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Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the vancomycin MIC distribution for S. Vancomycin MIC creep is a regional problem, therefore it can only be assessed through the evaluation of local susceptibility profiles, and antibiogram based on real MIC assay should be an essential element in local MRSA infection clinical management.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. MIC evaluation and testing for the Yucca Mountain repository. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential deep geological repository at Yucca Mountain YMNevada, for the containment and storage of high-level nuclear waste. There is growing awareness that biotic factors could affect the integrity of the repository directly through microbially induced corrosion MIC of waste package WP materials and other repository elements.

A program to determine the degree that microorganisms, especially bacteria, influence the corrosion of waste package materials has therefore been undertaken. These studies include testing candidate waste package materials for their susceptibility to MICand also seek to determine rates of biocorrosion under varying environmental conditions, as well as predict rates of waste package corrosion over the long term.

Previous characterization of bacterial isolates derived from YM De bedste casino siderosis symptoms of menopause material showed that many possessed biochemical activities associated with MIC2.

Table 1 summarizes previously characterized YM organisms and their associated relevant activities. A subset of the characterized YM bacteria were spread on WP alloy coupons in systems designed to collect polarization resistance Rp data for corrosion rate calculations, and to determine cathodic and anodic potentiodynamic polarization to assess corrosion mechanisms.

Coupons inoculated with bacteria were compared to those that remained sterile, to determine the bacterial contribution to overall corrosion rates. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections according to cefepime MIC. The contribution of increasing cefepime MIC to mortality risk in the setting of aggressive cefepime dosing is not well defined.

Patients who were treated with cefepime for Gram-negative blood stream infections GNBSIsincluding both Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative organisms, were screened for inclusion in this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and microbiologic Nye casino siderophores aspergillus terreus cultivation were collected, including pathogen, cefepime MICdosage, and interval.

The objective was to define a risk-adjusted mortality breakpoint for cefepime MICs. Secondarily, we looked at time to death and length of stay LOS postculture. Ninety-one patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 19 patients died and 72 survived. The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics.

After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime and 6 aminoglycoside gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin obtained by the 2 methods for Staphylococcus aureus strains.

The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

Predictive modeling suggests that actual carbapenem MIC results are more predictive of clinical patient outcomes than categorical classification of the MIC as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Patients treated with carbapenems and with positive blood cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase ESBL -producing Gram-negative bacteria were considered for evaluation in this clinical retrospective cohort study.

Relevant patient demographics and microbiologic variables were collected, including carbapenem MIC. The primary objective was to define a risk-adjusted all-cause hospital mortality breakpoint for carbapenem MICs.

Secondarily, we sought to determine if a similar breakpoint existed for indirect outcomes e. Seventy-one patients met the criteria for study inclusion. Overall, 52 patients survived, and 19 died. Nye casino siderophores aspergillus terreus cultivation outcomes were similar between groups. We recommend additional clinical studies to better understand the susceptibility breakpoint for carbapenems. Evaluation of the correlation of caspofungin MICs and treatment outcome in murine infections by wild type strains of Candida parapsilosis.

We have evaluated the in vitro activity of caspofungin against 36 wild-type strains of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto using 3 techniques: A comparative study of M. C evaluator test with the broth microdilution method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterobacter cloacae isolated from cooked food.

Online casinos with no deposit bonuses for us players dilution and broth microdilution are widely recommended quantitative antimicrobial susceptibility test methods, but they are tedious and time consuming to implement as routine tests in many clinical laboratories.

Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the broth microdilution and the M. C Evaluator method which has been validated for its high accuracy and easy performance for routine diagnostic use.

Twenty Enterobacter cloacae strains were isolated following microbiological procedures and confirmation of the isolates used the API 20E test. The strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobials using the broth microdilution and MIC Evaluator methods.

The doubling dilution difference essential agreement in the MIC result was derived from: The categorical agreement, interpreted as breakpoints of sensitive and resistance strains was also noted. Categorical agreement between M. Results indicate a high efficiency of the M. C Evaluator strip method in determination of minimum inhibitory concentration as compared to broth microdilution method.

However, further analysis regarding the suitability of the M. C Evaluator for testing Enterobacter cloacae is warranted considering that no consensus guidelines exist for the use of this method with the organism.

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Model inter-comparison and evaluation of acid deposition. Significant correlations appeared between the observation and computed ensemble mean of participant models.

Also, differences among modeled sulfur and nitrogen dry depositions have been studied at the EANET sites. Based on the analysis of acid deposition for various species from different models, total depositions of sulfur SO 2 and sulfate and nitrogen nitrate and ammonium have been evaluated as the ensemble mean of the eight models. In general, all models capture the observed spatial distribution of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, although the absolute values may differ from measurements.

The magnitude of model bias is quite large for many of the models. In examining the reasons for model-measurement disagreement, we find that differences in chemical processes, deposition parameterization, and modeled precipitation are the main reasons for large model disparities.

Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE. The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July The meteorology near surface De bedste casino siderosis meaning of emoji hands lower troposphere is well reproduced.

Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant. The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS -II models and ours.

Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean.

New information has come to light about the biological activity of propolis and the quality of natural products which requires a rapid and reliable assessment method such as High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography HPTLC fingerprinting. This study investigates chromatographic and chemometric approaches for determining the antimicrobial activity of propolis of Serbian origin against various bacterial species.

A linear multivariate calibration technique, using Partial Least Squares, was used to extract the relevant information from the chromatographic fingerprints, i. In addition, direct bioautography was performed to localize the antibacterial activity on chromatograms. The biological activity of the propolis samples against various bacterial species was determined by a minimum inhibitory concentration assay, confirming their affiliation with the European poplar type of propolis and revealing the existence of two types blue and orange according to botanical origin.

The strongest antibacterial activity was exhibited by sample 26 against Staphylococcus aureus, with a MIC value of 0. Generally, the orange type of propolis shows higher antimicrobial activity compared to the blue type. PLS modelling was performed Nye casino siderophores aspergillus terreus cultivation the HPTLC data set and the resulting models might qualitatively indicate compounds that play an important role in the activity exhibited by the propolis samples.

The most relevant peaks influencing the antimicrobial activity of propolis against all bacterial strains were phenolic compounds at RF values of 0. The knowledge gained through this study could be important for attributing the antimicrobial activity of propolis to specific chemical. Vancomycin MIC results were determined by the broth microdilution BMD method and by Etest using methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus bloodstream isolates obtained from a tertiary hospital.

Model intercomparison and evaluation of particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. Hayami, Hiroshi; Sakurai, T.

