.

Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well- known feature in atmospheric optics.

He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light. This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena. Full Text Available Absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared UV-Vis-NIR wavelength region has been used to quantify the aggregation factor of single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs in liquid media through a series of controlled experiments.

SWCNT bundles are dispersed in selected solvents using a calibrated ultrasonicator, which helps in determining the true amount of energy used in the exfoliation process. We also establish the selectivity of the centrifugation process, under the conditions used, in removing the nanotube aggregates as a function of the sonication time and the dispersion solvent.

This study, along with the calibration of the sonication process, is shown to be very important for measuring the true aggregation factor of SWCNTs through a modified approach. We also show that the systematic characterization of SWCNT dispersions by optical spectroscopy significantly contributes to the success of dielectrophoresis DEP of nanotubes at predefined on-chip positions.

The presence of individually dispersed SWCNTs in the dispersions is substantiated by dielectrophoretic assembly and post-DEP electromechanical measurements. Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains.

Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation. We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process.

Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed bimetallic nanoparticles. Full Text Available Highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of 40 kHz ultrasonic irradiation in order to enhance disparity and reactivity, and simultaneously avoid agglomeration. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl 2-Cl BP reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles were investigated.

Experimental results showed that highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared in the in the presence of ultrasound could further improve the dechlorination efficiency of 2-Cl BP, meanwhile the biphenyl BP formation rates increased obviously and increased from The catalytic reductive dechlorination effciency of 2-Cl BP was dependent on Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared methods, Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles dosage, Pd loading percentage over Fe0 and initial pH values.

Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon. This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

Type 1 diabetes T1D is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell. Soluble immune response suppressor SIRS is a nonspecific protein suppressor of immune response produced by immunomodulatory T cells stimulated by type I interferon IFN.

Previous investigators have isolated the N-terminal sequence of SIRS protein consisting of 21 amino acids. Mice ingesting 1 microg SIRS peptide showed significant delayed onset of T1D and a decreased frequency of T1D compared with mock-fed and microg-fed mice and a significant decrease in islet inflammation.

There were significant decreases in islet lymphocyte chemokine production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor GM-CSF , macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma MIP-1 gamma , regulated upon activation, normal T cell-expressed, and presumably secreted RANTES , and stromal cell-derived factor -1 SDF-1 in the SIRS -fed mice, factors important in migration of inflammatory cell into the islets.

Ingested oral SIRS peptide inhibits clinical T1D by decreasing target organ cellular migration of islet destructive populations by suppression of islet lymphocyte chemokine secretion. Stability of SIRS system with random perturbations. In this paper, we consider an epidemiological model, which is an SIRS model with or without distributed time delay influenced by random perturbations.

We present the stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the associated stochastic SIRS system. Incidence, risks and survivals. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ECMO decannulation; however, these issues have not been investigated well in the past. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Survival and pre-, intra- and post-ECMO risk factors were analyzed.

Differentiating between the similar clinical presentations of SIRS and infection is important and will impact clinical outcomes. Sir A enforces diploidy by inhibiting the replication initiator DnaA during spore formation in Bacillus subtilis. How cells maintain their ploidy is relevant to cellular development and disease. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which the bacterium Bacillus subtilis enforces diploidy as it differentiates into a dormant spore.

We demonstrate that a sporulation-induced protein Sir A originally annotated YneE blocks new rounds of replication by targeting the highly conserved replication initiation factor DnaA. We show that Sir A interacts with DnaA and displaces it from the replication origin.

As a result, expression of Sir A during growth rapidly blocks replication and causes cell death in a DnaA-dependent manner. Finally, cells lacking Sir A over-replicate during sporulation. These results support a model in which induction of Sir A enforces diploidy by inhibiting replication initiation as B. Coexistence of specialist and generalist species is shaped by dispersal and environmental factors.

Disentangling the mechanisms mediating the coexistence of habitat specialists and generalists has been a long-standing subject of investigation. However, the roles of species traits and environmental and spatial factors have not been assessed in a unifying theoretical framework.

Theory suggests that specialist species are more competitive in natural communities. However, empirical work has shown that specialist species are declining worldwide due to habitat loss and fragmentation.

We addressed the question of the coexistence of specialist and generalist species with a spatially explicit metacommunity model in continuous and heterogeneous environments.

We characterized how species' dispersal abilities, the number of interacting species, environmental spatial autocorrelation, and disturbance impact community composition.

Our results demonstrated that species' dispersal ability and the number of interacting species had a drastic influence on the composition of metacommunities. More specialized species coexisted when species had large dispersal abilities and when the number of interacting species was high.

Disturbance selected against highly specialized species, whereas environmental spatial autocorrelation had a marginal impact. Interestingly, species richness and niche breadth were mainly positively correlated at the community scale but were negatively correlated at the metacommunity scale.

Numerous diversely specialized species can thus coexist, but both species' intrinsic traits and environmental factors interact to shape the specialization signatures of communities at both the local and global scales. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant.

This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during to A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established. This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.

The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.

Genetic analyses showed that hcf-1 acts downstream of sir Protein-protein association studies demonstrated that SIR Our findings uncover a conserved interaction between the key longevity determinants SIR This had never been done before, and the result was a paper of typical originality. The story of how John explored truly original aspects of physics, right from the start of his research career, is given by Volker Heine in his own inimitable style , at the end of this short biography.

Of course the result of John's PhD research was his development of the entire methodology for computing and interpreting LEED intensities, and their relationship to surface atomic structure. With experiments performed by Stig Andersson in Gothenburg, John's calculations led to the first ever surface structure determination, of Na adsorbed in a c 2 x 2 structure on Ni [2]. His book, 'Low Energy Electron Diffraction' [3], remains a classic, and not only for LEED theorists—there is plenty of other surface science here to get one's teeth into.

John extended the theory of LEED in the s with the introduction of several new theoretical techniques and concepts. The Pendry R- factor [4] enabled surface structure determination to be largely automated, and quantified agreement between LEED theory and experiment.

Tensor-LEED was developed by John, together with his PhD student Philip Rous [5], as an accurate approximation for calculating the LEED spectra of complex surface structures, enabling structures of hitherto impossible complexity to be determined. LEED experiments and calculations continue to this day, of course, with John's contribution remaining fundamental.

Structure factors and phonon dispersion in liquid Li0. The phonon spectra for liquid Li and Na have been computed through the phenomenological model of Bhatia and Singh for disordered systems like liquids and glasses and the obtained results have been compared with the available data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering INS and inelastic X-ray scattering IXS experiments.

The effective pair potentials and their space derivatives are important ingredients in the computation of the dispersion curves. The pair potentials are obtained using the pseudo-potential theory. The empty core model proposed by Ashcroft is widely used for pseudo-potential calculations for alkali metals. But, it is thought to be unsuitable for Li because of its simple 1s electronic structure. However, it can be used with an additional term known as Born—Mayer BM core term. The influence of the BM core term on the phonon dispersion is discussed.

The same pseudo-potential formalism has been employed to obtain the dispersion relation in liquid Li0. Apart from the phonon spectra, the Ashcroft—Langreth structure factors in the alloy are derived in the Percus—Yevick approximation. Many bacteria can develop biofilm BF , a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances EPS.

The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M.

Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics.

Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics. Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir 2 to control CLB2 transcription under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging.

In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.

We finally demonstrate that Sir 2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir 2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2.

Sigurd Wagner of Princeton University. He is recognized for his g. Numerical solution of stochastic SIR model by Bernstein polynomials. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method.

Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings. Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of aging-associated heart failure. Expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor -1 IGF-1 propeptide mIGF-1 helps the heart to recover from infarct and enhances Sir T1 expression in cardiomyocytes CM in vitro, exerting protection from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses.

Analysis of these mice confirmed that mIGFinduced Sir T1 activity is necessary to protect the heart from paraquat PQ -induced oxidative stress and lethality. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. Dispersal pattern of Paederus fuscipes Coleoptera: Paederinae in relation to environmental factors and the annual rice crop cycle. Paederus fuscipes Curtis, a dermatitis linearis causing agent, has received increasing attention from the public, as it poses a serious health threat after mass dispersal into human-dominated areas.

Preventive measures against this insect have so far been unsuccessful partly because of limited knowledge about its dispersal pattern. In this study, the dispersal activity of P. The dispersal activity of P. Overall, there was no statistical significant correlation between dispersal and climatic parameters, that is, temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, at all sampling localities.

Particularly, rice harvesting, including straw burning, and cultivation were the major factors triggering P. These activities presumably disrupted the habitat and normal activities of P. In addition, the beetles might also face food shortages after the disturbance of their prey base in the crop fields. The current study provides a predictive tool of P. Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is used in applied ecology; for example in predicting the consequences of global change.

However, questions still remain about the robustness of model predictions. Here we estimate effects of landscape spatial configuration and organism flight ability— factors related to dispersal—on the accuracy of species distribution models.

Distribution models were developed for phytoplankton taxa, littoral invertebrate taxa and 44 profundal invertebrate taxa sampled in Swedish lakes, using six different modeling techniques generalized linear models GLM, multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS, classification tree analysis CTA, mixture discriminant analysis MDA, generalized boosting models GBM and random forests RF.

Model accuracy was not affected by dispersal ability i. Although no general pattern across species or spatial configuration was evident from our study, we recommend that dispersal and spatial configuration of ecosystems should be considered when developing species distribution models. Fibroblast growth factor 21 FGF21 is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis.

FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , and in healthy controls. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls.

Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement.

Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target. Improved dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon. We discuss the solution of the corresponding two-channel Muskhelishvili-Omnes problem and apply the results to a dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon fully including Kbar K intermediate states.

Oscillations in SIRS model with distributed delays. The ubiquity of oscillations in epidemics presents a long standing challenge for the formulation of epidemic models.

Whether they are external and seasonally driven, or arise from the intrinsic dynamics is an open problem. It is known that fixed time delays destabilize the steady state solution of the standard SIRS model, giving rise to stable oscillations for certain parameters values.

In this contribution, starting from the classical SIRS model, we make a general treatment of the recovery and loss of immunity terms. We present oscillation diagrams amplitude and period in terms of the parameters of the model, showing how oscillations can be destabilized by the shape of the distributions of the two characteristic infectious and immune times.

The formulation is made in terms of delay equations which are both numerically integrated and linearized. Results from simulations are included showing where they support the linear analysis and explaining why not where they do not. Considerations and comparison with real diseases are presented along.

Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios CRs is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service QoS in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio SIR constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks.

The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR -based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner.

Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. In , the development of a medical brief, effectively detailing the specifications for a purpose-built oncology hospital and including the medical equipment and human resources required, was commenced. Robust engagement by the relevant stakeholders, many of which hailed from the extant Sir Paul Boffa Hospital, ensured a very relevant proposal.

SIR -B experiments in Japan. Among the test sites for the SIR -B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits. The SIR -B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution. Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections RCS are used to relate the image data number to RCS. The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations.

The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques. The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics.

Corner reflectors m apart can be recognized on the image, while those m apart seem a single target. The SIR -B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses. The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away.

To assess the clinical and demographic profile of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS and sepsis, among newly admitted children in different age groups in a hospital in North India. This prospective study was conducted at a referral care centre in Northern India. All children, age group 0 to SIRS and sepsis and to gain clinical and demographic data.

During the study period, a total of patients were screened for SIRS. Out of the latter 30, 19 had septic shock. Mean duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay in the SIRS group were 6.

In the group without SIRS , mean duration were 2. In conclusion, the proportion of sepsis contributing to SIRS is high in a tertiary care hospital. Therefore rapid recognition of SIRS is essential. Goal directed treatment of sepsis is also important so that high mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock are prevented.

However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir 2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress d Sir 2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of d Sir 2 perturbations both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations.

In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of d Sir 2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans. Full Text Available Objectives: Lactate is also known as a factor to support diagnostic and prognosis of SIRS cases. A Cohort prospective study applied in thisresearch to determine arterial blood lactate as a predictor that causes the occurrence of SIRS.

The sir A gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis.

Sir A orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of Sir A regulation has never been identified.

Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via Sir T1 activity. Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure.

Insulin-like growth factor -1 IGF-1 is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Sir T1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and Sir T1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology.

However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact Sir T1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via Sir T1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic. Application of SIR epidemiological model: The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR susceptible-infected-susceptible is presented to describe a reality.

From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation. In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions. A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model.

An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis J. The basic reproductive rate R 0 in the coupled system has been worked out. Using Aron's results cf. Factors influencing separation distances against odour annoyance calculated by Gaussian and Lagrangian dispersion models. The relevant short-term peak odour concentrations are calculated with a stability-dependent peak-to-mean algorithm.

The same emission and meteorological data, but model-specific atmospheric stability classes are used. The estimate of atmospheric stability is obtained from three-axis ultrasonic anemometers using the standard deviations of the three wind components and the Obukhov stability parameter.

The results are demonstrated for the Austrian villages Reidling and Weissbach with very different topographical surroundings and meteorological conditions. Both the differences in the wind and stability regimes as well as the decrease of the peak-to-mean factors with distance lead to deviations in the separation distances between the two sites. The Lagrangian model, due to its model physics, generally calculates larger separation distances. For worst-case calculations necessary with environmental impact assessment studies, the use of a Lagrangian model is therefore to be preferred over that of a Gaussian model.

The study and findings relate to the Austrian odour impact criteria. Mutu dari karet remah sangat dipengaruhi oleh adanya konsentrasi zat menguap sebagai salah satu parameter penentuan kualitas karet remah yang dihasilkan. Analisa perbandingan sangat efektif dilakukan dalam menentukan kualitas karet remah bermutu paling baik berdasarkan klasifikasi antara mutu SIR 20 dengan mutu SIR 3WF. Parameter yang digunakan adalah mengetahui konsentrasi zat menguap yang lebih besar atau lebih kecil berdasarkan Standard Indonesian Rubber SIR yang telah ditentukan.

The insect neuropeptide pigment- dispersing factor PDF is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood.

We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types could not be identified.

Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. Full Text Available The insect neuropeptide pigment- dispersing factor PDF is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker.

A criterion groups comparison. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology.

For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS -2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of criminal defendants males, 48 females who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning primarily the M-FAST at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS.

Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS -2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs.

These prokaryotic sensors, or receptors, have a double function: As messengers are generally unable to freely cross the bacterial membrane, they require either the presence of sensors anchored in the membrane or transporters allowing direct recognition inside the bacterial cytoplasm.

Since the discovery of quorum sensing, it was established that the production of virulence factors by bacteria is tightly growth-phase regulated. It is now obvious that expression of bacterial virulence is also controlled by detection of the eukaryotic messengers released in the micro-environment as endocrine or neuro-endocrine modulators. In the presence of host physiological stress many eukaryotic factors are released and detected by Gram-negative bacteria which in return rapidly adapt their physiology.

Escherichia coli sensitivity to the neurohormones of the catecholamines family appears relayed by a recently identified bacterial adrenergic receptor. In the present review, we will describe the mechanisms by which various eukaryotic signal molecules produced by host may activate Gram-negative bacteria virulence.

Particular attention will be paid to Pseudomonas, a genus whose representative species, P. The discussion will be particularly focused on the pivotal role played by these new types of pathogen sensors from the sensing to the transduction mechanism involved in.

Detection of bacterial signaling molecules in liquid or gaseous environments. The detection of bacterial signaling molecules in liquid or gaseous environments has been occurring in nature for billions of years. More recently, man-made materials and systems has also allowed for the detection of small molecules in liquid or gaseous environments.

This chapter will outline some examples of these man-made detection systems by detailing several acoustic-wave sensor systems applicable to quorum sensing. More importantly though, a comparison will be made between existing bacterial quorum sensing signaling systems, such as the Vibrio harveyi two-component system and that of man-made detection systems, such as acoustic-wave sensor systems and digital communication receivers similar to those used in simple cell phone technology.

It will be demonstrated that the system block diagrams for either bacterial quorum sensing systems or man-made detection systems are all very similar, and that the established modeling techniques for digital communications and acoustic-wave sensors can also be transformed to quorum sensing systems.

Old concepts, new molecules and current approaches applied to the bacterial nucleotide signalling field. Signalling nucleotides are key molecules that help bacteria to rapidly coordinate cellular pathways and adapt to changes in their environment. During the past 10 years, the nucleotide signalling field has seen much excitement, as several new signalling nucleotides have been discovered in both eukaryotic and bacterial cells.

The fields have since advanced quickly, aided by the development of important tools such as the synthesis of modified nucleotides, which, combined with sensitive mass spectrometry methods, allowed for the rapid identification of specific receptor proteins along with other novel genome-wide screening methods. In this review, we describe the principle concepts of nucleotide signalling networks and summarize the recent work that led to the discovery of the novel signalling nucleotides.

