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Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine.

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During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris.

He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings. Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England.

However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ.

Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity….

The cultural logic of global identity is also reflected in the popular nineteenth-century novella by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle,in which the main character disguises himself as a professional beggar Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data includes oil and gas wells within the Colorado portion of the Raton Basin, as of January It includes a subset of over 60, existing and Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.

Full Text Available After the Syrian civil war, deaths of those fleeing crisis areas have tragically become a regular news item. Not new to the world, however, such crises emerge from tensions between identity and difference as codified in international politics, whereby refugees and migrants become the Other and subject to unyielding universals, such as the law or narrow concepts of what is right.

The cultural logic of global identity is also reflected in the popular nineteenth-century novella by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Man with the Twisted Lip, in which the main character disguises himself as a professional beggar to appeal to middle class values in order to incite their guilty consciences.

Dengue platelets meet Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In this issue of Blood, Hottz et al provide compelling evidence that dengue virus DV induces 1 platelet synthesis of interleukin-1b IL-1b ; 2 platelet-derived IL-1b—containing microvesicles MVs that increase vascular permeability; and 3 DV-triggered inflammasome activation in platelets.

In the UK, at least, his work has undergone a revival and the themes of his great plays remain resonant, even though, in many respects, they are historically specific. The relationship between literature and history - whether conceived as a symbolist or allegorical relationship - together with an instance of the past invading the present, are brought out in a compelling episode in Miller's autobiography, Timebends, and offer a way of talking about those inter-connections in The Crucible.

Notes that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's writing allows for a variety of critical thinking activities, extensive use of computer technology, and the involvement of the entire faculty, staff and administration in the learning process. Presents a few activities that teachers can do with their students based on the work of Arthur Conan Doyle. Comentarios sobre dos ensayos de sir Arthur Lewis.

Aunque el profesor Currie destaca sus diferencias con Lewis, las conclusiones de ambos autores tienden a converger en torno de un punto que se resume en una frase del ensayo de Lewis, no citada en el comentario: The epidemic is an outbreak of an infectious disease situation in the population at a place that exceeds the normal approximation in a short period. When the disease is always contained in any place as well as with the causes, it is called endemic.

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SIRS models used in this study with the assumption A Tale of Disempowerment. Recounts the case of Arthura neglected 9-year-old boy from an opulent home. Arthur 's illiterate mother failed to provide him with books or a study area and refused to cooperate in a teacher-designed literacy program.

Socioeconomic status can foster false assumptions about a child's home environment and its influence on literacy development. Wespoke to Ellen and her team during their recent April stopover in Oingdao. When did you start sailing and what inspiredyou you grew up in Derbyshire,in the UK,quite far away from the water?

I was introduced to sailing by my Aunt Thea ona small sailing boat called Cabaret. We wentsailing along the east coast of EngLand andbefore I knew it,I was hooked on sailing. I wasso inspired that when I was at Nye casino siderophores salmonella typhi o saved. It has been suggested that SIRS are triggered by superfluous pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and that organ injury is caused by uncontrolled inflammatory responses.

However, the results of clinical studies, on the usefulness of specific cytokine antagonists and anti-TNF antibodies for the treatment of septic shock, have been unsatisfactory. The reason for this might have been that when uncontrolled inflammatory reactions progressed locally, anti-inflammatory reactions were elevated in the circulated blood by way of CARS, thus the timing of administration and pharmacokinetics did not match clinical course.

We introduce the recent knowledge which indicates that SIRS is a preliminary alert for not only organ dysfunction but also immunosuppression after severe injury or major surgery.

Arthur Prior and medieval logic. Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the s and s. This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with.

Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories Unibet casino ingyenes jatekok letoltese pc re fable of Fred". Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRSanasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis.

This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRSeven without substantial visceral organ involvement. The work is the result of research on the intellectual Arthur Ramos, their theoretical reflections and the effects on social and educational field.

Arthur Ramos, complex, multifaceted intellectual, reflected on several themes, thinking the Brazil as modern "nation", like other intellectuals in the passage from the XIX century to the XX century. Deploys the service that is based on the close the proximity between family, school and community, with the prospect to reach the families and. A scandal on screen: The object of this paper is to denaturalise and deconstruct the way in which gender is written and represented in popular television.

This choice responds to the fact that although both series are based on the same original text, each takes a completely different position in terms of gender representation. I will argue t Village Drumming with Arthur Hull. As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing Nye casino siderophores salmonella typhi o of rhythm for many years, was interviewed.

This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…. Influenza SIRS with minimal pneumonitis. Full Text Available While systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRSis a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRSanasarca and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis.

Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light. Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well Casino marienlyst dresscode known feature in atmospheric optics.

He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light. This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena.

Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening.

In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Full Text Available The present essay offers a detailed, reasoned synopsis and a brief discussion of the book Economic Ethics, written by the German-Swiss social philosopher Arthur Fridolin Utz Utz is known chiefly in German-speaking theological circles and in Catholic ones in particular.

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He is also known in those of southern Europe where, to date, only a few of his many books have been translated into Spanish, French and Italian. Equally, it is an attempt at bringing to the attention of Nordic scholars, especially in the human and social sciences, the work of a thinker that is still hardly known in my adoptive country, Iceland, as well as in Scandinavia.

The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

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This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October Sir Karl Popper and Education. Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion.

This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…. Application of SIR epidemiological model: The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR susceptible-infected-susceptible is presented to describe a reality. From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation.

In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions. A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically.

Can positive Widal Test indicate Typhoid without fever? - Dr. Anantharaman Ramakrishnan

T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis.

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  1. The early dynamic response of the calf ileal epithelium to Salmonella typhimurium. Veterinary Pathology 34(5): .. The economic impact of the casino industry in South Korea. Journal of Travel Research .. The effect of Trichoderma harzianum siderophores on yeasts and wood-rotting fungi. Material und Organismen.:
    The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two- component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory A common strategy is to secrete low molecular weight iron chelators, termed siderophores, and express high affinity receptors for the siderophore-iron complex. Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad .. The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell. Ambrosia fractions were experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, Escherichia coli OH7, Listeria Full Text Available Bacterial production of siderophores may involve specific genes related to nonribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis, which have not.
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Thinking about the ladder leads us to pose the following question: Is making the ladder shorter i. All societies have hier-archies. It is not conceivable, therefore, to have a society with no ladder. The conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health leads us to think of at least two linked ways to address the relation between position on the ladder and health: The first argues for reducing the slope of the social gradient.

To see this, suppose, just for a moment, that the ladder were defined on the basis of years of education. People who had three years or fewer had life expectancy of 50 years.

Sir Victor Horsley is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in , and in he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors.

He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square, London , and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost.

In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis , written in by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia.

They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery.

Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type.

The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful.

Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language.

Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous? The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry.

Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues like open-mindedness and tolerance may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues.

The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take.

One day, Sir , you may tax it. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable — as it turned out, electric light.

Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of Sir William Mitchell This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification.

This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes. On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary The Pragmatics of Sir Thomas Bodley. Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, — offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence.

These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed.

Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied. The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions.

The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach.

Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i.

The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research.

The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified.

Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku.

Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria.

Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis.

Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents.

Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses. The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex.

This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis.

Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery. Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square.

In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others. In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor.

Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated.

Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses.

He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion.

In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex.

When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods.

The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers. The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest.

Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives.

This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks.

We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds. The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions.

We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak. Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al.

Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention.

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition. This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital. Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition.

The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis. It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem.

This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality.

SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions. We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery.

Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure.

The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial.

But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity….

The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs.

In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated.

It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay".

Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume.

Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel. The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth.

The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI. SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients.

Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness.

We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases.

SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method.

For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability.

Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives.

It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy.

Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined.

SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation.

It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead.

The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis?

In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained.

Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model. Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner.

These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover.

The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions.

Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling.

By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs]. In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues.

Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B. It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established.

The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS.

Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia.

Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2. To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors. We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day.

Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS.

There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery.

From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e. Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition.

This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively. Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD.

Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C. Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history.

This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine. This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time.

Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level.

Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes.

The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm.

The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence.

This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics.

As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington. Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost. However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits.

Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides.

Sir Walter Langdon-Brown Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology.

He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour. Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone SIR -ZEE was born about the year as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities.

Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City.

The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, , is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons.

He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management.

His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality.

Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War. Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model. Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence.

This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U.

Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered SIR model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty.

A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data.

We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics. Catabolite repression of the Sir A regulatory cascade in Salmonella enterica. BarA is a sensor kinase that responds to an unknown signal by phosphorylating the response regulator Sir A. A second regulatory RNA, csrC, is also strongly regulated by Sir A, although gel mobility shift assays do not demonstrate a direct interaction.

Additionally, we have determined that the sir A gene is activated by crp and cya. The effects of crp and cya were also observed on the downstream members of the Sir A regulon, hilA, sopB, csrB, and csrC. Supplementation of a rich medium with phosphate diminished the catabolite control of the csr portion but not the virulence portion of the Sir A regulon.

Time from onset of SIRS to antibiotic administration and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection.

We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population. We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH. Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale mRS.

Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores OR per hour, 0. Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.

Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group.

SIR -A radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields. Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR -A synthetic aperture radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields are presented and preliminary interpretation provided. Even a very small amount of vegetation provides some backscatter, however.

Interdune areas frequently contain rough lag gravels which outline the dunes. Lava flows are typically very rough surfaces which are bright areas on radar images.

Cinder cones are smooth and therefore black on the image unless they have a blocky crater rim at the SIR -A incidence angle. Ash dunes and ash fields are smooth and imaged as dark areas. Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The barA and sir A genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively.

This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes. In this study, we examined the pathways by which Sir A affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that hilA had no effect on flhDC. Therefore, although the flhDC and hilA regulatory cascades interact, sir A affects each of them independently.

Phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the hilA and hilC promoters in gel mobility shift assays but not the flhD, fliA, hilD, and invF promoters.

The sir A gene did not regulate csrA but did activate csrB expression. Consistent with these results, phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the csrB promoter but not the csrA promoter. We propose a model in which Sir A directly activates virulence expression via hilA and hilC while repressing the flagellar regulon indirectly via csrB. Agoraphobia is a disease: The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks.

In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by. Full Text Available The European Union handed over the regulation of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia to the member states.