This paper analyzes calculated results for particulate matter of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium through comparisons with each other and with monthly measurements at EANET the acid deposition monitoring network in East Asia and daily measurements at Fukue, Japan.

To the EANET measurements, model ensemble means better agree with model individual results for sulfate and total ammonium, although total nitrate is consistently and considerably underestimated.

Moreover, it would be important that Fukue is in Northeast Asia, where the emission inventory is more reliable than Southeast Asia. The model-model comparisons are made in view of the total amount in the atmosphere, vertical profile, coefficient of variation in surface concentrations, and transformation changes with distance.

All the models show reasonable tendencies in vertical profiles and composition ratios. However, total amounts in the atmosphere are discrepant among the models. The consistency of the total amount in the atmosphere would influence source-receptor analysis.

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Through the comparison study, we learned that it would be difficult to find any problems from one comparison model-observation comparison with one data or many but at one station or in a short period. Modelers tend to examine model performances only from model-observation comparisons. However, taking budget in a certain or whole model domain would be important.

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group SIGincluding Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive.

The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all. Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Vancomycin is currently the primary option treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA.

Resorting to a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to assess the evidence of vancomycin MIC creep.

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    There is growing awareness that biotic factors could affect the integrity of the repository directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of waste package (WP) materials and other .. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole Test for Susceptibility Testing of Wild-Type and Non-Wild-Type Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates.
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Agar dilution and broth microdilution are widely recommended quantitative antimicrobial susceptibility test methods, but they are tedious and time consuming to implement as routine tests in many clinical laboratories.

Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the broth microdilution and the M. C Evaluator method which has been validated for its high accuracy and easy performance for routine diagnostic use. Twenty Enterobacter cloacae strains were isolated following microbiological procedures and confirmation of the isolates used the API 20E test.

The strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobials using the broth microdilution and MIC Evaluator methods. The doubling dilution difference essential agreement in the MIC result was derived from: The categorical agreement, interpreted as breakpoints of sensitive and resistance strains was also noted. Categorical agreement between M. Results indicate a high efficiency of the M.

C Evaluator strip method in determination of minimum inhibitory concentration as compared to broth microdilution method. However, further analysis regarding the suitability of the M. C Evaluator for testing Enterobacter cloacae is warranted considering that no consensus guidelines exist for the use of this method with the organism.

Model inter-comparison and evaluation of acid deposition. Significant correlations appeared between the observation and computed ensemble mean of participant models. Also, differences among modeled sulfur and nitrogen dry depositions have been studied at the EANET sites.

Based on the analysis of acid deposition for various species from different models, total depositions of sulfur SO 2 and sulfate and nitrogen nitrate and ammonium have been evaluated as the ensemble mean of the eight models.

In general, all models capture the observed spatial distribution of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, although the absolute values may differ from measurements. The magnitude of model bias is quite large for many of the models. In examining the reasons for model-measurement disagreement, we find that differences in chemical processes, deposition parameterization, and modeled precipitation are the main reasons for large model disparities.

Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE.

The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July The meteorology near surface and lower troposphere is well reproduced. Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant.

The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS -II models and ours. Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea.

Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean. New information has come to light about the biological activity of propolis and the quality of natural products which requires a rapid and reliable assessment method such as High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography HPTLC fingerprinting.

This study investigates chromatographic and chemometric approaches for determining the antimicrobial activity of propolis of Serbian origin against various bacterial species.

A linear multivariate calibration technique, using Partial Least Squares, was used to extract the relevant information from the chromatographic fingerprints, i.

In addition, direct bioautography was performed to localize the antibacterial activity on chromatograms. The biological activity of the propolis samples against various bacterial species was determined by a minimum inhibitory concentration assay, confirming their affiliation with the European poplar type of propolis and revealing the existence of two types blue and orange according to botanical origin. The strongest antibacterial activity was exhibited by sample 26 against Staphylococcus aureus, with a MIC value of 0.

Generally, the orange type of propolis shows higher antimicrobial activity compared to the blue type. PLS modelling was performed on the HPTLC data set and the resulting models might qualitatively indicate compounds that play an important role in the activity exhibited by the propolis samples.

The most relevant peaks influencing the antimicrobial activity of propolis against all bacterial strains were phenolic compounds at RF values of 0. The knowledge gained through this study could be important for attributing the antimicrobial activity of propolis to specific chemical. Vancomycin MIC results were determined by the broth microdilution BMD method and by Etest using methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus bloodstream isolates obtained from a tertiary hospital.

Model intercomparison and evaluation of particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. Hayami, Hiroshi; Sakurai, T. This paper analyzes calculated results for particulate matter of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium through comparisons with each other and with monthly measurements at EANET the acid deposition monitoring network in East Asia and daily measurements at Fukue, Japan.

To the EANET measurements, model ensemble means better agree with model individual results for sulfate and total ammonium, although total nitrate is consistently and considerably underestimated.

Moreover, it would be important that Fukue is in Northeast Asia, where the emission inventory is more reliable than Southeast Asia. The model-model comparisons are made in view of the total amount in the atmosphere, vertical profile, coefficient of variation in surface concentrations, and transformation changes with distance. All the models show reasonable tendencies in vertical profiles and composition ratios. However, total amounts in the atmosphere are discrepant among the models.

The consistency of the total amount in the atmosphere would influence source-receptor analysis. Through the comparison study, we learned that it would be difficult to find any problems from one comparison model-observation comparison with one data or many but at one station or in a short period. Modelers tend to examine model performances only from model-observation comparisons.

However, taking budget in a certain or whole model domain would be important. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group SIG , including Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive.

The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all. Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Vancomycin is currently the primary option treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. Resorting to a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to assess the evidence of vancomycin MIC creep. We searched for studies in the PubMed database. The inclusion criteria for study eligibility included the possibility of retrieving the reported data values of vancomycin MIC and information concerning the applied MIC methodology.

No significant differences were observed between these two methodologies. We have found no evidence of the MIC creep phenomenon. Model intercomparison and evaluation of ozone and relevant species. Statistical analysis is conducted to help estimate the consistency and discrepancy between model simulation and observation in terms of various species, seasons, locations, as well as altitude ranges. In general, all models show a good skill of simulating SO 2 for both ground level and the lower troposphere, although two of the eight models systematically overpredict SO 2 concentration.

The model skills for O 3 vary largely with region and season. For ground-level O 3, model results are best correlated with observations in July Comparing with O 3 soundings measured in the afternoon reveals the best consistency among models in March and the largest disparity in O 3 magnitude in July , although most models produce the best correlation in July as well. In terms of the statistics for the four flights of TRACE-P experiment, most models appear to be able to accurately capture the variability in the lower troposphere.

