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Cotransfection of wild-type hMCT8 with a mutant lacking amino acids — resulted in formation of homo-and heterodimers of the variants, indicating that transmembrane domains 4—6 are not involved in the dimerization process. Furthermore, we explored the structural and functional role of the 10 Cys residues in hMCT8.

Our findings indicate that individual Cys residues are not important for the function of hMCT8 or suggest that hMCT8 has other yet-undiscovered functions in which cysteines play an essential role. Structure and functional relevance of the Slit2 homodimerization domain. Slit proteins are secreted ligands that interact with the Roundabout Robo receptors to provide important guidance cues in neuronal and vascular development.

Slit-Robo signalling is mediated by an interaction between the second Slit domain and the first Robo domain, as well as being dependent on heparan sulphate.

In an effort to understand the role of the other Slit domains in signalling, we determined the crystal structure of the fourth Slit2 domain D4 and examined the effects of various Slit2 constructs on chick retinal ganglion cell axons. Slit2 D4 forms a homodimer using the conserved residues on its concave face, and can also bind to heparan sulphate.

We observed that Slit2 D4 frequently results in growth cones with collapsed lamellipodia and that this effect can be inhibited by exogenously added heparan sulphate. Our results show that Slit2 D4-heparan sulphate binding contributes to a Slit-Robo signalling mechanism more intricate than previously thought.

Accession BP Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage Transmembrane receptors are integral components of sensory pathways in prokaryotes. These receptors share a common dimeric architecture, consisting in its basic form of an N-terminal extracellular sensor, transmembrane helices, and an intracellular effector.

As an exception, we have identified an archaeal receptor family--exemplified by Af from Archaeoglobus fulgidus --that is C-terminally shortened, lacking a recognizable effector module. Instead, a HAMP domain forms the sole extension for signal transduction in the cytosol. Here, we examine the gene environment of Aflike receptors and find a frequent association with transmembrane transport proteins.

Furthermore, we identify and define a closely associated new protein domain family, which we characterize structurally using Af from A. Members of this family are found both as stand-alone proteins and as domains within extant receptors. In general, the latter appear as connectors between the solute carrier 5 SLC5 -like transmembrane domains and two-component signal transduction TCST domains. This is seen, for example, in the histidine kinase CbrA, which is a global regulator of metabolism, virulence, and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonads.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs. Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of per chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen.

In recent years it was demonstrated that per chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that per chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs.

We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs.

Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon.

The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence IS elements, exists.

Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species.

Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile non-hyperthermophile: Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments.

Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The followinghyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used forthese studies: Common genes were annotated and groupedaccording to their roles in cellular processes where such informationwas available and proteins not previously implicated in theheat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified.

Additionalexperimental data are needed in order to learn more about theseproteins. To address non-gene based components of thermaladaptation. Evidence of molecular adaptation to extreme environments and applicability to space environments. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified.

Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were. Senutovitch, Nina; Stanfield, Robyn L. Novel fluorescent tools such as green fluorescent protein analogues and fluorogen activating proteins FAPs are useful in biological imaging for tracking protein dynamics in real time with a low fluorescence background.

FAPs are single-chain variable fragments scFvs selected from a yeast surface display library that produce fluorescence upon binding a specific dye or fluorogen that is normally not fluorescent when present in solution. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye.

Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a 5'-CpT-3': We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EIImtl, belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification. EIImtl is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain IICmtl. This proves that the mannitol-binding site is asymmetrically positioned in dimeric IICmtl.

Combined with the available two-dimensional projection maps of IICmtl, it is concluded that a second resting binding site is present in this transporter. Active transport of mannitol only takes place when EIImtl becomes phosphorylated at Cys in the cytoplasmic B domain. We conclude that during the transport cycle, the phosphorylated B domain has to move to the mannitol-binding site, located in the middle of the membrane, to phosphorylate mannitol. Localization of the substrate binding site in the homodimeric mannitol transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli.

Localization of the substrate-binding site in the homodimeric mannitol transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli. The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EII mtl , belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification.

EII mtl is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain IIC mtl. This proves that the mannitol-binding site is asymmetrically positioned in dimeric IIC mtl. Combined with the available two-dimensional projection maps of IIC mtl , it is concluded that a second resting binding site is present in this transporter.

Active transport of mannitol only takes place when EII mtl becomes phosphorylated at Cys in the cytoplasmic B domain. Structural analysis of the homodimeric reaction center complex from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

The RCC complex has four subunits: Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the samples after cross-linking showed that all five subunits of the RC can be linked by three different cross-linkers: The interaction sites of the cross-linked complex were also studied using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. PscD helps stabilize FMO to the reaction center and may facilitate transfer of the electron from the RC to ferredoxin.

The soluble domain of the heme-containing cytochrome subunit PscC and part of the core subunit PscA are located on the periplasmic side of the membrane. There is a close relationship between the periplasmic portions of PscA and PscC, which is needed for the efficient transfer of the electron between PscC and P Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes.

Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination.

The free energy values of Escherichia coli K shows a sharp drop, as expected, at 30 bp downstream of the stop codon, presumably due to hairpin-forming sequences. Similar drops are observed for Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Bacillus subtilis and Chlamydia trachomatis, suggesting that these organisms also form hairpins at their transcription termination sites.

On the other hand, 12 other prokaryotes- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Synechocystis PCC, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus , Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Aquifex aeolicus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Treponema pallidum -show no apparent decrease in free energy value at the corresponding regions.

This result suggests that these prokaryotes, or at least some of them, may never form hairpins at their transcription termination sites. Full Text Available BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism s by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown.

BilE shares significant sequence similarity with ATP-binding cassette ABC importers that contribute to virulence and stress responses by importing quaternary ammonium compounds that act as compatible solutes. Assays using related compounds have failed to demonstrate transport mediated by BilE.

The putative substrate-binding domain SBD of BilE was expressed in isolation and the crystal structure solved at 1. This suggests that BilE may bind an as-yet unknown ligand. Elucidation of the natural substrate of BilE could reveal a novel bile resistance mechanism. Automated Resource Classifier for agglomerative functional classification of prokaryotic proteins using annotation texts. Functional classification of proteins is central to comparative genomics.

The need for algorithms tuned to enable integrative interpretation of analytical data is felt globally. The availability of a general, automated software with built-in flexibility will significantly aid this activity. We have prepared ARC Automated Resource Classifier , which is an open source software meeting the user requirements of flexibility.

The default classification scheme based on keyword match is agglomerative and directs entries into any of the 7 basic non-overlapping functional classes: The keyword library of ARC was built serially by first drawing keywords from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K In subsequent steps, this library was further enriched by collecting terms from archaeal representative Archaeoglobus fulgidus , Gene Ontology, and Gene Symbols.

Three examples are provided to illuminate the current perspectives on mycobacterial physiology and costs of proteins in prokaryotes. ARC is available at http: Microbial respiration with chlorine oxyanions: Chlorine oxyanions are valuable electron acceptors for microorganisms. Recent findings have shed light on the natural formation of chlorine oxyanions in the environment. These suggest a permanent introduction of respective compounds on Earth, long before their anthropogenic manufacture.

Microorganisms that are able to grow by the reduction of chlorate and perchlorate are affiliated with phylogenetically diverse lineages, spanning from the Proteobacteria to the Firmicutes and archaeal microorganisms. Microbial reduction of chlorine oxyanions can be found in diverse environments and different environmental conditions temperature, salinities, pH. It commonly involves the enzymes perchlorate reductase Pcr or chlorate reductase Clr and chlorite dismutase Cld.

Horizontal gene transfer seems to play an important role for the acquisition of functional genes. Novel and efficient Clds were isolated from microorganisms incapable of growing on chlorine oxyanions.

Archaea seem to use a periplasmic Nar-type reductase pNar for perchlorate reduction and lack a functional Cld. Chlorite is possibly eliminated by alternative abiotic reactions. This was already demonstrated for Archaeoglobus fulgidus , which uses reduced sulfur compounds to detoxify chlorite. A broad biochemical diversity of the trait, its environmental dispersal, and the occurrence of relevant enzymes in diverse lineages may indicate early adaptations of life toward chlorine oxyanions on Earth.

Analysis of thermal adaptation in the HSL enzyme family. Since the 3D homology models of other members of the HSL family were also available, we performed a structural alignment with all these sequences. The resulting alignment was used to assess the amino acid "traffic rule" in the HSL family. Taken as a whole, the data point to the statistical meaning of defined amino acid conversions going from psychrophilic to hyperthermophilic sequences.

We identified and mapped several such changes onto the EST2 structure and observed that such mutations were localized mostly in loops regions or alpha-helices and were mostly excluded from the active site. A site-directed mutagenesis of two of the identified residues confirmed they were involved in thermal stability.

In this paper,we compared the sensitivities of AFEST a thermophilic esterase from the archaea Archaeoglobus fulgidus and acetylcholinesterase AChE towards five organophosphorus compounds OPs by means of molecular docking,and found that only the docking energy between AFEST and dichlorvos is lower than that between AChE and dichlorvos.

Combining of theory with experiment,we have obtained important structure-function information of AFEST,which will be helpful to the further studies of esterase.

One metal is found near the universally conserved GMN motif, apparently stabilized within the transmembrane region. This portion of the selectivity filter might discriminate between the size and preferred coordination geometry of hydrated substrates.

CorA may further achieve specificity by requiring the sequential dehydration of substrates along the length of its approximately 55 A long pore. Ten metal sites identified within the cytoplasmic funnel domain are linked to long extensions of the pore helices and regulate the transport status of CorA.

A proteolytic protection assay, biophysical data, and comparison to a soluble domain structure from Archaeoglobus fulgidus have revealed the potential reaction coordinate for this diverse family of transport proteins. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the magnesium transporter CorA.

The full-length integral membrane protein CorA from Thermotoga maritima TmCorA has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified without membrane isolation. Native crystals diffracted to 3. All full-length protein crystals were highly mosaic and produced anisotropic diffraction patterns. Microbial redox processes in deep subsurface environments and the potential application of perchlorate in oil reservoirs. Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to thrive under oxygen-free conditions in subsurface environments relies on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized elements, such as sulfate, ferric iron or CO2, coupled to the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds.

A broad phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms from subsurface environments has been described using isolation-based and advanced molecular ecological techniques. The physiological groups reviewed here comprise iron-, manganese- and nitrate-reducing microorganisms.

In the context of recent findings also the potential of chlorate and perchlorate [jointly termed perchlorate] reduction in oil reservoirs will be discussed.

Special attention is given to elevated temperatures that are predominant in the deep subsurface. Microbial reduction of perchlorate is a thermodynamically favorable redox process, also at high temperature. However, knowledge about perchlorate reduction at elevated temperatures is still scarce and restricted to members of the Firmicutes and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

By analyzing the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of functional genes in metagenome databases and combining this knowledge with extrapolations to earlier-made physiological observations we speculate on the potential of perchlorate reduction in the subsurface and more precisely oil fields.

In addition, the application of perchlorate for bioremediation, souring control and microbial enhanced oil recovery are addressed. Full Text Available Tetrahydromethanopterin H4MPT is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase RFAP synthase.

Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme.

By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase. Genomic, RNAseq, and molecular modeling evidence suggests that the major allergen domain in insects evolved from a homodimeric origin.

The major allergen domain MA is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences monomers , which had diverged over time.

This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence.

Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. Molecular modeling of the A. RNAseq data for A. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects.

An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. In vivo incisional wound healing augmented by platelet-derived growth factor and recombinant c-sis gene homodimeric proteins. Human platelet-derived growth factor hPDGF is likely to be important in stimulating tissue repair, based upon its in vivo chemotactic and stimulatory activities for inflammatory cells and fibroblasts and upon the presence of PDGF and related proteins in platelets, macrophages, and activated fibroblasts, cell types that make up the milieu of the healing wound.

The function of this half-size transporter has not yet been determined. Here, we show that TAPL forms a h. It reacts strongly with the thiol groups of cysteine residues by Michael addition and has been reported to inhibit nuclear factor-kB NF-kB activation by lipopolysac Homodimerization of Marek's disease virus-encoded Meq protein is not sufficient for transformation of lymphocytes in chickens.

Marek's disease virus MDV , the etiologic agent of Marek's disease, is a potent oncogenic herpesvirus. MDV is highly contagious and elicits a rapid onset of malignant T-cell lymphomas in chickens within several weeks after infection. Similar to Jun, the leucine zipper region of Meq allows the formation of homo- and heterodimers. Meq homo- and heterodimers have different DNA binding affinities and transcriptional activity; therefore, they may differentially regulate transcription of viral and cellular genes.

In this study we investigated the role of Meq homodimers in the pathogenicity of MDV by generating a chimeric meq gene, which contains the leucine zipper region of the yeast transcription factor GCN4 meqGCN.

These data provide the first in vivo evidence that Meq homodimers are not sufficient for MDV-induced transformation. A unique phenylalanine in the transmembrane domain strengthens homodimerization of the syndecan-2 transmembrane domain and functionally regulates syndecan The syndecans are a type of cell surface adhesion receptor that initiates intracellular signaling events through receptor clustering mediated by their highly conserved transmembrane domains TMDs.

However, the exact function of the syndecan TMD is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the specific regulatory role of the syndecan-2 TMD. We found that syndecan-2 mutants in which the TMD had been replaced with that of syndecan-4 were defective in syndecanmediated functions, suggesting that the TMD of syndecan-2 plays one or more specific roles.