Austrian administration started to ask for control measures, i. Any sustainable control measure must focus on the reduction of seeds produced by the annual ragweed. Seed bank dimension of ragweed turned out to be a good evaluation tool for any control measure. To evaluate the importance of different spreading mechanisms of dispersal, a need for serious figures can be stated. Based on our seed trap experiments and comparable slip stream experiments by German botanists, the efficiency of vehicles in spreading ragweed over long distances was low.

However, machines used by road services cutter, moulder turned out to spread thousands of seeds. Besides, there is serious indication that trucking agricultural food and seeds over long distances is relevant for ragweed seed dispersal. Dispersal of thousands of ragweed seeds from contaminated agricultural fields to fields not yet infested is caused by harvesters and other agricultural machines. Regulations to reduce the ragweed load in traded agricultural goods are to be implemented in future.

Small populations of ragweed should be simply uprooted and composted as long as they bear no flowers. Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related. The legal obligation of reporting and control — introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago — allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures.

Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion. The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small.

A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort.

Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges.

A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed A.

All metals inhibited T. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A.

In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. The findings also revealed that L. Full Text Available Identifying the sensitive habitats with high invasibility is critical for management of biological invasion. Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linn. The experiment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. The results suggested that the presence of native species had strong negative effects on the performance of the invader species.

The presence of native species occupied the niche space and left few empty niches for the colonization of the invaders. The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities with high diversity, was effective strategies to control the invasion of exotic species. The present situation of the plant was analyzed in Qinhuangdao region, and the new campus was taken as an example to inves-tigate the effects of human activity disturbance on A.

The invasiveness of A. In present, the plant was a community construction species in this region, and showed no invasion. The investigated results showed that A. However, in the habitat disturbed by human activities, the plant had relatively high advantage. Therefore, excessive human activity disturbance should be prevented to control the invasive plant, by which to protect the local ecological environment.

Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells. Full Text Available Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells moDCs.

Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins.

Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes. Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library RRL methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes.

However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocol Ambrosia is a kind of invasive alien weed, whose invasion not only threatens native biodiversity and ecosystems, but also causes considerable economic loss. In order to control the damage of Ambrosia effectively, on the basis of introducing mechanical, chemical and biological control methods, the insufficiencies of them were clarified and an integrated control measure was proposed.

Exotic plant invasion presents a serious threat to native ecosystem structure and function. Little is known about the role of soil microbial communities in facilitating or resisting the spread of invasive plants into native communities. The purpose of this research is to understand how the invasive annual plantAmbrosiaartemisiifoliaL.

The soil characteristics of different areas invaded by A. Greenhouse experiments were designed to assess the effect ofA. The results showed that the soil organic C content was the highest in heavily invaded sites, the lowest in native plant sites, and intermediate in newly invaded sites. Soil available N, P and K concentrations in heavily invaded site were 2. Soil pH decreased asA. The soil microbial community structure was clearly separated in the three types of sites, andA.

Soil biota of invaded sites inhibits growth of co-occurring plants Galinsoga parvilfora Cav. Results of the present study indicated thatA. Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing.

We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed. We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction. As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced.

Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations. We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed 's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude. We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2.

The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region. The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia common or short ragweed is increasing its range in Europe.

In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms were recorded in Leicester UK and Leiden NL on 4 and 5 September The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport.

Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses m originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe. Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons.

Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain.

Hindcast simulations - driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, year long historical simulations - are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios.

By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen.

Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management.

However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread.

We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia , a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in accurately reproduced ragweed 's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data.

The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range.

Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes transport and release with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion.

Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma D'Amato et al. To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model RegCM version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model CLM version 4.

In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition.

The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe.

The model can explain The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained.

From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen. The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap.

In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency.

Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future. Lifescience Database Archive English. Full Text Available c Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe.

The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia August-September recorded during a year period were obtained from monitoring sites.

The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation SD were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data.

The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant. The extraction of exotic plant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

It can prevent the extraction of ragweed from inactivation,which could be easily caused by external condition such as illumination and temperature. The microcapsule technique can improve the property of extraction. The results showed that the morphology of microcapsules was regular and integrated observed under scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover,the core material was coated with shell material observed by the infrared spectrum analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR.

The association efficiency and loading capacity of the microcapsules determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer were The medium diameter was And the results of thermogravimetric analysis TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of the microcapsules was superior to the core material. Consequently,the microcapsules with the extraction can avoid the unstable defect of the natural extraction.

In addition,the activity was also lengthened by this technique. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy.

The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport LDT and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between and by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen.

The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m-3 were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria.

Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed -sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region. Full Text Available From a medical perspective, introduction and spread of ragweed in Germany are a disaster. The pollen of the species trigger allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis that often lead to allergies against food items like celery or spices.

In some cases this can lead to allergic asthma that at first appears during the ragweed pollen season in September and October, but can later prevail during the whole year. In addition, touching the plant can result in contact dermatitis.

From a medical point of view, halting the spread of ragweed is important and necessary. Analysis of high allergenicity airborne pollen dispersion: The appearance of ragweed pollen in the air became more frequent in northerly countries.

Attention of allergologists and aerobiologists in these countries is focused on the phenomenon that Ambrosia plants found relatively sporadic but the amount of pollen is high in particular days.

Over the latter decade, a matter of particular concern has been Ambrosia pollen, whose appearance in the air is determined by the plants dispersing it and meteorological processes that alter pollen release, dissemination, transport or deposition on surfaces. Pollen data used in this study were collected in three pollen-trapping sites in Lithuania.

The data corresponding to years of pollen monitoring were documented graphically and evaluated statistically. Analysis of the pollen data suggests that although the number of ragweed plants identified has not increased over the latter decade, the total pollen count has been on the increase during the recent period.

The highest atmospheric pollen load is established on the last days of August and first days of September. We have established a regularity exhibiting an increase in ragweed pollen count conditioned by south-eastern winds in Lithuania.

The ex-periment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities. Plants remember past weather: After extreme dry wet summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease increase substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance.

The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The year data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia ragweed , Poaceae grasses and Populus poplar , as well as daily values of four climate variables temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation.

Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia , but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements.

However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity especially water sensitivity of the herbaceous taxa Ambrosia and Poaceae can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus.

Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted during and at Stoneville, MS to determine control of ragweed parthenium with several preemergence PRE and postemergence POST herbicides registered for use in corn, cotton, peanut, rice, and soybean. Change in Ragweed Pollen Season, Environmental Protection Agency — This figure shows how the length of ragweed pollen season changed at 11 locations in the central United States and Canada between and Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock.

Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Economic analysis of preventing introduction of ragweed in Denmark. Ragweed is an Invasive Alien Species natively growing in North America which is at risk of being introduced in Denmark thru import of bird seeds.

The plant produces a high amount of pollen which causes allergy and asthma and is considered a very potent allergy source. It is estimated that An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea Coleoptera: Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established.

To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work ragweed plants from three Regions Canada, France, Italy were grown in both controlled constant and standard environmental conditions seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light. Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1.

Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants.

This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

Effects of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive diapause in Ophraella communa Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae , a potential biocontrol agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia. To investigate the seasonal adaptation strategies of Ophraella communa to new habitats,the effects and regulation mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature on the reproductive diapause in a population collected from Changsha,Hunan were examined. Adults showed obvious reproductive diapause,which was regulated by photoperiod and temperature.

The pre-oviposition period was significantly prolonged when the pupae and adults were transferred from long-days to short-days,but the day length influence was not obvious when they were transferred only in the adult stage. However,the fecundity dropped greatly no matter whether the photoperiod shifted to short-days only in the adult stage or whether the shift occurred in both the pupal and adult stage. The fecundity was extremely low when photoperiod shifted from long-days to short-days in both pupal and adult stages.

This was an indication that the pupal and adult stages were the photoperiod-sensitive stage for adult reproductive diapause. This was especially true for the photoperiod in the pupal stage,which has a distinctly significant regulative effect on reproductive diapause. Additionally,this article also addresses the reason for different photoperiodic response patterns in reproductive diapause induction between the Changsha strain and the Tsukuba strain Japan of O.

Ragweed in France is a rather recent pollen which causes strong allergies on the populations concerned. This pollen, mainly located in the area Rhone-Alpes, extend more and more on totality of France. Indeed, the pollinic data highlight the presence of ragweed on all the territory with very low, as for Brittany, to several hundreds grains in the area of Rhone-Alpes. So four towns of this area have followed closely the extend of this pollen during the year through five pollen-traps 2 for the town of Lyon.

The trap of Lyon I Gerland made it possible to follow temporal the extend of ragweed from to and the increase of the number of grains as that of the number of days with a significant allergic risk. The study shows also the differences in quantity of pollens, the differences between the daily allergic risks of the five sites, as well as the differences, between the cities, of the number of days when the allergic risk is significant.

It is necessary that pollen of ragweed can be followed closely because of its strong allergenic capacity, in the area of Rhone-Alpes, where the plant prevails mainly, but also on the totality of the own territory, this to supervise its evolution and the speed of proliferation of the plant.

Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle. The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado.

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Laurel wilt has since spr The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle xyleborus glabratus eichoff coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T. Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae Fraedrich et al.

Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America.

The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motshulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees.

Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment.

Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests.

Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests. Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles.

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Scolytinae, Platypodinae plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t In children allergic to ragweed pollen, nasal inflammation is not influenced by monosensitization or polysensitization. In patients polysensitized to pollen allergens, the priming effect, by which the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to an allergen is increased by the previous exposure to another allergen, is a known phenomenon.

This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of nasal inflammation, assessed by nasal cytology, in children with allergic rhinitis AR from ragweed pollen according to being monosensitized or polysensitized. The study included 47 children. Of them, 24 suffered from AR caused by sensitization to grass pollen and ragweed pollen group A and 23 were sensitized only to ragweed pollen group B.

In all patients, the severity of AR was assessed according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines, and comorbidities were also evaluated. In group A, No significant difference was detected in the number of the considered comorbidities between the two groups.

This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers acres and contains acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile.

Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. T-cell repertoire in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics before and after ragweed challenge.

T cells play a pivotal role in initiating and orchestrating allergic responses in asthma. The goal of this work was to learn whether ragweed challenge in the lungs alters the T-cell repertoire expressed in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics. Analyses of cell numbers, differentials, and T-cell. Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels.

We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species.

Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance.

We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi host and air moisture , resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas.

Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa.

Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August.

If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland.

The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland. Furthermore, we used two different meteorological data sets the global GDAS data set and from the WRF mesoscale model; the meteorological parameters were: U and V wind components, temperature and relative humidity into HYSPLIT to evaluate the influence of meteorological input on calculated trajectories for high concentration ragweed episodes.