The model performances for NO x are relatively poor, with lower correlation and with almost all models tending to underpredict NO x levels, due to larger uncertainties in either emission estimates or complex chemical mechanism represented. Screening and evaluation of microbiologically influenced corrosion MIC in seawater and effluent water injection systems in Kuwait.

Some of these water sources are highly sulfide sour and may require treatment to prevent scaling, corrosion or iron sulfide precipitation. Another particular problem in water injection systems is the uncontrolled growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria SRB which leads to increased corrosion of the process plant. Recirculating biofouling loops were set up with the appropriate site water, and inoculated with the bacteria from the system so that an active biofilm was set up on small studs. These biofouled studs were treated with proprietary biocide inhibitors under various dose rates in order to select the most appropriate control regime for particular water chemistries and process options.

Evaluation of immune protective efficacies of Eimeria tenella Et Mic 1 polypeptides with different domain recombination displayed on yeast surface. The results indicated that all the three constructed live oral vaccines expressing different Et Mic 1 polypeptides provided excellent protection against homologous challenge by significantly increasing weight gains, reducing cecal lesions, achieving a high ACI, elevating specific antibody response and splenocyte proliferation ability compared with controls.

Considering the exclusion of antibiotic resistant gene in the system, the strain EBY of Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a better choice for coccidian antigen delivery. Comparative evaluation of the micro-media system, sceptor, and MIC microdilution methods for testing Pseudomonas aeruginosa against gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin.

The three microdilution systems produced comparable modal MICs. MICs were best define by MIC panels with dilutions differing by small arithmetic increments, for which However, those categorical endpoints have not been established for Fusarium spp. Insufficient data precluded ECV definition for the other species. Although these ECVs could aid in detecting non-wild-type isolates with reduced susceptibility to the agents evaluated , the relationship between molecular mechanisms of resistance gene mutations and MICs still needs to be investigated for Fusarium spp.

Multicenter evaluation of MIC distributions for epidemiologic cutoff value definition to detect amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole resistance among the most clinically relevant species of Mucorales. Clinical breakpoints CBPs have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. Hyper Mic is the control software for the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope, and is required for the use of the microscope.

It interfaces with, and controls the main subsystems of the microscope including the EMCCD detector, the video camera, the XYZ stage system, the optical shutters, the filter wheels, and the illumination sources. It allows the user to select regions to image, and acquire and save hyperspectral images. Hyper Mic is capable of acquiring single 2-dimensional image frames or full 3-dimensional image stacks. Speedy Mic 's Photograph. Using observations from ESO's VLT, astronomers were able for the first time to reconstruct the site of a flare on a solar-like star located light years away.

The study of this young star, nicknamed 'Speedy Mic ' because of its fast rotation, will help scientists better understand the youth of our Sun. Using a technique called 'Doppler imaging' [3], the astronomers reconstructed images of the surface of the star, detecting the presence of several spots. A few are near the visible pole, while most spots are asymmetrically distributed at mid-latitudes.

The X-ray observations indeed identified several flares, which are sudden and vast releases of energy. For one of them, the astronomers could pinpoint its origin on the surface of the star. The flare, lasting about 4 hours, was a hundred times more energetic than a large solar flare and considerably larger than solar coronal loops. The surprising finding, the team says, was the location of the flare. Contrary to our Sun, the site of the observed flare does not correspond to the detected spots [4].

Speedy Mic is a very young star: LES of wind turbine wakes: Evaluation of turbine parameterizations. Large-eddy simulation LES , coupled with a wind-turbine model, is used to investigate the characteristics of wind turbine wakes in turbulent boundary layers under different thermal stratification conditions.

The turbine-induced lift and drag forces are parameterized using two models: Simulation results are compared to wind-tunnel measurements collected with hot-wire and cold-wire anemometry in the wake of a miniature 3-blade wind turbine at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In general, the characteristics of the wakes simulated with the proposed LES framework are in good agreement with the measurements.

The ALM is better able to capture vortical structures induced by the blades in the near-wake region. Our results also show that the scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic SGS models are able to account, without tuning, for the effects of local shear and flow anisotropy on the distribution of the SGS model coefficients.

Evaluation of subgrid dispersion models for LES of spray flames. Turbulent dispersion models for particle-laden turbulent flows have been studied extensively over the past few decades, and different modeling approaches have been proposed and tested.

However, the significance of the subgrid dispersion model and its influence on the flame dynamics for spray combustion have not been examined. To evaluate the performance of dispersion models for spray combustion, direct numerical simulations DNS of three-dimensional counterflow spray flames are studied. The DNS configuration features a series of different droplet sizes to study effects of different Stokes numbers.

An a priori comparison of the statistics generated from three subgrid dispersion models is made, for both non-reacting and reacting conditions. Improved agreement with DNS is shown for the stochastic model and the regularized deconvolution model than a closure-free model. The effect of filter sizes in relation to droplet sizes are investigated for all models. Subsequently, a posteriori modeling of the same configuration with different resolutions is performed to compare these models in the presence of other subgrid models.

Finally, models for the subgrid closure of scalar transport for multiphase droplet combustion are proposed and evaluated. MICs of these three antibiotics were determined by dilution in agar medium by the coordinating center. A detailed understanding of clouds and their macrophysical structure is crucial to reduce the uncertainty of cloud feedbacks in current general circulation models GCMs.

Due to the coarse resolution of GCMs of O km , clouds often have to be parameterised. Relevant cloud processes instead act on scales of O m. Large-eddy simulations on huge domains with realistic weather forecast like boundary forcing are an emerging method to bridge this gap. But still careful evaluation based on observations is crucial to ensure realism of these LES simulations.

To better assess for uncertainties than at retrievals, physical consistent forward operators for a cloud radar, microwave radiometer and a simple LiDAR are applied on the model output. The high spatial and time resolution up to 9 sec. For the first time a full synthetic Cloudnet supersite is created. One of the Cloudnet products is the cloud classification, which is one of the most intuitive and comprehensive observational product to gain detailed information about cloud type and structure.

The cloud classification can now be derived from the LES , which is a powerful tool for investigating clouds. The simulated cloud radar observations show an overestimation of frozen hydrometeors in the upper troposphere, indicated by too high reflectivities. Small scale variability of the simulated water vapour microwave channels is well captured, which shows an added value of the LES. Rain events are too rare and the intensity is often overestimated by ICON, which is seen by less high reflectivity bands, whereas the reflectivity within the rain event is by 10 dbZ higher than of the.

The MIC photon counting detector. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is by pixels.