Interestingly, syndecan-2 has a stronger tendency to form sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS -resistant homodimers than syndecan Our structural studies showed that a unique phenylalanine residue Phe enables an additional molecular interaction between the TMDs of the syndecan-2 homodimer. The presence of Phe was correlated with a higher tendency toward oligomerization, and its replacement with isoleucine significantly reduced the SDS-resistant dimer formation and cellular functions of syndecan-2 e.

Conversely, replacement of isoleucine with phenylalanine at this position in the syndecan-4 TMD rescued the defects observed in a mutant syndecan-2 harboring the syndecan-4 TMD. Taken together, these data suggest that Phe in the TMD of syndecan-2 endows the protein with specific functions. Our work offers new insights into the signaling mediated by the TMD of syndecan family members.

Novel cyanine dyes and homodimeric styryl dyes as fluorescent probes for assessment of lactic acid bacteria cell viability. Innovations in labeling techniques and in the design and synthesis of dye structures are closely related to the development of service equipment such as light sources and detection methods. Novel styryl homodimers and monomethine cyanine dyes were synthesized and their staining abilities for discrimination between live and dead lactic acid bacterial cells were investigated.

The dyes were combined in pairs based on their excitation and emission maxima and the capacity to penetrate through cell membranes of viable bacterial cells. The absorption maxima in the same region and the large Stocks shifts of the styryl derivatives allowed viability analysis to be done with epifluorescent microscope with a very basic configuration - one light source about nm and one filter for the fluorescent emissions.

The live cells quantification by the fluorescence dyes coincided well with the results of the much more time-consuming tests by plate counting. Thus, the proposed dye combinations are appropriate for rapid viability estimation in small laboratories that may have conventional equipment.

Recombinant PsbF from Synechococcus sp. All organisms with oxygenic photosynthesis contain two photosystems: D1, D2 and cytochrome b Cyt b The function of Cyt b remains unclear. We have successfully overexpressed the psbF gene, encoding the - subunit of Cyt b, from a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC as a fusion gene and obtained a redox-active form of Cyt b When the N-terminal GST protein of the fusion gene product was removed with thrombin, the PsbF protein was still redox-active, suggesting that the recombinant PsbF can form dimer in Escherichia coli.

The absorption spectra of either the oxidized form or the reduced form of both GST fusion protein and the purified PsbF dimer and the difference spectra between the two forms are the same as that of the Cyt b isolated from the higher plants. Redox titration analysis of recombinant PsbF showed that the mid-point redox potential of the recombinant Cyt b was approximately 50 mV, which is close to the low potential of Cyt b The results are helpful to the understanding of localization and function of Cyt b on thylakoid membranes.

Pore mutations in ammonium transporter AMT1 with increased electrogenic ammonium transport activity. The Arabidopsis AMT1 proteins mediate uptake of the ionic form of ammonium.

AMT transport activity is controlled allosterically via a highly conserved cytosolic C terminus that interacts with neighboring subunits in a trimer. The C terminus is thus capable of modulating the conductivity of the pore. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, pore mutants suppressing the inhibitory effect of mutations in the C-terminal trans-activation domain were characterized. To explore whether the transport mechanism was altered, the AMT1;1-Q57H mutant was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed electrophysiologically.

AMT1;1-Q57H was characterized by increased ammonium-induced and reduced methylammonium-induced currents. AMT1;1-Q57H possesses a x lower affinity for ammonium K m and a fold higher V max as compared with the wild type form.

To test whether the trans-regulatory mechanism is conserved in archaeal homologs, AfAmt-2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was expressed in yeast. The transport function of AfAmt-2 also depends on trans-activation by the C terminus, and mutations in pore-residues corresponding to Q57H of AMT1;1 suppress nonfunctional AfAmt-2 mutants lacking the activating C terminus.

Altogether, our data suggest that bacterial and plant AMTs use a conserved allosteric mechanism to control ammonium flux, potentially using a gating mechanism that limits flux to protect against ammonium toxicity. Crystal structure of a trapped catalytic intermediate suggests that forced atomic proximity drives the catalysis of mIPS.

A comparison of all of the crystal structures of mIPS described in this work suggests a novel type of catalytic mechanism that relies on the forced atomic proximity of functional groups. The lysine cluster is contained in a small volume in the active site, where random motions of these side chains are responsible for the progress of the complex multistep reaction as well as for the low rate of catalysis.

This mechanism is supported by the complete loss of activity of the enzyme caused by the Leu mutation to Ala that releases the lysine containment. MRI contrast demonstration of antigen-specific targeting with an iron-based ferritin construct.

A genetically modified ferritin has been examined for its properties as a tumor-selective magnetic resonance imaging MRI contrast agent. The engineered ferritin described herein was derived from Archaeoglobus fulgidus AfFtn-AA , which stores a significantly greater quantity of iron than wild-type ferritins.

The modified iron-enriched ferritin In vitro studies showed strong reactivity of the assembled nanoconjugate to transformed Necl-5 positive rat prostate epithelial cells.

These findings highlight the utility of the modified ferritin construct as a novel MRI contrast agent that can be manipulated to target antigen-specific tissues. Tv-RIO1 — an atypical protein kinase from the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are key enzymes that regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and metabolic functions. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of phosphates to serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, thus playing functional roles in reversible protein phosphorylation. There are two main groups, namely eukaryotic protein kinases ePKs and atypical protein kinases aPKs; RIO kinases belong to the latter group.

While there is some information about RIO kinases and their roles in animals, nothing is known about them in parasites. This is the first study to characterise a RIO1 kinase from any parasite. Tv-rio-1 was transcribed at the highest level in the third-stage larva L3, and a higher level in adult females than in males. Comparison with homologues from other organisms showed that protein Tv-RIO1 had significant homology to related proteins from a range of metazoans and plants.

Amino acid sequence identity was most pronounced in the ATP-binding motif, active site and metal binding loop. Phylogenetic analyses of selected amino acid sequence data revealed Tv-RIO1 to be most closely related to the proteins in the species of Caenorhabditis. Conclusion This study provides the first insights into the RIO1 protein kinases of nematodes, and a foundation for further investigations into the biochemical and functional roles of this molecule in biological processes in parasitic nematodes.

A high-throughput strategy to screen 2D crystallization trials of membrane proteins. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional 2D crystals has demonstrated potential for structure determination of membrane proteins.

Technical limitations in large-scale crystallization screens have, however, prevented a major breakthrough in the routine application of this technology. Dialysis is generally used for detergent removal and reconstitution of the protein into a lipid bilayer, and devices for testing numerous conditions in parallel are not readily available. Furthermore, the small size of resulting 2D crystals requires electron microscopy to evaluate the results and automation of the necessary steps is essential to achieve a reasonable throughput.

We have designed a crystallization block, using standard microplate dimensions, by which 96 unique samples can be dialyzed simultaneously against 96 different buffers and have demonstrated that the rate of detergent dialysis is comparable to those obtained with conventional dialysis devices. A liquid-handling robot was employed to set up 2D crystallization trials with the membrane proteins CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and light-harvesting complex II LH2 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

For CopA, 1 week of dialysis yielded tubular crystals and, for LH2, large and well-ordered vesicular 2D crystals were obtained after 24 h, illustrating the feasibility of this approach. Combined with a high-throughput procedure for preparation of EM-grids and automation of the subsequent negative staining step, the crystallization block offers a novel pipeline that promises to speed up large-scale screening of 2D crystallization and to increase the likelihood of producing well-ordered crystals for analysis by electron crystallography.

Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic -1 consortium.

Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic -1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC. In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography IC with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes.

Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. Co MIC , the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments. Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM.

Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of Co MIC during mitochondrial division. Analysis AFSA past for solving the traveling salesman problem, the algorithm efficiency is often a big problem, and the algorithm processing method, it does not fully responsive to the characteristics of the traveling salesman problem to deal with, and therefore proposes a parallel join improved AFSA process.

The simulation with the current TSP known optimal solutions were analyzed, the results showed that the AFSA iterations improved less, on the MIC cards doubled operating efficiency, efficiency significantly. In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin.

In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium.

Very major errors VMEs i. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. On the parallelization approaches for Intel MIC architecture. The Intel MIC architecture is one of the main processor architectures used for the production of computational accelerators.

Increasing energy and cost-effciency of accelerators is one important option for building new HPC systems. However, the effective use of accelerators requires careful optimization on all stages of the algorithm and use of appropriate parallelization approaches. In the domain of statistical methods the quasi-Monte Carlo methods present distinct challenges when thousands of computational cores are to be involved in a computation.

In this paper we describe in detail and study the performance of algorithms for generating some popular low-discrepancy sequences, aimed at devices with Intel MIC architecture. By leveraging the powerful vector instructions of the Intel MIC architecture to process many coordinates of the sequences in parallel, we obtain fast implementations that can be plugged-in in any parallel quasi-Monte Carlo computation.

We present extensive numerical and timing results that demonstrate the benefit of our algorithms and their parallel effciency. The effects of using hyperthreading are also studied. The generation routines are provided under the GPL. An international standarizaed utility to collect data, MIC. Multi-Instrument Collect, MIC , is rapidly becoming the international standard for safeguard data collection.

First implemented in , it was adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency the following year and fielded in numerous locations around the world. This application is capable of simultaneous collection from up to independent instruments. It supports a variety of instrument types and a variety of communications media.

Although created and currently being maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Science and Technology Group, N1, effort is underway completion planned mid-year to open up the architecture promoting outside or third party development.

This effort is nearly unique in the safeguards arena. It provides a standard user interface philosophy for a multiplicity of hardware vendors. User community advantages are: There are also significant advantages to the instrument developer. For example a variety of pre-existing communications objects may be used, pre-existing power management capabilities exist, and extensive data management capabilities.

All of these may be leveraged into a vendors development effort - significantly decreasing the amount of development effort and consequently decreasing cost. The presentation will include an overview of the existing MIC and MIC utilities from a developers and a users point of view, the user interface philosophy, and will discuss the open architecture allowing third party development.

Monitoring biofilm formation and incipient MIC in real time. Microbiologically Influenced corrosion MIC and microbiological fouling of piping and heat exchanger materials is a common and often costly problem in industrial cooling water and process water systems. MIC failures have caused expensive unplanned outages, the need for local repairs, and, in some cases, complete system replacement. The control of biofilm on surfaces has been shown to be the most effective tool for mitigating MIC as well as for maintaining heat transfer in heat exchangers.

The most common method for control of microbiological fouling is the use of oxidizing biocides. Effluent limits and the corrosion penalties associated with their use drive users toward optimizing treatments in order to control biofilm effectively while meeting discharge limitations and without incurring excessive corrosion due to the treatment.

Optimized treatments require accurate monitoring of biofilm activity. An electrochemical sensor has been developed to provide plant owners with a tool for monitoring biofilm activity on metallic surfaces - a useful method for predicting system conditions and for controlling biocide additions.

The probe has recently been incorporated into a complete system that includes on-line data acquisition and data analysis capabilities. Those capabilities permit plant personnel to determine the presence and activity of biofilms on metal surfaces in their systems in real time; a powerful tool for optimization of biological controls.

Results from these activities, using data from actual plant installations, are described, along with implementation strategies for the use of the system to provide satisfactory microbiological control at the lowest cost. Broth microdilution was compared with tube macrodilution and a simplified population analysis agar method for evaluating vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs and detecting glycopeptide-intermediate isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

Vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC distributions by tube macrodilution and agar testing were also markedly different from those evaluated by broth microdilution. The fold-lower inoculum size used for broth microdilution compared to macrodilution and agar MIC assays explained in part, but not entirely, the systematic trend toward lower vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by microdilution compared to other methods. Broth microdilution assay led to underdetection of the vancomycin-intermediate S.

Detection rates of isolates with elevated vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by macrodilution and agar testing assays were higher at 48 h than at 24 h. In conclusion, the sensitivity of broth microdilution MIC testing is questionable for reliable detection and epidemiological surveys of glycopeptide-intermediate resistance in S.

We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current either polarity forced back into their outputs.

Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five 5 parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die.

The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi. Imipenem and meropenem Vitek 2 MICs were evaluated for a panel of Enterobacteriaceae for identification of carbapenemase producers.

Is vancomycin MIC "creep" method dependent? Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility trends in blood isolates from North East Scotland from to This study investigated "creep" in vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates from blood cultures over a 5-year period in a hospital in the United Kingdom, using different susceptibility testing methods. However, neither trend was replicated in MICs from automated or retrospective testing.

Inconsistent evidence on vancomycin MIC creep and the relevance of the MIC to clinical outcome may arise from differences in susceptibility testing methods, including storage of isolates. There is a need to standardize and streamline susceptibility testing of vancomycin against MRSA.

Suppression of tricarboxylic acid cycle in Escherichia coli exposed to sub- MICs of aminoglycosides. High-performance and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques were utilized to evaluate the concentrations of metabolic reactants, intermediates, and end products.

The data reported indicate that aminoglycosides inhibit or delay bacterial catabolism of carboxylic acids, with the following relative degrees of activity: The decrease in total biomass production was proportional to the degree of tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibition.

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast. We found that In contrast, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole 1 to 32 and isavuconazole 0. We experimentally evaluate the performance of computing devices on core operations of the application. We correlate the observed performance with the characteristics of computing devices and data access patterns, computation complexities, and parallelization forms of the operations.

The results show a significant variability in the performance of operations with respect to the device used. The performances of operations with regular data access are comparable or sometimes better on a MIC than that on a GPU.

We propose new performance-aware scheduling strategies that consider variabilities in operation speedups. Our scheduling strategies significantly improve application performance compared to classic strategies in hybrid configurations. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground.

The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The gain of the oscillator is 0. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1. Developing a wireless implantable body sensor network in MICS band. Through an integration of wireless communication and sensing technologies, the concept of a body sensor network BSN was initially proposed in the early decade with the aim to provide an essential technology for wearable, ambulatory, and pervasive health monitoring for elderly people and chronic patients.