The HYSPLIT simulations with two different meteorological inputs indicated that footprint studies on ragweed benefit from a higher resolution meteorological data sets. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle. The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.

Concern exists that X. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle. The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States U.

Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X.

In , female X. Invasive Asian Fusarium — Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry. Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea Coleoptera: Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles Scolytidae and Platypodidae in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles.

Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success.

Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts.

The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed. Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear.

Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species.

We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement.

For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments.

The lower dependency that bark beetles have. Full Text Available The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains.

The cytotoxicity of both compounds was determined on lymphoid cells, and their corresponding selectivity indexes SIs were calculated. Peruvin was the most active compound on F32 strain of P. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains.

Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance.

Overall, approach 2 resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site.

The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic pest of U.

It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Since its introduction into the USA in , the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states.

Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt Integrating kaolin clay for ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: Scolytinae management in ornamental tree nurseries. Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Curculionidae are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp.

Scolytinae in ornamental tree nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus Blandford and Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky Coleoptera: Scolytinae are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries.

Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro Vertical distribution and daily flight periodicity of ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt affected avocado orchards.

Recently, ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado Persea americana Mill. The objective of this study was to provide insights into the intera Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two hosts with laurel wilt: The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles. Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood.

Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood.

Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts.

Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs.

We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. Relative attraction and susceptibility to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt.

Laurel wilt is a newly-described vascular disease of U. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease. The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi. Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees Persea borbonia , sassafras Sassafras albidum , and other plants within the Lauraceae family.

The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola , is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus , which Is Litchi chinensis a potential host for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus?

Redbay ambrosia beetle RAB , Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent Raffaelea lauricola responsible for laurel wilt disease.

To date, all known hosts of RAB are trees within the family Lauraceae. However, our previous research indicated that female R Full Text Available ro Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed.

However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp.

Full Text Available Allelopathy is generally defined as any direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effect of one plant on another mediated by the production allelochemicals.

The scope of this study was the evaluation of the potential allelopathic effect of Jasminum officinale against some weed species. The aqueous leachates of jasmine demonstrated promising allelopathic potential by inhibiting seed germination and radicle elongation of all tested species.

The more profound research in the field of allelopathy will eventually lead to the development of bioproducts designed for pest or weed control using allelochemicals.

this such

Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation.

Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health. Expansion and aerobiology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern.

Aerobiological sampling was based on the analysis of pollen records at five aerobiological stations in Slovakia. Highest airborne pollen counts were recorded in Nitra, Trnava and Bratislava Monitoring Stations situated in the areas most infested by A.

Besides the most infested areas, high airborne pollen counts were also recorded in territories where the plant species was less abundant. During the study period, the intensity of [i] Ambrosia. Full Text Available The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in Matrigon, mesotrione in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate in Germany: Roundup Bio were applied at 4 doses at three different timings: The plants were harvested 5 weeks after the last herbicide application.

At both sites clopyralid and mesotrione had a low efficacy on common ragweed when applied on developed plants with only minor differences in efficacy at the three timings. Application after cutting improved the efficacy of clopyralid at both sites and of mesotrione in Denmark. In Germany glyphosate had a higher efficacy on noncut plants in comparison to the cut plants, in Denmark it was vice versa. The highest dose of glyphosate provided higher control levels on developed plants than clopyralid and mesotrione at both sites.

In Denmark the highest effects were obtained shortly after cutting with the maximum dose of each herbicide and declined with time between cutting and herbicide application. In summary the results demonstrated that herbicides can be applied shortly after cutting without loss of efficacy. Agricultural fields under integrated pest management and ecological farming were monitored The aim was to assess the performance of chemical and other control measures against ragweed under farming conditions of the region.

These parameters were ranked and, by way of multiplication, merged into one single value, which can be expressed as degree of a defined intense infestation level. Such approach is considered to be useful to track recuperation efforts and estimate control efficiency by comparing pre and post measure infestation status. The index is applied to results of the growing season, which is illustrated by some examples. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by sequencing. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR, and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags ESTs, including allergens.

The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived.

Additional, the sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms. Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens.

Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR , and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags ESTs , including allergens. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5.

The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive. Results showed that increasing density of A. There was no significant impact on peanut plant height.

Exponential regression model was the best in describing the relationship between A. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

Short ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach.

To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection.

The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group pectate lyase: Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag EST based simple sequence repeats SSRs markers were developed in this species using three approaches.

After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native North America and invasive Europe ranges of the species. Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles.

High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events. Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens Lour Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure.

Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method. The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity.

Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity. Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8 D03 derived from A artemisiifolia , but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1 LCM9 derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources.

Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April.

Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains. The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre. Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides.

A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas eg railways, urban areas.

In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma D'Amato et al. RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from ORCHIDEE French Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species Fabien et al.

We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain simulation for future condition is been considering. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately.

A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then. Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country. Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region.

Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations. Allelic richness-r ranged from 5. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region.

Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa. Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate.

If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America.

We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O.

Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

Northern range edge equilibrium of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available Description of the subject. The geographic distributions of a species, be it native or alien, is expected to be limited at some point by environmental conditions. In this situation, a range edge equilibrium REE takes place, i. The occurrence of REE has never been tested for an invasive species. In Western Europe, the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. It is currently unknown whether the range has reached a limit or not.

Information about how the species responds to sunflower competition is also lacking. This work addressed two questions: Has the northern part of A. Plots were established in an agricultural field ca. The following year, the population growth rates and the soil seed bank were assessed.

The species established populations with relatively high growth rates and soil seed bank. Sunflower competition did not have a significant impact on plant performance. The results invalidate the hypothesis of equilibrium at the current margin of A. Let native species take their course: Ambrosia artemisiifolia replacement during natural or ;artificial; succession. In this study, we considered the time-span in which the species is suppressed during active restoration actions and passive spontaneous vegetation recovery.

In particular, we envisaged that A. Three different treatments were applied within an abandoned quarry area commonly invaded by A. We determined the effect of mixtures of grassland species, established from native hayseed or from a commercial seed mixture, on A.

The results demonstrated that, after the first growing season, compared with spontaneous succession, both commercial seed and hayseed resulted in a strong reduction of A. After the second growing season, A. This study indicated that both active and passive vegetation recovery by niche filling and competitive exclusion could be used as methods individually or in combination with other methods, such as mowing and biological control, to suppress A.

Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. The genus Ambrosia Asteraceae family is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear.

This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering.

In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal.

These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual.

This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens. Pollen allergens from short ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies IUIS allergen database.

With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome. Common ragweed invasion in Sweden: Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a neophyte from North America that has spread rapidly throughout Europe.

Because the pollen of common ragweed is highly allergic, many countries have adopted containment and mitigation measures. The neophyte has only recently established flowering populations in Sweden. We use this well documented case to study the early impacts of an invasive species on human health. Our identification strategy relies on spatial and temporal variation in common rag Full Text Available Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants.

Within this study, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. We determined germination rates and speed under different temperature conditions.

From these parameters we calculated minimal, optimal, and maximal temperature for germination. We also investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. The European populations were characterized by a higher fitness with higher germination rates and germination speed, increased biomass and higher frost tolerance of seedlings. Furthermore, the temperature niche width for germination was significantly broader for the European populations.

The increased frost tolerance of the European populations might allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation — due to a longer growing period — and result in higher pollen and seed production.

The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and sharpen the existing problems. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species.

Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured.

The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured.

A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance.

Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens,Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China.

Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide. The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia, Ambrosia ,and Humulus in northern China. A total of subjects aged from 5 to 68 years visiting our clinic from June to October underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources.

Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia artemisiifolia ,and Humulus scandens,and against the purified allergens,Art v 1 and Amb a 1.

Of 1 subjects, had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and donated serum for IgE testing. The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana,Artemisia annua,A.

Among the intradermal positive subjects,the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A. The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A.

There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H. The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.

Mesoscale atmospheric transport of ragweed pollen allergens from infected to uninfected areas. Allergenic ragweed Ambrosia spp. However, the action of air temperature, humidity and solar radiation on pollen grains in the atmosphere could impact on the ability of long distance transported LDT pollen to maintain allergenic potency.

Here, we report that the major allergen of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen Amb a 1 collected in ambient air during episodes of LDT still have immunoreactive properties. The amount of Amb a 1 found in LDT ragweed pollen grains was not constant and varied between episodes.

In addition to allergens in pollen sized particles, we detected reactive Amb a 1 in subpollen sized respirable particles. These findings suggest that ragweed pollen grains have the potential to cause allergic reactions, not only in the heavily infested areas but, due to LDT episodes, also in the regions unaffected by ragweed populations. Glyphosate resistance in common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides over the last 40 years. Due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant GR crop technology, especially, corn, cotton, and soybean, several weed species in agronomic situations have developed resistance to this herbicide. Glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed Ambrosia trifida L. A giant ragweed population from a glyphosate-resistant GR soybean field in Mississippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate.

Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify the magnitude of glyphosate resistance in the giant ragweed population and to elucidate the p Full Text Available Only a limited spectrum of active substances is available for weed control in leguminous plants and sunflowers. Since the official plant protection service in Brandenburg conducts herbicide field trials in these crop species in the region around Drebkau for the investigation of practicable approaches for control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

For the cultivation of lupins only pre-emergence herbicides are registered. Due to the high density of A. Likewise, the performance of authorised herbicides in sunflowers is insufficient. In the region concerned cultivation of grain legumes and sunflowers is limited in areas with high coverage rate of A. Full Text Available Since the beginning of common ragweed registration in North Rhine-Westphalia in there have been ragweed records, among them 31 populations with more than individuals.

Common ragweed is not yet established in North Rhine-Westphalia but seems to do very well on sandy soils in the Lowland. North Rhine-Westphalia is tackling common ragweed in an early stage of invasion and will continue the strategy of rapid response to achieve a total eradication. Thirty-three countries have already signed the Memorandum of Understanding and over researchers with specialists in weed research, invasive alien species management, ecology, aerobiology, allergology and economics are registered participants of SMARTER.

COST Actions interlink nationally funded research projects and enable and finance conferences, working groups, training schools and research exchanges.

SMARTER aims to initiate and develop long-term and sustainable control methods, to integrate these into existing mechanical and chemical control measures, and to quantify the success of these measures both for agriculture and health.

The focus is on biological control methods with insects and fungi especially using alien species from the area of origin of Ambrosia and vegetation management to achieve a competitive plant cover. For this, we develop and parameterize models, starting from the population dynamics of Ambrosia , on the impact of control measures on the frequency and distribution of Ambrosia and finally on pollen counts and allergy occurrences, each with both ecological and economic components.