The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at nm. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of by pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

In particular we will: A framework to evaluate unified parameterizations for seasonal prediction: Antimicrobial evaluation of new metallic complexes with xylitol active against P. MIC determination, post-agent effect and Zn-uptake. Xylitol xylH5 is metabolized via the pentose pathway in humans, but it is unsuitable as an energy source for many microorganisms where it produces a xylitol-induced growth inhibition and disturbance in protein synthesis.

For this reason, xylitol is used in the prophylaxis of several infections. In the search of better antimicrobial agents, new copper and zinc complexes with xylitol were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectrosco pic methods: Both copper and zinc complexes presented higher MIC against Pseudomona aeruginosa than the free xylitol while two different behaviors were found against Candida albicans depending on the complex. The growth curves showed that Cu-xyl presented lower activity than the free ligand during all the studied period.

In the case of Znxyl the growth curves showed that the inhibition of the microorganism growth in the first stage was equivalent to that of xylitol but in the second stage after 18 h Zn-xyl inhibited more.

Besides, the PAE post agent effect obtained for Zn-xyl and xyl showed that the recovery from the damage of microbial cells had a delay of 14 and 13 h respectively. This behavior could be useful in prophylaxis treatments for infectious diseases where it is important that the antimicrobial effect lasts longer. With the aim to understand the microbiological activities the analysis of the particle size, lipophilicity and Zn uptake was performed. Is vancomycin MIC creep a worldwide phenomenon?

Background Vancomycin is the primary treatment for infections caused by methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. The association of vancomycin treatment failures with increased vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration MIC is a well-recognized problem. A number of single-centre studies have identified progressive increases in glycopeptide MICs for S.

It is unknown if this is a worldwide phenomenon or if it is localized to specific centers. Etest method was used to determine the respective vancomycin MIC.

Only one isolate per patient was included in the final analysis. The vancomycin MICs were 0. Conclusions We were unable to find in our institution data compatible to the presence of vancomycin MIC creep during the study period. Evaluation of Time and Space Scales in a Spatially The time and space fluctuations of velocity components lead to the energy spectra.

We can then to highlight the characteristic scales in. Recent innovations focused around parallel processing, either through systems containing multiple processors or processors containing multiple cores, hold great promise for enhancing the performance of the trigger at the LHC and extending its physics program. These accelerators have the potential to provide faster or more energy efficient event selection, thus opening up possibilities for new complex triggers that were not previously feasible.

At the same time, it is crucial to explore the performance limits achievable on the latest generation multicore CPUs with the use of the best software optimization methods. Preliminary time performance will be presented. The breakpoint change improves the probability of pharmacodynamic target attainment and eliminates the need for microbiology labs to perform confirmatory testing for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase KPC production or other beta-lactamases that hydrolyze carbapenems.

However, there are limited data evaluating clinical outcomes of the affected breakpoints, and it is unknown if patients infected with Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility are more likely to have poor outcomes when treated with a carbapenem. We conducted a single-center retrospective matched-cohort analysis in adult patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections treated with meropenem, imipenem, or doripenem.

A total of 36 patients were included in the study. Evaluer les competences de communication en milieu scolaire Evaluating Communicative Competence in the School Environment.

Discusses the various aspects of tests based on the concepts of communicative competence and formative evaluation where the objective of the evaluation is to verify whether the learner is capable of using the language in actual communication. Takes most of the examples discussed from the text "Methode Orange 2.

Little is known about the immune responses and protective efficacy against E. In the present study, the recombinant proteins of E. Our data suggests that VD domain is the key functional structure of Et MIC -1 that could trigger a significant humoral and cellular response against E. An evaluation of Lagrangian-based, discrete-phase models for multi-component liquid sprays encountered in the combustors of gas turbine engines is considered.

Spray modeling was performed for various cold flow validation cases. These validation cases include a liquid jet in a cross-flow, an airblast atomizer, and a high shear fuel nozzle. Droplet properties including velocity and diameter were investigated and compared with previous experimental and numerical results. Different primary and secondary breakup models were evaluated in this thesis.

The modeling of fuel sprays requires a proper treatment for the turbulence. The spray and turbulence models were evaluated using the available benchmark experimental data. However, only one known leak has occurred in the existing L evaporator flush water systems in either tank farm in 1H system , and no MIC Corrosion has been confirmed in the tank farm area.

Therefore, MIC prevention was not specifically considered during the design phase of this flush water system. The system is presently being installed. After an extensive evaluation , a task team concluded that the best biocide to prevent the occurrence of MIC would be NaOH at fairly low concentration. Sodium hydroxide NaOH is optimal in this application, because of its effectiveness, low cost, and familiarity to the Operations personnel see Appendix A.

However, it is the opinion of the task group that application should be withheld until MIC corrosion is demonstrated in the system. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups.

Our data suggested that immunization with Em MIC 7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. There have been only a few antigen genes of Eimeria brunetti reported up to now. The sequence was compared with the published Eb MIC 2 gene from GenBank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were The results indicated that the recombinant Eb MIC 2 protein was recognized strongly by serum from naturally infected chicken with E.

The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-Eb MIC 2 was constructed and then the efficacies of recombinant plasmid and recombinant protein were evaluated. The results of IgG antibody level and cytokines concentration suggested that recombinant Eb MIC 2 could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant Eb MIC 2 protein and recombinant plasmid pVAX1-Eb MIC 2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented high anti-coccidial index.

All results suggested that Eb MIC 2 could become an effective candidate for the development of new vaccine against E. Outcomes with daptomycin in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections with a range of vancomycin MICs. This study examines the outcome of patients treated with daptomycin for S.

Patients and methods All patients with skin, bacteraemia and endocarditis infections due to S. The outcome cure, improved, failure or non- evaluable was the investigator assessment at the end of daptomycin therapy.

Success was defined as cure or improved. No differences were detected in the daptomycin success rate by the vancomycin MIC group overall or by the infection type. A multivariate logistic regression also failed to identify vancomycin MIC as a predictor of daptomycin failure.

Equal-mass stars in young open clusters and loose associations exhibit a wide spread of rotation periods, which likely originates from differences in the initial rotation periods and in the primordial disc lifetimes. We want to explore if the gravitational effects by nearby companions may play an additional role in producing the observed rotation period spread, as well as, the role that magnetic activity may also play. We measure the photometric rotation periods of components of multiple stellar systems and look for correlations of the period differences among the components to their reciprocal distances.

Moreover, we detected a high rate of flare events from AT Mic. We suspect that a different level of magnetic activity between the A and B components of AT Mic may be the additional parameter responsible for the difference between their rotation periods.