It has become a hot research area due to big opportunities as well as great challenges it presents. Though the idea of an implantable BSN was proposed in parallel with the on-body sensor network, the development in this area is relatively slow due to the complexity of human body, safety concerns, and some technological bottlenecks such as the design of ultralow-power implantable RF transceiver.

This system innovatively incorporates both sensing and actuation nodes to form a closed-control loop for physiological monitoring and drug delivery for critically ill patients. The sensing node, which is designed using system-on-chip technologies, takes advantage of the newly available ultralow-power Zarlink MICS transceiver for wireless data transmission. Finally, the specific absorption rate distribution of the proposed system was simulated to determine the in vivo electromagnetic field absorption and the power safety limits.

We present a novel approach, based on robust principal components analysis RPCA and maximal information coefficient MIC , to study the redshift dependence of halo baryonic properties. Our data are composed of a set of different physical quantities for primordial minihaloes: We find that Mdm and Mgas are dominant factors for variance, particularly at high redshift. Nonetheless, with the emergence of the first stars and subsequent feedback mechanisms, xmol, SFR and Z start to have a more dominant role.

Our analysis also suggests that all the gaseous properties have a stronger correlation with Mgas than with Mdm, while Mgas has a deeper correlation with xmol than with Z or SFR. Finally, a comparison between MIC and Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the former is a more reliable indicator when halo properties are weakly correlated.

The measured phase noise is Data were obtained at 2. The outer Jovian planet candidate offers a plausible dynamical explanation for the observed debris disk dynamics of moving "clumps" on several year time-scales.

It may be possible to directly image the outer planet candidate with the current generation of high contrast imaging instruments. The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification Mic GAS Process.

The objectives of the research during FY were to: Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou.

The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S.

The post antibiotic effect PAE is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub- MIC effect SME which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics. LTX, as compared to mupirocin, demonstrated prolonged time of effect for these pharmacodynamic parameters, which supports persistent activity for several hours after the drug is no longer present or is below the MIC.

The pharmacodynamic parameters studied here suggest LTX is less likely than mupirocin to generate resistance to S. This article is protected by copyright. In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach.

In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD T was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix.

Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD T due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1. Mic Mac GIS application: The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System RPAS for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery.

Mic Mac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface for each command. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM.

The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities. Within this context, we evaluated the interaction established by recombinant Tg MIC 4 the whole molecule with sialylated bovine fetuin and desialylated asialofetuin glycoproteins by using functionalized quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring QCM-D.

Effect of methyl isocyanate MIC gas on the eyes of Fischer rats. The accidental release of methyl isocyanate gas in Bhopal, India, was reported to cause temporary blindness and other eye injuries in many of the exposed people. Methyl isocyanate MIC is known to be corrosive and to irritate intact skin and mucous membranes, but little is known about the extent of ocular damage incurred during exposure to its vapors.

The eyes of male and female Fischer rats were evaluated immediately after a 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm of MIC , and periodically thereafter during a day recovery period.

During exposure to 10 ppm and higher concentrations, rats kept their eyes partially closed. Copious lacrimation and occasional frothy nasal discharge were evident. Eyes were examined under ultraviolet light after topical application of sodium fluorescein, and histopathologic examination included lids, cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve, and Harderian gland. There was no significant gross or microscopic evidence of epithelial erosion or ulceration of the cornea, or of adjacent tissues immediately after, or at any time following exposures.

No skin irritation was noted. It would appear that the natural protective mechanisms of the eye of rats were adequate to prevent ocular damage at these exposure levels. Rapid broth macrodilution method for determination of MICs for Mycobacterium avium isolates. A multicenter study was done to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of a method for determining the MICs of antimicrobial agents against the Mycobacterium avium complex in 7H12 broth with the BACTEC system.

In phase I, with eight drugs and 10 strains, intralaboratory reproducibility was The results of phase II testing with 41 additional strains were consistent with those obtained in phase I, with good interlaboratory reproducibility. Three test concentrations of each drug and the tentative interpretation of results are proposed. Radiometric MIC determination has the potential to become the method of choice for clinical microbiology laboratories and evaluation of new agents for the treatment of M.

A primary requirement in distributed robotic software systems is the dissemination of data to all interested collaborative entities in a timely and scalable manner. However, providing such a service in a highly dynamic and resource-limited robotic environment is a challenging task, and existing robot software infrastructure has limitations in this aspect.

This paper presents a novel robot software infrastructure, mic ROS-drt, which supports real-time and scalable data distribution. The solution is based on a loosely coupled data publish-subscribe model with the ability to support various time-related constraints. And to realize this model, a mature data distribution standard, the data distribution service for real-time systems DDS , is adopted as the foundation of the transport layer of this software infrastructure. By elaborately adapting and encapsulating the capability of the underlying DDS middleware, mic ROS-drt can meet the requirement of real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems.

Evaluation results in terms of scalability, latency jitter and transport priority as well as the experiment on real robots validate the effectiveness of this work. The proposed QC ranges would aid clinical laboratories in testing these compounds following their development for treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. Sub-mitochondrial localization of the genetic-tagged mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging components Mic 19, Mic 60 and Sam Each mitochondrial compartment contains varying protein compositions that underlie a diversity of localized functions.

Insights into the localization of mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging MIB components will have an impact on our understanding of mitochondrial architecture, dynamics and function. Tagged Mic 19 and Mic 60 were located at CJs, distributed in a network pattern along the mitochondrial periphery and also enriched inside cristae. We discovered an association of Mic 19 with cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV.

It was also found that tagged Sam50 is not uniformly distributed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and appears to incompletely overlap with Mic or Mic positive domains, most notably at the CJs. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Les hommes regardent le ciel. Le mouvement du soleil. La lune et ses mouvements. Le temps et les calendriers.

Les mythes de la fin du monde. Fluoroquinolones are some of the most prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Previously, we and others showed that the fluoroquinolones exhibit a class effect with regard to the CLSI-established breakpoints for resistance, such that decreased susceptibility i.

For defined strains, however, clear differences exist in the pharmacodynamic properties of each fluoroquinolone and the extent to which resistance-associated genotypes affect the MICs of each fluoroquinolone. In a pilot study of clinical Escherichia coli isolates, we uncovered tremendous variation in norfloxacin MICs.

Thus, although the fluoroquinolones can be considered equivalent with regard to clinical susceptibility or resistance, fluoroquinolone MICs differ dramatically for fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates, likely because of differences in drug structure.

Comparative antianaerobic activities of doripenem determined by MIC and time-kill analysis. Against anaerobe strains, the investigational carbapenem doripenem had an MIC 50 of 0. Results were similar to those for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Time-kill studies showed that doripenem had very good bactericidal activity compared to other carbapenems, with Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks. Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones mics as well as on-board barometers.

Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: Global deployment may be fast and easy www.

Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers.

We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud.

Therapy induced regression of primary tumors and eliminated metastasis in preclinical models. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections.

We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency.

No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. The study examined MRSA isolates from blood cultures collected at several hospitals in two German cities between and The vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. The range of vancomycin MIC as determined by Etest was 0.

The geometric mean MIC increased by 1. The MIC mixture is an environmentally friendly, lead-free composition, so Replacement of the lead styphnate only would have the disadvantage of retaining the antimony sulfide and barium nitrate pollutants in the Direct process annual cost for lead styphnate.

Aescin escin derived from the seeds of horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited.

Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration 0. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. For permissions, please e-mail: Overexpression of MIC -3 indicates a direct role for the MIC gene family in mediating Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Transgene-based analysis of the MIC -3 gene provides the first report of a cotton gene having a direct role in mediating cotton resistance to root-knot nematode.

Major quantitative trait loci have been mapped to Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Multiple lines of circumstantial evidence have strongly suggested that the MIC Meloidogyne Induced Cotton gene family plays an integral role in mediating cotton resistance to RKN. MIC -3 transcript and protein overexpression were confirmed in root tissues of multiple independent transgenic lines with each line showing a similar level of increased resistance to RKN.

In addition, we determined that this effect of MIC -3 overexpression was specific to RKN as no effect was observed on reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction. Transgenic lines did not show obvious alterations in growth, morphology, flowering, or fiber quality traits.

Gene expression analyses showed that MIC -3 transcript levels in uninfected transgenic roots exceeded levels observed in RKN-infected roots of naturally resistant plants and that overexpression did not alter the regulation of native MIC genes in the genome.

These results are the first report describing a direct role for a specific gene family in mediating cotton resistance to a plant-parasitic nematode. Intermedilysin release by Streptococcus intermedius: Intermedilysin is a cytolytic toxin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, a pathogen of humans. In vitro studies showed that exposure of S. The most potent antibiotic was clindamycin.

On the other hand, exposure to cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics generally showed insignificant changes in intermedilysin release at sub- MIC concentrations. However, no significant differences in the mRNA levels of the intermedilysin gene were observed. Treatment for pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis is difficult.

Since current treatment has limitation, new application is needed. Fluoroquinolone is one of candidates. We have investigated the feasibility of sitafloxacin STFX.

Adverse events were slight. Vancomycin has been a key antibiotic agent for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA infections. However, little is known about the relationship between vancomycin MIC values at the higher end of the susceptibility range and clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of MRSA bacteremia on clinical outcomes in patients with a vancomycin MIC near the upper limit of the susceptible range.

We examined the relationship between MIC , genotype, primary source of bacteremia, and mortality. There was no significant difference between the presence of agr dysfunction and SCCmec type between the two groups. A higher vancomycin MIC was not found to be associated with mortality. In contrast, high-risk bloodstream infection sources hazard ratio [HR], 4.

Our study suggests that a high-risk source of bacteremia is likely to be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes, but a high vancomycin MIC in a susceptible range, as well as genotype characteristics, are not associated with mortality.

The MICOS complex mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system is essential for mitochondrial inner membrane organization and mitochondrial membrane contacts, however, the molecular regulation of MICOS assembly and the physiological functions of MICOS in mammals remain obscure.

Impaired MICOS assembly causes the formation of 'giant mitochondria' because of dysregulated mitochondrial fusion and fission. Also, mtDNA nucleoids are disorganized and clustered in these giant mitochondria in which mtDNA transcription is attenuated because of remarkable downregulation of some key mtDNA nucleoid-associated proteins.

Les urgences infectieuses ORL. Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria. Decreased tigecycline susceptibility mediated by efflux pump systems is being reported in clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae.

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC data would prove useful in managing infections by these multidrug resistant bacteria and optimizing use of tigecycline. To evaluate the MIC values of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia, to Science Washington D C Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene changes in relation to the development of scald in Granny Smith apples after cold storage.

Journal of Environmental Quality 26 1: Carbon dynamics of Mexican tropical evergreen forests: Carbon dynamics of aggregate-associated organic matter estimated by carbon natural abundance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60 3: Carbon dynamics of the Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51 4: Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp.

Carbon fixation and biological diversity in the coffee agroecosystem. Carbon fixation profiles do reflect light absorption profiles in leaves.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22 6: Carbon fixation, partitioning and growth of cowpea parasitised by Striga gesnerioides. Aspects of Applied Biology Carbon flow in Indian forests. Climatic Change 35 3: Carbon flow through the hepatic folate-dependent one-carbon pool is not altered in vitamin A-deficient rats.

Journal of Nutrition 3: Carbon flows through meiobenthic nematodes in the Westerschelde Estuary. Carbon flux and diversity of nematodes and termites in Cameroon forest soils. Carbon flux in transgenic sugar beet. Carbon fluxes in the rhizosphere of sweet chestnut seedlings Castanea sativa grown under two atmospheric CO2 concentrations: Carbon fractions in compost and compost maturity tests.

Carbon import into barley roots: Journal of Experimental Botany 46 Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain. Journal of Environmental Management 49 4: Carbon isotope composition of C4 grasses is influenced by light and water supply. Plant cell and environment 19 4: Carbon isotope discrimination and indirect selection for transpiration efficiency at flowering in lentil Lens culinaris Medikus , spring bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Carbon isotope discrimination in Quercus ilex resprouts after fire and tree-fell.

Oecologia Berlin 3: Carbon isotope discrimination in irrigated and droughted potato Solanum tuberosum L. Plant, Cell and Environment 20 1: Carbon isotope discrimination in three semi-arid woodland species along a monsoon gradient.

Oecologia Berlin 4: Carbon isotope discrimination, ash, and canopy temperature in three wheatgrass species. Crop Science 37 5: Carbon isotope discrimination, fluorescence emission and gas exchange in the genus Vitis during adaptation to water stress. Definition of an index of genotypic drought tolerance. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 48 2: Carbon isotope fractionation during bacterial methanogenesis by CO2 reduction. Carbon isotope fractionation in tree ring early and late wood in relation to intra-growing season water balance.

Carbon isotopes and carbon turnover in cotton and wheat FACE experiments. Carbon isotopes reveal soil organic matter dynamics following arid land shrub expansion. Carbon isotopic composition, gas exchange, and growth of three populations of ponderosa pine differing in drought tolerance.

Carbon isotopic signatures of elytra reflect larval diet in luperine rootworms Coleoptera: Environmental Entomology 25 5: Carbon labile pool in Chilean volcanic soils.

Carbon metabolism enzyme activities and carbon partitioning in Pinus halepensis Mil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60 7: Carbon metabolism in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Carbon metabolism in wheat genotypes with contrasting photosynthetic characteristics. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 43 1: Carbon mineralization kinetics as influenced by soil properties.

Biology and fertility of soils2 4: Carbon mineralization potential of soils amended with sludge from olive processing.