The necessary data are derived from the many experiments that we carry out in well-coordinated studies across Europe. SMARTER will allow the various stakeholders to select optimal habitat- and region-specific combinations of control methods.

After an introduction and overview of the structure and the state of the Action, we briefly describe two planned activities typical for our Action, a study on the population dynamics of Ambrosia in different climates and habitats in Europe as a basis for estimating the efficiency of control measures, and an interdisciplinary study to clarify the impact the of North American native Ambrosia leaf beetle Ophraella communa Coleoptera.

Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds Ambrosia L. Full Text Available Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species Ambrosia spp.

We estimate that by year , the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios.

We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year , affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations.

Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe. Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' HAR areas, i.

Effects of climate change and seed dispersal on airborne ragweed pollen loads in Europe. Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive alien species in Europe producing pollen that causes severe allergic disease in susceptible individuals. Ragweed plants could further invade European land with climate and land-use changes.

However, airborne pollen evolution depends not only on plant invasion, but also on pollen production, release and atmospheric dispersion changes. To predict the effect of climate and land-use changes on airborne pollen concentrations, we used two comprehensive modelling frameworks accounting for all these factors under high-end and moderate climate and land-use change scenarios.

We estimate that by airborne ragweed pollen concentrations will be about 4 times higher than they are now, with a range of uncertainty from 2 to 12 largely depending on the seed dispersal rate assumptions.

About a third of the airborne pollen increase is due to on-going seed dispersal, irrespective of climate change. The remaining two-thirds are related to climate and land-use changes that will extend ragweed habitat suitability in northern and eastern Europe and increase pollen production in established ragweed areas owing to increasing CO2.

Therefore, climate change and ragweed seed dispersal in current and future suitable areas will increase airborne pollen concentrations, which may consequently heighten the incidence and prevalence of ragweed allergy.

Full Text Available Since the common ragweed , Ambrosia artemisiifolia , which was introduced from North America has also been found in Bavaria in larger stocks and has an increasing tendency to spread.

After receiving the report of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Bavarian Parliament addressed the implications for health. There was consensus across all political groups to combat the plant. The 96 district administration authorities, which each have a trained ragweed officer, report to the registration office on new verified ragweed locations with more than plants.

The reports of common ragweed stands are filed by citizens or through research by the district administration authorities, who are also responsible for supporting the fight against stocks.

On behalf of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Working Group Biodiversity monitors the situation and finds many new locations.

Since , new common ragweed stocks were registered. After control measures there are currently known remaining stocks. Since , however, the populated area has tripled. This means that the control measures need further improvement. This is especially true for the common ragweed stocks along roadsides where the plants have increased massively in recent years. Sustainable control has proved to be particularly difficult. Ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: Ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population.

The invasive occurrence of ragweed A. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed -induced rhinoconjunctivitis.

Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists.

The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy.

Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by.

Full Text Available The European Union handed over the regulation of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia to the member states. Austrian administration started to ask for control measures, i.

Any sustainable control measure must focus on the reduction of seeds produced by the annual ragweed. Seed bank dimension of ragweed turned out to be a good evaluation tool for any control measure. To evaluate the importance of different spreading mechanisms of dispersal, a need for serious figures can be stated. Based on our seed trap experiments and comparable slip stream experiments by German botanists, the efficiency of vehicles in spreading ragweed over long distances was low.

However, machines used by road services cutter, moulder turned out to spread thousands of seeds. Besides, there is serious indication that trucking agricultural food and seeds over long distances is relevant for ragweed seed dispersal.

Dispersal of thousands of ragweed seeds from contaminated agricultural fields to fields not yet infested is caused by harvesters and other agricultural machines.

Regulations to reduce the ragweed load in traded agricultural goods are to be implemented in future. Small populations of ragweed should be simply uprooted and composted as long as they bear no flowers.

Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related.

The legal obligation of reporting and control — introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago — allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures. Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country.

Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion. The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort.

Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges.

A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed A. All metals inhibited T. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. The findings also revealed that L.

Full Text Available Identifying the sensitive habitats with high invasibility is critical for management of biological invasion. Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linn.

The experiment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. The results suggested that the presence of native species had strong negative effects on the performance of the invader species. The presence of native species occupied the niche space and left few empty niches for the colonization of the invaders.

The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities with high diversity, was effective strategies to control the invasion of exotic species. The present situation of the plant was analyzed in Qinhuangdao region, and the new campus was taken as an example to inves-tigate the effects of human activity disturbance on A. The invasiveness of A. In present, the plant was a community construction species in this region, and showed no invasion.

The investigated results showed that A. However, in the habitat disturbed by human activities, the plant had relatively high advantage. Therefore, excessive human activity disturbance should be prevented to control the invasive plant, by which to protect the local ecological environment.

Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells. Full Text Available Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells moDCs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins.

Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes.

Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library RRL methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes.

However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocol Ambrosia is a kind of invasive alien weed, whose invasion not only threatens native biodiversity and ecosystems, but also causes considerable economic loss.

In order to control the damage of Ambrosia effectively, on the basis of introducing mechanical, chemical and biological control methods, the insufficiencies of them were clarified and an integrated control measure was proposed. Exotic plant invasion presents a serious threat to native ecosystem structure and function. Little is known about the role of soil microbial communities in facilitating or resisting the spread of invasive plants into native communities.

The purpose of this research is to understand how the invasive annual plantAmbrosiaartemisiifoliaL. The soil characteristics of different areas invaded by A. Greenhouse experiments were designed to assess the effect ofA.

The results showed that the soil organic C content was the highest in heavily invaded sites, the lowest in native plant sites, and intermediate in newly invaded sites. Soil available N, P and K concentrations in heavily invaded site were 2. Soil pH decreased asA. The soil microbial community structure was clearly separated in the three types of sites, andA. Soil biota of invaded sites inhibits growth of co-occurring plants Galinsoga parvilfora Cav. Results of the present study indicated thatA.

Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing.

We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed. We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction. As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced.

Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations.

We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed 's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude.

We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2. The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region. The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia common or short ragweed is increasing its range in Europe.

In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms were recorded in Leicester UK and Leiden NL on 4 and 5 September The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport.

Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses m originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe. Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance.

To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations - driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations.

Then, year long historical simulations - are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen.

Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread.

We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia , a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed.

Simulations starting in accurately reproduced ragweed 's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion.

For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways.

We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes transport and release with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion.

Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma D'Amato et al. To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model RegCM version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model CLM version 4.

In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions.

A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition.

The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration.

Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained.

From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen. The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency.

Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future. Lifescience Database Archive English.

Full Text Available c Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant.

The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia August-September recorded during a year period were obtained from monitoring sites.

The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation SD were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data. The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station.

Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant. The extraction of exotic plant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. It can prevent the extraction of ragweed from inactivation,which could be easily caused by external condition such as illumination and temperature.

The microcapsule technique can improve the property of extraction. The results showed that the morphology of microcapsules was regular and integrated observed under scanning electron microscope SEM.

Moreover,the core material was coated with shell material observed by the infrared spectrum analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR. The association efficiency and loading capacity of the microcapsules determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer were The medium diameter was And the results of thermogravimetric analysis TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of the microcapsules was superior to the core material.

Consequently,the microcapsules with the extraction can avoid the unstable defect of the natural extraction. In addition,the activity was also lengthened by this technique. The occurrence of Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Northwest Turkey: Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport LDT and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains.

The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between and by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey. A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen.

Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood.

Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness.

We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h.

If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia.

Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation.

In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson.

Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence.

Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained.

Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed.

In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model. Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed.

This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body.

We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B.

It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data.

The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined.

The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia. Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2.

To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors.

We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day. Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome.

SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS.

There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.

Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition. This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively.

Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD.

Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C. Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris.

He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history.

This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine. This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image.

The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level.

Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence. This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics.

As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington. Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost. However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits.

Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology.

He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.

Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone SIR -ZEE was born about the year as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities.

Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker.

This speech, delivered on November 28, , is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons.

He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality.

Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model. Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts.

Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered SIR model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty.

A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data.

We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics. Catabolite repression of the Sir A regulatory cascade in Salmonella enterica.

BarA is a sensor kinase that responds to an unknown signal by phosphorylating the response regulator Sir A. A second regulatory RNA, csrC, is also strongly regulated by Sir A, although gel mobility shift assays do not demonstrate a direct interaction. Additionally, we have determined that the sir A gene is activated by crp and cya. The effects of crp and cya were also observed on the downstream members of the Sir A regulon, hilA, sopB, csrB, and csrC.

Supplementation of a rich medium with phosphate diminished the catabolite control of the csr portion but not the virulence portion of the Sir A regulon. Time from onset of SIRS to antibiotic administration and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection.

We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population. We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH.

Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale mRS. Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores OR per hour, 0.

Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.

Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group.

SIR -A radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields. Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR -A synthetic aperture radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields are presented and preliminary interpretation provided. Even a very small amount of vegetation provides some backscatter, however. Interdune areas frequently contain rough lag gravels which outline the dunes.

Lava flows are typically very rough surfaces which are bright areas on radar images. Cinder cones are smooth and therefore black on the image unless they have a blocky crater rim at the SIR -A incidence angle. Ash dunes and ash fields are smooth and imaged as dark areas. Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood.

We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The barA and sir A genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively. This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes.

In this study, we examined the pathways by which Sir A affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that hilA had no effect on flhDC.

Therefore, although the flhDC and hilA regulatory cascades interact, sir A affects each of them independently. Phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the hilA and hilC promoters in gel mobility shift assays but not the flhD, fliA, hilD, and invF promoters. The sir A gene did not regulate csrA but did activate csrB expression.

Consistent with these results, phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the csrB promoter but not the csrA promoter. We propose a model in which Sir A directly activates virulence expression via hilA and hilC while repressing the flagellar regulon indirectly via csrB. Agoraphobia is a disease: The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks.

In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity. These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis.

An SIRS epidemic model incorporating media coverage with time delay is proposed. The positivity and boundedness are studied firstly. The locally asymptotical stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is studied in succession. And then, the conditions on which periodic orbits bifurcate are given. Furthermore, we show that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the delay.

The obtained results show that the time delay in media coverage can not affect the stability of the disease-free equilibrium when the basic reproduction number R0 1, the stability of the endemic equilibrium will be affected by the time delay; there will be a family of periodic orbits bifurcating from the endemic equilibrium when the time delay increases through a critical value. Finally, some examples for numerical simulations are also included.