To observe the effect of the combination of sub- MIC sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The serial dilution method was adopted to determine MIC of the combination of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on S. Microscope was applied to observe the impact the single administration and combination of the two medicines under sub- MIC on biofilm morphology of S. The MIC of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin were Sodium houttuyfonate, erythromycin and their combination had an inhibitory effect on the adhesion and metabolism of S.

The sub- MIC sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin have an inhibitory effect on S. The combination of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin shows a synergistic effect in inhibiting suspended bacteria and biofilm of S. The human tumor-derived soluble MHC I-chain-related molecule s MIC is highly immune suppressive in cancer patients and correlates with poor prognosis.

However, the therapeutic effect of targeting s MIC has not been determined, due to the limitation that mice do not express homologs of human MIC. This study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a monoclonal antibody mAb targeting s MIC in a clinically relevant transgenic animal model. A s MIC -neutralizing nonblocking anti- MIC mAb effectively induced regression of primary tumors and eliminated metastasis without inducing systemic toxicity.

Our study provided strong rationale for translating s MIC -neutralizing therapeutic mAb into clinics, either alone or in combination with current ongoing standard immunotherapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration MIC creep occurred in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S.

The MIC of linezolid was determined by automated Vitek-2 system. None of the S. Often, problem specific modifications and tuning must be employed rendering these models ineffective as generally predictive tools. In general, the approach seeks to a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy provided information from the underlying turbulence model, the resolved turbulence, and the available resolution.

Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. Here, we examine model performance with the case of a wall-mounted smooth hump of Greenblatt et al.. Excellent agreement with experimental results is attained while significantly outperforming delayed detached eddy simulation DDES for nearly the same computational expense and without any problem-specific modifications. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick.

La reussite scolaire des filles les amene de plus en plus a poursuivre une formation postsecondaire et a exercer des professions qui demandent un haut niveau de connaissances et d'expertise scientifique. Toutefois, les filles demeurent toujours tres peu nombreuses a envisager une carriere en sciences chimie et physique , en ingenierie ou en TIC technologie d'information et de la communication , soit une carriere reliee a la nouvelle economie.

Pour plusieurs filles, les sciences et les TIC ne sont pas des matieres scolaires qu'elles trouvent interessantes meme si elles y reussissent tres bien. Ces filles admettent que leurs experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC ne leur ont pas permis de developper un interet ni de se sentir confiante en leurs habiletes a reussir dans ces matieres. Par consequent, peu de filles choisissent de poursuivre leurs etudes postsecondaires dans ces disciplines. La theorie sociocognitive du choix carriere a ete choisie comme modele theorique pour mieux comprendre quelles variables entrent en jeu lorsque les filles choisissent leur carriere.

Notre etude a pour objet la conception et l' evaluation de l'efficacite d'un materiel pedagogique concu specifiquement pour ameliorer les experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC des filles de 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick. L'approche pedagogique privilegiee dans notre materiel a mis en oeuvre des strategies pedagogiques issues des meilleures pratiques que nous avons identifiees et qui visaient particulierement l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et de l'interet des filles pour ces disciplines.

Ce materiel disponible par Internet a l'adresse http: L' evaluation de l'efficacite de notre materiel pedagogique a ete faite selon deux grandes etapes methodologiques: Comparative in vitro evaluation of dirithromycin tested against recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, including effects of medium supplements and test conditions on MIC results.

The use of macrolides for treatment of respiratory complaints has been complicated by susceptibility test conditions that adversely effect the in vitro test results and perceived potencies of these compounds. Dirithromycin was studied as to its in vitro activity compared to other macrolides as well as the effects that environmental incubation variations and inoculum concentrations may have on susceptibility results.

This reduced activity may be compensated by the superior pharmacokinetic properties that dirithromycin possesses compared to other members in its class.

Variations in inoculum concentration had minimal effect on dirithromycin potency. In addition the variability lack of reproducibility of the test results with dirithromycin were not significant. Dirithromycin is an alternative therapeutic choice among macrolide compounds for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections caused by various streptococci, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and M.

In vitro tests with dirithromycin will continue to be problematic for H. To illustrate how the new method deals with variables that modify the MIC across subgroups. The new method uses logistic regression analysis and identifies the change score associated with a likelihood ratio of 1 as the MIC.

Simulation studies were conducted to investigate under which distributional circumstances both methods produce concordant or discordant results and whether the methods differ in accuracy and precision. The "predictive MIC " and the ROC-based MIC were identical when the variances of the change scores in the improved and not-improved groups were equal and the distributions were normal or oppositely skewed.

The predictive MIC allowed for the testing and estimation of modifying factors such as baseline severity. This advantage translates to increased statistical power in MIC studies. The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion MIC in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines.

The goal is one or more environmental benign, a. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied.

The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study first quarter , only preliminary results are available.

Three isolates showed same MIC result by both methods. Guidelines should also specify the method to be used for determining the MIC. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella formerly Rochalimaea isolates.

We assessed in vitro the antibiotic susceptibilities of 14 Bartonella isolates of the species B. Erythromycin, doxycycline, and rifampin displayed MIC 90s of 0. The study confirms the high levels of in vitro susceptibility of Bartonella agents to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish standardized drug susceptibility testing DST methodologies and reference MIC quality control QC ranges for bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline antimycobacterial, used in the treatment of adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Agar dilution and broth microdilution methods were evaluated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was used as the QC reference strain. Bedaquiline MIC frequency, mode, and geometric mean were calculated. When resulting data occurred outside predefined CLSI criteria, the entire laboratory data set was excluded. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays.

Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds.

Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC -causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp.

A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established.

Gatifloxacin MICs were 0. Levofloxacin also provided eradication. Further studies with other fluoroquinolones and pneumococci that exhibit wider ranges of susceptibilities are warranted. Microsatellites are widely used in population genetics to uncover recent evolutionary events.

They are typically genotyped using capillary sequencer, which capacity is usually limited to 9, at most 12 loci for each run, and which analysis is a tedious task that is performed by hand. With the rise of next-generation sequencing NGS , a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: We have developed an algorithm to automatically and efficiently genotype microsatellites from a collection of reads sorted by individual e. As the sequencing and the PCR amplification introduce artefactual insertions or deletions, the set of reads from a single microsatellite allele shows several length variants.

The algorithm infers, without alignment, the true unknown allele s of each individual from the observed distributions of microsatellites length of all individuals. MicNeSs , a python implementation of the algorithm, can be used to genotype any microsatellite locus from any organism and has been tested on pyrosequencing data of several loci from fruit flies a model species and red deers a nonmodel species.

Without any parallelization, it automatically genotypes 22 loci from individuals in 11 hours on a standard computer. The comparison of MicNeSs inferences to the standard method shows an excellent agreement, with some differences illustrating the pros and cons of both methods.