We also highlight current approaches applied to the research in the field as well as resources and methodological advances aiding in a rapid identification of nucleotide-specific receptor proteins. Diffusible signal factor DSF quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens.

Background Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF diffusible signal factor not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling , but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication.

These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. Results In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal cismethyldodecenoic acid and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness.

The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B.

We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.

Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility.

The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. Degradation of bacterial quorum sensing signaling molecules by the microscopic yeast Trichosporon loubieri isolated from tropical wetland waters.

Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules , which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner. Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast.

By using a minimal growth medium containing Noxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated.

Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of Noxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast.

In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors.

In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer S hydroxytridecanone, termed CAI-1, influences chemotaxis in C. CAI-1 is detected by the C. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial -produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction.

Tuberculosis, which is caused by intracellular mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb , remains one of the most serious global public health concerns.

The mechanisms by which innate immunity regulates the inflammatory responses and affects mycobacterial infection remain unclear. Rhizosphere ecology of lumichrome and riboflavin, two bacterial signal molecules eliciting developmental changes in plants.

Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Reported studies have revealed major developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations 5 nM in plants, which include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots.

But higher lumichrome concentration 50 nM depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. While the mechanisms remain unknown, it is possible that lumichrome released by rhizobia induced the biosynthesis of classical phytohormones that caused the observed developmental changes in plants. We also showed in earlier studies that applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells 0.

Greater extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and indole acetic acid by N2-fixing rhizobia over non-fixing bacteria is perceived to be an indication of their role as symbiotic signals.

This is evidenced by the increased concentration of lumichrome and riboflavin in the xylem sap of cowpea and soybean plants inoculated with infective rhizobia. In fact, greater xylem concentration of lumichrome in soybean and its correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves was found to result in dramatic developmental changes than in cowpea.

Furthermore, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia are also known to function as i ecological cues for sensing environmental stress, ii growth factors for microbes, plants, and humans, iii. Paper strip whole cell biosensors: Herein, we report the development of a novel, inexpensive, and portable filter-paper-based strip biosensor for the detection of bacterial quorum sensing signaling molecules , N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs.

AHLs are generally employed by Gram-negative bacteria for their cell-cell communication to control expression of specialized genes, such as those involved in biofilm formation and production of virulence factors, in a population-density-dependent manner. First, a bacterial cell-based sensing system employing components of AHL-mediated QS regulatory system as recognition elements and beta-galactosidase as the reporter protein was designed and developed.

The bacterial -sensing cells were then liquid-dried on strips of filter paper. The paper strip biosensor was able to detect low AHL concentrations down to 1 x 10 -8 M. Furthermore, it was successfully applied to the detection of AHLs in physiological samples, such as saliva. The filter-paper-based sensing strips could provide reproducible results upon storage at 4 degrees C for at least 3 months.

In conclusion, a filter-paper-based strip biosensor was developed that allows for visual, fast, and convenient detection of AHLs in a dose-dependent manner in a test sample. In addition, it does not require expensive equipment or trained personnel and allows ease of transportation and storage.

Therefore, we envision that this biosensor will serve as a simple and economical portable field kit for on-site monitoring of AHL in a variety of clinical and environmental samples. Molecular characterization of peach PR genes and their induction kinetics in response to bacterial infection and signaling molecules. The role of stomata in defense against Xcp was also investigated by measuring stomatal apertures in both 'Venture' and 'BabyGold 5' leaves after 1 and 3 HPI.

While most stomata closed in both cultivars within 1 HPI, stomata reopened again at 3 HPI with a higher percentage recorded for 'BabyGold 5', suggesting a potential role of stomata in the susceptibility of this cultivar. Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced.

When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts.

Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance.

The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: Preliminary study on an innovative, simple mast cell-based electrochemical method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacterial quorum signaling molecules N-acyl-homoserine-lactones.

This paper reports the a novel and simple mast cell-based electrochemical method for detecting of bacterial quorum signaling molecules , N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs , which can be utilized to preliminarily evaluate the toxicity of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS was utilized to record the cell impedance signal as-influenced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule , Noxododecanoyl homoserine lactone 3OCHSL. The results indicated that cellular activities such as cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular calcium, and degranulation were markedly influenced by the AHLs.

Importantly, the exposure of 3OCHSL to mast cells induced a marked decrease in the electrochemical impedance signal in a dose-dependent manner. These results were confirmed via conventional cell assay and transmission electron microscope TEM analysis. Altogether, the proposed method appears to be an innovative and effective approach to the quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules ; to this effect, it also may serve as a primary evaluation of the cytotoxicity of food-borne pathogens.

Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule. We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory super-resolution optical imaging , will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group.

There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system TTSS.

We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors e.

A structure activity-relationship study of the bacterial signal molecule HHQ reveals swarming motility inhibition in Bacillus atrophaeus. The sharp rise in antimicrobial resistance has been matched by a decline in the identification and clinical introduction of new classes of drugs to target microbial infections. Thus new approaches are being sought to counter the pending threat of a post-antibiotic era. In that context, the use of non-growth limiting small molecules , that target virulence behaviour in pathogens, has emerged as a solution with real clinical potential.

We have previously shown that two signal molecules HHQ and PQS from the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have modulatory activity towards other microorganisms. This current study involves the synthesis and evaluation of analogues of HHQ towards swarming and biofilm virulence behaviour in Bacillus atrophaeus, a soil bacterium and co-inhibitor with P.

Compounds with altered C6-C8 positions on the anthranilate-derived ring of HHQ, display a surprising degree of biological specificity, with certain candidates displaying complete motility inhibition. In contrast, anti-biofilm activity of the parent molecule was completely lost upon alteration at any position indicating a remarkable degree of specificity and delineation of phenotype.

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles based electrochemical sensor for the measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules N-acyl-homoserine-lactones. We have developed a novel and economical electrochemical sensor to measure Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules AHLs using magnetic nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted polymer MIP technology. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers MMIPs capable of selectively absorbing AHLs were successfully synthesized by surface polymerization.

The particles were deposited onto a magnetic carbon paste electrode MGCE surface, and characterized by electrochemical measurements.

This Fe3O4 SiO2-MIP-based electrochemical sensor is a valuable new tool that allows quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules. It has potential applications in the fields of clinical diagnosis or food analysis with real-time detection capability, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and good stability.

Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration. Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels vascular endothelial growth factor , nerves brain-derived neurotrophic factor , or fibroblasts fibroblast growth factor may induce reparative dentin formation.

Mainly the formation of atubular dentin osteodentin has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration. Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far. Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically.

Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules , the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules , and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary.

Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin.

By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation. The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp.

However, better characterization and standardization of the. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases SHMTs.

SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface.

The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules.

Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments.

Analysis of Pseudomonas quinolone signal and other bacterial signalling molecules using capillaries coated with highly charged polyelectrolyte monolayers and boron doped diamond electrode. Coated capillary electrophoresis equipped with a boron doped diamond BDD electrode was developed for analysis of chemically synthesised 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone HHQ , 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone PQS , and 2-methyl analogues.

Detection was then extended to biological samples. PQS and its biological precursor, HHQ, are two key regulators of bacterial cooperative behaviour known as quorum sensing in the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fused silica capillary was coated with a thin layer of poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride to reverse the electroosmosis, allowing fast migration of PQS and HHQ with improved selectivity.

A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation. Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion.

Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms. Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species.

However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study Chen, et al. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation. Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication.

Bacterial cells sense their population density and respond accordingly by producing various signal molecules to the surrounding environments thereby trigger a plethora of gene expression.

This regulatory pathway is termed quorum sensing QS. Moreover, bacterial QSSMs were shown to interfere with host cell signaling and modulate host immune responses.

QSSMs not only regulate the expression of bacterial virulence factors but themselves act in the modulation of host biology that can be potential therapeutic targets. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated.

Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential. Bacterial toxins and small molecules elucidate endosomal trafficking. Bacterial toxins and small molecules are useful tools for studying eukaryotic cell biology. In a recent issue of PNAS, Gillespie and colleagues describe a novel small molecule inhibitor of bacterial toxins and virus trafficking through the endocytic pathway, 4-bromobenzaldehyde N- 2,6-dimethylphenyl semicarbazone EGA , that prevents transport from early to late endosomes.

Mitochondria are one of most characterized metabolic hubs of the cell. Here, crucial biochemical reactions occur and most of the cellular adenosine triphosphate ATP is produced. In addition, mitochondria act as signalling platforms and communicate with the rest of the cell by modulating calcium fluxes, by producing free radicals, and by releasing bioactive proteins. It is emerging that mitochondrial metabolites can also act as second messengers and can elicit profound epi genetic changes.

This review describes the many signalling functions of mitochondrial metabolites under normal and stress conditions, focusing on metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We provide a new framework for understanding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in cellular pathophysiology. Polypetide signaling molecules in plant development. Intercellular communication mediated by small signaling molecules is a key mechanism for coordinating plant growth and development. In the past few years, polypeptide signals have been shown to play prominent roles in processes as diverse as shoot and root meristem maintenance, vascular differentiat Biological signaling by small inorganic molecules.

Small redox active molecules such as reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and hydrogen sulfide have emerged as important biological mediators that are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Advancement in understanding of cellular mechanisms that tightly regulate both generation and reactivity of these molecules is central to improved management of various disease states including cancer and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Imbalance in the production of redox active molecules can lead to damage of critical cellular components such as cell membranes, proteins and DNA and thus may trigger the onset of disease. These small inorganic molecules react independently as well as in a concerted manner to mediate physiological responses. This review provides a general overview of the redox biology of these key molecules , their diverse chemistry relevant to physiological processes and their interrelated nature in cellular signaling.

Single- Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling. Single- molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment. In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo.

A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane. These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses. To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand.

This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes. Methods and limitations of single- molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

Single- molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling , one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide. Hydrogen sulfide H2S has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase DAO along with 3MST. These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes.

However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions. The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear.

Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances. Small- molecule dissection of brassinosteroid signaling. The growth-promoting hormones, the brassinosteroids BRs , are perceived at the plant cell surface by receptor kinases that transduce the signal to the nucleus by an intracellular cascade of phosphorylation-mediated protein-protein interactions.

BR signaling is also regulated by the plant endocytic machinery because the increased endosomal localization of the BR receptor enhances the BR responses. Chemical genetics is a powerful approach to identify new components in redundant signaling networks and to characterize highly dynamic processes, such as endocytosis.

Here, we describe a screen in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for small molecules that affect hypocotyl elongation under continuous light conditions, indicative for an effect on BR responses. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules. Hydrogen sulfide H2S is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing.

Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S.

This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action.

Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease. Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration i. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection.

Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction.

Main nodulation signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction were examined. Flavonoids exuded by Arachis hypogaea L. Thin layer chromatography analysis from genistein-induced bacterial cultures of three peanut bradyrhizobia resulted in an identical Nod factor pattern, suggesting low variability in genes involved in the synthesis of these molecules. Structural study of Nod factor by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that it shares a variety of substituents with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp.

NGR and Bradyrhizobium spp. Nodulation assays in legumes nodulated by these rhizobia demonstrated differences between them and the three peanut bradyrhizobia. The three isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium sp.

Their fixation gene nifD and the common nodulation genes nodD and nodA were also analyzed. Identification of cell density signal molecule. Cardamom, mandarin and nitrogen-fixing trees in agroforestry systems in India's Himalayan region. Agroforestry Systems 35 3: Cardenolide formation and activity of pregnane-modifying enzymes in cell suspension cultures, shoot cultures and leaves of Digitalis lanata.

Cardenolides heart poisons in the painted grasshopper Poecilocerus pictus F. Pyrgomorphidae feeding on the milkweed Calotropis gigantea L. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 2: Cardenolides from the methanolic extract of Nerium oleander leaves possessing central nervous system depressant activity in mice.

Journal of Natural Products 60 6: Cardenolides of the seeds of Coronilla glauca and of C. New glycosides alloglaucoside and scorpiosidol. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 32 3: Cardenolides, coumarins and flavonoids of Gomphocarpus fruticosus L. Rastitel' nye Resursy 33 1: Cardiac and neurological manifestations of borreliosis Lyme disease in a patient with 1 degrees AV block.

Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift Cardiac and pulmonary artery mensuration in feline heartworm disease. Intensive Care Medicine 22 Cardiac autonomic nerve function and insulin sensitivity in obese subjects.

Cardiac echinococcosis with multivisceral involvement. Pediatric Cardiology 17 4: Cardiac effects of standard-dose halofantrine therapy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54 3: Cardiac electrophysiologic measurements in dogs before and after intravenous administration of atropine and propranolol. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 Cardiac examinations in the Irish Wolfhound with special regard to atrial fibrillation and echocardiography.

Cardiovascular Pathology 5 4: Cardiac hypertrophy in copper-deficient rats is not attenuated by angiotensin II receptor antagonist L, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 3: Cardiac involvement and scorpion envenomation in children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 41 6: Cardiac noradrenaline in experimental rat envenomation with Africanized bee venom.

Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 45 8: Cardiac nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits are decreased with copper restriction but not iron restriction: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, Physiology 1: Cardiac patients' mental representations of diet. Journal of Nutrition Education 28 4: Cardiac pentastomiasis and tuberculosis: Cardiovascular Pathology 5 3: Cardiac performance in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion.

Research in Veterinary Science 61 3: Cardiac performance in relation to oxygen supply varies with dietary lipid composition in sturgeon. American Journal of Physiology 2 Pt 2: Cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: Cardiac size and its relationship with clinical chemistry profiles in young boars.

Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 23 2: Cardiac sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in rats with experimentally-induced acute chagasic myocarditis.

Cardiac tamponade in dogs. Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias 11 2: Cardio-histopathological observations on aborted equine fetuses infected with equid herpesvirus 1 EHV Journal of Comparative Pathology 4: Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters.

Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 43 Cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, and the antagonist atipamezole in isoflurane-anesthetized swine. Laboratory Animal Science 46 2: Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 9: Cardiopulmonary effects of combinations of medetomidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate in dogs.

Veterinary Record 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in ponies, after induction of anaesthesia with xylazine and ketamine. Veterinary Record 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in the dog during spontaneous and artificial ventilation. Research in Veterinary Science 61 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine with or without atropine in diazepam premedicated dogs.

Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 16 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of lying position in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs. Journal of Experimental Animal Science 38 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine in sheep and in ponies. Research in Veterinary Science 60 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-ketamine in domestic sheep Ovis ovis maintained in sternal recumbency. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol anesthesia in chickens Gallus gallus domesticus.

Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 11 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, compared with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in dogs.

Veterinary Surgery 25 1: Cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of walking, standing, and standing with a splint during the recuperative period from maximal exercise in horses. Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat. Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat: Cardiorespiratory effects of a 5HT2 antagonist R in awake and anesthetized dogs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 60 3: Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in horses with different grades of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia.

Equine Veterinary Journal 29 1: Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic changes in ponies undergoing intravenous or inhalation anaesthesia.

Cardiospermum halicacabum - a profile. Biologische Medizin 25 4: Cardiotoxicity of the grasshopper, Poecilocerus pictus defensive secretion in the garden lizard, Calotes nemoricola. Cardiovascular activity of naturally occurring lignans. Cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Veterinary Surgery 25 2: Ciencia Rural 26 2: Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of detomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised horses.

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 67 4: Cardiovascular changes associated with anaesthesia induced by medetomidine combined with ketamine in cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice 37 4: Cardiovascular defects among the progeny of mouse phenylketonuria females. Pediatric Research 42 1: Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in migrants-interactions between nutritional changes and genetic background.

Diet, nutrition and chronic disease: Cardiovascular disease and women's health. Topics in Clinical Nutrition 11 1: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and occupation: Sozial und Praventivmedizin 41 3: Cardiovascular disease risk profile in adult Chinese living in north Jakarta, Indonesia with emphasis on coronary heart disease.

Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5 4: Cardiovascular effects after epidural injection of xylazine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Veterinary Surgery 24 3: Cardiovascular effects of 1. Cardiovascular effects of doxacurium chloride in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia 24 1: Cardiovascular effects of fumonisins in swine. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Clusia coclensis Guttiferae.

Revista de Biologia Tropical 44 1: Cardiovascular effects of the fungal extract of Basidiomycetes sp. Life Sciences 60 Cardiovascular effects of the macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin, administered alone and in combination with propranolol or dobutamine, in conscious unrestrained dogs. Cardiovascular effects of total soyasaponin in central nervous system and its relationship with monoamine transmitters. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 17 3: Cardiovascular involvement in AIDS.

Current Problems in Cardiology 22 3: Cardiovascular pharmacology of aqueous extract of the leaves of Bridelia atroviridis Muell. Euphorbiaceae in the rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 57 3: Cardiovascular properties of the non-volatile total residue from the essential oil of Citrus bergamia.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy 34 2: Cardiovascular response to exogenous serotonin in healthy calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 5: Cardiovascular responses to foetal undernutrition.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand Cardiovascular responses to glibenclamide during endotoxaemia in the pig. Veterinary Research Communications 21 3: Cardiovascular responses to short-term fumonisin exposure in swine.

Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in three Chinese communities in Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4 3: Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence in Spain. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria 43 1: Cardiovascular risk factors in the former communist countries. European Journal of Epidemiology 11 2: Cardiovascular risk indicators cluster in girls from families of low socio-economic status. Acta Paediatrica 85 9: Cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic responses to severe prolonged hemorrhage in adult sheep.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 56 9: Cardosin A, an abundant aspartic proteinase, accumulates in protein storage vacuoles in the stigmatic papillae of Cynara cardunculus L. Care charges and direct costs of hospitalization of Senegalese children with cerebral malaria. Study of 76 cases in the Albert-Royer Hospital in Dakar in Clinical Nurse Specialist Cns 11 1: Care insurance and agriculture. Care needed to avoid exceeding disposable milk quotas. Informatore Agrario 51 Care of fish in biological research.

Journal of Animal Science 73 Care of the adult with phenylketonuria. Care of the rural environment and education in Austrian agricultural schools. Care, caregiving, and caregivers. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 16 4: Career advancement obstacles for women in the foodservice industry. Journal of College and University Foodservice 2 3: Career preferences and the reasons thereupon by the agriculture undergraduate students of APAU. Career progress of recent tourism graduates. Tourism Management 16 7: Career stress responses among hospitality employees.

Annals of Tourism Research 24 1: Careful attention to quality control procedures. Revue Laitiere Francaise Careful choice of soyabean varieties for improving yields and quality.

Informatore Agrario 52 7: Careful tending of sowings. Carex oligosperma x Carex rostrata, a new natural hybrid in section Vesicariae from northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 1: Caribbean animal and plant health information network: Caribbean music from rumba to reggae.

Caribbean music from rumba to reggae: Caries and odontoclastic resorptive lesions in a chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera. Veterinary Record Caring capacity in the management of the nutrition crisis in infants, young children and women in Nigeria. Nutrition and Health 10 4: Caring for Australia's soils. Caring for Australia' s soils: Minnesota Medicine 80 2: Caring for the forest: Research in a changing world.

Statistics, mathematics and computers: Research in a changing world Statistics, mathematics and computers: Abstracts of invited papers. Caring for the future. People and the Planet 6 1: Quarterly Journal of Forestry 91 3: Caring for your cat. Caring for your cat: Cariogenic food consumption and dental caries in schoolchildren with temporary and deciduous dentition. Revista Chilena de Nutricion 22 2: Carl Alwin Schenck and his role in world forestry.

Forst und Holz 50 Carmine-propionic acid stain for elucidation of fine cellular structure in nematodes. Journal of Parasitology 82 1: Carnation cultivation in glasshouse under Mahableshwar conditions.

Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 19 2: Colture Protette 26 Carnitine and neonatal development: Carnitine metabolism in chronic liver disease.

Life Sciences 59 Carnitine supplementation ameliorates the steatosis and ketosis induced by pivalate in rats. Journal of Nutrition Carnitine supplementation in the foal. Carnivorous snails - a possible biological control method? Inligtingsbulletin Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse Carnivory in phytophagous insects. Functional dynamics of phytophagous insects: Carnosine, anserine and taurine contents in individual fibres from the middle gluteal muscle of the camel.

Research in Veterinary Science 62 3: Carob bean aroma dependence on roasting conditions. Perfumer and Flavorist 22 1: Carob moth, a pest of pistachio nut in Iran.

Carob tree Ceratonia siliqua L: Carotene content of some common and less familiar foods of plant origin. Food Chemistry 54 2: Carotene desaturation is linked to a respiratory redox pathway in Narcissus pseudonarcissus chromoplast membranes. Involvement of a kDa oxygen-evolving-complex-like protein. European Journal of Biochemistry 3: Carotenoid analysis of several dark-green leafy vegetables associated with a lower risk of cancers.

Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 9 4: Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of Brazilian loquat Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 45 4: Carotenoid composition in Zea mays developed at sub-optimal temperature and different light intensities.

Physiologia Plantarum 95 3: Journal of Plant Physiology Carotenoid composition in the fruits of Capsicum annuum cv. Szentesi Kosszarvu during ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44 3: Carotenoid composition of Digitalis purpurea in relation to non-photochemical quenching.

Carotenoid functions in plants. Carotenoid in young forms of some sturgeonid fish Acipenseridae. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 25 1: Carotenoid values of selected plant foods common to southern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Ecology of food and nutrition5 1: Carotenoid-deficient young wheat etioplasts are able to bind precursor proteins on the plastid surface but are impaired in their translocation ability. Physiologia Plantarum 99 2: Carotenoid-protein complexes in plants. Carotenoids - multifunctional natural compounds for the future.

Carotenoids and photosystem II characteristics of upper and lower halves of leaves acclimated to high light. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 23 6: Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters in banana peel. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 42 6: Carotenoids as anti-oxidant regulators of cellular metabolism. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii 2: Carotenoids from Alocasia leaf meal as xanthophyll sources for broiler pigmentation.

Tropical Science 37 2: Carotenoids in Swedish foods. Var Foda 48 7: Carotenoids in biological emulsions: Journal of Lipid Research 37 2: Carotenoids in citrus fruits. General aspects, methods of obtaining from processing waste and uses.

Rutilus rutilus, Rutilus rutilus heckeli, Scardinus erythrophthalmus, Chondrostoma nasus and Rhodeus sericeus amarus.

Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 24 2: Carotenoids in the tiger prawn Penaeus esculentus during ovarian maturation. Marine Biology Berlin 3: Carotenoids protect cultured rat hepatocytes from injury caused by carbon tetrachloride.

Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. American Journal of Epidemiology 5: Agronomy Journal 88 2: Carp reproduction in highly eutrophic pond conditions.

Carp, can they be controlled? Carpel development in Tasmannia insipida Winteraceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 6: Carpelloid stamens in Papaveraceae Juss. Carpet making in Nepal. Garden London Carpogenesis and basidiosporogenesis by Flammulina velutipes, Schizophyllum commune, and Trametes versicolor in vitro. Material und Organismen 31 1: Carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in some soil samples differing in ion exchange and soil nutrient properties.

Tropical Science 35 4: Carpological diversity of African Peucedanum s. The species of southern Africa. Carpophagous Lepidoptera in Slovakia: Carpovirusine and the control of codling moth. Carrageenan-thickened milk base by ultrafiltration. Carrageenophyte identification by second-derivative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Journal of Applied Phycology 8 6: Carriage of bacteria antagonistic towards Staphylococcus intermedius on canine skin and mucosal surfaces. Veterinary Dermatology 6 4: Carriage of the classical thermotolerant Campylobacters in healthy domestic animals from eastern Peru. Carrier effects on biological activity of amphotericin B. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 9 4: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52 3: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52 2: Carrier state in calves infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium, and the effect of intercurrent bronchopneumonia.

Tierarztliche Umschau 52 Carrier-mediated jejunal absorption of conjugated bile acids in the guinea pig. Carriers for Pseudomonas fluorescens, antagonistic to Pseudomonas Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of bacterial wilt. Carrot Daucus carota and weed response to linuron and metribuzin applied at different crop stages. Weed Technology 11 2: Carrot - the effect of temperature on germination. Carrot losses during storage depend on the growing conditions. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi 3: Carrot mottle mimic virus CMoMV: Molecular Plant Pathology On line: Carrot row position on a raised bed and yield relationships.

Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society ; Carrot seed yield and quality as influenced by different order umbels under varying nitrogen, plant density and geometry. Crop Research Hisar 8 3: Carrot yield response to nitrogen rate. Journal of Production Agriculture 10 2: Annales des Sciences Forestieres 54 3: Carry-over effects of dietary crude protein and triiodothyronine T3 in broiler chickens.

British Journal of Nutrition 75 4: Carry-over of morphological and biochemical characteristics associated with hyperflowering of micropropagated strawberries. Carrying capacity and ecological economics. Carrying capacity and environmental indicators: Carrying the torch for erosion control: Cartenoid content in growing cells of Haematococcus pluvialis during a sunlight cycle. Journal of Applied Phycology 7 6: Equine Veterinary Journal 29 5: Cartographic assessment of anthropogenic impacts from aerospace survey materials.

Problems of Desert Development 2: Cartographic determination of the behaviour of pesticides in the environment. Cartographic modelling of erosion in pyroclastic flow deposits of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines.

Cartographical evaluation of the content of mobile forms of nitrogen in agrolandscapes of the Samarkand Oasis Uzbekistan. Cartridge catalysts for ammonia oxidation. Carvacrol-rich plants in Turkey.

Chemistry of Natural Compounds 31 1: Carvone production from caraway and dill seed. Carvone production of dill seed-umbels. Beitrage zur Zuchtungsforschung Bundesanstalt fur Zuchtungsforschung an Kulturpflanzen 2 1: Caryopsis isoenzymes of Echinochloa weed species as an aid for taxonomic discrimination.

Journal of Horticultural Science 71 2: Informatore Agrario 52

Systems

These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir 2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model. Bass- SIR model for diffusion of new products. We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product.

We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass- SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery.

Therefore, diffusion in the Bass- SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers.

Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

The role of midwife at the birth management techniques Frederick Leboyer A birth is an event of a great importance not only for a woman but also for a child, who should be taken into consideration as well.

Frederick Leboyer, a French gyneacologist and obstetrician, has made an assertion that birth trauma should be minimized Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation.

Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In , he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases. Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between and , he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules.

For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in , the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song.

This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients.

In consecutive patients, SIRS status SIRS patients were Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis. In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS caused by non-infectious agents.

Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Intensive care unit of a university hospital.

Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS , and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders.

Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide.

These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. Sir A orthologs affect both motility and virulence. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sir A may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon.

We examined the effect of a sir A mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control. Sir A had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium less than fivefold.

However, in various types of motility agar plates, sir A was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding fold. Mutations in the sir A orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sir A orthologs.

The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed. For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured.

An Interview with Sir Michael Marmot. Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. This interview was conducted by email in May of this year. This was an important affirmation of democratic values. When thinking about health inequalities people often use the analogue of the ladder to show how the gradient of worsening health outcomes affects all people in society except presumably those at the very top.

Thinking about the ladder leads us to pose the following question: Is making the ladder shorter i. All societies have hier-archies. It is not conceivable, therefore, to have a society with no ladder. The conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health leads us to think of at least two linked ways to address the relation between position on the ladder and health: The first argues for reducing the slope of the social gradient.

To see this, suppose, just for a moment, that the ladder were defined on the basis of years of education. People who had three years or fewer had life expectancy of 50 years. Sir Victor Horsley is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in , and in he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors.

He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square, London , and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost.

In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis , written in by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia.

They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery.

Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type.

The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry.

The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry.

Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language.

Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement.

We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous? The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry.

Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues like open-mindedness and tolerance may be subjected to sterner tests.

Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies.

I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. One day, Sir , you may tax it. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable — as it turned out, electric light.

Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of Sir William Mitchell This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes.

On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary The Pragmatics of Sir Thomas Bodley. Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, — offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence.

These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed. Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied.

The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry.

If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach.

Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century.

The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden.

The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings.

The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making. In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified.

Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku. Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria.

Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis.

The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses.

The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex.

This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes.

They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

In high school, Brognard was a Werner H. When in the young King of Sicily had taken Germany by storm, driving north his Welf rival Otto IV of Brunswick and securing the support of the German princes, it had seemed that a new golden age had begun. The suite includes the latest versions of Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, and Skype for Business, along with cloud-based capabilities.

These cloud-based capabilities will help meet the federal mandates that require all Health and Human Services operating divisions to migrate e-mail to the cloud by the end of Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery.

Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others.

In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated. Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses.

He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace.

Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion.

Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished.

The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers.

The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development.

Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage.

Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds.

However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds. The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak.

Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al. Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention.

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition.

This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital. Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum.

Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis. It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. The Word and the Sound: Full Text Available Version: The subsequent sections close read key aural passages in the Narrative to amplify how Douglass exposes, manipulates, and subverts the sonic color-line, challenging his white readership to listen differently, even as he remains skeptical of their their ability to do so.

Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count.

In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality. SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions. We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery. Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure.

The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse.

This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated.

It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel.

The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered.

When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth. The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Keppel's career is important to historians of education because interwar Carnegie initiatives, articulated through the Corporation's Dominions and Colonies Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University, internationalised American educational theories and….

Aportes de Frederick W. Uno de sus principales exponentes fue Frederick W. Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity.

In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. The first case was reported in by Fabricius Hildanus. The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia hernia of the Meckel diverticulum.

More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma. The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated.

These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent. The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI.

SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients.

Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness.

We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases.

SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established.

Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B.

After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten.

Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping.

The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead.

The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained.

Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed.

In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model. Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process.

We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles.

We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. The White Hall 7. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian.

Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds. The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales.

Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B.

It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data.

The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined.

The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient.

In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia. Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock.

Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2. To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors. We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day. Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome.

SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS. There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery.

In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e. Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition. This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively.

Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD. Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C.

Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris.

He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history.

This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine. This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin.

Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes.

The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants designated EP producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid AA , aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest.

EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks. Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule.

Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes. Importantly, tomato Solanum lycopersicum leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants.

These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule , in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks. Chemoreceptors are crucial components in the bacterial sensory systems that mediate chemotaxis.

Chemotactic responses exhibit exquisite sensitivity, extensive dynamic range and precise adaptation. The mechanisms that mediate these high-performance functions involve not only actions of individual proteins but also interactions among clusters of components, localized in extensive patches of thousands of molecules. Recently, these patches have been imaged in native cells, important features of chemoreceptor structure and on—off switching have been identified, and new insights have been gained into the structural basis and functional consequences of higher order interactions among sensory components.

These new data suggest multiple levels of molecular interactions, each of which contribute specific functional features and together create a sophisticated signaling device.

Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology. We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease AD neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains.

K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains p bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. Molecular cloning and characterization of LrTLR4, analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and Gram-negative bacterial infection.

Toll-like receptors TLRs play key roles in innate immunity from lower to higher vertebrates. Except in some teleosts, function of TLR4 in most fish species including rohu Labeo rohita a commercially important fish species in the South-East Asian countries remained unknown. Together, these findings suggest the important role of TLR4 in LPS sensing and augmentation of innate immunity against Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish.

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Accumulation of H 2 O 2 , detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase.

Calcium measurements carried out in R. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization.

The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that maintains the large internal pressure within the cell while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth.

The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: We have used atomic force microscopy to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of Escherichia coli K12 bacteria.

Atomic force microscopy-single molecule force spectroscopy was performed on single sacculi exposed to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves the peptide-glycan bonds. Surprisingly, the measurements revealed individual strands of up to nm in length. This finding combined with high resolution AFM images recorded on hydrated sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the planar model for the peptidoglycan structure in Gram-negative bacteria. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell-cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches.

Bacteria produce signals of diverse structural classes. Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor DSF family are cisunsaturated fatty acids. The paradigm is cismethyldodecenoic acid from Xanthomonas campestris pv.

Although DSF synthesis was thought to be restricted to the xanthomonads, it is now known that structurally related molecules are produced by the unrelated bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, signaling involving these DSF family members contributes to bacterial virulence, formation of biofilms and antibiotic tolerance in these important human pathogens.

Here we review the recent advances in understanding DSF signaling and its regulatory role in different bacteria. In addition, we address the role of DSF family signals in interspecies signaling that modulates the behavior of other microorganisms.

Finally, we consider a number of recently reported approaches for the control of bacterial virulence through the modulation of DSF signaling. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell—cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches.

Bacterial and fungal pattern recognition receptors in homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals. In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors PRRs initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades.

Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns. Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules. Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge.

In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies. Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling.

Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate infection. Rho GTPases are important nodes within eukaryotic signaling networks and thus constitute a common target of pathogen-mediated manipulation. A diverse array of microbial mechanisms exists to interfere with Rho GTPase signaling.

While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere with the host, we have recently described pathogen adhesion as a novel extracellular stimulus that hijacks host GTPase signaling.

The ensuing coalescence of phosphatidic acid ligands in the host membrane leads to downstream activation of RhoA and actin rearrangements. Herein, we discuss mechanistic models of lipid-mediated Rho activation and the implications from the infected host's and the pathogen's perspective. Oxidized fatty acids as inter-kingdom signaling molecules.

Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication.

This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to "listen" and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi. This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health. Insights into plant immunity signalling: The interaction between a bacterial pathogen and its potential plant host develops from a complex combination of bacterial and plant elements, which determines either the establishment of resistance or the development of disease.