Full Text Available A simple and compact 4. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator SIR based bandpass filter BPF. The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer VNA.

The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss S21 and return loss S11 were 0.

Traffic-driven SIR epidemic model on networks. We propose a novel SIR epidemic model which is driven by the transmission of infection packets in networks.

Specifically, infected nodes generate and deliver infection packets causing the spread of the epidemic, while recovered nodes block the delivery of infection packets, and this inhibits the epidemic spreading. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. Stochastic SIR epidemics in a population with households and schools.

In each of the types, every individual is part of one school and one household. In the independent partition model, the partitions of the population into schools and households are independent of each other. This model corresponds to the well-studied household-workplace model. In the hierarchical model which we introduce here, members of the same household are also members of the same school.

We introduce computable branching process approximations for both types of populations and use these to compare the probabilities of a large outbreak. The branching process approximation in the hierarchical model is novel and of independent interest. We prove by a coupling argument that if all households and schools have the same size, an epidemic spreads easier in the sense that the number of individuals infected is stochastically larger in th I - Sensor calibration experiment.

A sensor calibration experiment was proposed as part of SIR -B experiments in Japan, together with the rice crop experiment and the ocean oil-pollution detection experiment. This sensor calibration experiment was intended 1 to establish a transfer function from image data to radar backscattering characteristics, 2 to evaluate 3-dB resolutions, 3 to verify the ability to resolve two closely-spaced targets, and 4 to clarify sidelobe structures due to range and azimuth compressions.

The disused Akita Airport was chosen as the main test site for the calibration experiment on the first three objectives. This paper describes the test site, the design of the corner reflectors, and briefly predicts the results. Optimal vaccination policies for an SIR model with limited resources.

The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination. We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited.

These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination. With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control.

However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school. During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria.

Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history.

He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least local doctors. Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body.

Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart.

Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically. On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model.

It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network. Simulations and Analytical Models.

The standard pair approximation equations PA for the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered-Susceptible SIRS model of infection spread on a network of homogeneous degree k predict a thin phase of sustained oscillations for parameter values that correspond to diseases that confer long lasting immunity. Here we present a study of the dependence of this oscillatory phase on the parameter k and of its relevance to understand the behaviour of simulations on networks.

We show that for parameter values in the oscillatory phase, and even for large system sizes, the simulations either die out or exhibit damped oscillations, depending on the initial conditions. This failure of the standard PA model to capture the qualitative behaviour of the simulations on large RRGs is currently being investigated.

Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied.

By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains.

Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation.

We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death.

We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 TREM-1 was reported to play a key roll in amplification of production of inflammatory cytokines. TREM-1 is suggested to be a specific biomarker for sepsis for this reason, but the clinical significance of TREM-1 has not been elucidated.

TREM-1 expressions on the surfaces of monocytes and neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Little is known regarding systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS criteria and mortality in developing countries. We evaluated the utility of the SIRS criteria to predict death among a paediatric surgical population in Lilongwe, Malawi. Age, SIRS variables temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and leucocyte count , diagnosis, surgical procedure and outcome were analysed for paediatric surgical patients during Age-specific criteria for SIRS variables were then applied to the data.

Using published SIRS criteria, temperature was the only variable that correlated with mortality. When norms for an African population were used, leucocyte count also correlated with mortality.

With the exception of temperature, published SIRS criteria were not predictive of mortality. Leucocyte count became predictive of death using norms specific to an African population. SIRS and its component data are a worthwhile area of future prospective research in developing countries. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: Contribution of the Sir A regulon to biofilm formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Orthologues of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium S. The regulatory RNAs antagonize the activity of the CsrA protein, allowing translation of those same virulence genes, and inhibiting the translation of flagellar genes. In this report, it was determined that Sir A and the Csr system also control the fim operon that encodes type 1 fimbriae. A sir A mutant, a csrB csrC double mutant, and a fimI mutant, were all defective in biofilm formation.

Conversely, inactivation of flhDC increased biofilm formation. Therefore, Sir A activates csrB, csrC and the fim operon to promote biofilm formation. In turn, csrB and csrC promote the translation of the fim operon, while at the same time inhibiting the translation of flagella, which are inhibitory to biofilm formation. Factors affecting the ease of identification are.

SIR -B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses.

Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Full Text Available Joint fluid aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, but to date no definite guidelines have been published.

For this reason, a group of experts of the Italian Society of Rheumatology SIR produced evidence based recommendations for performing arthrocentesis. Among them, the most relevant are: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland. Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde.

To provide an overall assessment of his career. Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian.

A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation.

The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine.

William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Sir Thomas Browne Against Error: An Apology for Complexity. Full Text Available In Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica, a broad, somewhat encyclopedic catalogue of errors divided into seven books. Far from being dogmatic and assertive, the treatise engages the modern reader for its defence of open debate and of the value of contradiction; actually, Pseudodoxia appears deeply in tune with the epistemological uncertainty of our times for its complex, relativising and even dubitative approach to all things human.

Browne endorses the idea that uncritical acceptance of received notions about the world hinders the advancement of learning; at the same time, though, a rigidly straight path — a unique, simplified method to decipher reality — equally perverts knowledge and is the source of misapprehension and mystification. The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models.

The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth Hutton, J. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression.

The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems crystallization and melting not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments.

From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics.

One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: The independent spreaders involved SIR Rumor model in complex networks.

Recent studies of rumor or information diffusion process in complex networks show that in contrast to traditional comprehension, individuals who participate in rumor spreading within one network do not always get the rumor from their neighbors. They can obtain the rumor from different sources like online social networks and then publish it on their personal sites.

In our paper, we discuss this phenomenon in complex networks by adopting the concept of independent spreaders. Rather than getting the rumor from neighbors, independent spreaders learn it from other channels. We further develop the classic "ignorant-spreaders-stiflers" or SIR model of rumor diffusion process in complex networks. A steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final spectrum of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, density of independent spreaders and average degree of the network.

Results show that independent spreaders effectively enhance the rumor diffusion process, by delivering the rumor to regions far away from the current rumor infected regions.

And though the rumor spreading process in SF networks is faster than that in ER networks, the final size of rumor spreading in ER networks is larger than that in SF networks. Genetic diversity in the SIR model of pathogen evolution. We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model SIR. We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations infected hosts , where pathogens replicate and mutate.

Hosts transmit pathogens to uninfected hosts. We show that the level of pathogen variation is well predicted by analytical expressions, such that pathogen neutral molecular variation is bounded by the level of infection and increases with the duration of infection. We show that this invasion probability is given by the relative increment in R 0 of the new pathogen s.

By analyzing the patterns of genetic diversity in this framework, we identify the molecular signatures during the replacement and compare these with those observed in sequences of influenza A. Full Text Available We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model SIR.

We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations infected hosts, where pathogens replicate and mutate. Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus.

Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: The discrimination and mapping capabilities are to be evaluated for shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B images of geologic features in Indonesia that are covered by equatorial rain forest canopy.

The approach for data acquisition, handling, and analysis and the expected results of the investigation are discussed. SIRS -associated coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia. Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia often occur in critically ill patients, and disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and a poor outcome.

However, the relation between coagulopathy and systemic inflammatory response has not been thoroughly clarified. Thus, we evaluated coagulative activity, organ dysfunction, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia and examined the balance between coagulopathy and systemic inflammation.

The effect of SIRS on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction was evaluated in these patients. Both the minimum platelet count and maximum DIC scores were significantly correlated with the maximum SOFA score, indicating that a relation exists between coagulopathy and organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and organ dysfunction progress with significant mutual correlation, depending on the increase in SIRS scores.

The SIRS -associated coagulopathy may play a critical role in inducing organ dysfunction after severe insult.

We study an epidemic model for infections with non permanent acquired immunity SIRS. The incidence rate is assumed to be convex respect to the infective class. By using a peculiar Lyapunov function, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the local nonlinear stability of equilibria.

Conditions ensuring the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are also obtained. Our procedure allows to enlarge the class of incidence rates ensuring the Lyapunov nonlinear stability of the endemic equilibrium for SIRS models. Use of the SIRS in compensation cases: Comparatively little work has evaluated its usefulness in compensation and disability contexts.

The present study examined SIRS data from individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychiatric examinations for the purposes of workers' compensation, personal injury, or disability proceedings. Using bootstrapping comparisons, three primary groups were identified: An important consideration is whether SIRS results are unduly affected by common diagnoses or clinical conditions. Systematic comparisons were performed based on common disorders major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders , presence of a cognitive disorder dementia, amnestic disorder, or cognitive disorder NOS , or intellectual deficits FSIQ SIRS primary scales was small and nonsignificant, providing evidence of the SIRS generalizability across these diagnostic categories.

Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen. A free boundary problem of a diffusive SIRS model with nonlinear incidence. This paper is concerned with the spreading persistence and vanishing extinction of a disease which is characterized by a diffusive SIRS model with a bilinear incidence rate and free boundary.

Through discussing the dynamics of a free boundary problem of an SIRS model, the spreading of a disease is described. We get the sufficient conditions which ensure the disease spreading or vanishing. In addition, the estimate of the expanding speed is also given when the free boundaries extend to the whole R. Elementary proof of convergence to the mean-field model for the SIR process. The susceptible-infected-recovered SIR model has been used extensively to model disease spread and other processes.

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Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness.

We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering.

We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method.

For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives.

It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy.

Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten.

Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined.

SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation.

It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis?

In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed.

A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process.

We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles.

We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B.

It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined.

The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards.

Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis. Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia. Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock.

Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2. To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors.

We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day. Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction.

Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS. There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery.

In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.

Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition. This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively. Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD.

Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C.

Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine.

During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people.

Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history.

This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine.

This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image.

The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin.

Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level.

Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence. This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics.

As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington. Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost.

However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits.

Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge.

His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology.

He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.

Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone SIR -ZEE was born about the year as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities.

Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, , is one of Sir William's less well known addresses.

Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons.

He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model. Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence.

This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered SIR model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty.

A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data.

We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics. Catabolite repression of the Sir A regulatory cascade in Salmonella enterica. BarA is a sensor kinase that responds to an unknown signal by phosphorylating the response regulator Sir A. A second regulatory RNA, csrC, is also strongly regulated by Sir A, although gel mobility shift assays do not demonstrate a direct interaction.