Carbon mitigation scenarios for Mexican forests: Carbon mobilization from the forest floor under red spruce in the northeastern U. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28 9: Carbon monoxide production from land applied cheese whey. Bioresource Technology 54 3: Carbon outwelling from a mangrove forest with adjacent seagrass beds and coral reefs Gazi Bay, Kenya.

Marine Ecology, Progress Series 3: Carbon partitioning and allocation in northern red oak seedlings and mature trees in response to ozone. Carbon partitioning and metabolism in relation to plant growth and fruit production in tomato. Carbon partitioning between apple fruits: Journal of Experimental Botany 48 Carbon partitioning in Pinus radiata stands in relation to foliage nitrogen status. Carbon partitioning in apple trees.

Carbon partitioning in barley following manipulation of source and sink. Carbon partitioning in source leaves of peach, a sorbitol-synthesizing species, is modified by photosynthetic rate. Physiologia Plantarum 2: Carbon partitioning in the leaves of CAM plants. Carbon pools and sequestration in forest ecosystems in Britain.

Forestry Oxford 68 4: Carbon reserves and production in the phytomass of the tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems of Russia. Carbon sequestration in the biosphere: Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Carbon source requirement for the culture of white yam Dioscorea rotundata embryos in vitro. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60 Carbon source utilization and isoenzyme analysis as taxonomic aids for toxigenic Neosartorya species and their relatives.

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 44 1: Carbon storage and distribution in tundra soils of Arctic Alaska, U. Carbon storage and productivity of carbon dioxide enriched nitrogen limited grass sward after one year's growth.

Carbon storage and sequestration in the Russian forest sector. Carbon storage and sequestration in the forests of Northern Ireland. Forestry Oxford 69 2: Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 38 Carbon storage in forest soils. Carbon substrate mineralization and sulphur limitation. Carbon supply reduction has a minimal influence on current year's red raspberry Rubus idaeus L. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 3: Carbon transfer among soil fractions during soybean residue degradation.

Humic substances in the global environment and implications on human health: Carbon transfer between C3 and C4 plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network, quantified using stable carbon isotopes. Soil biology and biochemistry 28 Carbon uptake by secondary forests in Brazilian Amazonia.

Carbon use in root respiration as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant and Soil 2: Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of CH4 and N2O in soil ecosystems. Mass spectrometry of soils: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics under continuous cultivation as influenced by farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers in the savanna of northern Nigeria.

Carbon, nitrogen, and water use by larches and co-occurring evergreen conifers. Carbon variation with depth in soils of Brazil and climate change during the Quaternary. Carbon-nitrogen interaction related to P, K, Ca, and Mg nutrients in field crops. Carbon-polymer biocomposites for amperometric sensing.

Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios in agricultural residues. Madras Agricultural Journal 82 2: Carbonatation of lime-sugar solutions. Methods of soil analysis Part 3 chemical methods: Carbonate chemistry, pH, and physical properties of an alkaline sodic soil as affected by various amendments.

Australian Journal of Soil Research 35 1: Carbonate redistribution and hydrogeochemical processes in two soils with groundwater in a Mediterranean environment. European Journal of Soil Science 48 2: Carbonate-paleosol genesis in the Plio-Pleistocene St.

David formation, Southeastern Arizona. Journal of Sedimentary Research Section A: Sedimentary Petrology and Processes 66 1: Carbonated soft drink acceptability of college students: Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 38 1: Carbonic anhydrase 2 polymorphism in buffaloes Bubalus bubalis and Nellore cattle Bos taurus indicus from Amazon valley - Brazil.

Buffalo Journal 13 1: Carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 diffusion kinetics as assayed in leaves using 18O labelled CO2 and mass spectrometry. Carbonic anhydrase activity as an indicator of zinc status of Sathgudi orange. Carbonic anhydrase activity in leaves of wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency. Journal of Plant Physiology 2: Carbonic anhydrase in Solanum tuberosum L.: Carbonic anhydrase provides bicarbonate for de novo lipogenesis in the locust.

Carbonic anhydrase supports electrolyte transport in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. Evidence by X-ray microanalysis of cryosections. Journal of Insect Physiology 43 1: Carbonic anhydrases from leaves and roots of Daucus carota. Phytochemistry Oxford 44 7: Carbonized rice husk as soil ameliorant in agriculture. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal 18 2: Carbosulfan and bifenthrin toxicity to honey bees exposed to the formulation tested for market purposes.

Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe 39 2: Carbosulfan in protection of coniferous plantations against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 2: Carboxy-terminal cleavage of the human foamy virus Gag precursor molecule is an essential step in the viral life cycle. Journal of Virology 71 Carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate phosphatase from leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and other species.

Carboxyl-terminal processing protease for D1 precursor protein in spinach. Carboxyl-terminal processing protease for the D1 precursor protein: Plant Molecular Biology 30 1: Carboxylate interactions involved in the disassembly of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. Carburisation-oxidation of reformer tube in a fertilizer plant. Fertiliser News 40 Carcase and component yields of rheas. British Poultry Science 38 4: Carcass and meat quality of cattle and buffalo.

Carcass and meat quality of second-cross cryptorchid lambs grazed on chicory Cichorium intybus or lucerne Medicago sativa. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35 6: Carcass and meat quality traits in beef x Norwegian Red crossbreds.

Buskap og Avdratt 48 4: Canadian Journal of Animal Science 76 1: Carcass and technological meat traits of Czech Pied and Black Pied cattle fattened to kg.

Zivocisna Vyroba 41 4: Carcass characteristics and composition of Barbari male goats. Indian Veterinary Journal 74 5: Carcass characters and meat quality in entire bulls and bulls castrated by two methods, reared on pasture.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia 25 2: Carcass characters in steers of different genetic types, kept confined during the finishing period.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia 25 5: Carcass composition and body fats depots of Galego Bragancano and crossbred lambs by Suffolk and Merino Precoce sire breeds. Animal Science 63 3: Carcass composition and meat quality of horses in relation to grading class. Carcass composition of Florida Sevillana kids. Archivos de Zootecnia 43 Carcass composition of growing bulls of different adapted breeds fed restrictively. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 39 1: Carcass composition of pigs with different lean percentage grades.

Zivocisna Vyroba 41 3: Carcass evaluation studies in Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant rabbits. Indian Journal of Animal Research 29 1: Carcass growth and yield of entire bulls and bulls castrated by two methods, reared on pasture.

Carcass measurements and lean yields of pigs differing in slaughter weight. Carcass quality and chemical composition of meat in relation to genotype and sex of pigs. Carcass quality of purebred and crossbred pigs. Carcass traits and non-carcass components weight of Ossimi and crossbred lambs in relation to pre-slaughter weight. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 32 3: Carcass traits and reproductive organ morphology in week-old SCWL hens.

Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75 3: Carcass traits of Large White Yorkshire pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management 12 2: Carcass traits of early and late feathering Baladi as compared with early feathering Leghorn. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 15 1: Carcass traits of modern chicken genotypes. Carcass traits of purebred and crossbred rabbits. World Rabbit Science 3 4: Zivocisna Vyroba 41 9: Carcass value of Czech Pied and Black Pied cattle fattened to a weight of kg.

Zivocisna Vyroba 41 Carcass value of boars and barrows and classification problems. Carcass waste from fattening chickens in mink rearing trial.

Vara Palsdjur 66 6: Carcass yield and edible component parts of a commercial turkey. Carcasson' s African butterflies: Carcinogenic risks of some biological agents. Lancet British edition Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants 13 Suppl: Carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the human diet: Carcinogens induce reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation.

Carcinomatous degeneration in chromoblastomycosis. Medicina Cutanea Ibero Latino Americana 23 6: Cardamom foliar pest, lace-wing bug, Stephanitis typica Distant Heteroptera: Annals of Entomology 12 2: Cardamom, mandarin and nitrogen-fixing trees in agroforestry systems in India's Himalayan region.

Agroforestry Systems 35 3: Cardenolide formation and activity of pregnane-modifying enzymes in cell suspension cultures, shoot cultures and leaves of Digitalis lanata. Cardenolides heart poisons in the painted grasshopper Poecilocerus pictus F. Pyrgomorphidae feeding on the milkweed Calotropis gigantea L. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 2: Cardenolides from the methanolic extract of Nerium oleander leaves possessing central nervous system depressant activity in mice.

Journal of Natural Products 60 6: Cardenolides of the seeds of Coronilla glauca and of C. New glycosides alloglaucoside and scorpiosidol. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 32 3: Cardenolides, coumarins and flavonoids of Gomphocarpus fruticosus L.

Rastitel' nye Resursy 33 1: Cardiac and neurological manifestations of borreliosis Lyme disease in a patient with 1 degrees AV block. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift Cardiac and pulmonary artery mensuration in feline heartworm disease.

Intensive Care Medicine 22 Cardiac autonomic nerve function and insulin sensitivity in obese subjects. Cardiac echinococcosis with multivisceral involvement. Pediatric Cardiology 17 4: Cardiac effects of standard-dose halofantrine therapy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54 3: Cardiac electrophysiologic measurements in dogs before and after intravenous administration of atropine and propranolol.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 Cardiac examinations in the Irish Wolfhound with special regard to atrial fibrillation and echocardiography. Cardiovascular Pathology 5 4: Cardiac hypertrophy in copper-deficient rats is not attenuated by angiotensin II receptor antagonist L, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 3: Cardiac involvement and scorpion envenomation in children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 41 6: Cardiac noradrenaline in experimental rat envenomation with Africanized bee venom. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 45 8: Cardiac nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits are decreased with copper restriction but not iron restriction: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, Physiology 1: Cardiac patients' mental representations of diet.

Journal of Nutrition Education 28 4: Cardiac pentastomiasis and tuberculosis: Cardiovascular Pathology 5 3: Cardiac performance in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion.

Research in Veterinary Science 61 3: Cardiac performance in relation to oxygen supply varies with dietary lipid composition in sturgeon.

American Journal of Physiology 2 Pt 2: Cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: Cardiac size and its relationship with clinical chemistry profiles in young boars. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 23 2: Cardiac sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in rats with experimentally-induced acute chagasic myocarditis. Cardiac tamponade in dogs.

Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias 11 2: Cardio-histopathological observations on aborted equine fetuses infected with equid herpesvirus 1 EHV Journal of Comparative Pathology 4: Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 43 Cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, and the antagonist atipamezole in isoflurane-anesthetized swine.

Laboratory Animal Science 46 2: Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 9: Cardiopulmonary effects of combinations of medetomidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate in dogs. Veterinary Record 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in ponies, after induction of anaesthesia with xylazine and ketamine.

Veterinary Record 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in the dog during spontaneous and artificial ventilation. Research in Veterinary Science 61 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine with or without atropine in diazepam premedicated dogs.

Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 16 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of lying position in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs. Journal of Experimental Animal Science 38 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine in sheep and in ponies.

Research in Veterinary Science 60 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-ketamine in domestic sheep Ovis ovis maintained in sternal recumbency.

Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol anesthesia in chickens Gallus gallus domesticus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 11 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, compared with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, in dogs.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 25 1: Cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of walking, standing, and standing with a splint during the recuperative period from maximal exercise in horses.

Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat. Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat: Cardiorespiratory effects of a 5HT2 antagonist R in awake and anesthetized dogs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 60 3: Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in horses with different grades of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia. Equine Veterinary Journal 29 1: Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic changes in ponies undergoing intravenous or inhalation anaesthesia.

Cardiospermum halicacabum - a profile. Biologische Medizin 25 4: Cardiotoxicity of the grasshopper, Poecilocerus pictus defensive secretion in the garden lizard, Calotes nemoricola. Cardiovascular activity of naturally occurring lignans.

Cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Veterinary Surgery 25 2: Ciencia Rural 26 2: Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of detomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised horses. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 67 4: Cardiovascular changes associated with anaesthesia induced by medetomidine combined with ketamine in cats.

Journal of Small Animal Practice 37 4: Cardiovascular defects among the progeny of mouse phenylketonuria females. Pediatric Research 42 1: Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in migrants-interactions between nutritional changes and genetic background. Diet, nutrition and chronic disease: Cardiovascular disease and women's health. Topics in Clinical Nutrition 11 1: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and occupation: Sozial und Praventivmedizin 41 3: Cardiovascular disease risk profile in adult Chinese living in north Jakarta, Indonesia with emphasis on coronary heart disease.

Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5 4: Cardiovascular effects after epidural injection of xylazine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Veterinary Surgery 24 3: Cardiovascular effects of 1. Cardiovascular effects of doxacurium chloride in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia 24 1: Cardiovascular effects of fumonisins in swine. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Clusia coclensis Guttiferae.

Revista de Biologia Tropical 44 1: Cardiovascular effects of the fungal extract of Basidiomycetes sp. Life Sciences 60 Cardiovascular effects of the macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin, administered alone and in combination with propranolol or dobutamine, in conscious unrestrained dogs.

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Results indicated that 0. Data showed that the carbon in the CO2 produced from this microorganism is incorporated into carbonates and that the rate at which precipitation occurs and the dynamics of the carbonate precipitation process are strongly mediated by the specific steps involved in the biochemical process for lactate oxidation by A.

A model of carbon flow for an ancient microorganism. Microbial carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted using the archaeon bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus to determine chemical and isotopic fractionation of organic and inorganic carbon into mineral phases. Crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of oligosaccharyltransferase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1. Protein N-glycosylation occurs in the three domains of life.

Oligosaccharyltransferase OST transfers glycan to asparagine in the N-glycosylation sequon. The genome of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus , encodes three AglB paralogs. Two of them are the shortest AglBs across all domains of life.