The use of virulence assays based on competitive index in mixed infections constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of bacterial virulence factors. In this work, we describe how the use of competitive index assays also constitutes an alternative approach for the analysis of plant immunity, to determine the contribution of different elements to bacterial recognition or immunity signaling.

Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists. Opportunistic infections OIs during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression.

In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway. It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory anti-inflammatory drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target.

The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses.

Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment. Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants. Carbon monoxide CO , a gaseous molecule , has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions.

This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Label-free critical micelle concentration determination of bacterial quorum sensing molecules.

A practical label-free method for the rapid determination of small- molecule critical micelle concentration CMC using a fixed-angle light-scattering technique is described. In our study, this technique is utilized to investigate the aqueous CMC of previously uncharacterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signaling molecules QSSM belonging to the n-acylhomoserine lactone and 2-alkylquinolone classes.

Several were found to form micelles within a physiologically relevant concentration range and potential roles of these micelles as QSSM transporters are discussed.

The influence of temperature and the presence of biological membranes or serum proteins on QSSM CMC are also investigated and evidence is obtained to suggest the QSSMs studied are capable of both membrane and serum protein interaction. This demonstrates that the fixed-angle light-scattering technique outlined can be used simply and rapidly to determine small- molecule CMC under a variety of conditions. Potato signal molecules that activate pectate lyase synthesis in Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI A new type of plant-derived signal molecules that activate extracellular pectate lyase activity in phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI was revealed.

They were smaller than 1 kDa, thermoresistant, nonproteinaceous, hydrophilic, and slightly negatively charged molecules. Using gene expression analysis and bacterial biosensor assay the mode of activity of revealed compounds was studied. The possibility of their action through quorum sensing- and KdgR-mediated pathways was analyzed.

Caveolae, a subset of membrane lipid rafts, are flask-like invaginations of the plasma membrane that contain caveolin proteins, which serve as organizing centers for cellular signal transduction. Caveolins -1, -2, and -3 have cytoplasmic N and C termini, palmitolylation sites, and a scaffolding domain that facilitates interaction and organization of signaling molecules so as to help provide coordinated and efficient signal transduction.

Such signaling components include upstream entities e. Diseases associated with aberrant signaling may result in altered localization or expression of signaling proteins in caveolae.

Caveolin-knockout mice have numerous abnormalities, some of which may reflect the impact of total body knockout throughout the life span. With greater than , orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States each year requiring a bone graft, the development of novel graft materials is necessary.

It was discovered that certain low crystallinity ceramics partially dissociate into simple signaling molecules i. Review of the literature has uncovered a variety of simple signaling molecules i. Inductive simple signaling molecules , which we have termed inducerons, represent a paradigm shift in the field of regenerative engineering where they can be utilized in place of recombinant protein growth factors.

We have demonstrated the application of single- molecule imaging and ultrafast spectroscopy to probe protein conformational dynamics in solution and in lipid bilayers.

Dynamic protein-protein interactions involve significant conformational motions that initiate chain reactions leading to specific cellular responses. We have carried out a single molecule study of dynamic protein-protein interactions in a GTPase intracellular signaling protein Cdc42 in complex with a downstream effector protein, WASP. Conducting a single- molecule fluorescence anisotropy study of calmodulin CaM , a regulatory protein for calcium-dependent cell signaling , we were able to probe CaM conformational dynamics at a wide time scale.

In this study, CaM contains a site-specifically inserted tetra-cysteine motif that reacted with FlAsH, a biarsenic fluorescein derivative that can be rotationally locked to the host protein. The study provided direct characterization of the nanosecond motions of CaM tethered to a biologically compatible surface under physiological buffer solution.

The unique technical approaches are applicable of studying single- molecule dynamics of protein conformational motions and protein-protein interactions at a wide time range without the signal convolution of probe-dye molecule motions. Formyl peptide receptors FPRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses.

Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors.

The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system.

They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences.

With at least , predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. For a long time, hydrogen sulfide H2S has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule , which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants.

Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses. The cross-adaptation signaling is commonly triggered by moderate environmental stress or exogenous application of signal molecules or their donors, which in turn induces cross-adaptation by enhancing antioxidant system activity, accumulating osmolytes, synthesizing heat shock proteins, as well as maintaining ion and nutrient balance.

In this review, based on the current knowledge on H2S and cross-adaptation in plant biology, H2S homeostasis in plant cells under normal growth conditions; H2S signaling triggered by abiotic stress; and H2S-induced cross-adaptation to heavy metal, salt, drought, cold, heat, and flooding stress were summarized, and concluded that H2S might be a candidate signal molecule in plant cross-adaptation.

In addition, future research direction also has been proposed. GTPases in bacterial cell polarity and signalling. In bacteria, large G domain GTPases have well-established functions in translation, protein translocation, tRNA modification and ribosome assembly. Recent data have revealed that small Ras-like GTPases as well as large G domain GTPases in bacteria function in the regulation of cell polarity, signal transduction and possibly also in cell division.

Moreover, large dynamin-like GTPases in bacteria may function in cell division. Thus, the function of GTPases in bacteria may be as pervasive as in eukaryotes. Interactive endogenous small molecule gaseous signaling: Dioxygen O2 is an exogenously supplied gas with a number of properties that make it valuable as a biological source of energy and as a result much of life has become dependent on this molecule.

Nitric oxide NO , carbon dioxide CO and hydrogen sulfide H2S are small molecules that are sometimes in a gaseous state and that can be either exogenously or endogenously supplied. The chemistry of these four molecules allows them to share some common biological targets and signal transduction pathways as well as providing for unique aspects to the biochemistry of each one.

Dioxygen can be teratogenic either in excess hyperoxia or in deficiency hypoxia. Although there is a great deal known about the chemistry and physiology of dioxygen, the mechanisms by which it induces toxic endpoints, such as teratogenesis, are unknown.

This review examines some fundamental concepts of these four signaling molecules and considers some of the molecular targets and pathways by which they interact. The information regarding the teratogenicity of either excess or deficiency of the four gases is summarized.

Interaction information is generally unavailable for teratogenicity endpoints with the four gases and also a mechanistic understanding of the toxicodynamics of the compounds is lacking.

Although it could be theoretically predicted that certain interactions would be additive, for example carbon monoxide and hypoxia, based on the physiological role of these molecules , the data is unavailable. Consequently, these small gaseous signaling molecules have been demonstrated to interact with respect to signaling pathways, but whether this indicates a similar result for teratogenesis remains unevaluated.

Bacterial Tweets and Podcasts signaling eavesdropping microbialfightclub. Once thought to live independently, bacteria are now known to be highly social organisms. Their behavior ranges from cooperatively forming complex multispecies communities to fiercely competing for resources. Work over the past fifty years has shown that bacteria communicate through diverse mechanisms including exchanging diffusible molecules , exporting molecules in membrane vesicles, and interacting through direct cell-cell contact.

These methods allow bacteria to sense and respond to other cells around them and coordinate group behavior. In this review, share the discoveries and lessons learned in the field of bacterial communication in the hope of providing insights to parasitologists and other researchers working on related questions.

More than a signal: Quorum sensing in bacteria serves as an example of the adaptation of single-celled organisms to engage in cooperative group behaviors.

This phenomenon is much more widespread than originally thought, with many different species 'speaking' through various secreted small molecules. Despite some variation in signaling molecules , the principles of quorum sensing are conserved across a wide range of organisms. Small molecules , secreted into the environment, are detected by neighbors who respond by altering gene expression and, as a consequence, behavior.

However, it is not known whether these systems evolved specifically for this purpose, or even if their role is exclusive to information trafficking. Rather, clues exist that many quorum sensing molecules function as more than just signals. Here, we discuss non- signaling roles for quorum sensing molecules in such important processes as nutrient scavenging, ultrastructure modification and competition.

Protein-protein interactions are at the core of cell signaling pathways as well as many bacterial and viral infection processes. As such, they define critical targets for drug development against diseases such as cancer, arthritis, obesity, AIDS and many others. Until now, the clinical inhibition of protein-protein interactions and signaling has been accomplished with the use of antibodies or soluble versions of receptor molecules. Small molecule replacements of these therapeutic agents have been extremely difficult to develop; either the necessary potency has been hard to achieve or the expected biological effect has not been obtained.

In this presentation, we show that a rigorous thermodynamic approach that combines differential scanning calorimetry DSC and isothermal titration calorimetry ITC provides a unique platform for the identification and optimization of small molecular weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

Recent advances in the development of cell entry inhibitors of HIV-1 using this approach will be discussed. Role of chrysin on expression of insulin signaling molecules. Currently available drugs are unsuccessful for the treatment of tye-2 diabetes due to their adverseside-effects. Hence, a search for novel drugs, especially ofplant origin, continues. Chrysin 5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts that hasbeen used in traditional medicine around the world to treat numerous ailments.

The present study was aimed to identify the protective role of chrysin on the expression of insulin- signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rats.

At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation LPO and free radical generation, as well as the levels of insulin signaling molecules and tissue glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle were assessed.

Serum insulin, lipid profile, LPO and free radical generation were found to be increased in diabetic control rats. The treatment with chrysin normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, LPO and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins. Our present findings indicate that chrysin improves glycemic control through activation of insulin signal transduction in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic male rats. The bacterial peptidoglycan-sensing molecule Pglyrp2 modulates brain development and behavior.

Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood.

Here, we show that bacterial peptidoglycan PGN derived from the commensal gut microbiota can be translocated into the brain and sensed by specific pattern-recognition receptors PRRs of the innate immune system. Using expression-profiling techniques, we demonstrate that two families of PRRs that specifically detect PGN that is, PGN-recognition proteins and NOD-like receptors , and the PGN transporter PepT1 are highly expressed in the developing brain during specific windows of postnatal development in both males and females.

Moreover, we show that the expression of several PGN-sensing molecules and PepT1 in the developing striatum is sensitive to manipulations of the gut microbiota that is, germ-free conditions and antibiotic treatment.

Finally, we used the PGN-recognition protein 2 Pglyrp2 knockout mice to examine the potential influence of PGN-sensing molecules on brain development and behavior.

We demonstrate that the absence of Pglyrp2 leads to alterations in the expression of the autism risk gene c-Met, and sex-dependent changes in social behavior, similar to mice with manipulated microbiota.

These findings suggest that the central activation of PRRs by microbial products could be one of the signaling pathways mediating the communication between the gut microbiota and the developing brain. Reactive oxygen species ROS are a group of molecules produced in the cell through metabolism of oxygen. The well-established roles they have in the phagosome and genomic instability has led to the characterisation of these molecules as non-specific agents of destruction.

Interestingly, there is a growing body of literature suggesting a less sinister role for this Jekyll and Hyde molecule. The newly discovered biological functions attributed to ROS include proliferation, migration, anoikis, survival and autophagy. Furthermore, recent advances in detection and quantification of ROS-family members have revealed that the diverse functions of ROS can be determined by the subcellular source, location and duration of these molecules within the cell.

It is now evident that at lower physiological levels, H2O2 can act as a classical intracellular signalling molecule regulating kinase-driven pathways. In light of this confounding paradox, we will examine the factors and circumstances that determine whether H2O2 acts in a pro-survival or deleterious manner. HAMP domain conformers that propagate opposite signals in bacterial chemoreceptors. We identify two HAMP conformations distinguished by a four- to two-helix packing transition at the C-termini that send opposing signals in bacterial chemoreceptors.

Crystal structures of signal -locked mutants establish the observed structure-to-function relationships. Pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin-labeled soluble receptors active in cells verify that the crystallographically defined HAMP conformers are maintained in the receptors and influence the structure and activity of downstream domains accordingly.

Another HR2 variant displays an inverted response with respect to ligand and demonstrates the fine energetic balance between "on" and "off" conformers. Our findings directly correlate in vivo signaling with HAMP structure, stability, and dynamics to establish a comprehensive model for HAMP-mediated signal relay that consolidates existing views on how conformational signals propagate in receptors.

Moreover, we have developed a rational means to manipulate HAMP structure and function that may prove useful in the engineering of bacterial taxis responses. The Wnt signal transduction pathway is dysregulated in many highly prevalent diseases, including cancer. Unfortunately, drug discovery efforts have been hampered by the paucity of targets and drug-like lead molecules amenable to drug discovery.

We interrogated the mechanism and structure-activity relationships to understand drivers of potency and to assist target identification efforts.

We found inhibition of Wnt signaling by Niclosamide appears unique among the structurally-related anthelmintic agents tested and found the potency and functional response was dependent on small changes in the chemical structure of Niclosamide.

Bacterial factors exploit eukaryotic Rho GTPase signaling cascades to promote invasion and proliferation within their host. Actin cytoskeleton is a main target of many bacterial pathogens. Among the multiple regulation steps of the actin cytoskeleton, bacterial factors interact preferentially with RhoGTPases. Pathogens secrete either toxins which diffuse in the surrounding environment, or directly inject virulence factors into target cells.

Injected bacterial virulence factors preferentially manipulate the RhoGTPase signaling cascade by mimicry of eukaryotic regulatory proteins leading to local actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, which mediates bacterial entry into host cells or in contrast escape to phagocytosis and immune defense. Invasive bacteria can also manipulate RhoGTPase signaling through recognition and stimulation of cell surface receptor s.

Changes in RhoGTPase activation state is sensed by the innate immunity pathways and allows the host cell to adapt an appropriate defense response. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling.

In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening HTS. The screening resulted in positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0. This lead molecule had an IC50 of A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations.

In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking.

Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage.

Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasing necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering.

Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasingly necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering. Silicon technology compatible photonic molecules for compact optical signal processing. We demonstrate the use of the doublet splitting for We also demonstrate that very compact optical modulators operating 2.

Spectrally resolved coherent transient signal for ultracold rubidium molecules. We present spectrally resolved pump-probe experiments on the photoassociation of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped ultrashort laser pulses. The pump pulse causes a free-bound transition leading to a coherent transient signal of rubidium molecules in the first excited state. In order to achieve a high frequency resolution the bandwidth of the pump pulse is reduced to a few wavenumbers.

The frequency dependence of the transient signal close to the D1 atomic resonance is investigated for characteristic pump-probe delay times. The observed spectra, which show a pronounced dip for pump-probe coincidence, are interpreted using quantum dynamical calculations.

Composition for detection of cell density signal molecule. Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule CDS , which is secreted by fibroblastic cells in culture, preferably tendon cells, and which provides a means by which the cells self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. Observation of an electrical signal from a single molecule.

We have attached a folded protein molecule to the tip of a carbon nanotube using electrophoresis. We have then measured the electrons produced when the protein catalyzes a series of reactions. As an initial example of the reactions, we have used the catalysis by glucose-oxidase of glucose. We can show that the characteristic dynamic signals from the molecule scale with the glucose concentration.

The molecule on the carbon nanotube tip is stable with respect to time under controlled conditions. The signals also indicate the glucose diffusion as its concentration is locally depleted at the nanotube by the catalysis.

We use a second carbon nanotube with a laccase molecule on its tip to complete the circuit with an oxygen reaction. In a previous stage of this process, the other end of the nanotube is attached with a low-impedance electrical connection to a Ti thin film and the measuring circuitry. This work is an early step toward investigating the feasibility of an implantable glucose monitor to help treat diabetes. Both piston-like and rotational motions are present in bacterial chemoreceptor signaling.

Bacterial chemotaxis signaling is triggered by binding of chemo-effectors to the membrane-bound chemoreceptor dimers. Though much is known about the structure of the chemoreceptors, details of the receptor dynamics and their effects on signaling are still unclear. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations and principle component analysis, we study the dynamics of the periplasmic domain of aspartate chemoreceptor Tar dimer and its conformational changes when binding to different ligands attractant, antagonist, and two attractant molecules.

We found two dominant components modes in the receptor dynamics: These two modes are highly correlated. The anti-symmetric effects of the relative rotation mode also explained the negative cooperativity between the two binding pockets. Our results suggest a mechanism of coupled rotation and piston-like motion for bacterial chemoreceptor signaling. Effects of terbium III on signaling molecules in horseradish.

Rare earth elements, especially terbium Tb , are high-valence heavy metal elements that accumulate in the environment, and they show toxic effects on plants.

Signaling molecules regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. How rare earth elements affect signaling molecules remains largely unknown. These changes in the contents of phytohormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin triggered excessive production of intracellular H2O2. Decreased gene expressions of insulin signal molecules in canine hyperadrenocorticism.

Hyperadrenocorticism HAC is a common endocrine disorder in dogs, in which excess glucocorticoid causes insulin resistance. Disturbance of insulin action may be caused by multiple factors, including transcriptional modulation of insulin signal molecules which lie downstream of insulin binding to insulin receptors. In this study, gene expressions of insulin signal molecules were examined using neutrophils of the HAC dogs the untreated dogs and the dogs which had been treated with trilostane.