Additionally, we have determined that the sir A gene is activated by crp and cya. The effects of crp and cya were also observed on the downstream members of the Sir A regulon, hilA, sopB, csrB, and csrC. Supplementation of a rich medium with phosphate diminished the catabolite control of the csr portion but not the virulence portion of the Sir A regulon.

Time from onset of SIRS to antibiotic administration and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection. We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population.

We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH.

Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale mRS.

Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores OR per hour, 0. Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.

Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group.

SIR -A radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields. Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR -A synthetic aperture radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields are presented and preliminary interpretation provided.

Even a very small amount of vegetation provides some backscatter, however. Interdune areas frequently contain rough lag gravels which outline the dunes. Lava flows are typically very rough surfaces which are bright areas on radar images. Cinder cones are smooth and therefore black on the image unless they have a blocky crater rim at the SIR -A incidence angle.

Ash dunes and ash fields are smooth and imaged as dark areas. Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

The barA and sir A genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively. This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes. In this study, we examined the pathways by which Sir A affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that hilA had no effect on flhDC.

Therefore, although the flhDC and hilA regulatory cascades interact, sir A affects each of them independently. Phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the hilA and hilC promoters in gel mobility shift assays but not the flhD, fliA, hilD, and invF promoters.

The sir A gene did not regulate csrA but did activate csrB expression. Consistent with these results, phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the csrB promoter but not the csrA promoter. We propose a model in which Sir A directly activates virulence expression via hilA and hilC while repressing the flagellar regulon indirectly via csrB. Agoraphobia is a disease: The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks.

In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity.

These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis. An SIRS epidemic model incorporating media coverage with time delay is proposed. The positivity and boundedness are studied firstly.

The locally asymptotical stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is studied in succession. And then, the conditions on which periodic orbits bifurcate are given.

Furthermore, we show that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the delay. The obtained results show that the time delay in media coverage can not affect the stability of the disease-free equilibrium when the basic reproduction number R0 1, the stability of the endemic equilibrium will be affected by the time delay; there will be a family of periodic orbits bifurcating from the endemic equilibrium when the time delay increases through a critical value.

Finally, some examples for numerical simulations are also included. Full Text Available A simple and compact 4. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator SIR based bandpass filter BPF. The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors.

The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators.

The measured insertion loss S21 and return loss S11 were 0. Traffic-driven SIR epidemic model on networks. We propose a novel SIR epidemic model which is driven by the transmission of infection packets in networks.

Specifically, infected nodes generate and deliver infection packets causing the spread of the epidemic, while recovered nodes block the delivery of infection packets, and this inhibits the epidemic spreading. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. Stochastic SIR epidemics in a population with households and schools.

In each of the types, every individual is part of one school and one household. In the independent partition model, the partitions of the population into schools and households are independent of each other. This model corresponds to the well-studied household-workplace model. In the hierarchical model which we introduce here, members of the same household are also members of the same school. We introduce computable branching process approximations for both types of populations and use these to compare the probabilities of a large outbreak.

The branching process approximation in the hierarchical model is novel and of independent interest. We prove by a coupling argument that if all households and schools have the same size, an epidemic spreads easier in the sense that the number of individuals infected is stochastically larger in th I - Sensor calibration experiment. A sensor calibration experiment was proposed as part of SIR -B experiments in Japan, together with the rice crop experiment and the ocean oil-pollution detection experiment.

This sensor calibration experiment was intended 1 to establish a transfer function from image data to radar backscattering characteristics, 2 to evaluate 3-dB resolutions, 3 to verify the ability to resolve two closely-spaced targets, and 4 to clarify sidelobe structures due to range and azimuth compressions.

The disused Akita Airport was chosen as the main test site for the calibration experiment on the first three objectives. This paper describes the test site, the design of the corner reflectors, and briefly predicts the results.

Optimal vaccination policies for an SIR model with limited resources. The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination. We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited.

These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination. With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination.

Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school. During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria.

Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history.

He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least local doctors. Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body.

Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart.

Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment. Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically.

On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared.

It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network. Simulations and Analytical Models. The standard pair approximation equations PA for the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered-Susceptible SIRS model of infection spread on a network of homogeneous degree k predict a thin phase of sustained oscillations for parameter values that correspond to diseases that confer long lasting immunity. Here we present a study of the dependence of this oscillatory phase on the parameter k and of its relevance to understand the behaviour of simulations on networks.

We show that for parameter values in the oscillatory phase, and even for large system sizes, the simulations either die out or exhibit damped oscillations, depending on the initial conditions. This failure of the standard PA model to capture the qualitative behaviour of the simulations on large RRGs is currently being investigated.

Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated.

The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains.

Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation. We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death.

We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 TREM-1 was reported to play a key roll in amplification of production of inflammatory cytokines.

TREM-1 is suggested to be a specific biomarker for sepsis for this reason, but the clinical significance of TREM-1 has not been elucidated. TREM-1 expressions on the surfaces of monocytes and neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Little is known regarding systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS criteria and mortality in developing countries.

We evaluated the utility of the SIRS criteria to predict death among a paediatric surgical population in Lilongwe, Malawi. Age, SIRS variables temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and leucocyte count , diagnosis, surgical procedure and outcome were analysed for paediatric surgical patients during Age-specific criteria for SIRS variables were then applied to the data. Using published SIRS criteria, temperature was the only variable that correlated with mortality.

When norms for an African population were used, leucocyte count also correlated with mortality. With the exception of temperature, published SIRS criteria were not predictive of mortality. Leucocyte count became predictive of death using norms specific to an African population. SIRS and its component data are a worthwhile area of future prospective research in developing countries. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: Contribution of the Sir A regulon to biofilm formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Orthologues of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium S. The regulatory RNAs antagonize the activity of the CsrA protein, allowing translation of those same virulence genes, and inhibiting the translation of flagellar genes. In this report, it was determined that Sir A and the Csr system also control the fim operon that encodes type 1 fimbriae.

A sir A mutant, a csrB csrC double mutant, and a fimI mutant, were all defective in biofilm formation. Conversely, inactivation of flhDC increased biofilm formation. Therefore, Sir A activates csrB, csrC and the fim operon to promote biofilm formation. In turn, csrB and csrC promote the translation of the fim operon, while at the same time inhibiting the translation of flagella, which are inhibitory to biofilm formation. Factors affecting the ease of identification are. SIR -B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses.

Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Full Text Available Joint fluid aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, but to date no definite guidelines have been published.

For this reason, a group of experts of the Italian Society of Rheumatology SIR produced evidence based recommendations for performing arthrocentesis. Among them, the most relevant are: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland. Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. To provide an overall assessment of his career.

Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian.

A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine.

William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Sir Thomas Browne Against Error: An Apology for Complexity. Full Text Available In Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica, a broad, somewhat encyclopedic catalogue of errors divided into seven books. Far from being dogmatic and assertive, the treatise engages the modern reader for its defence of open debate and of the value of contradiction; actually, Pseudodoxia appears deeply in tune with the epistemological uncertainty of our times for its complex, relativising and even dubitative approach to all things human.

Browne endorses the idea that uncritical acceptance of received notions about the world hinders the advancement of learning; at the same time, though, a rigidly straight path — a unique, simplified method to decipher reality — equally perverts knowledge and is the source of misapprehension and mystification.

The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth Hutton, J.

Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems crystallization and melting not involving scaling.

Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments.

From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics.

One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: The independent spreaders involved SIR Rumor model in complex networks.

Recent studies of rumor or information diffusion process in complex networks show that in contrast to traditional comprehension, individuals who participate in rumor spreading within one network do not always get the rumor from their neighbors. They can obtain the rumor from different sources like online social networks and then publish it on their personal sites.

In our paper, we discuss this phenomenon in complex networks by adopting the concept of independent spreaders. Rather than getting the rumor from neighbors, independent spreaders learn it from other channels. We further develop the classic "ignorant-spreaders-stiflers" or SIR model of rumor diffusion process in complex networks. A steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final spectrum of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, density of independent spreaders and average degree of the network.

Results show that independent spreaders effectively enhance the rumor diffusion process, by delivering the rumor to regions far away from the current rumor infected regions. And though the rumor spreading process in SF networks is faster than that in ER networks, the final size of rumor spreading in ER networks is larger than that in SF networks.

Genetic diversity in the SIR model of pathogen evolution. We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model SIR.

We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations infected hosts , where pathogens replicate and mutate.

Hosts transmit pathogens to uninfected hosts. We show that the level of pathogen variation is well predicted by analytical expressions, such that pathogen neutral molecular variation is bounded by the level of infection and increases with the duration of infection. We show that this invasion probability is given by the relative increment in R 0 of the new pathogen s.

By analyzing the patterns of genetic diversity in this framework, we identify the molecular signatures during the replacement and compare these with those observed in sequences of influenza A. Full Text Available We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model SIR. We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations infected hosts, where pathogens replicate and mutate.

Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus.

Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ.

Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: The discrimination and mapping capabilities are to be evaluated for shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B images of geologic features in Indonesia that are covered by equatorial rain forest canopy. The approach for data acquisition, handling, and analysis and the expected results of the investigation are discussed.

SIRS -associated coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia. Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia often occur in critically ill patients, and disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and a poor outcome. However, the relation between coagulopathy and systemic inflammatory response has not been thoroughly clarified. Thus, we evaluated coagulative activity, organ dysfunction, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia and examined the balance between coagulopathy and systemic inflammation.

The effect of SIRS on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction was evaluated in these patients. Both the minimum platelet count and maximum DIC scores were significantly correlated with the maximum SOFA score, indicating that a relation exists between coagulopathy and organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and organ dysfunction progress with significant mutual correlation, depending on the increase in SIRS scores.

The SIRS -associated coagulopathy may play a critical role in inducing organ dysfunction after severe insult. We study an epidemic model for infections with non permanent acquired immunity SIRS. The incidence rate is assumed to be convex respect to the infective class. By using a peculiar Lyapunov function, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the local nonlinear stability of equilibria. Conditions ensuring the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are also obtained.

Our procedure allows to enlarge the class of incidence rates ensuring the Lyapunov nonlinear stability of the endemic equilibrium for SIRS models. Use of the SIRS in compensation cases: Comparatively little work has evaluated its usefulness in compensation and disability contexts. The present study examined SIRS data from individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychiatric examinations for the purposes of workers' compensation, personal injury, or disability proceedings.