We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the smallest AglB to identify the minimal structural unit.

In agreement, the deletion in a larger Pyrococcus AglB confirmed its dispensability for the activity. The Archaeoglobus AglB structure revealed that the kinked helix contained an unexpected insertion. A revised sequence alignment based on this finding identified a variant type of the DK motif with the insertion.

A mutagenesis study of the Archaeoglobus AglB confirmed the contribution of this particular type of the DK motif to the activity.

When taken together with our previous results, this study defined the classification of OST: This classification provides a useful framework for OST studies. Structural and biochemical characterisation of Archaeoglobus fulgidus esterase reveals a bound CoA molecule in the vicinity of the active site. A new carboxyl esterase, AF-Est2, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus has been cloned, over-expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically and structurally characterized.

The enzyme has high activity towards short- to medium-chain p-nitrophenyl carboxylic esters with optim. Unusual starch degradation pathway via cyclodextrins in the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain has been shown to grow on starch and sulfate and thus represents the first sulfate reducer able to degrade polymeric sugars.

The enzymes involved in starch degradation to glucose 6-phosphate were studied. In extracts of starch-grown cells the activities of the classical starch degradation enzymes, alpha-amylase and amylopullulanase, could not be detected. Instead, evidence is presented here that A. The pathway comprises the combined action of an extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase CGTase converting starch to cyclodextrins and the intracellular conversion of cyclodextrins to glucose 6-phosphate via cyclodextrinase CDase , maltodextrin phosphorylase Mal-P , and phosphoglucomutase PGM.

These enzymes, which are all induced after growth on starch, were characterized. CGTase catalyzed the conversion of starch to mainly beta-cyclodextrin. The gene encoding CGTase was cloned and sequenced and showed highest similarity to a glucanotransferase from Thermococcus litoralis. After transport of the cyclodextrins into the cell by a transport system to be defined, these molecules are linearized via a CDase, catalyzing exclusively the ring opening of the cyclodextrins to the respective maltooligodextrins.

These are degraded by a Mal-P to glucose 1-phosphate. Finally, PGM catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate, which is further degraded to pyruvate via the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses. Full Text Available Energy conservation by the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria.

Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utiliz-ing sulfate or thiosulfate whereas genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases lldD, dld, lldEFG, also present in sulfate reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of FH2 and menaquinone mediated electron transport chain during heterotrophic growth.

A putative pe-riplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabo-lism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh: Hdl hydrogenase, that may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Rather, energy conservation is probably facili-tated via menaquinone to multiple membrane bound heterodisulfide reductase complexes and the enzyme DsrC — linking periplasmic hydrogenase Vht to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite.

The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologues secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth.

A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems.

Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus , to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. Here we report the results of A. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at and bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls.

At pressures up to bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding bars. These results suggest that A. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global.

Reaching for mechanistic consensus across life kingdoms: We have solved and refined the structure of the mIPS from the hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1. The enzyme crystallized from poly ethylene glycol in the P1 space group with one tetramer in the asymmetric unit and provided a view of the entire biologically active oligomer. Despite significant changes in sequence length and amino acid composition, the general architecture of the archaeal enzyme is similar to that of the eukaryotic mIPS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacterial mIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The enhanced thermostability of the archaeal enzyme as compared to that from yeast is consistent with deletion of a number of surface loops that results in a significantly smaller protein. In the structure of the A. The modeling of the substrate and known inhibitors suggests a critical role for the second metal ion in catalysis and provides insights into the common elements of the catalytic cycle in enzymes from different life kingdoms.

The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. It is shown here that the T. Sugar utilization in the hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain The hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain , rather than the type strain VC16, was found to grow on starch and sulfate as energy and carbon source.

Fermentation products and enzyme activities were determined in starch-grown cells and compared to those of cells grown on lactate and sulfate. During exponential growth on starch, 1 mol of glucose-equivalent was incompletely oxidized with sulfate to approximately 2 mol acetate, 2 mol CO2 and 1 mol H2S. Starch-grown cells did not contain measurable amounts of the deazaflavin factor F reducer A. This is the first report of growth of a sulfate reducer on starch, i.

Improved enantioselectivity of thermostable esterase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus toward S -ketoprofen ethyl ester by directed evolution and characterization of mutant esterases. Thermostable esterases have potential applications in various biotechnology industries because of their resistance to high temperature and organic solvents.

In a previous study, we isolated an esterase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus DSM Est-AF , which showed high thermostability but low enantioselectivity toward S -ketoprofen ethyl ester. R -ketoprofenor S -ketoprofenis produced by esterase hydrolysis of the ester bond of R,S -ketoprofen ethyl ester and S -ketoprofen has better pharmaceutical activity and lower side effects than R -ketoprofen.

Therefore, we have generated mutants of Est-AF that retained high thermostability whilst improving enantioselectivity. A library of Est-AF mutants was created by error-prone polymerase chain reaction, and mutants with improved enantioselectivity were isolated by site-saturation mutagenesis. The regions of Est-AF containing amino acid mutations were analyzed by homology modeling of its three-dimensional structure, and structure-based explanations for the changes in enantioselectivity are proposed.

We also investigated various characteristics of these mutants and found that the mutants showed similar thermostability and resistance to additives or organic solvents to Est-AF, without a significant trade-off between activity and stability. Complete genome sequence of Archaeoglobus profundus type strain AV18T. Archaeoglobus profundus Burggraf et al. All members were isolated from marine hydrothermal habitats and are obligate anaerobes.

Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the class Archaeoglobi.

The 1,, bp genome with its 1, protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Truncated Androgen Receptor Splice Variants: Mutating one motif did not lead to significant change of BiFC Structure of the homodimeric androgen receptor ligand-binding domain.

The androgen receptor AR plays a crucial role in normal physiology, development and metabolism as well as in the aetiology and treatment of diverse pathologies such as androgen insensitivity syndromes AIS , male infertility and prostate cancer PCa. Here we show that dimerization of AR ligand-binding domain LBD is induced by receptor agonists but not by antagonists.

An AIS mutation in the self-association interface PA disrupts dimer formation in vivo, and has a detrimental effect on the transactivating properties of full-length AR, despite retained hormone-binding capacity.

The conservation of essential residues suggests that the unveiled dimerization mechanism might be shared by other nuclear receptors. Our work defines AR-LBD homodimerization as an essential step in the proper functioning of this important transcription factor. Structure and membrane interactions of the homodimeric antibiotic peptide homotarsinin.

Antimicrobial peptides AMPs from amphibian skin are valuable template structures to find new treatments against bacterial infections. This work describes for the first time the structure and membrane interactions of a homodimeric AMP. Homotarsinin, which was found in Phyllomedusa tarsius anurans, consists of two identical cystine-linked polypeptide chains each of 24 amino acid residues.

The high-resolution structures of the monomeric and dimeric peptides were determined in aqueous buffers. The dimer exhibits a tightly packed coiled coil three-dimensional structure, keeping the hydrophobic residues screened from the aqueous environment. An overall cationic surface of the dimer assures enhanced interactions with negatively charged membranes.

An extensive set of biophysical data allowed us to establish structure-function correlations with antimicrobial assays against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Although both peptides present considerable antimicrobial activity, the dimer is significantly more effective in both antibacterial and membrane biophysical assays.

The development of highly efficient genome engineering reagents is of paramount importance to launch the next wave of biotechnology. TAL effectors have been developed as an adaptable DNA binding scaffold that can be engineered to bind to any user-defined sequence.

Thus, TAL-based DNA binding modules have been used to generate chimeric proteins for a variety of targeted genome modifications across eukaryotic species. For example, TAL effectors fused to the catalytic domain of FokI endonuclease TALENs were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks DSBs , the repair of which can be harnessed to dictate user-desired, genome-editing outcomes. Because TALENs binding to DNA are dependent on their repeat sequences and nucleotides binding specificities, homodimers and heterodimers binding can be formed.

In the present study, we used several TALEN monomers with increased repeats binding degeneracy to allow homodimer formation at increased number of genomic loci. We assessed their binding specificities and genome modification activities.

Our results indicate that homodimeric TALENs could be used to modify the yeast genome in a site-specific manner and their binding to the promoter regions might modulate the expression of target genes.

Taken together, our data indicate that homodimeric TALENs could be used to achieve different engineering possibilities of biotechnological applications and that their transcriptional modulations need to be considered when analyzing their phenotypic effects. Extent of structural asymmetry in homodimeric proteins: Full Text Available Most homodimeric proteins have symmetric structure.

Although symmetry is known to confer structural and functional advantage, asymmetric organization is also observed. Using a non-redundant dataset of high-resolution crystal structures of biologically relevant homodimers, we address questions on the prevalence and significance of asymmetry.

We used two measures to quantify global and interface asymmetry, and assess the correlation of several molecular and structural parameters with asymmetry.

Asymmetry serves as a means to bring about 2: Analysis of these cases reveals two possible mechanisms by which possible infinite array formation is prevented. In case of homodimers associating via non-topologically equivalent surfaces in their tertiary structures, ligand-dependent mechanisms are used.

In case of homodimers associating via interaction surfaces with parts of the surfaces topologically equivalent in the tertiary structures, steric hindrance serves as the preventive mechanism of infinite array. We also find that homodimers exhibiting grossly symmetric organization rarely exhibit either perfect local symmetry or high local asymmetry.

Binding of small ligands at the interface does not cause any significant variation in interface asymmetry.

However, identification of biologically relevant interface asymmetry in grossly symmetric homodimers is confounded by the presence of similar small magnitude changes caused due to.

Impaired dimerization also results in a reduction in glucose transporter type 2 expression and in glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Taken together, these results indicate that IB1 homodimerization through its SH3 domain Interestingly, OtIDH exhibited a sigmoidal kinetic behavior in response to isocitrate unlike other homodimeric homologs, and a remarkably high affinity for isocitrate S0.

Cooperativity in ligand binding is a key emergent property of protein oligomers. Positive cooperativity higher affinity for subsequent binding events than for initial binding is frequent. However, the symmetrically homodimeric ligand-binding domain LBD of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 exhibits negative cooperativity.

To investigate its origin and functional significance, we measured the response to glutamate in vitro of wild-type and CS LBD as a function of the extent of dimerization. Our results indicate that homodimerization enhances the affinity of the first, but not the second, binding site, relative to the monomer, giving the dimeric receptor both greater sensitivity and a broader dynamic range.

Methanogens play a critical role in carbon cycling and contain a number of intriguing biosynthetic pathways. One unusual cofactor found in methanogenic and sulfate reducing archaea is Factor F , which can be interconverted between its reduced and oxidized forms by the FH2: Here, we report an optimized expression and purification method for recombinant Fno derived from the extreme thermophile Archeoglobus fulgidus.

An expression vector that is codon-optimized for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, modified growth conditions, and a modified purification protocol involving a key polyethyleneimine precipitation step results in a highly purified, homogeneous preparation of Fno that displays high catalytic activity with a truncated F analog.

This method should accelerate studies on how Fno uses the unusual F cofactor during catalysis. Homodimeric anoctamin-1, but not homodimeric anoctamin-6, is activated by calcium increases mediated by the P2Y1 and P2X7 receptors. We found that co-expression of anoctamin-1 with the P2Y1R resulted in a small transient increase in Cl - conductance in response to ATP. The P2X7R-mediated sustained activation of Ano1 may be physiologically relevant to the time course of stimulus-secretion coupling in secretory epithelia.

No such increase in Cl - conductance could be elicited by activating the P2X7 receptor in either Xenopus oocytes or Axolotl oocytes co-expressing Ano6. The lack of function of Ano6 can, at least in part, be explained by its poor cell-surface expression, resulting from a relatively inefficient exit of the homodimeric Ano6 from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Subtilases are serine proteases found in Archae, Bacteria, yeasts, and higher eukaryotes. Plants possess many more of these subtilisin-like endopeptidases than animals, e. We report the first structure of a plant subtilase, SBT3 from tomato, in the active apo form and complexed with a chloromethylketone cmk inhibitor. The domain architecture comprises an N-terminal protease domain displaying a aa protease-associated PA domain insertion and a C-terminal seven-stranded jelly-roll fibronectin Fn III-like domain.

We present the first structural evidence for an explicit function of PA domains in proteases revealing a vital role in the homo-dimerization of SBT3 and in enzyme activation. Contribution of Kunitz protease inhibitor and transmembrane domains to amyloid precursor protein homodimerization. Mutation of dimerization motifs in the TM domain of APP or C99 did not significantly affect fluorescence complementation.

They set the basis for further investigation of the relation between dimerization, metabolism and function of APP. Probing the two-domain structure of homodimeric prokaryotic and eukaryotic catalase-peroxidases.

Catalase-peroxidases KatGs are ancestral bifunctional heme peroxidases found in archaeons, bacteria and lower eukaryotes. In contrast to homologous cytochrome c peroxidase CcP and ascorbate peroxidase APx homodimeric KatGs have a two-domain monomeric structure with a catalytic N-terminal heme domain and a C-terminal domain of high sequence and structural similarity but without obvious function.

Nevertheless, without its C-terminal counterpart the N-terminal domain exhibits neither catalase nor peroxidase activity.

Except some hybrid-type proteins all other members of the peroxidase-catalase superfamily lack this C-terminal domain. In order to probe the role of the two-domain monomeric structure for conformational and thermal stability urea and temperature-dependent unfolding experiments were performed by using UV-Vis-, electronic circular dichroism- and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as differential scanning calorimetry.

Recombinant prokaryotic cyanobacterial KatG from Synechocystis sp. The obtained data demonstrate that the conformational and thermal stability of bifunctional KatGs is significantly lower compared to homologous monofunctional peroxidases. The N- and C-terminal domains do not unfold independently. Differences between the cyanobacterial and the fungal enzyme are relatively small.