Collectively, gene expressions of insulin signal molecules are suppressed in the HAC dogs, which may partially contribute to the induction of insulin resistance. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls.

Then we used selected reaction monitoring SRM to confirm a set of candidates. In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions. Many proteins, largely derived from Bacteroides species, were over-represented, while under-represented proteins were mostly from Firmicutes and some Prevotella members. Most overabundant proteins could be confirmed using SRM. They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients.

Moreover, although the abundance of most protein groups reflected that of related bacterial populations, we found a specific independent regulation of bacteria-derived cell envelope proteins. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis.

Bacterial protein signals are associated with Crohn's disease. No Crohn's disease CD molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis.

For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling promotes the evolution of resistance to parasitic bacteriophages. The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes.

Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses bacteriophages and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing QS signal molecules. We found that a QS- signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment.

This was unlikely driven by demographic effects mutation supply and encounter rates , as nonsignaling strains reached higher population densities in the absence of phages in our selective environment.

Instead, the evolved nonsignaling strains suffered relatively higher growth reduction in the absence of the phage, which could have constrained the phage resistance evolution. Complementation experiments with synthetic signal molecules showed that the Pseudomonas quinolone signal PQS improved the growth of nonsignaling bacteria in the presence of a phage, while the activation of las and rhl quorum sensing systems had no effect.

Together, these results suggest that QS- signaling can promote the evolution of phage resistance and that the loss of QS- signaling could be costly in the presence of phages. Phage-bacteria interactions could therefore indirectly shape the evolution of intraspecies social interactions and PQS-mediated virulence in P.

Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions. Quorum sensing signal molecules were found to be affected by the packaging conditions e. Additionally, no significant AI-2 activity was observed in the tested cell-free meat extracts CFME , regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations.

Elucidation of signaling molecules involved in ergosterol perception in tobacco. Ergosterol, a principal compound of the fungal plasma membrane, is regarded as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. In the present study, the role of salicylic acid SA , jasmonic acid JA and spermine signaling pathways after ergosterol elicitation were evaluated. Xanthi in response to ergosterol elicitation. To understand the sequence of the signaling cascade, several representative steps involved in the synthesis of crucial signaling molecules were targeted using specific inhibitors.

SA signaling pathway, together with calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and nitric oxide, was demonstrated to play an important role in the induction of defense-related genes following ergosterol treatment. The results suggested that nitric oxide participates in defense-related gene activation following ergosterol treatment but does not directly participate in activation of reactive oxygen species production.

A possible candidate for this SA-independent pathway is the spermine pathway, as elevated spermine levels were detected following ergosterol treatment. TRAF molecules in cell signaling and in human diseases.

The tumor necrosis factor receptor TNF-R -associated factor TRAF family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily. The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling.

In addition to their role as adaptor proteins, most TRAFs also act as E3 ubiquitin ligases to activate downstream signaling events.

Compelling evidence obtained from germ-line and cell-specific TRAF-deficient mice demonstrates that each TRAF plays indispensable and non-redundant physiological roles, regulating innate and adaptive immunity, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, stress response, and bone metabolism. Notably, mounting evidence implicates TRAFs in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases, which has sparked new appreciation and interest in TRAF research.

This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of TRAFs, with an emphasis on recent findings concerning TRAF molecules in signaling and in human diseases. Ghrelin is a circulating peptide hormone involved in regulation of a wide array of physiological processes. As an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor GHSR1a , ghrelin is responsible for signaling involved in energy homeostasis, including appetite stimulation, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling , and adiposity.

Ghrelin has also been implicated in modulation of several neurological processes. Dysregulation of ghrelin signaling is implicated in diseases related to these pathways, including obesity, type II diabetes, and regulation of appetite and body weight in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. Multiple steps in the ghrelin signaling pathway are available for targeting in the development of therapeutics for these diseases.

Agonists and antagonists of GHS-R1a have been widely studied and have shown varying levels of effectiveness within ghrelin-related physiological pathways. Agents targeting ghrelin directly, either through depletion of ghrelin levels in circulation or inhibitors of ghrelin O-acyltransferase whose action is required for ghrelin to become biologically active, are receiving increasing attention as potential therapeutic options. We discuss the approaches utilized to target ghrelin signaling and highlight the current challenges toward developing small- molecule agents as potential therapeutics for ghrelin-related diseases.

Bacteria respond to different small molecules that are produced by other neighboring bacteria. These molecules , called autoinducers, are classified as intraspecies i. AI-2 has been proposed as an interspecies autoinducer and has been shown to regulate different bacterial physiology as well as affect virulence factor production and biofilm formation in some bacteria, including bacteria of clinical relevance.

Several groups have embarked on the development of small molecules that could be used to perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria, with the ultimate goal that these molecules could be used to inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. Additionally, these molecules have the potential to be used in synthetic biology applications whereby these small molecules are used as inputs to switch on and off AI-2 receptors.

In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art in the development of small molecules that perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria and offer our perspective on the future development and applications of these classes of molecules.

Inflammasomes - molecular platforms for caspase-1 activation - have emerged as common hubs for a number of pathways that detect and respond to bacterial pathogens. In this review we discuss signal transduction leading to 'canonical' and 'non-canonical' activation of caspase-1 through the involvement of upstream caspases.

Recent studies have identified a growing number of regulatory networks involving guanylate binding proteins, protein kinases, ubiquitylation and necroptosis related pathways that modulate inflammasome responses and immunity to bacterial infection. By being able to respond to extracellular, vacuolar and cytosolic bacteria, their cytosolic toxins or ligands for cell surface receptors, inflammasomes have emerged as important sentinels of infection.

Xanthomonas campestris cell—cell signalling molecule DSF diffusible signal factor elicits innate immunity in plants and is suppressed by the exopolysaccharide xanthan. Several secreted and surface-associated conserved microbial molecules are recognized by the host to mount the defence response. One such evolutionarily well-conserved bacterial process is the production of cell—cell signalling molecules which regulate production of multiple virulence functions by a process known as quorum sensing.

Here it is shown that a bacterial fatty acid cell—cell signalling molecule , DSF diffusible signal factor , elicits innate immunity in plants. The DSF family of signalling molecules are highly conserved among many phytopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Xanthomonas as well as in opportunistic animal pathogens.

Furthermore, production of the DSF signalling molecule in Pseudomonas syringae, a non-DSF-producing plant pathogen, induces the innate immune response in the N. By pre- and co-inoculation of DSF, it was demonstrated that the DSF-induced plant defence reduces disease severity and pathogen growth in the host plant.

In this study, it was further demonstrated that wild-type Xanthomonas campestris suppresses the DSF-induced innate immunity by secreting xanthan, the main component of extracellular polysaccharide. The results indicate that plants have evolved to recognize a widely conserved bacterial communication system and may have played a role in the co-evolution of host recognition of the pathogen and the communication machinery. Xanthomonas campestris cell-cell signalling molecule DSF diffusible signal factor elicits innate immunity in plants and is suppressed by the exopolysaccharide xanthan.

One such evolutionarily well-conserved bacterial process is the production of cell-cell signalling molecules which regulate production of multiple virulence functions by a process known as quorum sensing. Here it is shown that a bacterial fatty acid cell-cell signalling molecule , DSF diffusible signal factor , elicits innate immunity in plants. Small molecules from natural sources, targeting signaling pathways in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus DM is a metabolic disease caused by genetic or environmental factors.

It has rendered a severe menace to the middle-aged and elderly, while there is still lack of efficient drugs against this disease.

The pathogenic mechanism for DM is complex, and the complicated networks related to this disease involve distinct signaling pathways. Currently, discovery of potential modulators targeting these pathways has become a potent approach for anti-diabetic drug lead compound development.

Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products provide inherent larger-scale structural diversity and have been the major resource of bioactive agents for new drug discovery.

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Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra 59 1: The dynamics of diameter increment in pine stands located within the reach of emissions from colour metal industry plants. The dynamics of ectomycorrhizal infection of Shorea leprosula seedlings in Malaysian rain forests. New Phytologist 2: The dynamics of egg production, oviposition and resorption in a parasitoid wasp. Functional Ecology 11 2: The dynamics of experimental arable weed communities under different management practices.

Journal of Vegetation Science 7 6: The dynamics of grassland transformation in Salindingan, Ilagan, Isabela, Philippines. The dynamics of growth of pea stems. Vestsi Akademii Agrarnykh Navuk Belarusi 1: The dynamics of household beef consumption in Cameroon. The dynamics of humus content in arable Chernozems and approaches to its study.

The dynamics of multiple infection and the evolution of virulence. American Naturalist 6: The dynamics of occurrence of Sitona lineatus L. Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 1: The dynamics of oil accumulation in sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Oil Crops of China 19 1: The dynamics of phosphorus in freshwater and marine environments. The dynamics of product differentiation in the British record industry. Journal of Cultural Economics 20 2: The dynamics of radioactive caesium contamination changes in selected parts of the forest ecosystems of Carpathian and Sudetan Mountains.

The dynamics of rice quality during ripening of rice kernels. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 11 1: The dynamics of seedling and cotyledon cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana during reserve mobilization.

International Journal of Plant Sciences 3: The dynamics of soil water following single surface wettings. European Journal of Soil Science 47 1: The dynamics of somatotropin concentration in follicular fluid in the course of antral follicle maturation and atresia in bovine ovaries.

The dynamics of some labile properties of arable soddy-podzolic soil. Moscow University Soil Science Bulletin 50 2: The dynamics of species richness in an experimentally restored calcareous grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science 7 2: The dynamics of the content of nucleic acids and proteins in wheat plants continuously vernalized. The dynamics of the contractual relationship between primary producers and agroindustrial enterprises.

The dynamics of the relationship between ejaculate quality and cholesterol and total lipids concentration in the blood plasma in two lines of the cocks. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 39 1: The dynamics of torrent beds. Italia Forestale e Montana 50 6: The earliest report of scleroderris canker in North America. The early appearance of foraging flight associated with starvation in an aphid. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 80 1: The early development of Erysiphe pisi on Pisum sativum L.

Plant Pathology Oxford 45 2: The early development of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus calophylla growing in rehabilitated bauxite mined areas. Plant Pathology Oxford 45 5: The early development of forest fragmentation effects on birds. Conservation Biology 10 1: The early development of mouse embryos in vitro in medium supplemented with different batches of serum and bovine serum albumin. Veterinary Research Communications 20 1: The early development of urban forestry in Britain: Arboricultural Journal 21 2: The early dynamic response of the calf ileal epithelium to Salmonella typhimurium.

Veterinary Pathology 34 5: Plant Physiology 3: The early stage of chloroplast protein import involves Com Journal of Biological Chemistry 5: The early years with apple V-trellis. Compact Fruit Tree The earthworms of Austria Oligochaeta: Lumbridicae , with identification keys of the species.

Verhandlungen der Zoologisch Botanischen Gesellschaft in Osterreich The east-west agro-alimentary system towards the third millennium: The eating behaviour, attitude and nutrition knowledge of mothers of children with persistent feeding difficulties.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand A retrospective study in patients admitted for eating disorders. The eating quality of pork. The influence of intramuscular fat. The echolocation calls of the spotted bat Euderma maculatum are relatively inaudible to moths. Journal of Experimental Biology Pt 1: The eco-geographical distribution of chemical composition of soybean seeds.

The ecological and melioration state of the irrigated zone of the Dashkhovuz district of Turkmenistan. Problems of Desert Development 6: The ecological basis of alternative agriculture. The ecological basis of conservation: The ecological basis of irrigation institutions: East and South Asia.

World Development Oxford 23 The ecological component of environmental impact assessment: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40 2: The ecological consequences of privatisation in Romanian agriculture. The ecological evaluation of the present condition of rangeland vegetation of Kazakhstan deserts. The ecological impact of fire on the peatland forest in the Da Xingan Mountain, China.

Land based and marine hazards: The ecological implications of fire in Greater Yellowstone. The ecological importance of forest remnants in an eastern Amazonian frontier landscape. The ecological modernization of production and consumption: The ecological niche and economic significance of the spruce tree in fir-beech sites of the High Karst.

Gozdarski Vestnik 47 9: The ecological regionalization of protein and oil contents of soyabean seeds in Heilongjiang Province. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 28 Supplement: The ecological relation between the growth of Termitomyces albuminosus and Termitosphaeria duthiei and substrates.

Acta Mycologica Sinica 14 3: The ecological resources of European farmland. The European environment and CAP reform: The ecological significance of annuals on a Mediterranean grassland Mt Ventoux, France.

Plant Ecology 2: The ecological significance of biological diversity. The ecological significance of fruit heteromorphism in the amphicarpic species Catananche lutea Asteraceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 6: The ecological significance of grassland fire.

Pratacultural Science 11 2: The ecological significance of lobed and toothed leaves in temperate forest trees. Ecology Washington D C 78 4: The ecological state of mountain territories.

Mezhdunarodnyi Sel' skokhozyaistvennyi Zhurnal 2: The ecological status of actinomycetes of the genus Micromonospora. The ecological status, diversity and utility of Chinese Job's Tears. Crop Genetic Resources 4: The ecology and biogeography of Nothofagus forests. The ecology and conservation of spatially structured populations. Acta Oecologica 17 6: The ecology and conservation of the endangered endemic shrub, kowhai ngutukaka Clianthus puniceus in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 81 3: The ecology and control of witches' broom in cupuacu trees in Brazil.

Inhibition of basidocarps formation by chemical spraying. Inhibition of the disease occurrence by chemical spraying.

The ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects; Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, August , The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities.

Journal of Biogeography 23 4: The ecology and management of aspen. AI Applications 9 3: The ecology and management of grazing systems. The ecology and management of grazing systems: The ecology and management of non-timber forest resources. World Bank Technical Paper The ecology and phytogeography of Mount Kinabalu pteridophytes.

The ecology of Bonamia and decline of bivalve molluscs. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20 1: The ecology of Dactylanthus taylorii and threats to its survival. The ecology of Fusarium disease in black-pepper in Brazil. The infection sites of pathogen in black-pepper. The relationship between disease occurrence and soil spore densities.

The relationship between disease occurrence and soil type. The ecology of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher and its chemical control effects. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 36 1: The ecology of agricultural pests: The ecology of baculoviruses: The ecology of bayleaf palm Sabal morrisiana and implications for its sustainable management in the Rio Bravo conservation and management area, Belize.

TRI News 13 1: The ecology of forests. The ecology of fungal cankers on Cupressus macrocarpa in southern England. European Journal of Forest Pathology 25 5: The ecology of geitonogamous pollination. The ecology of hemiepiphytes in forest canopies. The ecology of organisms that breed in a divided and ephemeral habitat: The ecology of poverty, undernutrition, and learning failure.

The ecology of root lifespan. Advances in Ecological Research The ecology of sedges Cyperaceae in Maine peatlands. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 2: The ecology of sex expression in a gynodioecious Israeli desert shrub Ochradenus baccatus. The ecology of stone pine. Serie Gestion des Territoires The ecology of the Anacostia Kenilworth Marsh: Versatility of wetlands in the agricultural landscape: The ecology of the multimammate mouse Praomys natalensis and the spotted mouse Lemniscomys striatus in Eastern Ghana.

The ecology of tropical food crops. The ecology of tropical food crops Ed. The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings.

The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings: The ecology of vulpia. The ecology of wildlife disease control: Journal of Applied Ecology. The ecology, economics, and management of potato cropping systems: Bulletin Maine Agricultural Experiment Station The ecology, life-history and morphometrics of the Australian chigger mite Eutrombicula samboni Womersley Acarina: The economic activity of the agricultural industrial works in Tarnow in respect of its productivity and economic performance.

The economic analysis of commodity systems: Agricultural Systems 55 2: The economic and financial characterization of agricultural cooperatives of Navarra.

Investigacion Agraria, Economia 10 3: The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile. Agricultural Economics 15 3: The economic and financial position of agricultural machinery manufacturers. The economic and financial situation of the sugar industry after four years' activity under free market conditions.

Gazeta Cukrownicza The economic and social effects of the National Lottery. The economic and social effects of the National Lottery: The economic and social integration in agricultural settlements of farmers who were driven from their homes or refugees - four case studies. The economic and social role of protected areas in the new South Africa. The economic appraisal of environmental projects and policies: The economic benefits of new information technology.

The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content. Forest products journal 47 3: The economic benefits of surface water quality improvements in developing countries: Land Economics 72 4: The economic burden imposed by a case of eastern encephalitis.

The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in northern Ghana. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90 1: The economic consequences of substituting carbon payments for crop subsidies in U. Environmental and Resource Economics 7 1: The economic context for grassland farming.

Grassland into the 21st century: The economic context of cultural tourism. Cultural tourism in Europe: The economic contribution of agriculture in Delaware. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 25 1: The economic contribution of agriculture in Delaware: Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 26 1: The economic contribution of children of farm households in tribal society and its effect on schooling. Asian Economic Review 37 1: The economic contribution of volunteerism toward the value of our cultural inventory.