Using bootstrapping comparisons, three primary groups were identified: An important consideration is whether SIRS results are unduly affected by common diagnoses or clinical conditions. Systematic comparisons were performed based on common disorders major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders , presence of a cognitive disorder dementia, amnestic disorder, or cognitive disorder NOS , or intellectual deficits FSIQ SIRS primary scales was small and nonsignificant, providing evidence of the SIRS generalizability across these diagnostic categories.

Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen. A free boundary problem of a diffusive SIRS model with nonlinear incidence. This paper is concerned with the spreading persistence and vanishing extinction of a disease which is characterized by a diffusive SIRS model with a bilinear incidence rate and free boundary. Through discussing the dynamics of a free boundary problem of an SIRS model, the spreading of a disease is described.

We get the sufficient conditions which ensure the disease spreading or vanishing. In addition, the estimate of the expanding speed is also given when the free boundaries extend to the whole R.

Elementary proof of convergence to the mean-field model for the SIR process. The susceptible-infected-recovered SIR model has been used extensively to model disease spread and other processes. Despite the widespread usage of this ordinary differential equation ODE based model which represents the mean-field approximation of the underlying stochastic SIR process on contact networks, only few rigorous approaches exist and these use complex semigroup and martingale techniques to prove that the expected fraction of the susceptible and infected nodes of the stochastic SIR process on a complete graph converges as the number of nodes increases to the solution of the mean-field ODE model.

Our approach can also be generalized to many other types of compartmental models e. Discusses how Bob Dylan's biographical songs promote the myth of the outlaw-hero and offer powerful cultural criticism by appealing to three ethical traits: Shows how Dylan's biographical rhetoric defines a social context that appeals to a vast audience.

Biographical writing is highly imaginative writing and always has been. The task of the biographer is to weave a riveting story from the fabric of the subject's life. For example, a single pivotal incident in the lives of Percy Bysshe Shelley, the English poet, and Mary Godwin, author of "Frankenstein", at the grave of Mary's mother, Mary…. An Exemplary Analysis of Lawyer's Acting. Full Text Available In the empirical part of the following paper, professional service is shown in the context of a biographical experience of a professional—a family law attorney.

In terms of method, this undertaking is precarious. Its sense lies in gaining an understanding of the biographically and historically motivated potentials and limits of professional services. A differentiated look at professional services is facilitated when you know the stories out of which specific procedures have resulted.

Up until now detailed examinations are missing of the genesis of concrete professional acting, even though the topic has been worked out clearly, especially in studies of teachers' work.

The epidemic is an outbreak of an infectious disease situation in the population at a place that exceeds the normal approximation in a short period. When the disease is always contained in any place as well as with the causes, it is called endemic.

SIRS models used in this study with the assumption A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center.

Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis.

Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention.

It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events.

Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings.

With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. Even if high performance sport has become increasingly professionalized, the role of the elite coach and the developmental pathways of the coaches differ widely in both areas of experience and amount of experience.

This paper draws on theories on biographical learning There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of elite Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland. Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde.

To provide an overall assessment of his career. Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian.

A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine.

William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

A biographical conception of neurosis requires a dynamical perspective of personality which may be defined as the relative stability of a person in time. The life-cycle is not merely a sequence of data but a complex pattern which can be reconstructed by all semiotic systems. But the ordinary all-purpose language is to be preferred because of its flexibility to fit even very complicated state of affairs. The narration of a life-cycle does not end in a unique version but a multiplicity of legitimate narratives.

The unity of all these versions is conceived as paradigma, that means a set of similar examples. The extensional set of the paradigma shows a kind of order which may be characterized intensionally by a rule or a sense. The seeming irrationality of a neurotic symptom is caused by its belonging to a different paradigma for which there is a sense. Psychotherapy is an attempt to give the seeming irrational symptoms a specific sense and to change it in a second step. Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models.

Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established.

Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained. Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light.

Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well- known feature in atmospheric optics. He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light.

This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena. Biographical Storytelling in the Context of Counseling and Therapy.

Full Text Available A precondition for any hermeneutic analysis of biographies is that the interview partners generate life history narratives. The same applies to a counseling practice that is sensitized by biographical analysis.

On the one hand, clients' narratives of their own experiences provide the counselor with information on their biographical self-constructions and the processes of the sedimentation of the experiences of their life history.

On the other hand, such narratives are not only of diagnostic use for the counselor, but also contribute to the clients' self-understanding. The author works in a psychosocial counseling center for university students. The article describes the transfer and potential of a style of counseling which encourages and is sensitized by biographical narratives in the context of an institution with a specific task.

Biographical Blindness in Theory Building. This emptiness is ever more obvious with regard to categories of women alternative to the mainstream gender model. The basic question is when, how and why the biographical approach in art analysis remains unresponsive to biographical specifics outside the socially affirmative mainstream, and why is it important in the biographical optic to detect lost elements through sharper-focused lance. Sir Victor Horsley is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery.

He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in , and in he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on.

Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square, London , and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis , written in by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia.

They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery.

Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy.

Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. Full Text Available The analysis of the intertext functions in biographical novels by P. Ackroyd has been reviewed in this article. Its purpose is to destroy the stereotyped images. The intertext helps P. Ackroyd to comment the works of his heroes and to include them in the cultural paradigm. As a result, the structure of the biographical novel becomes open and allows of different interpretations.

Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon. This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals.

The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned.

It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future. Reported are recent results of investigations of the two major Siberian ecosystems dynamics, which are boreal forests and wetlands, with special emphasis on their role in the carbon cycle as well as results of climatic modeling for the region under study and first elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure forming glue for relevant multidisciplinary research.

New SB RAS initiatives aimed at organization across Siberia a set of environmental observatories to monitor regional ecosystems and climate dynamics with special emphasis upon desertification and permafrost thawing processes and synchronized development of distributed facilities supporting obtained data storage and delivery are described in details. Scientific plans relying upon these developments are discussed as well. Stability of SIRS system with random perturbations. In this paper, we consider an epidemiological model, which is an SIRS model with or without distributed time delay influenced by random perturbations.

We present the stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the associated stochastic SIRS system. Eligibility Worker Selection Process: Biographical Inventory Validation Study.

One way for agencies to reduce fiscal stress is to minimize employee turnover. A project undertaken by San Bernardino County California to reduce employee turnover through the development, validation, and use of a non-traditional worker selection instrument biographical inventory is described.

This project was aimed at the specific…. The interaction between seductive details SD and a graphic organizer GO was investigated. Depending on condition, the participants also read a biographical paragraph SD-only , viewed a graphic organizer that linked the seductive details to the….

Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities. Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late s to and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists.

As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical. The Social Representations of Soviet period in Latvian biographical discourse. The conceptual framework of the study is derived from the social representations theory that was founded at the beginning of the s by French social psychologist Serge Moscovici.

The empirical part of the thesis is based on three dataset Sigurd Wagner of Princeton University. He is recognized for his g. Numerical solution of stochastic SIR model by Bernstein polynomials. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method.

Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings. This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image.

The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes.

The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery. Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square.

In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others.

In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor.

Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated. Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses.

He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. This unique and encyclopedic reference work charts the evolution of the physics of shock waves and detonations from the earliest investigations into percussion and impact phenomena right up to the most recent groundbreaking research in the field.

The history of this long and complex process is first reviewed in a general survey that encompasses everything from the earliest observations and interpretations of puzzling high-rate dynamic phenomena associated with natural and man-made explosions to a discussion of the merits of modern numerical computer simulations. The subject is then treated in more detail and in chronological order in the central section of the book, while also being richly illustrated in form of a picture gallery.

The bibliographic index provides short biographies of eminent researchers who have contributed to the field. Further references for biographical sources are given, and both name and subject indices with over and entries, respectively are provided. Rowland, Emily; Skinner, Christopher H. Seductive details are interesting, but sometimes irrelevant to the target material present in texts and lectures. In the current study, undergraduate students read six paragraphs describing Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stages i.

Participants in four groups also read one of two biographical paragraphs. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice.

Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity.

John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way.

He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data.

One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission UPS from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did.

Oscillations in SIRS model with distributed delays. The ubiquity of oscillations in epidemics presents a long standing challenge for the formulation of epidemic models. Whether they are external and seasonally driven, or arise from the intrinsic dynamics is an open problem.

It is known that fixed time delays destabilize the steady state solution of the standard SIRS model, giving rise to stable oscillations for certain parameters values. In this contribution, starting from the classical SIRS model, we make a general treatment of the recovery and loss of immunity terms. We present oscillation diagrams amplitude and period in terms of the parameters of the model, showing how oscillations can be destabilized by the shape of the distributions of the two characteristic infectious and immune times.

The formulation is made in terms of delay equations which are both numerically integrated and linearized. Results from simulations are included showing where they support the linear analysis and explaining why not where they do not. Considerations and comparison with real diseases are presented along.

SIR -B experiments in Japan. Among the test sites for the SIR -B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits. The SIR -B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution. Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections RCS are used to relate the image data number to RCS.

The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations. The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques. The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics. Corner reflectors m apart can be recognized on the image, while those m apart seem a single target.

The SIR -B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses. The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away. To assess the clinical and demographic profile of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS and sepsis, among newly admitted children in different age groups in a hospital in North India. This prospective study was conducted at a referral care centre in Northern India. All children, age group 0 to SIRS and sepsis and to gain clinical and demographic data.

During the study period, a total of patients were screened for SIRS. Out of the latter 30, 19 had septic shock. Mean duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay in the SIRS group were 6. In the group without SIRS , mean duration were 2. In conclusion, the proportion of sepsis contributing to SIRS is high in a tertiary care hospital.

Therefore rapid recognition of SIRS is essential. Goal directed treatment of sepsis is also important so that high mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock are prevented. An introduction to the biographical narrative interpretive method. To introduce the biographical narrative interpretive method BNIM to nurse researchers in search of a new methodology and method.

Listening to and interpreting the narratives of patients is a core feature of nursing. Research methodologies and methods frequently do not fully take into account the historical, psycho-social and biographical dynamics of people's lives. This paper draws from the experiences of both authors who have previously utilised the BNIM method, as well as sourcing relevant literature.

This is a methodology paper that reviews the historical context of BNIM and provides an overview of its potential application for nursing research. BNIM uses a unique interviewing technique to elicit an uninterrupted story from participants. The BNIM analytic tool is formulaic and uses nine stages to analyse individual cases. A tenth stage helps with analysis across cases. BNIM methodology and methods empower participants to articulate the vicissitudes of their life and experiences of illness while also providing the researcher with a framework for data analysis and interpretation to give meaning to individuals' life stories.