Scaffold proteins are known as important cellular regulators that can interact with multiple proteins to modulate diverse signal transduction pathways. RACK1 Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 is a WD type scaffold protein, conserved in eukaryotes, from Chlamydymonas to plants and humans, plays regulatory roles in diverse signal transduction and stress response pathways.

RACK1 in humans has been implicated in myriads of neuropathological diseases including Alzheimer and alcohol addictions. Loss of function mutation in Arabidopsis indicates that RACK1 proteins regulate diverse environmental stress signaling pathways including drought and salt stress resistance pathway.

Recently deduced crystal structure of Arabidopsis RACK1A- very first among all of the RACK1 proteins, indicates that it can potentially be regulated by post-translational modifications, like tyrosine phosphorylations and sumoylation at key residues. Here we show evidence that RACK1A proteins, depending on diverse environmental stresses, are tyrosine phosphorylated. Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis of key tyrosine residues, it is found that tyrosine phosphorylation can potentially dictate the homo-dimerization of RACK1A proteins.

It is proposed that RACK1A proteins ability to function as scaffold protein may potentially be regulated by the homo-dimerized RACK1A proteins to mediate diverse stress signaling pathways. Dual roles of F in protein homodimerization and inhibitor binding to biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus. Protein biotinylation is catalysed by biotin protein ligase BPL. The most characterized BPL is from Escherichia coli where it functions as both a biotin ligase and a homodimeric transcriptional repressor.

Unliganded SaBPL apo exists in a dimer-monomer equilibrium at low micromolar concentrations - a stark contrast to E.

The SaBPL dimer-monomer dissociation constant was 5. F, located in the dimer interface, was critical for homodimerization. Inhibition studies together with surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed a strong correlation between inhibitor potency and slow dissociation kinetics.

A fold difference in Ki values for these two enzymes was explained by differences in enzyme: The homodimer exists in an autoinhibited state in which both the major and minor nuclear localization signal NLS binding sites are completely buried in the homodimerization interface, an arrangement that restricts NLS binding.

This finding suggests that the NLS binding sites are also involved in the dimer interface in solution. Monothiol glutaredoxins mono-Grx represent a highly evolutionarily conserved class of proteins present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans.

Mono-Grxs have been implicated in iron sulfur FeS cluster biosynthesis as potential scaffold proteins and in iron homeostasis via an FeS-containing complex with Fra2p homolog of E. However, the function of the mono-Grx in prokaryotes and the nature of an interaction with BolA-like proteins have not been established.

Recent genome-wide screens for E. These data connected the only E. We investigated GrxD to uncover the molecular basis of this synthetic lethality and observed that GrxD can form FeS-bound homodimeric and BolA containing heterodimeric complexes. These complexes display substantially different spectroscopic and functional properties, including the ability to act as scaffold proteins for intact FeS cluster transfer to the model [2Fe-2S] acceptor protein E.

In this work, we functionally dissect the potential cellular roles of GrxD as a component of both homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes, to ultimately uncover if either of these complexes perform functions linked to FeS cluster biosynthesis. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts Contain a Homodimeric Pyruvate: Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes.

Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes protists is pyruvate: Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme Cr-rPFO showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast.

This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. A major proportion of these scaffolding subunits are structurally related. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal homo-dimerization domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc23 Cdc23 Nterm.

Cdc23 Nterm is composed of seven contiguous TPR motifs that self-associate through a related mechanism to those of Cdc16 and Cdc Using the Cdc23 Nterm structure, we generated a model of full-length Cdc Based on sequence conservation, we propose that Apc7 forms a homo-dimeric structure equivalent to those of Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc Remarkably, the uniform relative packing of neighboring TPR proteins generates a novel left-handed suprahelical TPR assembly.

This finding has implications for understanding the assembly of other TPR-containing multimeric complexes. Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor FGF signaling can lead to human diseases, necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms to keep its activity in check.

Herein, we demonstrate that FGF9 and FGF20 ligands undergo a reversible homodimerization , occluding their key receptor binding sites. To test the role of dimerization in ligand autoinhibition, we introduced structure-based mutations into the dimer interfaces of FGF9 and FGF The mutations weakened the ability of the ligands to dimerize, effectively increasing the concentrations of monomeric ligands capable of binding and activating their cognate FGF receptor in vitro and in living cells.

Interestingly, the monomeric ligands exhibit reduced heparin binding, resulting in their increased radii of heparan sulfate-dependent diffusion and biologic action, as evidenced by the wider dilation area of ex vivo lung cultures in response to implanted mutant FGF9-loaded beads.

Hence, our data demonstrate that homodimerization autoregulates FGF9 and FGF20's receptor binding and concentration gradients in the extracellular matrix. Our study is the first to implicate ligand dimerization as an autoregulatory mechanism for growth factor bioactivity and sets the stage for engineering modified FGF9 subfamily ligands, with desired activity for use in both basic and translational research.

Lifescience Database Archive English. Influence of osmotic stress on desiccation and irradiation tolerance of hyper -thermophilic microorganisms.

This study examined the influence of prior salt adaptation on the survival rate of hyper -thermophilic bacteria and archaea after desiccation and UV or ionizing irradiation treatment.

Survival rates after desiccation of Hydrogenothermus marinus and Archaeoglobus fulgidus increased considerably when the cells were cultivated at higher salt concentrations before drying.

By doubling the concentration of NaCl, a 30 times higher survival rate of H. Under salt stress, the compatible solute diglycerol phosphate in A. Several different compatible solutes were added as protectants to A. Some of these had similar effects as intracellularly produced compatible solutes. The survival rates of H. Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur FeS clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center hRC were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance EPR , and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I PS I.

While the two active sites share identical amino acid composition, this class of enzyme is optimally active with only one metal per homodimer.

The presented structures exhibit an unprecedented metal-binding arrangement consistent with half-of-sites activity: The presented findings demonstrate that GloA2 can accommodate two distinct metal-binding arrangements simultaneously, each of which catalyzes a different reaction. Upon cellular response to stress, and notably during tumorigenesis, they relocalize to the extracellular environment where they induce pro-inflammatory signals by activating the receptor for advanced glycation end products RAGE , thereby facilitating tumor growth and metastasis.

Despite its importance in sustaining inflammation, the structural basis for RAGE-S crosstalk is still unknown. Here we report two crystal structures of the RAGE: The structures, in combination with a comprehensive interaction analysis, suggest that the primary SA6 binding site is formed by the RAGE C1 domain.

Complex formation with SA6 induces a unique dimeric conformation of RAGE that appears suited for signal transduction and intracellular effector recruitment. Intriguingly, SA6 adopts a dimeric conformation radically different from all known S dimers. In the F-family of conjugative plasmids, TraJ is an essential transcriptional activator of the tra operon that encodes most of the proteins required for conjugation. Mutational analysis reveals that the observed dimeric interface is critical for TraJF transcriptional activation, indicating that dimerization of TraJ is required for its in vivo function.

An artificial ligand oxidized dithiothreitol occupies a cavity in the TraJF dimer interface, while a smaller cavity in corresponding region of the TraJpSLT structure lacks a ligand. The crystal is tetragonal in shape and diffraction data to 2. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering. Homodimeric hemoglobin HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding.

In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates I1, I2, and I3 and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination.

The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal.

In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

Full Text Available Homodimeric hemoglobin HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. Proteins serve as molecular machines in performing their biological functions, but the detailed structural transitions are difficult to observe in their native aqueous environments in real time. For example, despite extensive studies, the solution-phase structures of the intermediates along the allosteric pathways for the transitions between the relaxed R and tense T forms have been elusive.

In this work, we employed picosecond X-ray solution scattering and novel structural analysis to track the details of the structural dynamics of wild-type homodimeric hemoglobin HbI from the clam Scapharca inaequivalvis and its F97Y mutant over a wide time range from ps to From kinetic analysis of the measured time-resolved X-ray solution scattering data, we identified three structurally distinct intermediates I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 and their kinetic pathways common for both the wild type and the mutant.

The data revealed that the singly liganded and unliganded forms of each intermediate share the same structure, providing direct evidence that the ligand photolysis of only a single subunit induces the same structural change as the complete photolysis of both subunits does. Describes formative and self-regulating evaluation , developed by Citogroep and used for primary schools in the Netherlands to signal the progress of year-old students and monitor their learning.

Presents the structure, principles, and tools of the management of the improvement of differential pedagogy and key ideas for teacher education.

A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was conducted in 13 Spanish university hospitals. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Overall, patients were included in the analysis; The biliary tract was the most common source of infection Crude 30 day mortality rates were For Permissions, please e-mail: The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC.

A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

Activity of linezolid and daptomycin against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci with increased MIC for vancomycin isolated from blood cultures in pediatric patients. We evaluated minimal inhibitory concentration MIC for vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci MR-CoNS.

This large proportion of pathogens with MIC around the breakpoint suggests a possible risk of treatment failure with these drugs. This phenomenon is worth further and constant monitoring. Testing and evaluation of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster by means of a torsion pendulum system. Performance characteristics of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster over a range of input conditions were investigated by means of a torsion pendulum system. Parameters of particular interest included the impulse bit and time average thrust and their repeatability , specific impulse, mass ablated per discharge, specific thrust, energy per unit area, efficiency, and variation of performance with ignition command rate.

Intermittency of the thruster as affected by input energy and igniter resistance were also investigated. Comparative experimental data correlation with the data presented. The results of these tests indicate that the LES -6 thruster, with some identifiable design improvements, represents an attractive reaction control thruster for attitude contol applications on long-life spacecraft requiring small metered impulse bits for precise pointing control of science instruments. The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons.

Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones.

Confirmatory tests are underway. The presentation is include as an addition to this report. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle.

They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D. The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable.

The function of mitochondria depends on the proper organization of mitochondrial membranes. The morphology of the inner membrane is regulated by the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and crista organizing system MICOS complex. MICOS mutants exhibit alterations in crista formation, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MIC 19 proteins undergo oxidation in mitochondria and require the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly MIA pathway, which couples the oxidation and import of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins for mitochondrial localization.

Detailed analyses identified yeast Mic 19 in two different redox forms. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp.

Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm.

Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well.

The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition.

The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway.

Vancomycin MICs did not creep in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from to in a setting with low vancomycin usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate MIC trends for clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin over a 5 year period in a hospital in Spain. All clinical isolates of S. MICs for the different groups in the different years were compared with the linear-trend chi 2 test. A total of strains of S. One of the MRSA strains 0. The rest were susceptible.

In a setting of low consumption of vancomycin and with a large collection of S. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus displaying increased MICs of ceftaroline. These isolates were clonally related and one strain was selected for further characterization.

All strains originated from the same hospital. Penicillin-binding protein PBP affinities for ceftaroline and comparators were determined. Strains were typed by single-locus typing i. The presence of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types was assessed. We also performed nucleotide sequencing of the mecA encoding PBP2a promoter and ribosomal binding site rbs regions and mecR1. Strain contains a wild-type PBP2a, while strains and have N K and E K alterations in the non-penicillin-binding domain.

Additionally, has one substitution H N in the transpeptidase domain. Alterations in the mecR1, mecA promoter or rbs regions were not observed. Relationship of MICs to efficacy of cefotaxime in treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. To assess the predictive values of the recommended breakpoints, retrospective data were collected from patients who had S.

Susceptibilities based on the NCCLS interpretative categories were compared with clinical and bacteriologic outcomes. Of 75 cefotaxime-treated patients for whom cefotaxime MICs were recorded, 73 were clinically cured or improved 37 of 37 with meningitis and 36 of 38 with other infections.

One case of bacteremia and one case of bone-and-joint infection were scored as therapeutic failures because initial monotherapy had to be modified because of an adverse drug reaction. Excluding these patients, there were 18 patients infected with S.

The results of this analysis demonstrate that successful treatment with cefotaxime did not correlate well with the guidelines for the susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates to either penicillin or cefotaxime established by the NCCLS breakpoint recommendations. Because of this study and other similar findings, the NCCLS adopted more clinically relevant guidelines in Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents.

Ergonomia , , 30, 13 physique que psychologique. Cela tend A damontrer que Ergonomia , , 30, Sleep in normal and pathological aging. When modeling coexpression networks from high-throughput time course data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient PCC is one of the most effective and popular similarity functions. However, its reliability is limited since it cannot capture non-linear interactions and time shifts.

Technical Center ; Clayton, C. The biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion MIC involve the transformation of chemical species at a metal surface. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS is utilized in conjunction with conventional microbiological and Quantitative Chemical Analytical techniques to better understand the effect of environmental conditions on microbial behavior as well as the ability of bacteria to alter local environmental conditions.

This is the first phase of a systematic study of microbial activity and the effects of alloy elements and thermo-mechanical treatments on the MIC resistance of stainless steels. Myelin imaging compound MIC enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myelination. The vertebrate nervous system is characterized by myelination, a fundamental biological process that protects the axons and facilitates electric pulse transduction.

Damage to myelin is considered a major effect of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis MS. Currently, therapeutic interventions are focused on protecting myelin integrity and promoting myelin repair.

These efforts need to be accompanied by an effective imaging tool that correlates the disease progression with the extent of myelination. To date, magnetic resonance imaging MRI is the primary imaging technique to detect brain lesions in MS. However, conventional MRI cannot differentiate demyelinated lesions from other inflammatory lesions and therefore cannot predict disease progression in MS.