Journal of Cultural Economics 19 4: The economic effectiveness of investments in mechanization service centres. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych The economic efficiency of different apple production techniques in Croatia. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra 60 1: The economic efficiency of the crop yield in the conditions of farmer associations on different forms of property. The economic feasibility of subsoiling Solonetzic soils in Saskatchewan.

Journal of production agriculture 8 4: The economic feasibility of using biomass to fuel a mass burn boiler: Paper American Society of Agricultural Engineers The economic groups of grassland plants in Xinjiang. The economic health of a region: Teoros, Revue de Recherche en Tourisme 15 3: The economic impact of a mega-multi-mall: Tourism Management 16 5: The economic impact of alternative types of rural tourism.

Journal of Agricultural Economics 48 2: The economic impact of fire on forest resources: The economic impact of subsidies on agricultural products. Acta Operativo Oeconomica The economic impact of the casino industry in South Korea. Journal of Travel Research 36 1: The economic impact of the cruise industry: Bulletin of Eastern Caribbean Affairs 21 1: The economic impact of the horse racing industry on Oklahoma's economy.

Current Farm Economics 70 1: The economic impact of tourism in the Seychelles. Annals of Tourism Research 23 1: The economic impact of visitors to your community. The economic impacts of increased grazing fees on Gila National Forest grazing permittees. Journal of range management 50 1: The economic impacts of infrastructure development. The economic implications of climate change. The economic importance and research needs for Uapaca in Malawi.

Human Ecology New York 25 1: The economic importance of insects. The economic importance of the agricultural complex in rural regions: Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Agrarkomplexes in landlichen Regionen: The economic importance of wild resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria.

The economic mechanism of functioning of internal subsections of farm enterprises. Ekonomika Sel' skokhozyaistvennykh i Pererabatyvayushchikh Predpriyatii 8: The economic position of Austrian agriculture and forestry in The 36th Green Report.

Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 42 9: The economic position of the Austrian agricultural and forestry sector in Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 43 9: The economic potential of a tropical rainforest in Veracruz, Mexico. The economic potential of whole-tree feedstock production. Bioresource Technology 55 3: The economic preconditions for agricultural development. Kereskedelmi Szemle 36 The economic prospects for white sugar.

The economic role of salmonid culture in rural development. Comptes Rendus de l' Academie d' Agriculture de France 82 9: The economic significance of sport. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Sports: The economic significance of the parameters of a mechanical innovation project. The economic situation and choice of economic structures in the agroindustrial complex of Russia and CIS countries. The economic situation of Austrian agriculture and forestry in Monatsberichte uber die Osterreichische Landwirtschaft 44 9: The economic theory of extensive pastoralism.

The economic theory of extensive pastoralism: The economic valuation of saltwater marsh supporting marine recreational fishing in the southeastern United States. Ecological Economics Amsterdam 21 3: The economic value of decreased use of pesticides? A contingent valuation study on willingness to pay. Tutkimuksia Maatalouden Taloudellinen Tutkimuslaitos The economic value of game hunting. Studi di Economia e Diritto 4: The economic value of hiking: Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 27 2: The economic value of managing the acai palm Euterpe oleracea Mart.

The economic value of patents, licenses, and plant variety protection. The economic value of the Earth's resources. The economic value of water in recreation: Water Resources Research 32 4: The economic values of tourism's social impacts. Annals of Tourism Research 24 1: AIDS Reader 7 5: The economics of Buddhism: Contributions to Nepalese Studies 23 1: The economics of No 2 dairy systems.

The economics of Third World national parks: The economics of UK agri-environmental policy: Economic Issues 2 1: The economics of a public fund for environmental amenities: American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78 4: The economics of agricultural prices. The economics of agricultural prices: The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid sub-Saharan Africa.

The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid sub Saharan Africa: The economics of agroforestry with pine and pasture in the to mm annual rainfall zone of Western Australia. Agroforestry Systems 33 1: The economics of aquatic vegetation removal in rivers and land drainage systems. The economics of banana cultivation. The economics of biological control of Diatraea spp. Lepidoptera - Pyralidae on sugarcane in Trinidad. The economics of breeding horses of the Orlov Trotter breed. The economics of canola production by limited-resource farmers in South Carolina.

Economic Planning in Free Societies 32 5: The economics of change in rural America. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77 5: The economics of converting conventionally managed vineyards to organic management practices. The economics of cosmetic pesticide use. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79 1: The economics of cruising: Journal of Tourism Studies 7 2: The economics of environmental degradation: The economics of environmental regulation.

The economics of environmental regulation: The economics of eucalypt plantations on tea estates in Malawi. The economics of farm size and land policy in the transition to a market economy.

The economics of fisheries management: The economics of generic income stabilization schemes. The economics of hardy nursery stock production in England.

The economics of international agreements for the protection of environmental and agricultural services. The economics of land degradation and resource conservation in Northern Thailand: The economics of leisure and tourism. The economics of leisure and tourism: The economics of managing carbon via forestry.

An assessment of existing studies. The feasibility of joint implementation: The economics of managing carbon via forestry: Environmental and Resource Economics 6 2: The economics of millet crop residues for wind erosion control in Niger, West Africa. Wind erosion in West Africa: The economics of mung bean cultivation in Thailand. Tropical Agriculture 72 2: The economics of pigmeat production under current market conditions.

The economics of pollution control in the Asia Pacific. The economics of pollution control in the Asia Pacific: The economics of recycling food residuals. The economics of reducing nitrate loss: Farm Management 9 7: The economics of replanting generic wine grape varieties in New York. The economics of reproductive management programs in large and medium-sized dairy herds. Proceedings, 18th World Buiatrics Congress: The economics of resource use and environmental impact in intensive agricultural systems.

Meeting the challenge beyond The economics of sheep farming in Slovakia and forecasts for the year Zemedelska Ekonomika 42 7: The economics of short rotation improved fallows: Agricultural Systems 55 1: The economics of soil degradation: The economics of soil erosion: The economics of suckler cow farming.

The economics of tourism. Problemes Economiques 10 July The economics of traffic control in combinable crops. The economics of tropical farming systems.

The economics of tropical farming systems: The economics of tropical forest land use options. Land Economics 73 2: The economics of using isoflurane in small animal practice.

Canadian Veterinary Journal 37 8: The economics of using single nutrient versus compound fertilizers on tea. The economics of village cattle production in a tsetse-infested area of southwest Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 22 3: The economics of water dispute resolution, project evaluation and management: International Journal of Water Resources Development 11 4: The economics of wood energy at community level.

Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 1: The economy of medicinal and aromatic cultivation between production choices and market bonds. Coltivazione e miglioramento di piante officinali, Trento, Italy giugno The economy of the rural sector: Tijdschrift voor Sociaalwetenschappelijk Onderzoek van de Landbouw 11 2: The ecophysiological and growth responses of Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis to controlled heating applied to the base of the trunk. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26 8: The ecosocial market economy: Denken und Handeln in Kreislaufen Ed.

The ecotopes of two relict species of Daphne Thymelaeaceae in Ukraine. The ecto-ATPases of endoparasites and of blood cells and vessels. Ciencia e Cultura Sao Paulo 47 3: The ectodomain of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 TM glycoprotein is involved in postfusion events. Journal of Virology 71 The ectomycorrhizal flora of primary and secondary stands of Pinus sylvestris in relation to soil conditions and ectomycorrhizal succession.

Journal of Vegetation Science 7 4: The ectoparasites of lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis Gray in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The ectoparasites of man in language: Bed bugs, mosquitoes, scabies and the scabies mite. Bulletin de la Societe Francaise de Parasitologie 13 2: The edapho-climatic environment in southern Tunisia: The education team presents itself: The effect of beta -carotene and vitamins A, D3 and E on some reproductive parameters in cows.

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 1: The effect of 00 rapeseed cake oil in mixtures given to sows during pregnancy and lactation on chemical composition of colostrum and milk. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 12 1: The effect of acid rain and mineral fertilizers on the biometrical features of Larix decidua Mill.

The effect of acid rains and mineral fertilization on the development of biometrical features of Fagus sylvatica L. The effect of 'coyolillo' Cyperus rotundus on the growth of canavalia Canavalia ensiformis. Agronomia Mesoamericana 8 1: Life Sciences 61 2: The effect of 20 years of impoverishment on the production and vegetation of a sandy grassland. The effect of 20 years of regular liming and fertilization on soil properties.

The effect of year mineral and organic fertilizer application on yield and some soil properties. The effect of Turkish Journal of Botany 20 3: The effect of Pb and stable lead on the induction of menta deformities in Chironomus tentans larvae and on their growth and survival.

The effect of 26 years of habitual fish consumption on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels The Zutphen Study. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 6 2: The effect of 5-azacytidine treatment on Mutator activity when applied to developing kernels. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter The effect of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on Ascaris antigen Ag -induced responses in atopic monkeys. Inflammation Research 45 1: The effect of 6'-galactooligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium.

International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition 66 3: The effect of 6-deoxy-D-fructose on flavour bioformation from strawberry Fragaria x ananassa, cv.

Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 45 1: The effect of ABA analogs on callus viability and gene expression in Craterostigma plantagineum. Physiologia Plantarum 99 3: The effect of Agrotis segetum Denis and Schiff Lepidoptera, Noctuidae egg age, and pattern, food and temperature on longevity, fecundity, progeny and parasitism rate of Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig and T.

Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 20 2: The effect of Albugo candida white blister rust on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant, Cell and Environment 19 8: The effect of Albugo candida on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana. Aspects of Applied Biology The effect of Alectoria sarmentosa, Bryoria fuscescens, and Bryoria fremontii extracts and usnic acid on the growth of Gremmeniella abietina in vitro. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 3: The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB , Piromyces communis DC and Orpinomyces ssp.

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 45 6: The effect of Azotoryza's double function on banana Musa spp. The effect of B chromosomes on mating success of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Genetica Dordrecht 97 2: Immunology and Cell Biology 74 4: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 68 1: The effect of Basudin 20 EM on the mitotic chromosomes of barley. Turkish Journal of Biology 20 1: The effect of Bayleton and copper oxychloride on in vitro growth of Verticillium lecanii.

Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 10 1: The effect of Benlate T on control of occurrence of diseases on faba bean and on yield of seeds. Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 2: The effect of Brefeldin A on the Golgi apparatus in Norway spruce cells. The effect of Bt transgenic cotton on the feeding function of major predators. China Cottons 24 2: Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi 32 1: The effect of CO2 enrichment and irradiance on the growth, morphology and gas exchange of a C3 Panicum laxum and a C4 Panicum antidotale grass.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24 2: The effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution and elongation rate in roots of sunflower Helianthus annuus seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 98 4: The effect of CaCO3 on zinc availability in old field soils of the Szczecin province. The effect of Carbendazol on the growth of Pyricularia oryzae. The effect of Cronartium quercuum on cell chromosome of Xingkai Lake pine.

Journal of Northeast Forestry University 24 2: The effect of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant on the hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green , on hibiscus plants in Trinidad. Tropical Fruits Newsletter The effect of Cu on gill and esophagus lipid metabolism in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

The effect of Cuni-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 6: The effect of Cuni-stibolReg. The effect of DDAC on the penetration of borates into western hemlock. Forest products journal 47 4: The effect of DPC N,N-dimethyl piperidinium chloride on the 14CO2-assimilation and partitioning of 14C assimilates within the cotton plants interplanted in a wheat stand.

The effect of Drechmeria coniospora conidia on faecal cultures containing eggs of Haemonchus contortus. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 47 2: The effect of Dutch elm disease on stand structure and accumulation of dead wood in the natural forest reserve Gimpelrhein. The effect of European legislation on the evaluation of efficacy of plant protection products. The effect of GA3 applications on pistachio nut seed germination and seedling growth.

The effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptides on intestinal basolateral membrane hexose transport. American Journal of Physiology 3 Pt 1: The effect of Galli-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 1: The effect of GnRH analogue buserelin treatment on day 12 post mating on ovarian structure and plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentration in ewes. Animal Science 63 3: The effect of HIV diagnosis on reproductive experience. AIDS London 10 The effect of Hampshire boars on meatiness when mated to Belarus Black Pied sows.

The effect of IvomecReg. The effect of keishi-bushi-to on collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology 31 3: The effect of L-carnitine on technical results of weaning pig.

Archivos de Zootecnia 43 The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine levels and various performance parameters of male marathon athletes. Nutrition Research 17 3: The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens.

Poultry Science 75 The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the production and chemical composition of hen's eggs. Poultry Science 75 4: The effect of Large White boars on the fertility of purebred and F1 daughters. Veterinarski Glasnik 49 The effect of Liriomyza trifolii Burgess Dipt. Journal of Applied Entomology 4: The effect of MA conditions and packaging materials on the shelf-life of sweet cherries.

COST 94 The post harvest treatment of fruit and vegetables: The effect of Matongo rock phosphate and urea as compared to di-ammonium phosphate in the composting process and the yield of potatoes in the Mugamba region in Burundi.

Fertilizer Research 45 1: The effect of Megachile rotundata on the yield and qualitative characters of alfalfa seed. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of Catalpa bignonioides. Nematologia Mediterranea 24 2: The effect of Metarhizium anisopliae Dat F concentration and exposure time on the survival of the subterranean pasture pest, Adoryphorus couloni Col.: The effect of N, P and K treatments on non-structural carbohydrates in two differentiated aubergine Solanum melongena cv.

The effect of N,N-dimethylglycine on athletic performance at altitude in horses and mules. The effect of N-fertilizer and amended Sesbania spp. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University 19 2: The effect of NPK fertilization on chlorophyll, sugars, ascorbic acid content and activity of catalase and peroxidase in leaf parsley. Folia Horticulturae 8 1: However, in the past year, there has been increased emphasis on CSR programs' evidence of effectiveness and scrutiny of CSR evaluations' degree of rigor.

IraD functions as an antiadapter protein that inhibits RssB-mediated degradation of RpoS, the general stress response and stationary-phase sigma factor of Escherichia coli. Here we identified a novel mechanism in which Csr A represses iraD translation via translational coupling.

Gel mobility shift, footprint, and toeprint studies identified four Csr A binding sites in the iraD leader transcript, all of which are far upstream of the iraD ribosome binding site. Three open reading frames ORFs , all of which are translated, were identified in the iraD leader region. Two of these ORFs do not affect iraD expression. However, the translation initiation region of the third ORF contains three of the Csr A binding sites , one of which overlaps its SD sequence.

Furthermore, the ORF stop codon overlaps the iraD start codon, a sequence arrangement indicative of translational coupling. In vivo expression and in vitro translation studies with wild-type and mutant reporter fusions demonstrated that bound Csr A directly represses translation initiation of this ORF. CSR -induced emittance growth in achromats: We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation CSR -induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

Structure determination of protein-nucleic acid complexes remains a challenging task. Here we present a simple method for generating crystals of a Csr A-nucleic acid complex, guided entirely by results from nuclear magnetic resonances spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy. Using a construct that lacks thirteen non-essential C-terminal residues, efficient binding to DNA could be demonstrated.

Csr A is a global regulatory RNA binding protein that has important roles in regulating carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and numerous other cellular processes. IraD functions as an antiadapter protein that inhibits RssB-mediated degradation of RpoS, the general stress response and stationary-phase sigma factor of Escherichia coli Here we identified a novel mechanism in which Csr A represses iraD translation via translational coupling.

We show that Csr A employs a novel regulatory mechanism to repress translation of iraD, which encodes an. Although we have previously described the molecular basis of a high affinity RNA target bound to RsmE, it remains unknown how other lower affinity targets are recognized by the same protein. Furthermore, we see that conformational adaptation of protein side-chains and RNA enable recognition of different RNA sequences by the same protein contributing to binding affinity without conferring specificity.

Csr A has been shown to positively control the expression of flagella-related genes, including flaA and flaB, through regulating expression of an alternative sigma factor RpoN in Helicobacter pylori J Here, we aimed to characterize the Csr A regulatory system by comparative transcriptomic analysis carried out with RNA-seq on strain J99 and a csr A mutant.

Fifty-three genes in the csr A mutant were found to be differentially expressed compared with the wild-type. Among Csr A-regulated genes, jhp, with unclear function, was found located downstream of flaB in the J99 genome.

We hypothesized that flaB-jhp is in an operon under the control of RpoN binding to the flaB promoter. Moreover, mutations of the RpoN binding site in the flaB promoter region resulted in decreased expression of flaB and jhp and deficient motility. Three-dimensional structure modeling results suggested that Jhp was a glycosyltransferase. The role of jhp in H. A soft-agar motility assay and transmission electron microscope were used to determine the motility and flagellar structure of examined strains, and the results showed the loss of motility and flagellar structure in jhp mutant J We have determined the solution structure of a complex formed between the RsmE protein, a member of this family from Pseudomonas fluorescens, and a target RNA encompassing the ribosome-binding site of the hcnA gene.