The BNIM interview technique and analytic framework are useful tools to help with an in-depth qualitative exploration of life stories in context. Grade point average and biographical data in personal resumes: This study aimed to examine relationships between graduates' grade point average GPA , biographical data and success in finding a job in general and a psychology-based job in particular.

Two hundred six psychology graduates participated in a two-wave longitudinal study. Biographical data assessed w. The sir A gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis.

Sir A orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of Sir A regulation has never been identified. Application of SIR epidemiological model: The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR susceptible-infected-susceptible is presented to describe a reality.

From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation. In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions.

A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model. An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis J. The basic reproductive rate R 0 in the coupled system has been worked out. Using Aron's results cf. Mutu dari karet remah sangat dipengaruhi oleh adanya konsentrasi zat menguap sebagai salah satu parameter penentuan kualitas karet remah yang dihasilkan.

Analisa perbandingan sangat efektif dilakukan dalam menentukan kualitas karet remah bermutu paling baik berdasarkan klasifikasi antara mutu SIR 20 dengan mutu SIR 3WF. Parameter yang digunakan adalah mengetahui konsentrasi zat menguap yang lebih besar atau lebih kecil berdasarkan Standard Indonesian Rubber SIR yang telah ditentukan. A tentative biographical interpretation]. This study proposes a " biographical " approach using a particular heuristic method. The structure of an important and significant letter written by Gramsci while in prison is analysed in this light.

This interpretation leads us to the conclusion that, at the time of writing, Gramsci was in full possession of all his mental faculties, although worried by his long imprisonment and smitten by a profound disillusion as a result of the deformation of the "socialist" system. The victim of a "dual seclusion", he was not only able to make an exhaustive analysis of the situation, but in a certain sense he also succeeded in predicting the tragic events which were taking shape on the historical-political horizon of the world to which he belonged.

Biographical reconstruction of WWII experience: Six distinct patterns of late life cognitive appraisal of war-time experience: These categories not only represent interindividual differences in the appraisal of war-time experience, but often reflect contrasting patterns of personal response to the social and political circumstances of this era of German history.

In addition to cohort and gender differences, divergence in locus of control orientation as well as the role of social bonding and instrumental social support are discussed. Differences revealed in the biographical interviews are further reflected in the results of standardized questionnaires.

The great Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin died 46 hours after being wounded by a pistol shot in a duel. The bullet penetrated the right pelvic bone, continued through the lower abdomen, and crushed the right part of the sacral bone. Biographical events leading to the duel are presented in the article, which also reviews articles in Russian medical journals describing the extent of the trauma and discussing the treatment possibilities at the time of the duel as well as present-day treatment.

It is concluded that death was caused by peritonitis and that only modern extensive abdominal and orthopaedic surgery combined with antibiotic treatment could have saved the poet's life. In two separate papers, two participants of the Weimar congress are identified on the famous congress photo for the first time.

Rehm, also a founding member of the Munich IPA branch. He directed a private sanatorium and exerted a considerable influence on medical politics in Munich for many years.

An ardent National Socialist, Rehm sold his sanatorium to the Nazis in Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report A criterion groups comparison. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS -2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of criminal defendants males, 48 females who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial.

In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning primarily the M-FAST at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS. Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS -2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs.

Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS -2 in this sample. Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS -2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification.

Sir 2 and calorie restriction in yeast: Activation of Sir 2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction CR has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir 2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast.

We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir 2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries. Several specific cases where the Sir 2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted.

These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir 2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model. Bass- SIR model for diffusion of new products. We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass- SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics.

The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass- SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers.

Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones. Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer.

Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In , he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases. Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between and , he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules.

For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in , the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song.

This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize. Social change in the perspective of biographical reflection.

Full Text Available The modern world is interpreted and described in terms of an autobiographical society, in which the fundamental issues of human life are resolved in the process of an individual decision and being involved in a peculiar type of a dialog. Even though, the biography has functioned in social life forever, only now with the epoch of individualization, and then virtualization of life, its formative character has been noticed.

Who is the subject of autobiography? Who is it aimed at as a message and testimony of life? How is it created? Why is it constructed? Who is it constructed by? And then the questions which are behind the autobiography in the theoretical sense — What is life? How do we discover it? What is the link between telling about life and living the life? How is the telling living about a life connected with culture and history? How does reading interpreting about life connect with telling about life and the truth about life?

Social development phases coupled with transformations within biographical reflection have been distinguished: The direction of changes sketched. Role of biographical experience and bodily sensations in patients' adaptation to hypertension. Patients gradually adopted behaviour and attitudes to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. A diagnosis of hypertension constitutes a biographical disruption and has an impact on daily life.

Patients' adaptation to hypertension combines biographical and bodily experiences To explore patients' adaptation to hypertension and to describe its impact on their sense of body, biographical experience, approach to life and daily activities.

A qualitative interview study with nine men and eight women age: The informants differed in type and duration of treatment. Adaptation to hypertension was influenced by the patients' biographical experiences and involved changes in body perception.

The process affected patients' daily activities and they actively tested their physical As South Africa is witnessing a maturing AIDS epidemic, the experience and impact of the disease are written ever more firmly into the biographical self-constructions of the infected. In this article, I explore typical strategies of dealing with uncertainties arising from new challenges, after the shock of ontological insecurity ensuing from the diagnosis, has been overcome.

The analysis is based on contrasting interpretations of problem-centered biographical interviews with HIV-positive Sout This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate.

A biographical -narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate.

These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are Using biographical research to understand experiences of crisis among homeless people in Croatia. This article attempts to show how biographical research can be used to understand experiences of crisis among homeless people and how their personal biographies uncover different contexts and processes.

Following an overview of biographical research, an analysis of the post-transition period and homelessness will be discussed. This paper focuses on a biographical approach to entrepreneurial marketing research.

Conventional research methodologies such as in-depth interview and questionnaires have a range of advantages, disadvantages and bias. Biographical research can result in the generation of longitudinal data which can be triangulated with data and theory from these more conventional approaches in order to enhance understanding of entrepreneurial marketing behaviour.

In marketing, formal prescriptions of stepwis Towards establishing biographical and business background profiles of entrepreneurs from two ethnic and gender groups. The literature on the biographical backgrounds of entrepreneurs seems to contain many contradictory findings. This situation can partly be due to the assumption that samples of entrepreneurs were homogeneous rather than heterogeneous.

It appears as if female entrepreneurs have been less well researched than their male counterparts. Differences in the biographical backgrounds and business situation of, respectively, the white and the black entrepreneurs in South Africa have been assumed but li Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface MIDI -based scale analysis.

Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice.

Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors e.

The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients.

In consecutive patients, SIRS status SIRS patients were This paper examines the parental writings about birth and infancy. Biographic fragments or texts, with or without photographies, can fit into the sections of a baby record book. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues.

Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis.

Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS , and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.

Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. Full Text Available The article proposes a general, empirically grounded model for analyzing biographical uncertainty.

The model is based on findings from a qualitative-explorative study of transforming meanings of unemployment among young people in post-Soviet Lithuania. In a first step, the particular features of the uncertainty puzzle in post-communist youth transitions are briefly discussed. A historical event like the collapse of state socialism in Europe, similar to the recent financial and economic crisis, is a generator of uncertainty par excellence: Against this background, the case of a young woman and how she responds to the novel threat of unemployment in the transition to the world of work is introduced.

Her uncertainty management in the specific time perspective of certainty production is then conceptually rephrased by distinguishing three types or levels of biographical uncertainty: Biographical uncertainty, it is argued, is empirically observable through the analysis of acting and projecting at the biographical level.

The final part synthesizes the empirical findings and the conceptual discussion into a stratification model of biographical uncertainty as a general tool for the biographical analysis of uncertainty phenomena. A comparison of leadership styles with respect to biographical characteristics. Full Text Available Research purpose: Managers, when applying their leadership styles, are affected by some of their own traits.

This article intends to compare the leadership styles of the managers of Zabol University of Medical Sciences with respect to Hersey and Blanchard model that was based on their biographical characteristics. Research design, approach and method: The research methodology is descriptive-causal and comparative. The data were collected from individuals female and male participants. No significant difference was observed between the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of male and female managers.

However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the directive, persuasive, participative and delegative leadership styles of managers, considering their work experience, education level and field of study. It is recommended to hold in-service courses for managers who have a lower education level or less work experience or have been graduated from the fields of study other than the Management major.

The Pasteurization of Marie Curie: A meta biographical experiment. Biographies of scientists occupy a liminal space, highly popular with general readers but questioned in academia. Nonetheless, in recent years, historians of science have not only embraced the genre with more enthusiasm and less guilt, they have also turned to the metabiography in order to renew the study and story of scientists' roles.

This essay focuses on Marie Curie, the world's most famous female scientist, in order to unpack some of the theoretical and methodological claims of the science biography, and especially to address the sexing mechanisms at play in the construction of the biographical subject.

Pierre Curie , Marie's biography of her husband Pierre, paid tribute to her dead husband and collaborator, but also allowed Curie a legitimate outlet to construct her own persona and legacy. Categories such as personhood, person, and persona are not only central to the biography genre but also are essential to the sense of self and self-fashioning of scientists. Looking at how Marie Curie negotiated these categories in Pierre Curie not only gives new insight into Curie's self-fashioning strategies but may also shed some light on the more general analytical lacunae of the science biography.

Full Text Available The article deals with drug use by young Roma as members of a marginalized population. It reflects on the use of collages and of metaphor analysis on images produced by participants within an action-research approach. Additionally, various stakeholders were involved in a participatory manner in defining research questions, priorities and strategies. In order to understand young Roma's perceptions on drugs, 23 visual focus groups and 58 life-story interviews were conducted in five European countries.

In the focus groups, young people built collages to represent drugs and then explained their meanings. Metaphor analysis was used to analyze the data. With the biographical interviews, histories of consumption from drug users were gathered. Among the trends identified are the early onset of tobacco use, exposure to consumption of alcohol by adults, underestimation of the consequences of many drugs, addiction to injecting drug use in specific areas. Gender roles are strongly associated with patterns of consumption.

Roma young people also express belonging and reclaim positive social status by using certain types of drugs and by sharing consumption patterns with non-minority young people. The research process also illustrates how qualitative research can contribute to selective prevention programs.

Sir A orthologs affect both motility and virulence. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sir A may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon. We examined the effect of a sir A mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control.

Sir A had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium less than fivefold. However, in various types of motility agar plates, sir A was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding fold. Mutations in the sir A orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sir A orthologs.

The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed. An Interview with Sir Michael Marmot. Health equity through action on the social determinants of health.

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