To address this problem, we have prepared a Gd-based contrast agent, termed MIC myelin imaging compound , which binds to myelin with high specificity. In this work, we demonstrate that MIC exhibits a high kinetic stability toward transmetalation with promising relaxometric properties.

MIC was used for in vivo imaging of myelination following intracerebroventricular infusion in the rat brain. MIC was found to distribute preferentially in highly myelinated regions and was able to detect regions of focally induced demyelination.

Gene-specific cell labeling using Mi MIC transposons. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression.

Mi MIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic Mi MIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic Mi MIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression.

We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. From a standing-room-only screening of Chasing Ice to a day of science communication workshops to new events such as Open Mic Night and AGU Cinema, AGU's Public Information office presented a range of events at this year's Fall Meeting, all designed to encourage and highlight ways that Earth and space scientists can share their research.

Mitochondrial cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via crista junctions which are implicated in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and import of lipids and proteins. These knockout cells show a complete loss of crista junctions demonstrating that MIC 13 is strictly required for the formation of crista junctions. MIC 13 is also dispensable for assembly of respiratory chain complexes and for maintaining mitochondrial network morphology. Still, lack of MIC 13 resulted in a moderate reduction of mitochondrial respiration.

In summary, we show that MIC 13 has a fundamental role in crista junction formation and that assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes is independent of mitochondrial cristae shape. Application of open-source photogrammetric software Mic Mac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models.

Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software Mic Mac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms. Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: Mic Mac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models DEMs and orthorectified images of model surfaces.

Mic Mac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images. Mic Mac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of Mic Mac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems.

Topical report, July February Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite TxL and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process.

Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic -1 consortium. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic -1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor.

However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC. In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography IC with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes.

Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. Co MIC , the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments. Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM.

Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2.

However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of Co MIC during mitochondrial division.

Analysis AFSA past for solving the traveling salesman problem, the algorithm efficiency is often a big problem, and the algorithm processing method, it does not fully responsive to the characteristics of the traveling salesman problem to deal with, and therefore proposes a parallel join improved AFSA process.

The simulation with the current TSP known optimal solutions were analyzed, the results showed that the AFSA iterations improved less, on the MIC cards doubled operating efficiency, efficiency significantly. In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin.

In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium.

Very major errors VMEs i. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. On the parallelization approaches for Intel MIC architecture. The Intel MIC architecture is one of the main processor architectures used for the production of computational accelerators.

Increasing energy and cost-effciency of accelerators is one important option for building new HPC systems. However, the effective use of accelerators requires careful optimization on all stages of the algorithm and use of appropriate parallelization approaches. In the domain of statistical methods the quasi-Monte Carlo methods present distinct challenges when thousands of computational cores are to be involved in a computation.

In this paper we describe in detail and study the performance of algorithms for generating some popular low-discrepancy sequences, aimed at devices with Intel MIC architecture. By leveraging the powerful vector instructions of the Intel MIC architecture to process many coordinates of the sequences in parallel, we obtain fast implementations that can be plugged-in in any parallel quasi-Monte Carlo computation.

We present extensive numerical and timing results that demonstrate the benefit of our algorithms and their parallel effciency. The effects of using hyperthreading are also studied. The generation routines are provided under the GPL. An international standarizaed utility to collect data, MIC.

Multi-Instrument Collect, MIC , is rapidly becoming the international standard for safeguard data collection. First implemented in , it was adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency the following year and fielded in numerous locations around the world.

This application is capable of simultaneous collection from up to independent instruments. It supports a variety of instrument types and a variety of communications media.

Although created and currently being maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Science and Technology Group, N1, effort is underway completion planned mid-year to open up the architecture promoting outside or third party development.

This effort is nearly unique in the safeguards arena. It provides a standard user interface philosophy for a multiplicity of hardware vendors. User community advantages are: There are also significant advantages to the instrument developer.

For example a variety of pre-existing communications objects may be used, pre-existing power management capabilities exist, and extensive data management capabilities. All of these may be leveraged into a vendors development effort - significantly decreasing the amount of development effort and consequently decreasing cost. The presentation will include an overview of the existing MIC and MIC utilities from a developers and a users point of view, the user interface philosophy, and will discuss the open architecture allowing third party development.

Monitoring biofilm formation and incipient MIC in real time. Microbiologically Influenced corrosion MIC and microbiological fouling of piping and heat exchanger materials is a common and often costly problem in industrial cooling water and process water systems.

MIC failures have caused expensive unplanned outages, the need for local repairs, and, in some cases, complete system replacement. The control of biofilm on surfaces has been shown to be the most effective tool for mitigating MIC as well as for maintaining heat transfer in heat exchangers. The most common method for control of microbiological fouling is the use of oxidizing biocides. Effluent limits and the corrosion penalties associated with their use drive users toward optimizing treatments in order to control biofilm effectively while meeting discharge limitations and without incurring excessive corrosion due to the treatment.

Optimized treatments require accurate monitoring of biofilm activity. An electrochemical sensor has been developed to provide plant owners with a tool for monitoring biofilm activity on metallic surfaces - a useful method for predicting system conditions and for controlling biocide additions.

The probe has recently been incorporated into a complete system that includes on-line data acquisition and data analysis capabilities. Those capabilities permit plant personnel to determine the presence and activity of biofilms on metal surfaces in their systems in real time; a powerful tool for optimization of biological controls. Results from these activities, using data from actual plant installations, are described, along with implementation strategies for the use of the system to provide satisfactory microbiological control at the lowest cost.

Broth microdilution was compared with tube macrodilution and a simplified population analysis agar method for evaluating vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs and detecting glycopeptide-intermediate isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC distributions by tube macrodilution and agar testing were also markedly different from those evaluated by broth microdilution.

The fold-lower inoculum size used for broth microdilution compared to macrodilution and agar MIC assays explained in part, but not entirely, the systematic trend toward lower vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by microdilution compared to other methods. Broth microdilution assay led to underdetection of the vancomycin-intermediate S. Detection rates of isolates with elevated vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by macrodilution and agar testing assays were higher at 48 h than at 24 h.

In conclusion, the sensitivity of broth microdilution MIC testing is questionable for reliable detection and epidemiological surveys of glycopeptide-intermediate resistance in S.

We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current either polarity forced back into their outputs.

Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five 5 parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1.

The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling.

These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi. Imipenem and meropenem Vitek 2 MICs were evaluated for a panel of Enterobacteriaceae for identification of carbapenemase producers. Is vancomycin MIC "creep" method dependent? Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility trends in blood isolates from North East Scotland from to This study investigated "creep" in vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates from blood cultures over a 5-year period in a hospital in the United Kingdom, using different susceptibility testing methods.

However, neither trend was replicated in MICs from automated or retrospective testing. Inconsistent evidence on vancomycin MIC creep and the relevance of the MIC to clinical outcome may arise from differences in susceptibility testing methods, including storage of isolates.

There is a need to standardize and streamline susceptibility testing of vancomycin against MRSA. Suppression of tricarboxylic acid cycle in Escherichia coli exposed to sub- MICs of aminoglycosides. High-performance and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques were utilized to evaluate the concentrations of metabolic reactants, intermediates, and end products. The data reported indicate that aminoglycosides inhibit or delay bacterial catabolism of carboxylic acids, with the following relative degrees of activity: The decrease in total biomass production was proportional to the degree of tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibition.

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast. We found that In contrast, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole 1 to 32 and isavuconazole 0. We experimentally evaluate the performance of computing devices on core operations of the application.

We correlate the observed performance with the characteristics of computing devices and data access patterns, computation complexities, and parallelization forms of the operations. The results show a significant variability in the performance of operations with respect to the device used.

The performances of operations with regular data access are comparable or sometimes better on a MIC than that on a GPU. We propose new performance-aware scheduling strategies that consider variabilities in operation speedups.

Our scheduling strategies significantly improve application performance compared to classic strategies in hybrid configurations. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground.

The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The gain of the oscillator is 0. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1. Developing a wireless implantable body sensor network in MICS band.

Through an integration of wireless communication and sensing technologies, the concept of a body sensor network BSN was initially proposed in the early decade with the aim to provide an essential technology for wearable, ambulatory, and pervasive health monitoring for elderly people and chronic patients. It has become a hot research area due to big opportunities as well as great challenges it presents.

Though the idea of an implantable BSN was proposed in parallel with the on-body sensor network, the development in this area is relatively slow due to the complexity of human body, safety concerns, and some technological bottlenecks such as the design of ultralow-power implantable RF transceiver. This system innovatively incorporates both sensing and actuation nodes to form a closed-control loop for physiological monitoring and drug delivery for critically ill patients.

The sensing node, which is designed using system-on-chip technologies, takes advantage of the newly available ultralow-power Zarlink MICS transceiver for wireless data transmission.

Finally, the specific absorption rate distribution of the proposed system was simulated to determine the in vivo electromagnetic field absorption and the power safety limits. We present a novel approach, based on robust principal components analysis RPCA and maximal information coefficient MIC , to study the redshift dependence of halo baryonic properties.

Our data are composed of a set of different physical quantities for primordial minihaloes: We find that Mdm and Mgas are dominant factors for variance, particularly at high redshift. Nonetheless, with the emergence of the first stars and subsequent feedback mechanisms, xmol, SFR and Z start to have a more dominant role.

Our analysis also suggests that all the gaseous properties have a stronger correlation with Mgas than with Mdm, while Mgas has a deeper correlation with xmol than with Z or SFR. Finally, a comparison between MIC and Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the former is a more reliable indicator when halo properties are weakly correlated. The measured phase noise is Data were obtained at 2. The outer Jovian planet candidate offers a plausible dynamical explanation for the observed debris disk dynamics of moving "clumps" on several year time-scales.

It may be possible to directly image the outer planet candidate with the current generation of high contrast imaging instruments. The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification Mic GAS Process. The objectives of the research during FY were to: Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably.

Results are discussed on the following: Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou. The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

We evaluated LTX and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. The post antibiotic effect PAE is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub- MIC effect SME which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics.

LTX, as compared to mupirocin, demonstrated prolonged time of effect for these pharmacodynamic parameters, which supports persistent activity for several hours after the drug is no longer present or is below the MIC. The pharmacodynamic parameters studied here suggest LTX is less likely than mupirocin to generate resistance to S.

This article is protected by copyright. In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode.

We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD T was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD T due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card.

Additionally, we obtain up to 1. Mic Mac GIS application: The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System RPAS for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. Mic Mac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts.

It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface for each command. Python language was used to develop the application. Global Change Biology 2 5: Carbon dioxide control with a packed column aerator. Carbon Dioxide Diffusion inside Leaves.

Plant Physiology 2: Carbon dioxide emissions at an Italian mineral spring: Carbon dioxide emissions from mineral springs in Northland and the potential of these sites for studying the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 39 1: Carbon dioxide enrichment and irrigation effects on wheat evapotranspiration and water use efficiency.

Transactions of the ASAE 39 4: Carbon dioxide enrichment improves growth, water relations and survival of droughted honey mesquite Prosopis glandulosa seedlings. Tree Physiology 16 Carbon dioxide enrichment in protected crops in a mediterranean climate. An efficient technology for gerbera. Carbon dioxide evolution from high-moisture shelled corn treated with iprodione.

Journal of food protection 58 6: Carbon dioxide evolution from snow-covered agricultural ecosystems in Finland. Carbon dioxide evolution of an upland rice and barley, double cropping field in central Japan. Ecological Research 11 2: Carbon dioxide exchange and nocturnal processes over a mixed deciduous forest. Carbon dioxide exchange characteristics and relative growth rates of two asparagus cultivars in relation to temperature.

Carbon dioxide exchange rate and chlorophyll content of turfgrasses treated with flurprimidol or mefluidide. Journal of plant growth regulationng 16 2: Carbon dioxide fixation by cells and cell-free extracts of Streptococcus thermophilus.

Journal Of Dairy Research. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgal photosynthesis using actual flue gas from a power plant. Carbon dioxide fixation rate characteristics of a grafted seedling in an acclimation process. Carbon dioxide fractionated supercritical fluid extraction of furanocoumarins from the fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. Herba Polonica 42 1: Carbon dioxide gas exchange of cembran pine Pinus cembra at the alpine timberline during winter.

Tree Physiology 17 7: Carbon dioxide induces increases in guard cell cytosolic free calcium. Plant Journal 9 3: Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia, to Science Washington D C Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene changes in relation to the development of scald in Granny Smith apples after cold storage. Journal of Environmental Quality 26 1: Carbon dynamics of Mexican tropical evergreen forests: Carbon dynamics of aggregate-associated organic matter estimated by carbon natural abundance.

Soil Science Society of America Journal 60 3: Carbon dynamics of the Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51 4: Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp. Carbon fixation and biological diversity in the coffee agroecosystem. Carbon fixation profiles do reflect light absorption profiles in leaves.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22 6: Carbon fixation, partitioning and growth of cowpea parasitised by Striga gesnerioides. Aspects of Applied Biology Carbon flow in Indian forests. Climatic Change 35 3: Carbon flow through the hepatic folate-dependent one-carbon pool is not altered in vitamin A-deficient rats.

Journal of Nutrition 3: Carbon flows through meiobenthic nematodes in the Westerschelde Estuary. Carbon flux and diversity of nematodes and termites in Cameroon forest soils. Carbon flux in transgenic sugar beet. Carbon fluxes in the rhizosphere of sweet chestnut seedlings Castanea sativa grown under two atmospheric CO2 concentrations: Carbon fractions in compost and compost maturity tests.

Carbon import into barley roots: Journal of Experimental Botany 46 Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain. Journal of Environmental Management 49 4: Carbon isotope composition of C4 grasses is influenced by light and water supply.