We validated these findings by in vivo and in vitro mutational analyses. This study investigated the effects of core-shell rubber CSR nanoparticles on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at ambient and liquid nitrogen LN2 temperatures.

Elastic modulus was calculated using quasi-static tensile data. Fracture toughness was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The addition of the CSR nanoparticles increased the breaking energy with negligible change in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress UTS. At ambient temperature the breaking energy increased with increasing additions of the CSR nanoparticles up to To spread horizontally and to benefit the recipient bacteria, genes encoded on these elements must be properly regulated.

Among the legionellae are multiple integrative conjugative elements ICEs that each encode a paralog of the broadly conserved regulator csr A.

Using bioinformatic analyses, we deduced that specific csr A paralogs are coinherited with particular lineages of the type IV secretion system that mediates horizontal spread of its ICE, suggesting a conserved regulatory interaction.

Deletion of this gene, which we name csr T, had no observed effect under laboratory conditions. When ectopically expressed, csr T also repressed L. Moreover, csr T restored the repression of motility to csr A mutants of Bacillus subtilis, a finding consistent with the predicted function of Csr T as an mRNA binding protein. All surveyed ICEs within the Legionella genus also carry paralogs of the essential life cycle regulator csr A. It is striking that the csr A loci could be classified into distinct families based on either their sequence or the subtype of the adjacent type IV secretion system locus.

Bacterial evolution is accelerated by mobile genetic elements. To investigate whether ICE. The single-mode CSR instability for a bunched beam. The coherent synchrotron radiation CSR instability at the shielding threshold may be driven by a single synchronous mode excited by the beam in the beam pipe.

The instability in this case has been analyzed [1] in the coasting beam approximation neglecting synchrotron motion. The later becomes important at large time intervals in storage rings where it substantially affects the beam dynamics. The single-mode CSR instability of a bunched beam with the synchrotron motion taken into account is described in this paper both in linear and nonlinear regimes.

Analysis is relevant to other instabilities where the interaction is dominated by a single mode. Form N- CSR , certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment Describes procedures for teaching Collaborative Strategic Reading CSR , in which students of mixed reading and achievement levels work in small, cooperative groups to assist one another in applying reading strategies to facilitate their comprehension of content-area text.

The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli. Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested.

Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. The role of Csr A in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.

Transcriptional action of Csr A and Csr D on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by Csr A might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

Closing the Achievement Gap: This report reviews efforts to reform urban schools, focusing on initiatives in Tennessee and California as examples from which distric leaders may draw useful lessons.

The report suggests that comprehensive school reform CSR offers promise to struggling urban schools by focusing on transforming the academic climate, school culture, and…. Post-transcriptional global regulation by Csr A in bacteria. Global regulation allows bacteria to rapidly modulate the expression of a large variety of unrelated genes in response to environmental changes. Global regulators act at different levels of gene expression.

This review focuses on Csr A, a post-transcriptional regulator that affects translation of its gene targets by binding mRNAs. Csr A controls a large variety of physiological processes such as central carbon metabolism, motility and biofilm formation. Conditional essentiality of the csr A gene in Escherichia coli. Csr A is a global posttranscriptional regulator of numerous physiological processes, such as glycogenesis and glycolysis.

Here, we show that the csr A gene of Escherichia coli is essential for growth on LB and on synthetic medium containing glycolytic carbon sources. However, csr A is not necessary for growth on synthetic medium containing pyruvate, showing that the Krebs cycle is functional in the csr A:: Deletion of the glgCAP operon in the csr A:: The global regulatory system Csr senses glucose through the phosphoenolpyruvate: A novel connection between two regulatory systems controlling crucial biological processes in bacteria, the carbon storage regulator Csr system and the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system PTS , is reported by Leng et al.

Interestingly, another pathway can operate for communication between the Csr system and the glucose-specific PTS. Therefore, EIIA G lc could work as a molecular switch that regulates the activity of the Csr system, in response to its phosphorylation state determined by the presence or absence of glucose, in order to control gene expression. WH is a facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from mining soil. Under aerobic conditions, this bacterium efficiently reduces selenite and chromate.

Gene mutation and complementation along with heterologous expression revealed the ability of Csr F to reduce selenite and chromate in vivo. The molecular weight of Csr F was 23, for the monomer and 47, for the dimer. This enzyme also catalyze the reduction of sulfate and ferric iron but not arsenate and nitrate.

To our knowledge, Csr F is a novel and well-characterized bacterial aerobic selenite reductase. The Type B shipping package is used within the DOE complex for shipping special nuclear materials.

The package is also used at the Savannah River Site as part of the long-term storage configuration of special nuclear materials. As such, the packages do not undergo annual recertification during storage, with uncertainty as to how long some of the package components will meet their functional requirements in the storage environment.

The packages are currently approved for up to 15 years storage, and work continues to provide a technical basis to extend that period. Post-transcriptional regulation on a global scale: While the binding of Csr A to RNA is understood at an atomic level, new mechanisms of gene activation and repression by this protein are still emerging. In contrast, the FliW protein of Bacillus subtilis inhibits Csr A activity by binding to this protein, thereby establishing a checkpoint in flagellum morphogenesis.

The Csr system of E. Interaction of the Csr system with transcriptional regulatory networks results in a variety of complex response patterns. This minireview will highlight basic principles and new insights into the workings of these complex eubacterial regulatory systems. Posttranscriptional regulation on a global scale: In addition, CSR generates and distributes a variety of other gravity field data products, including products generated from the use of satellite laser ranging data.

This poster will provide an overview of all these data products, their relative quality, potential applications, and future plans for their development and delivery. Csr A and Cra influence Shigella flexneri pathogenesis. Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and disrupts the colonic epithelium. In order to thrive in the host, S. We examined the roles of the carbon consumption regulators Csr A and Cra in a cell culture model of S.

Csr A is an activator of glycolysis and a repressor of gluconeogenesis, and a csr A mutant had decreased attachment and invasion of cultured cells. Conversely, Cra represses glycolysis and activates gluconeogenesis, and the cra mutant had an increase in both attachment and invasion compared to the wild-type strain. Both mutants were defective in plaque formation. The importance of the glycolytic pathway in invasion and plaque formation was confirmed by testing the effect of a mutation in the glycolysis gene pfkA.

The pfkA mutant was noninvasive and had cell surface alterations as indicated by decreased sensitivity to SDS and an altered lipopolysaccharide profile. The loss of invasion by the csr A and pfkA mutants was due to decreased expression of the S. These data indicate that regulation of carbon metabolism and expression of the glycolysis gene pfkA are critical for synthesis of the virulence gene regulators VirF and VirB, and both the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways influence steps in S.

Csr A and Csr B are required for the post-transcriptional control of the virulence-associated effector protein AvrA of Salmonella enterica. In contrast to translation of the AvrA protein in S. When the number of avrA genes and mRNA molecules is raised experimentally using plasmids carrying the respective cloned avrA genes together with their promoter regions, the translation of avrA mRNA takes place very strongly in all respective AvrA expression classes.

Moreover, AvrA production in strains carrying the cloned avrA genes on plasmids remained dependent on the presence of Csr A but unaffected in csr B mutant strains. Therefore, the expression of avrA is suggested to be regulated in a post-transcriptional manner by critical and effective concentrations of Csr A see-saw regulation , which is achieved through the sequestering activity of Csr B.

To find coregulated effectors, we performed a bioinformatic genomic screen with the aim of identifying effector-encoding genes containing putative Csr A regulatory elements. The regulation of these genes by the LetAS-RsmYZ- Csr A regulatory cascade was experimentally validated by examining their levels of expression in deletion mutants of relevant regulators and by site -directed mutagenesis of the putative Csr A sites. These analyses resulted in the identification of 26 effector-encoding genes regulated by the LetAS-RsmYZ- Csr A regulatory cascade, all of which were expressed at higher levels during the stationary phase.

To determine if any of these effectors is involved in modulating the secretory pathway, they were overexpressed in wild-type yeast as well as in a yeast sec22 deletion mutant, which encodes an R-SNARE that participates in the endoplasmic reticulum ER -Golgi trafficking.

To further characterize the role of these 26 effectors in vesicular trafficking, they were examined in yeast arf and arl deletion mutants, which encode small GTPases that regulate ER-Golgi trafficking.

This analysis revealed that the effectors examined manipulate different processes of the secretory pathway. Collectively, our results demonstrate that several of the L. The Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility: Since scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility CSR has primarily focused on the synergies between social and economic performance, our understanding of how and the conditions under which companies use CSR to produce policy outcomes that work against public welfare has remained comparatively under-developed.

In particular, little is known about how corporate decision-makers privately reconcile the conflicts between public and private interests, even though this is likely to be relevant to understanding the limitations of CSR as a means of aligning business activity with the broader public interest.

The article presents a three-stage model of CSR development, based on Sykes and Matza's theory of techniques of neutralization, which links together: Our analysis has three implications for research and practice. First, it underlines the importance of approaching corporate managers' public comments on CSR critically and situating them in their economic, political and historical contexts.

Second, it illustrates the importance of focusing on the political aims and effects of CSR. Third, by showing how CSR practices are used to stymie evidence-based government regulation, the article underlines the importance of highlighting and developing matrices to assess the negative social impacts of CSR. As a champion of small RNA research for two decades, Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed the essential Argonaute CSR -1 to play key nuclear roles in modulating chromatin, chromosome segregation and germline gene expression via 22G-small RNAs.

Despite CSR -1 being preserved among diverse nematodes, the conservation and divergence in function of the targets of small RNA pathways remains poorly resolved.

Here we apply comparative functional genomic analysis between C. By comparing 22G-RNAs and target genes between species, we defined a set of CSR -1 target genes with conserved germline expression, enrichment in operons and more slowly evolving coding sequences than other genes, along with a small group of evolutionarily labile targets.

We demonstrate that the association of CSR -1 with chromatin is preserved, and show that depletion of cbr- csr -1 leads to chromosome segregation defects and embryonic lethality. This first comparative characterization of a small RNA pathway in Caenorhabditis establishes a conserved nuclear role for CSR -1 and highlights its key role in germline gene regulation across multiple animal species. Legionella pneumophila Csr A is a pivotal repressor of transmission traits and activator of replication.

Legionella pneumophila can replicate inside amoebae and also alveolar macrophages to cause Legionnaires' Disease in susceptible hosts. When nutrients become limiting, a stringent-like response coordinates the differentiation of L. By analysing csr A expression and the phenotypes of csr A single and double mutants and a strain that expresses csr A constitutively, we demonstrate that, during replication in broth, Csr A represses every post-exponential phase phenotype examined, including cell shape shortening, motility, pigmentation, stress resistance, sodium sensitivity, cytotoxicity and efficient macrophage infection.

The reciprocal regulation of replication and transmission exemplified by Csr A likely enhances the fitness of microbes faced with fluctuating environments.

Colonization of the intestinal tract and dissemination into deeper tissues by the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis demands expression of a special set of virulence factors important for the initiation and the persistence of the infection. In this study we demonstrate that many virulence-associated functions are coregulated with the carbohydrate metabolism. This link is mediated by the carbon storage regulator Csr system, including the regulatory RNAs Csr B and Csr C, and the cAMP receptor protein Crp , which both control virulence gene expression in response to the nutrient composition of the medium.

A loss of the crp gene resulted in a strong upregulation of Csr B synthesis, whereas Csr C levels were strongly reduced leading to downregulation of the virulence regulator RovA. To elucidate the regulatory links between virulence and carbon metabolism, we performed comparative metabolome, transcriptome, and phenotypic microarray analyses and found that Crp promotes oxidative catabolism of many different carbon sources, whereas fermentative patterns of metabolism are favored when crp is deleted.

Mouse infection experiments further demonstrated that Crp is pivotal for a successful Y. In summary, placement of the Csr system and important virulence factors under control of Crp enables this pathogen to link its nutritional status to virulence in order to optimize biological fitness and infection efficiency through the infectious life cycle.

The molecular roles of many RNA-binding proteins in bacterial post-transcriptional gene regulation are not well understood.

We have applied CLIP-seq to chart the target landscape of two major bacterial post-transcriptional regulators, Hfq and Csr A, in the model pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. By detecting binding sites at single-nucleotide resolution, we identify RNA preferences and structural constraints of Hfq and Csr A during their interactions with hundreds of cellular transcripts. This reveals 3'-located Rho-independent terminators as a universal motif involved in Hfq-RNA interactions.

Importantly, global knowledge of Hfq sites significantly improves sRNA-target predictions. Overall, our generic CLIP-seq approach will bring new insights into post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA-binding proteins in diverse bacterial species.

It is equipped with two electron cooling devices. This article describes the commissioning of cooler at electron energy keV. It has a new electron gun producing a hollow electron beam, electrostatic bending and a new structure of solenoid coils at the cooling section.

The test results of cooler obtained in Novosibirsk and Lanzhou are reported. This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility CSR and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans.

By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…. This article examines website headings used by "Fortune" companies in their efforts to inform stakeholders about corporate social responsibility CSR. Instead of using "Corporate Social Responsibility" as a heading, companies often use specific terms to identify various CSR initiatives.

The purpose of this article is to identify common…. A total of 19 principals consented to audiotaped interviews. The interviews focused on several CSR dimensions, including principals' beliefs about the extent to….

Corporate Social Responsibility CSR is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic….

Regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium invasion genes by csr A. Penetration of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires the expression of invasion genes, found in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 SPI1 , that encode components of a type III secretion apparatus. We report here that epithelial cell invasion requires the serovar Typhimurium homologue of Escherichia coli csr A, which encodes a regulator that alters the stability of specific mRNA targets.

A deletion mutant of csr A was unable to efficiently invade cultured epithelial cells and showed reduced expression of four tested SPI1 genes, hilA, invF, sipC, and prgH. Overexpression of csr A from an induced araBAD promoter also negatively affected the expression of these genes, indicating that Csr A can act as both a positive and a negative regulator of SPI1 genes and suggesting that the bacterium must tightly control the level or activity of Csr A to achieve maximal invasion.

We found that Csr A affected hilA, a regulator of the other three genes we tested, probably by controlling one or more genetic elements that regulate hilA. We also found that both the loss and the overexpression of csr A reduced the expression of two regulators of hilA, hilC and hilD, suggesting that csr A exerts its control of hilA through one or both of these regulators. We further found, however, that Csr A could affect the expression of both invF and sipC independent of its effects on hilA.

One additional striking phenotype of the csr A mutant, not observed in a comparable E. Phenotypic revertants that had normal growth rates, while maintaining the csr A mutation, were common.

These suppressed strains, however, did not recover the ability to invade cultured cells, indicating that the csr A-mediated loss of invasion cannot be attributed simply to poor growth. Researchers, corporate leaders, and other stakeholders have shown increasing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility CSR -a company's discretionary actions and policies that appear to advance societal well-being beyond its immediate financial interests and legal requirements.

In recent years, however, there has been an explosion of micro-oriented CSR research conducted at the individual level of analysis, especially with respect to studies on how and why job seekers and employees perceive and react to CSR practices.

This micro-level focus is reflected in 12 articles published as a Research Topic collection in Frontiers in Psychology Organizational Psychology Specialty Section titled " CSR and organizational psychology: After describing some of the "new frontiers" these articles explore and create, the authors strive to fulfill a "quid pro quo" with some of the meso- and macro-oriented CSR literatures that paved the way for micro- CSR research.

Specifically, the authors draw on insights from the Research Topic articles to inform a multilevel model that offers multiple illustrations of how micro-level processes among individual stakeholders can explain variability in meso firm -level relationships between CSR practices and corporate performance. The authors also explore an important implication of these multilevel processes for macro-level societal impact. Solution structure of the carbon storage regulator protein Csr A from Escherichia coli.

The carbon storage regulator A Csr A is a protein responsible for the repression of a variety of stationary-phase genes in bacteria. Csr A is a dimer of two identical subunits, each composed of five strands, a small alpha-helix and a flexible C terminus.

NMR titration experiments suggest that the beta1-beta2 and beta3-beta4 loops and the C-terminal helix are important elements in RNA binding. Even though the beta3-beta4 loop contains a highly conserved RNA-binding motif, GxxG, typical of KH domains, our structure excludes Csr A from being a member of this protein family, as previously suggested.

Applying liquid helium cooling, the CSR , with 35 m circumference, will provide a low temperature environment of only a few Kelvin and an extremely high vacuum of better than 10 mbar. To realize these conditions the mechanical design has been completed and now the first quarter section is in the construction phase. For the onion skin structure of the cryogenic system we have at the outer shell the cryostat chambers, realized by welded rectangular stainless steel frames with aluminum plates.