In ovo vaccination with the Eimeria tenella Et MIC 2 gene induces protective immunity against coccidiosis. An Eimeria tenella microneme recombinant gene Et MIC 2 and encoded protein were evaluated as potential vaccines against avian coccidiosis.

In addition, vaccinated birds developed protective immunity against infection by E. Combined in ovo DNA vaccination plus post-hatch boosting with Et MIC 2 DNA or protein did not improve antibody titers or protective immunity beyond that achieved with in ovo vaccination alone. These results provide evidence that in ovo immunization with a recombinant Eimeria microneme gene stimulates protective intestinal immunity against coccidiosis.

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion MIC in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign a. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp.

Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components.

Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies.

Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is associated with clonality. Abstract The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA blood isolates of different clones over an year period.

Three periods, namely to , to , and , were included and MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs were determined by E-test.

All the isolates were molecularly characterized. MRSA molecular epidemiology evolved from 1 predominant pulsotype type A to 5 major pulsotypes of 3 clonal complexes CC. Throughout the study period, the overall vancomycin modal MIC was stable at 1. Molecular epidemiology MRSA bloodstream isolates in northern Taiwan evolved from throughout , which was subsequently associated with the changing distribution of antibiotic MICs. The impact of these changes on clinical treatment response deserves further investigations.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA blood isolates of different clones over an year period.

Numerical evaluation of cavitation shedding structure around 3D Hydrofoil: The results are compared with available experimental data Foeth The PANS and LES reasonably reproduce the cavitation shedding patterns around the twisted hydrofoil with primary and secondary shedding, while the RANS model fails to simulate the unsteady cavitation shedding phenomenon and yields an almost steady flow with a constant cavity shape and vapor volume.

Besides, it is noted that the predicted shedding vapor cavity by PANS is more turbulent and the shedding vortex is stronger than that by LES , which is more consistent with experimental photos. Describes formative and self-regulating evaluation , developed by Citogroep and used for primary schools in the Netherlands to signal the progress of year-old students and monitor their learning.

Presents the structure, principles, and tools of the management of the improvement of differential pedagogy and key ideas for teacher education. A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was conducted in 13 Spanish university hospitals. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Overall, patients were included in the analysis; The biliary tract was the most common source of infection Crude 30 day mortality rates were For Permissions, please e-mail: The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC.

A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible.

Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

Activity of linezolid and daptomycin against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci with increased MIC for vancomycin isolated from blood cultures in pediatric patients. We evaluated minimal inhibitory concentration MIC for vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci MR-CoNS. This large proportion of pathogens with MIC around the breakpoint suggests a possible risk of treatment failure with these drugs.

This phenomenon is worth further and constant monitoring. Testing and evaluation of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster by means of a torsion pendulum system. Performance characteristics of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster over a range of input conditions were investigated by means of a torsion pendulum system. Parameters of particular interest included the impulse bit and time average thrust and their repeatability , specific impulse, mass ablated per discharge, specific thrust, energy per unit area, efficiency, and variation of performance with ignition command rate.

Intermittency of the thruster as affected by input energy and igniter resistance were also investigated. Comparative experimental data correlation with the data presented.

The results of these tests indicate that the LES -6 thruster, with some identifiable design improvements, represents an attractive reaction control thruster for attitude contol applications on long-life spacecraft requiring small metered impulse bits for precise pointing control of science instruments.

The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons.

Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. The presentation is include as an addition to this report. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle.

They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D.

The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable.

The function of mitochondria depends on the proper organization of mitochondrial membranes. The morphology of the inner membrane is regulated by the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and crista organizing system MICOS complex. MICOS mutants exhibit alterations in crista formation, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MIC 19 proteins undergo oxidation in mitochondria and require the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly MIA pathway, which couples the oxidation and import of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins for mitochondrial localization.

Detailed analyses identified yeast Mic 19 in two different redox forms. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation.

A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D.

The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results.

The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway.

Vancomycin MICs did not creep in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from to in a setting with low vancomycin usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate MIC trends for clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin over a 5 year period in a hospital in Spain.

All clinical isolates of S. MICs for the different groups in the different years were compared with the linear-trend chi 2 test. A total of strains of S.

One of the MRSA strains 0. The rest were susceptible. In a setting of low consumption of vancomycin and with a large collection of S. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus displaying increased MICs of ceftaroline. These isolates were clonally related and one strain was selected for further characterization. All strains originated from the same hospital. Penicillin-binding protein PBP affinities for ceftaroline and comparators were determined. Strains were typed by single-locus typing i.

The presence of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types was assessed. We also performed nucleotide sequencing of the mecA encoding PBP2a promoter and ribosomal binding site rbs regions and mecR1. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for exchange. For helping with housework, helping…. Different insulin types and regimens for pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes.

Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre- existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens e. To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We included randomised controlled trials RCTs that compared different insulin types and regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes.

We had planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials. We included studies published in abstract form and contacted the authors for further details when applicable. Conference abstracts were superseded by full publications.

Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted data extraction, assessed risk of bias, and checked for accuracy. The findings in this review were based on very low-quality evidence, from single, small sample sized trial estimates, with wide confidence intervals CI , some of which crossed the line of no effect; many of the prespecified outcomes were not reported.

Therefore, they should be interpreted with caution. We included five trials that included women and babies four open-label, multi-centre, two-arm trials; one single centre, four-arm RCT. All five trials were at a high or unclear risk of bias due to lack of blinding, unclear methods of randomisation, and selective reporting of outcomes. Pooling of data from the trials was not possible, as each trial looked at a different comparison. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from to to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables.

Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men.

The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children.

Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented. Brief pain inventory--facial minimum clinically important difference.

Neurosurgeons are frequently the primary physicians measuring pain relief in patients with trigeminal neuralgia TN. Unfortunately, the measurement of pain can be complex. It measures 3 domains of pain: The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with TN seen in a single neurosurgeon's office. Patients completed baseline and 1-month follow-up BPI-Facial questionnaires.

Two statistical methods were employed: The BPI-Facial is a multidimensional pain scale that measures 3 domains of pain. Although 2 statistical methods were used to calculate the MCID, the optimal cutoff point method was the superior one because it used data from the majority of subjects included in this study.

The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs.

Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1, U. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities.

Results Most congregations Predictors of health vs. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs p Analyses of extracellular carbohydrates in oomycetes unveil the existence of three different cell wall types.

Some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens belong to the oomycete class. The cell walls of these microorganisms represent an excellent target for disease control, but their carbohydrate composition is elusive.