Plant cell and environment 19 4: Carbon isotope discrimination and indirect selection for transpiration efficiency at flowering in lentil Lens culinaris Medikus , spring bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Carbon isotope discrimination in Quercus ilex resprouts after fire and tree-fell.

Oecologia Berlin 3: Carbon isotope discrimination in irrigated and droughted potato Solanum tuberosum L. Plant, Cell and Environment 20 1: Carbon isotope discrimination in three semi-arid woodland species along a monsoon gradient.

Oecologia Berlin 4: Carbon isotope discrimination, ash, and canopy temperature in three wheatgrass species. Crop Science 37 5: Carbon isotope discrimination, fluorescence emission and gas exchange in the genus Vitis during adaptation to water stress.

Definition of an index of genotypic drought tolerance. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 48 2: Carbon isotope fractionation during bacterial methanogenesis by CO2 reduction. Carbon isotope fractionation in tree ring early and late wood in relation to intra-growing season water balance.

Carbon isotopes and carbon turnover in cotton and wheat FACE experiments. Carbon isotopes reveal soil organic matter dynamics following arid land shrub expansion. Carbon isotopic composition, gas exchange, and growth of three populations of ponderosa pine differing in drought tolerance. Carbon isotopic signatures of elytra reflect larval diet in luperine rootworms Coleoptera: Environmental Entomology 25 5: Carbon labile pool in Chilean volcanic soils. Carbon metabolism enzyme activities and carbon partitioning in Pinus halepensis Mil.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60 7: Carbon metabolism in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Carbon metabolism in wheat genotypes with contrasting photosynthetic characteristics. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 43 1: Carbon mineralization kinetics as influenced by soil properties. Biology and fertility of soils2 4: Carbon mineralization potential of soils amended with sludge from olive processing.

Carbon mitigation scenarios for Mexican forests: Carbon mobilization from the forest floor under red spruce in the northeastern U. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28 9: Carbon monoxide production from land applied cheese whey. Bioresource Technology 54 3: Carbon outwelling from a mangrove forest with adjacent seagrass beds and coral reefs Gazi Bay, Kenya.

Marine Ecology, Progress Series 3: Carbon partitioning and allocation in northern red oak seedlings and mature trees in response to ozone. Carbon partitioning and metabolism in relation to plant growth and fruit production in tomato.

Carbon partitioning between apple fruits: Journal of Experimental Botany 48 Carbon partitioning in Pinus radiata stands in relation to foliage nitrogen status. Carbon partitioning in apple trees. Carbon partitioning in barley following manipulation of source and sink.

Carbon partitioning in source leaves of peach, a sorbitol-synthesizing species, is modified by photosynthetic rate. Physiologia Plantarum 2: Carbon partitioning in the leaves of CAM plants. Carbon pools and sequestration in forest ecosystems in Britain. Forestry Oxford 68 4: Carbon reserves and production in the phytomass of the tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems of Russia.

Carbon sequestration in the biosphere: Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Carbon source requirement for the culture of white yam Dioscorea rotundata embryos in vitro. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60 Carbon source utilization and isoenzyme analysis as taxonomic aids for toxigenic Neosartorya species and their relatives.

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 44 1: Carbon storage and distribution in tundra soils of Arctic Alaska, U. Carbon storage and productivity of carbon dioxide enriched nitrogen limited grass sward after one year's growth. Carbon storage and sequestration in the Russian forest sector. Carbon storage and sequestration in the forests of Northern Ireland. Forestry Oxford 69 2: Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 38 Carbon storage in forest soils. Carbon substrate mineralization and sulphur limitation. Carbon supply reduction has a minimal influence on current year's red raspberry Rubus idaeus L. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 3: Carbon transfer among soil fractions during soybean residue degradation.

Humic substances in the global environment and implications on human health: Carbon transfer between C3 and C4 plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network, quantified using stable carbon isotopes. Soil biology and biochemistry 28 Carbon uptake by secondary forests in Brazilian Amazonia. Carbon use in root respiration as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant and Soil 2: Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of CH4 and N2O in soil ecosystems.

Mass spectrometry of soils: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics under continuous cultivation as influenced by farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers in the savanna of northern Nigeria. Carbon, nitrogen, and water use by larches and co-occurring evergreen conifers. Carbon variation with depth in soils of Brazil and climate change during the Quaternary.

Carbon-nitrogen interaction related to P, K, Ca, and Mg nutrients in field crops. Carbon-polymer biocomposites for amperometric sensing. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios in agricultural residues.

Madras Agricultural Journal 82 2: Carbonatation of lime-sugar solutions. Methods of soil analysis Part 3 chemical methods: Carbonate chemistry, pH, and physical properties of an alkaline sodic soil as affected by various amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35 1: Carbonate redistribution and hydrogeochemical processes in two soils with groundwater in a Mediterranean environment.

European Journal of Soil Science 48 2: Carbonate-paleosol genesis in the Plio-Pleistocene St. David formation, Southeastern Arizona. Journal of Sedimentary Research Section A: Sedimentary Petrology and Processes 66 1: Carbonated soft drink acceptability of college students: Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 38 1: Carbonic anhydrase 2 polymorphism in buffaloes Bubalus bubalis and Nellore cattle Bos taurus indicus from Amazon valley - Brazil.

Buffalo Journal 13 1: Carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 diffusion kinetics as assayed in leaves using 18O labelled CO2 and mass spectrometry. Carbonic anhydrase activity as an indicator of zinc status of Sathgudi orange. Carbonic anhydrase activity in leaves of wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency. Journal of Plant Physiology 2: Carbonic anhydrase in Solanum tuberosum L.: Carbonic anhydrase provides bicarbonate for de novo lipogenesis in the locust. Carbonic anhydrase supports electrolyte transport in Drosophila Malpighian tubules.

Evidence by X-ray microanalysis of cryosections. Journal of Insect Physiology 43 1: Carbonic anhydrases from leaves and roots of Daucus carota. Phytochemistry Oxford 44 7: Carbonized rice husk as soil ameliorant in agriculture. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal 18 2: Carbosulfan and bifenthrin toxicity to honey bees exposed to the formulation tested for market purposes.

Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe 39 2: Carbosulfan in protection of coniferous plantations against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 2: Carboxy-terminal cleavage of the human foamy virus Gag precursor molecule is an essential step in the viral life cycle. Journal of Virology 71 Carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate phosphatase from leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and other species. Carboxyl-terminal processing protease for D1 precursor protein in spinach.

Carboxyl-terminal processing protease for the D1 precursor protein: Plant Molecular Biology 30 1: Carboxylate interactions involved in the disassembly of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus.

Carburisation-oxidation of reformer tube in a fertilizer plant. Fertiliser News 40 Carcase and component yields of rheas. British Poultry Science 38 4: Carcass and meat quality of cattle and buffalo. Carcass and meat quality of second-cross cryptorchid lambs grazed on chicory Cichorium intybus or lucerne Medicago sativa.

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35 6: Carcass and meat quality traits in beef x Norwegian Red crossbreds. Buskap og Avdratt 48 4: Canadian Journal of Animal Science 76 1: Carcass and technological meat traits of Czech Pied and Black Pied cattle fattened to kg.

Zivocisna Vyroba 41 4: Carcass characteristics and composition of Barbari male goats. Indian Veterinary Journal 74 5: Carcass characters and meat quality in entire bulls and bulls castrated by two methods, reared on pasture. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia 25 2: Carcass characters in steers of different genetic types, kept confined during the finishing period.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia 25 5: Carcass composition and body fats depots of Galego Bragancano and crossbred lambs by Suffolk and Merino Precoce sire breeds. Animal Science 63 3: Carcass composition and meat quality of horses in relation to grading class.

Carcass composition of Florida Sevillana kids. Archivos de Zootecnia 43 Carcass composition of growing bulls of different adapted breeds fed restrictively. Archiv fuer Tierzucht 39 1: Carcass composition of pigs with different lean percentage grades. Zivocisna Vyroba 41 3: Carcass evaluation studies in Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant rabbits. Indian Journal of Animal Research 29 1: Carcass growth and yield of entire bulls and bulls castrated by two methods, reared on pasture.

Carcass measurements and lean yields of pigs differing in slaughter weight. Carcass quality and chemical composition of meat in relation to genotype and sex of pigs.

Carcass quality of purebred and crossbred pigs. Carcass traits and non-carcass components weight of Ossimi and crossbred lambs in relation to pre-slaughter weight. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 32 3: Carcass traits and reproductive organ morphology in week-old SCWL hens.

Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75 3: Carcass traits of Large White Yorkshire pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management 12 2: Carcass traits of early and late feathering Baladi as compared with early feathering Leghorn.

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 15 1: Carcass traits of modern chicken genotypes. Carcass traits of purebred and crossbred rabbits. World Rabbit Science 3 4: Zivocisna Vyroba 41 9: Carcass value of Czech Pied and Black Pied cattle fattened to a weight of kg. Zivocisna Vyroba 41 Carcass value of boars and barrows and classification problems. Carcass waste from fattening chickens in mink rearing trial. Vara Palsdjur 66 6: Carcass yield and edible component parts of a commercial turkey.

Carcasson' s African butterflies: Carcinogenic risks of some biological agents. Lancet British edition Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A.

Food Additives and Contaminants 13 Suppl: Carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the human diet: Carcinogens induce reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation. Carcinomatous degeneration in chromoblastomycosis. Medicina Cutanea Ibero Latino Americana 23 6: Cardamom foliar pest, lace-wing bug, Stephanitis typica Distant Heteroptera: Annals of Entomology 12 2: Cardamom, mandarin and nitrogen-fixing trees in agroforestry systems in India's Himalayan region. Agroforestry Systems 35 3: Cardenolide formation and activity of pregnane-modifying enzymes in cell suspension cultures, shoot cultures and leaves of Digitalis lanata.

Cardenolides heart poisons in the painted grasshopper Poecilocerus pictus F. Pyrgomorphidae feeding on the milkweed Calotropis gigantea L. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 2: Cardenolides from the methanolic extract of Nerium oleander leaves possessing central nervous system depressant activity in mice. Journal of Natural Products 60 6: Cardenolides of the seeds of Coronilla glauca and of C. New glycosides alloglaucoside and scorpiosidol. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 32 3: Cardenolides, coumarins and flavonoids of Gomphocarpus fruticosus L.

Rastitel' nye Resursy 33 1: Cardiac and neurological manifestations of borreliosis Lyme disease in a patient with 1 degrees AV block. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift Cardiac and pulmonary artery mensuration in feline heartworm disease.

Intensive Care Medicine 22 Cardiac autonomic nerve function and insulin sensitivity in obese subjects. Cardiac echinococcosis with multivisceral involvement. Pediatric Cardiology 17 4: Cardiac effects of standard-dose halofantrine therapy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54 3: Cardiac electrophysiologic measurements in dogs before and after intravenous administration of atropine and propranolol. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 Cardiac examinations in the Irish Wolfhound with special regard to atrial fibrillation and echocardiography.

Cardiovascular Pathology 5 4: Cardiac hypertrophy in copper-deficient rats is not attenuated by angiotensin II receptor antagonist L, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 3: Cardiac involvement and scorpion envenomation in children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 41 6: Cardiac noradrenaline in experimental rat envenomation with Africanized bee venom.

Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 45 8: Cardiac nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits are decreased with copper restriction but not iron restriction: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, Physiology 1: Cardiac patients' mental representations of diet.

Journal of Nutrition Education 28 4: Cardiac pentastomiasis and tuberculosis: Cardiovascular Pathology 5 3: Cardiac performance in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion. Research in Veterinary Science 61 3: Cardiac performance in relation to oxygen supply varies with dietary lipid composition in sturgeon.

American Journal of Physiology 2 Pt 2: Cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: Cardiac size and its relationship with clinical chemistry profiles in young boars.

Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 23 2: Cardiac sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in rats with experimentally-induced acute chagasic myocarditis.

Cardiac tamponade in dogs. Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias 11 2: Cardio-histopathological observations on aborted equine fetuses infected with equid herpesvirus 1 EHV Journal of Comparative Pathology 4: Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 43 Cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, and the antagonist atipamezole in isoflurane-anesthetized swine.

Laboratory Animal Science 46 2: Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 9: Cardiopulmonary effects of combinations of medetomidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate in dogs.

Veterinary Record 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in ponies, after induction of anaesthesia with xylazine and ketamine.

Veterinary Record 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of desflurane in the dog during spontaneous and artificial ventilation. Research in Veterinary Science 61 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine with or without atropine in diazepam premedicated dogs. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 16 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of lying position in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs. Journal of Experimental Animal Science 38 1: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine in sheep and in ponies.

Research in Veterinary Science 60 3: Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-ketamine in domestic sheep Ovis ovis maintained in sternal recumbency. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol anesthesia in chickens Gallus gallus domesticus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 11 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 2: Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, compared with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, in dogs.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 58 8: Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 25 1: Cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of walking, standing, and standing with a splint during the recuperative period from maximal exercise in horses. Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat. Cardiorespiratory diseases of the dog and cat: Cardiorespiratory effects of a 5HT2 antagonist R in awake and anesthetized dogs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 60 3: Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in horses with different grades of idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia.

Equine Veterinary Journal 29 1: Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic changes in ponies undergoing intravenous or inhalation anaesthesia. Cardiospermum halicacabum - a profile.

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Iron Siderophores - Types and Representative Microorganisms. By: sp.), fungi (Aspergillus nidulans, A. versicolor, enhances levels of iron available to. Chemical characterization and quantification of siderophores produced by marine Aspergillus versicolor was found to be the sincelow total iron levels in. A comparative study of siderophore production by fungi from the other four marine isolates (Aspergillus versicolor, Low total iron levels in marine.