The next two shells are fabricated as aluminum shields kept at 80 and 40 K. The inner vacuum chambers for the experimental vacuum consist of stainless steel chambers cladded with external copper sheets connected to the LHe lines for optimized thermal equilibration and cryopumping.

Additional large surface 2 K units are installed for cryogenic pumping of H 2. The mechanical concepts and the realization will be presented in detail. Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to highly disparate environmental signals encountered in its hosts.

Among the relatively few regulators of adaptive gene expression present in the borrelial genome is an open reading frame ORF , BB, annotated as Csr A carbon storage regulator A.

Csr A, in several bacterial species, has been characterized as a small RNA binding protein that functions as a global regulator affecting mRNA stability or levels of translation of multiple ORFs. Overexpression of Csr ABb in B.

Several lipoproteins previously characterized as playing a role in infectivity were also altered in ES Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA revealed significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ospC in ES25, while there were no such differences in the levels of other transcripts, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation of expression of these latter genes.

These observations indicate that Csr ABb plays a role in the regulation of expression of pathophysiological determinants of B. Csr A impacts survival of Yersinia enterocolitica by affecting a myriad of physiological activities. A previous study identified a Yersinia enterocolitica transposon mutant, GY, that was unable to export the flagellar type three secretion system T3SS -dependent phospholipase, YplA. This strain was also deficient for motility and unable to form colonies on Lauria-Bertani agar medium.

Preliminary analysis suggested it carried a mutation in csr A. Csr A in Escherichia coli is an RNA-binding protein that is involved in specific post-transcriptional regulation of a myriad of physiological activities. This study investigated how Csr A affects expression of the flagellar regulatory cascade that controls YplA export and motility.

It also explored the effect of csr A mutation on Y. The precise location of the transposon insertion in GMY was mapped within csr A. Genetic complementation restored disruptions in motility and the YplA export phenotype Yex , which confirmed this mutation disrupted Csr A function. Mutation of csr A affected expression of yplA and flagellar genes involved in flagellar T3SS dependent export and motility by altering expression of the master regulators flhDC.

Mutation of csr A also resulted in increased sensitivity of Y. The results of this study reveal unique aspects of how Csr A functions in Y. This provides perspective on how the Csr system is susceptible to adaptation to particular environments and bacterial lifestyles.

When investing in corporate social responsibility CSR , managers may strive for a win-win scenario where all stakeholders end up better off, but they may not always be able to avoid trading off stakeholders' interests. To provide guidance to managers who have to make tradeoffs, this study used a vignette-based experiment to explore stakeholders' intention to associate with a firm i.

Results show that stakeholders were not systematically more attracted to a firm that favors their own group over another stakeholder group. Specifically, stakeholders' other-orientation moderated their reaction to tradeoffs: Other-orientation also moderated reactions to tradeoffs involving the environment, although high CSR directed at the environment did not compensate for low self-directed CSR even for stakeholders higher on other-orientation.

Second, the vignette study showed that trust mediated the relationship between tradeoffs and stakeholders' reactions. The study contributes first and foremost to the burgeoning literature on CSR tradeoffs and to the multimotive approach to CSR , which claims that other motives can drive stakeholders' reactions to CSR in addition to self-interest.

First, it provides further evidence that studying CSR tradeoffs is important to understand both prospective employees' and customers' reactions to CSR -related activities. Second, it identifies other-orientation as a motive-related individual difference that explains heterogeneity in stakeholders' reactions to.

Comparative transcriptome analysis between csr A-disruption Clostridium acetobutylicum and its parent strain. The genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum contains the gene encoding Csr A, a carbon storage regulator. We investigated the function of Csr A in C. Disruption of csr A obviously decreases the growth of the organism and reduces the yield of acetone, butanol and ethanol ABEs.

It has also been newly demonstrated that csr A in C. This research represented the first investigation of global regulation by Csr A in the strain belonging to Gram-positive bacteria through transcriptome analysis and provided the important theoretical evidence for improving solvent production by transcriptor engineering in C.

Bacteria communicate using a process called quorum sensing which involves production, secretion and detection of signalling molecules called autoinducers. Quorum sensing allows populations of bacteria to simultaneously regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell density. The human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, uses a quorum-sensing circuit composed of parallel systems that transduce information through four redundant regulatory small RNAs sRNAs called quorum regulatory RNAs Qrr to control the expression of numerous genes, most notably those required for virulence.

The CSR is an electrostatic ring with a total circumference of about 34 m, straight section length of 2. The cryogenic system in the CSR is expected to cool the inner vacuum chamber down to 2 K. The CSR will be equipped with an electron cooler which has also to serve as an electron target for high resolution recombination experiments. In this paper we present the results of numerical investigations of the CSR lattice with finite element calculations of the deflection and focusing elements of the ring.

We also present a layout of the CSR electron cooler which will have to operate in low energy mode to cool 20 keV protons in the CSR , as well as numerical estimations of the cooling times to be expected with this device. Results from mutant characterization showed that the csr B mutant was hypermotile, produced higher amount of exopolysaccharide amylovoran, and had increased expression of type III secretion T3SS genes in vitro.

In contrast, the csr A mutant exhibited complete opposite phenotypes, including non-motile, reduced amylovoran production and expression of T3SS genes. Furthermore, the csr A mutant did not induce hypersensitive response on tobacco or cause disease on immature pear fruits, indicating that Csr A is a positive regulator of virulence factors. These findings demonstrated that Csr A plays a critical role in E.

Future research will be focused on determining the molecular mechanism underlying the positive regulation of virulence traits by Csr A. Our previous data suggested that the RNA-binding protein Csr A plays an important role in regulating several important phenotypes including motility, biofilm formation, and oxidative stress resistance.

In this study, we compared the proteomes of wild type, csr A mutant, and complemented csr A mutant C. The putative Csr A regulon was more pronounced at stationary phase regulated proteins than at mid-log phase 25 regulated proteins. Proteins displaying altered expression in the csr A mutant included diverse metabolic functions, with roles in amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, acetate metabolism, and various other cell processes, as well as pathogenesis-associated characteristics such as motility, chemotaxis, oxidative stress resistance, and fibronectin binding.

The csr A mutant strain also showed altered autoagglutination kinetics when compared to the wild type. Finally, the csr A mutant exhibited reduced ability to colonize in a mouse model when in competition with the wild type, further underscoring the role of Csr A in C. Rapid and robust signaling in the Csr A cascade via RNA—protein interactions and feedback regulation. Bacterial survival requires the rapid propagation of signals through gene networks during stress, but how this is achieved is not well understood.

This study systematically characterizes the signaling dynamics of a cascade of RNA—protein interactions in the Csr A system, which regulates stress responses and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Here, we show using in vivo experiments and quantitative modeling that the Csr A system integrates three strategies to achieve rapid and robust signaling. We also demonstrate that sequestration in the Csr A system results in signaling that is robust to growth rates because it does not rely on the slow dilution of molecules via cell division; therefore, signaling can occur even during growth arrest induced by starvation or antibiotic treatment.

The role of small RNAs as critical components of global regulatory networks has been highlighted by several recent studies. Given the critical role played by Csr A in several bacterial species, an important problem is the identification of Csr A-regulating small RNAs.

This work thus opens up several avenues of research in understanding the mode of Csr A regulation through small RNAs in bacteria. Rapid and robust signaling in the Csr A cascade via RNA-protein interactions and feedback regulation.

This study systematically characterizes the signaling dynamics of a cascade of RNA-protein interactions in the Csr A system, which regulates stress responses and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Csr A regulates Helicobacter pylori J99 motility and adhesion by controlling flagella formation.

Motility mediated by the flagella of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be required for normal colonization and is thought to be important for the bacteria to move toward the gastric mucus in niches adjacent to the epithelium. Motility and cell adhesion ability were determined in wild-type, csr A mutant, and revertant J99 strains.

The bacterial shape and flagellar structure were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The csr A mutant showed loss of motility and lower adhesion ability compared with the wild-type and revertant J99 strains. The csr A mutant was not flagellated. These results suggest that Csr A regulates H.

Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps.

The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to eV. Through long storage times of s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution.

In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed.

The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced. Company - community conflict can also arise depends on the geographic conditions and characteristics of the community itself. Some studies has show that coastal community have higher level of social risk when compared to non-coastal community.

Also, the coastal community ussually only rely on what sea provides as their main livelihood. Corporate Social Responsibility CSR har emerged as an important approach for addressing the social and environmental impact of company activities. Using sustainable livelihood approach begin with compiling data by doing social mapping PEP has initiate the area to becoming Fish Processing Industry Centre.

The most important result besides getting our license to operate from the community, is the community itself can grow into an eco coastal sustainable system.

Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction CSR within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

The abundant RNA-binding proteins Csr A and Hfq each impact bacterial physiology by working in conjunction with small RNAs to control large post-transcriptional regulons.

The small RNAs involved were considered mechanistically distinct, regulating mRNAs either directly through Hfq-mediated base-pairing or indirectly by sequestering the global translational repressor Csr A.

When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation CSR and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier [1]. In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit.

In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. Beams 11, Argonaute proteins and their small RNA cofactors short interfering RNAs are known to inhibit gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

However, its role in gene expression regulation remains controversial. Moreover, a loss of CSR -1 function resulted in global increase in antisense transcription and ectopic transcription of silent chromatin domains, which led to reduced chromatin incorporation of centromere-specific histone H3.

On the basis of these findings, we propose that the CSR -1 pathway helps maintain the directionality of active transcription, thereby propagating the distinction between transcriptionally active and silent genomic regions.

Csr A modulates luxR transcript levels in Vibrio fischeri. The quorum-sensing and Csr A regulons of Vibrios control overlapping cellular functions during growth. Hence, the potential exists for regulatory network interactions between the pathways that enable them to be coordinately controlled. In Vibrio cholerae, Csr A indirectly modulates the activity of LuxO in the quorum-sensing signaling pathway.

In this study, it was demonstrated that in Vibrio fischeri, Csr A causes an increase in the transcript levels of a downstream quorum-sensing regulatory gene, luxR, which does not exist in the V. Thus there appears to be more than one mechanism whereby the Csr A and quorum-sensing pathways integrate regulatory outputs in Vibrios. Bacterial survival depends on the ability to switch between sessile and motile lifestyles in response to changing environmental conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium contains 20 such proteins.

Csr A bound directly to the mRNA leaders of five of these genes, suggesting that it may regulate these genes post-transcriptionally. Here, we demonstrate that Csr A directly downregulates expression of STM, which in turn regulates STM through fliA and thus reciprocally controls motility and biofilm factors.

Typhimurium at multiple levels. Thus, there appears to be more than one mechanism whereby the Csr A and quorum-sensing pathways integrate regulatory outputs in Vibrios. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Overexpresssion of a Legionella pneumophila homologue of the E.

Legionella pneumophila is an inhabitant of the aquatic environment and the causative agent of a bacterial pneumonia. We identified the presence of an L. The Legionella csr A was able to complement a csr A-negative mutant of E. Overproduction of csr A in L. This suggests that similar to E. Here, we provide evidence that Csr A positively affects, although indirectly, uvrY expression, at both the transcriptional and translational levels. We also demonstrate that Csr A is required for properly switching BarA from its phosphatase to its kinase activity.

The determination of the gravity model for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRACE is susceptible to modeling errors, measurement noise, and observability issues. We discuss the development of global equal area mascon solutions to improve the GRACE gravity information for the study of Earth surface processes. These solutions are derived from GRACE information only, and no external model or data is used to inform the constraints.

The regularization matrix is time variable and will not bias or attenuate future regional signals to some past statistics from GRACE or other models. The solutions are not tailored for specific applications and are global in nature. This study discusses the solution approach and compares the resulting solutions with postprocessed results from the RL05 spherical harmonic solutions and other global mascon solutions for studies of Arctic ice sheet processes, ocean bottom pressure variation, and land surface total water storage change.

This suite of comparisons leads to the conclusion that the mascon solutions presented here are an enhanced representation of the RL05 GRACE solutions and provide accurate surface-based gridded information that can be used without further processing. These data indicate that Csr A is a positive regulator of ToxR levels. Unlike previously described effects of Csr A on virulence gene regulation, the effects of Csr A on ToxR were not mediated through quorum sensing and HapR.

Csr A is likely essential in V. The Csr A Arg6His mutant had wild-type growth in vitro but was severely attenuated in the infant mouse model of V. This study has broad implications for our understanding of how V. Apart from that, common or pathogen-specific regulators control the abundance of the Csr components.

CSR 1, the sole target of imidazolinone herbicide in Arabidopsis thaliana. The imidazolinone-tolerant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, csr D , carries a mutation equivalent to that found in commercially available Clearfield crops. Despite their widespread usage, the mechanism by which Clearfield crops gain imidazolinone herbicide tolerance has not yet been fully characterized. Transcription profiling of imazapyr an imidazolinone herbicide -treated wild-type and csr D mutant plants using Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip microarrays was performed to elucidate further the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of imidazolinone resistance.

In wild-type shoots, the genes which responded earliest to imazapyr treatment were detoxification-related genes which have also been shown to be induced by other abiotic stresses. Later stages of the imazapyr response involved regulation of genes participating in biosynthesis of amino acids, secondary metabolites and tRNA.

In contrast to the dynamic changes in the transcriptome profile observed in imazapyr-treated wild-type plants, the transcriptome of csr D did not exhibit significant changes following imazapyr treatment, compared with mock-treated csr D. Further, no substantial difference was observed between wild-type and csr D transcriptomes in the absence of imazapyr treatment.

These results indicate that CSR 1 is the sole target of imidazolinone and that the csr D mutation has little or no detrimental effect on whole-plant fitness.

To design and validate a scale CSR -Hospital-SP to determine health professionals' views on the approach of management to corporate social responsibility CSR in their hospital. The literature was reviewed to identify the main CSR scales and select the dimensions to be evaluated. The initial version of the scale consisted of 25 items. A convenience sample of a minimum of health professionals working in five public hospitals in five autonomous regions were invited to respond. Floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity were analyzed.

A total of health professionals responded. The item-total correlation was higher than 0. The CSR -Hospital-SP scale is a tool designed for hospitals that implement accountability mechanisms and promote socially responsible management approaches. Published by Elsevier Espana. We discovered that knockdown of either csr -1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RdRP ego-1, or the dicer-related helicase drh-3, leads to defects in histone mRNA processing, resulting in severe depletion of core histone proteins.

Moreover, we demonstrate that increasing the dosage of histone genes rescues the lethality associated with depletion of CSR -1 and EGO These results support a positive and direct effect of RNAi on histone gene expression. An experimental test of CSR theory using a globally calibrated ordination method. Can CSR theory, in conjunction with a recently proposed globally calibrated CSR ordination "StrateFy" , using only three easily measured leaf traits leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content predict the functional signature of herbaceous vegetation along experimentally manipulated gradients of soil fertility and disturbance?

To determine this, we grew 37 herbaceous species in mixture for five years in 24 experimental mesocosms differing in factorial levels of soil resources stress and density-independent mortality disturbance. We measured 16 different functional traits and then ordinated the resulting vegetation within the CSR triangle using StrateFy. This last result likely arose because our herbaceous species were relatively poor competitors in global comparisons and thus no strong competitors in our species pool were selectively favoured in low stress and low disturbed mesocosms.

Variation in the 13 other traits, not used by StrateFy, largely argeed with the predictions of CSR theory. StrateFy worked surprisingly well in our experimental study except for the C-dimension.

Despite loss of some precision, it has great potential applicability in future studies due to its simplicity and generality. Adaptation of Tri-molecular fluorescence complementation allows assaying of regulatory Csr RNA-protein interactions in bacteria.

One of the more interesting aspects of certain sRNAs is their ability to make global changes in the cell by interacting with regulatory proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the use of an in vivo Tri-molecular Fluorescence Complementation assay to detect and visualize the central regulatory sRNA-protein interaction of the Carbon Storage Regulatory system in E.

We describe the construction of a fluorescence complementation system that detects the interactions between Csr B and Csr A. Additionally, we demonstrate that the intensity of the fluorescence of this system is able to detect changes in the affinity of the CsrB-Csr A interaction, as caused by mutations in the protein sequence of Csr A. While previous methods have adopted this technique to study mRNA or RNA localization, this is the first attempt to use this technique to study the sRNA-protein interaction directly in bacteria.

This method presents a potentially powerful tool to study complex bacterial RNA protein interactions in vivo.

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Enterobacteriaceae Summary. Morphology Salmonella cholerasuis Salmonella typhimurium iron by production of siderophores which are extracellular. Salmonella enterica NEU Chromosome (left) and plasmid pSLT (right) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 Siderophores S. enterica also has. Quizlet provides shigellosis dysentery activities, Aerobactin and Enterobactin are two Siderophores which scav Salmonella typhimurium.