We have undertaken a detailed cell wall analysis in 10 species from 2 major oomycete orders, the Peronosporales and the Saprolegniales, thereby unveiling the existence of 3 clearly different cell wall types: We propose a cell wall paradigm for oomycetes that can serve as a basis for the establishment of cell wall architectural models and the further identification of cell wall subtypes.

This paradigm is complementary to morphological and molecular criteria for taxonomic grouping and provides useful information for unraveling poorly understood cell wall carbohydrate biosynthetic pathways through the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes. The fibrillation propensity of the multidomain protein human serum albumin HSA was analyzed under different solution conditions. The aggregation kinetics, protein conformational changes upon self-assembly, and structure of the different intermediates on the fibrillation pathway were determined by means of thioflavin T ThT fluorescence and Congo Red absorbance; far- and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism; tryptophan fluorescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; x-ray diffraction; and transmission electron, scanning electron, atomic force, and microscopies.

HSA fibrillation extends over several days of incubation without the presence of a lag phase, except for HSA samples incubated at acidic pH and room temperature in the absence of electrolyte. The absence of a lag phase occurs if the initial aggregation is a downhill process that does not require a highly organized and unstable nucleus.

These changes also involve the presence of different structural intermediates in the aggregation pathway, such as oligomeric clusters globules , bead-like structures, and ring-shaped aggregates. We suggest that fibril formation may take place through the role of association-competent oligomeric intermediates, resulting in a kinetic pathway via clustering of these oligomeric species to yield protofibrils and then fibrils. The resultant fibrils are elongated but curly, and differ in length depending on solution conditions.

Under acidic conditions, circular fibrils are commonly observed if the fibrils are sufficiently flexible and long enough for the ends to find themselves regularly in close proximity to each other. Racial Differences in Intelligence: The Importance of the Executive System. The hypothesis that racial differences in IQ stem from differences in components of executive systems including knowledge base, control processes, and metacognition was investigated. Group differences in metamemory, strategy use, and general knowledge, but not perceptual efficiency, were observed.

Metamemory predicted crystallized but not fluid…. ADHD in girls and boys — gender differences in co- existing symptoms and executive function measures. Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls HC of the same gender.

Co- existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males.

Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of. Our team wanted to improve sampling methods for experiments on the thermal properties of martian sediments. We built a robot that could take the data autonomously over a period of days, and then compared them to existing models. Interpreting the clinical importance of group differences in chronic pain clinical trials: An essential component of the interpretation of results of randomized clinical trials of treatments for chronic pain involves the determination of their clinical importance or meaningfulness.

This involves two distinct processes--interpreting the clinical importance of individual patient improvements and the clinical importance of group differences --which are frequently misunderstood. In this article, we first describe the essential differences between the interpretation of the clinical importance of patient improvements and of group differences.

We then discuss the factors to consider when evaluating the clinical importance of group differences , which include the results of responder analyses of the primary outcome measure, the treatment effect size compared to available therapies, analyses of secondary efficacy endpoints, the safety and tolerability of treatment, the rapidity of onset and durability of the treatment benefit, convenience, cost, limitations of existing treatments, and other factors.

The clinical importance of individual patient improvements can be determined by assessing what patients themselves consider meaningful improvement using well-described methods. In contrast, the clinical meaningfulness of group differences must be determined by a multi-factorial evaluation of the benefits and risks of the treatment and of other available treatments for the condition in light of the primary goals of therapy.

Such determinations must be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and are ideally informed by patients and their significant others, clinicians, researchers, statisticians, and representatives of society at large. Contrasting mechanisms of de novo copy number mutagenesis suggest the existence of different classes of environmental copy number mutagens. While gene copy number variations CNVs are abundant in the human genome, and often are associated with disease consequences, the mutagenic pathways and environmental exposures that cause these large structural mutations are understudied relative to conventional nucleotide substitutions in DNA.

The members of the environmental mutagenesis community are currently seeking to remedy this deficiency, and there is a renewed interest in the development of mutagenicity assays to identify and characterize compounds that may induce de novo CNVs in humans.

To achieve this goal, it is critically important to acknowledge that CNVs exist in two very distinct classes: The goal of this commentary is to emphasize the deep contrasts that exist between the proposed pathways that lead to these two mutation classes. Nonrecurrent de novo CNVs originate primarily in mitotic cells through replication-dependent DNA repair pathways that involve microhomologies 10, bp , without an associated paternal age effect.

Given the biological differences between the two CNV classes, it is our belief that nonrecurrent and recurrent CN mutagens will probably differ substantially in their modes of action. Therefore, each CNV class may require their own uniquely designed assays, so that we as a field may succeed in uncovering the broadest possible spectrum of environmental CN mutagens. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome. In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome DS still to be found in the literature.

We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description.

Importance of life domains in different cultural groups. This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered i. The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower.

Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis. An Important Part of Me: A Dialogue about Difference. This article is an experiment in writing about and across differences ; it seeks to open up dialogue between adults and young people in childhood and youth studies research. The coauthors, Sofia and Wendy, met through Wendy's longitudinal research project, which explores the roles that gender, race, and immigrant status play in how young people….

Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes. In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many….

Analysis of novel mycobacteriophages indicates the existence of different strategies for phage inheritance in mycobacteria. Mycobacteriophages have been essential in the development of mycobacterial genetics through their use in the construction of tools for genetic manipulation.

Due to the simplicity of their isolation and variety of exploitable molecular features, we searched for and isolated 18 novel mycobacteriophages from environmental samples collected from several geographic locations. Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the nm, genome size in the kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed.

Since some of our phages yielded pinpoint plaques, we improved plaque detection by including sub-inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid or ampicillin-sulbactam in the culture medium. Thus, searches for novel mycobacteriophages at low temperature and in the presence of these drugs would allow for the isolation of novel members that would otherwise not be detected.

Importantly , while eight phages lysogenized Mycobacterium smegmatis, four of them were also capable of lysogenizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Analysis of the complete genome sequence obtained for twelve mycobacteriophages the remaining six rendered partial genomic sequences allowed for the identification of a new singleton.

In summary, we report here the isolation and preliminary characterization of mycobacteriophages that bring new information to the field. Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the — nm, genome size in the 50—70 kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed.

The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is greater than per centimeter greater than 12, K. Thus, cyanides are the more stable isomers and would likely be formed more preferentially over their isocyanide counterparts. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can.

Importance of education in bronchial asthma treatment - gender differences. Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma. Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the adherence and compliance. The study included patients suffering from bronchial asthma and treated according to GINA guidelines in Allergy Clinic.

Asthma control test ACT , analysis of patients' medical documentation and a self-constructed questionnaire concerning health promotion and education were used in the study.

Aim of this work was to assess differences in the influence of education on results of bronchial asthma control between sexes. Average duration of asthma was similar in women and men Weaker asthma control was found in women ACT In women an analysis of correlation concerning patients' knowledge and conducted health education with asthma control revealed a statistically significant positive correlation of knowledge acquired from the allergologist with asthma control, information about proceeding in acute attack, whereas negative correlation with asthma control with knowledge passed on by family doctor was found.

Among the male respondents positive correlations of knowledge with asthma control within the scope of knowledge from allergologist and information concerning proceeding in asthmatic attack were found, while negative correlation with information coming from family doctor was revealed.

Health education in patients with asthma should be conducted by a specialist in allergic diseases and well-prepared healthcare professionals. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co- existing in frontal lobe of human brains. Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function.

In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe.

However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co- existed inside one frontal lobe.

This neuron system is particularly for human beings. This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck.

The Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences , but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores.

Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context. Challenges of Fusion Power Plant Licensing: Differences and Commonalities with Existing Systems. At present, there are no regulatory guidelines to follow for US fusion power plant construction and operation. Developing new fusion-specific regulations stands out as the most logical option, but requires well-coordinated effort between DOE, regulatory agencies, and the fusion community with considerable funding and long lead-time.

Nevertheless, a few recent developments seem promising: Relationship between meaning in life and intensity of smoking: Little is known about the relationship between smoking and meaning in life, although the association of meaninglessness with other addictive behaviours has been widely investigated.

The aim of this study is to examine whether a relationship exists between meaning in life and intensity of smoking as measured by cigarettes smoked per day. The study population was current smokers from the Hungarostudy Hungarian representative cross-sectional survey.

Age, educational level, marital status, subjective financial status, household income, coffee consumption, hazardous alcohol use, general well-being, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were included in the analyses as covariates.

On the bivariate level, life meaning was associated with smoking intensity in the total sample and among women p Different pathways for the nuclear import of yeast RNA polymerase II.

Recent studies suggest that RNA polymerase II Pol II has to be fully assembled before being imported into the nucleus, while other reports indicate a distinct mechanism to import large and small subunits.

In yeast, Iwr1 binds to the holoenzyme assembled in the cytoplasm and directs its nuclear entry. In this paper, we investigate the transport into the nucleus of several large and small Pol II subunits in the mutants of genes involved in Pol II biogenesis. We also analyse subcellular localization in the presence of drugs that can potentially affect Pol II nuclear import. Our results show differences in the cellular distribution between large and small subunits when Pol II biogenesis was impaired.

Our data suggest that, in addition to the fully assembled holoenzyme, Pol II subunits can be imported to the nucleus, either independently or as partial assemblies, through different pathways, including passive diffusion for the small subunits. Do Generational Differences Exist? As digital technologies form an inextricable part of young people's everyday lives, some commentators claim that the current generation of learners think and learn differently from their predecessors.

This study investigated the validity of this claim by surveying undergraduate and 81 postgraduate students at a large research-intensive…. The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge Study 1 , the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge Study 2. Results indicated that middle-income….

The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African American boys achieve less in school than African American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically i.

When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children N…. Advanced emphysema in African-American and white patients: Emphysema is the only smoking-related disease in which white patients have higher prevalence and higher attributable mortality rates than African-American patients.

Epidemiologic studies have not addressed, nor explained, the observed racial differences in emphysema. To determine whether white and African-American patients differ with respect to the magnitude, anatomic distribution, and physiologic impairments of emphysema.

Characteristics of patients with severe and very severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were examined and compared. Of the 1, patients enrolled in the trial, 42 were African American 3. Quality of life measures were similar between the groups, but African Americans had a lower socioeconomic status, lower education level, and fewer were married.

Radiographic analysis of the extent of emphysema in African Americans, who were matched with selected white patients, revealed significantly less emphysema in the former group and different distribution of severe emphysema. African Americans with emphysema were younger and had a similar degree of lung impairment as the white study population despite smoking less.

In a subgroup of matched patients, the severity and distribution of emphysema by quantitative radiographic analysis were different.

Study Design Literature review. Objective Several studies have shown that the accuracy of pedicle screw placement significantly improves with use of computed tomography CT -based navigation systems. Yet, there has been no systematic review directly comparing accuracy of pedicle screw placement between different CT-based navigation systems.

The objective of this study is to review the results presented in the literature and compare CT-based navigation systems relative only to screw placement accuracy. Studies included were randomized clinical trials, case series, and case—control trials reporting the accuracy of pedicle screws placement using CT-based navigation.

Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the selected studies that met our inclusion criteria. Publications were grouped based on the CT-based navigation system used for pedicle screw placement. The mean weighted accuracy of pedicle screws placement based on the CT-based navigation system was found to be Conclusion This review summarizes results presented in the literature and compares screw placement accuracy using different CT-based navigation systems.

Robust differences in antisaccade performance exist between COGS schizophrenia cases and controls regardless of recruitment strategies.

The impaired ability to make correct antisaccades i. However, it is unclear how the ascertainment biases that unavoidably result from recruitment differences in schizophrenia subjects identified in family versus case-control studies may influence patient-control differences in antisaccade performance.

To assess the impact of ascertainment bias, researchers from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia COGS compared antisaccade performance and antisaccade metrics latency and gain in schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-1, a family-based schizophrenia study, to schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-2, a corresponding case-control study.

COGS-2 schizophrenia subjects were substantially older; had lower education status, worse psychosocial function, and more severe symptoms; and were three times more likely to be a member of a multiplex family than COGS-1 schizophrenia subjects.

Despite these variations, which were likely the result of ascertainment differences as described in the introduction to this special issue , the effect sizes of the control-schizophrenia differences in antisaccade performance were similar in both studies Cohen's d effect size of 1.

This suggests that, in addition to the robust, state-independent schizophrenia-related deficits described in endophenotype studies, group differences in antisaccade performance do not vary based on subject ascertainment and recruitment factors.

Published by Elsevier B. Distinct circular single-stranded DNA viruses exist in different soil types. The potential dependence of virus populations on soil types was examined by electron microscopy, and the total abundance of virus particles in four soil types was similar to that previously observed in soil samples.

The four soil types examined differed in the relative abundances of four morphological groups of viruses. Machair, a unique type of coastal soil in western Scotland and Ireland, differed from the others tested in having a higher proportion of tailed bacteriophages. The other soils examined contained predominantly spherical and thin filamentous virus particles, but the Machair soil had a more even distribution of the virus types. Phylogenetic analysis of Microviridae major coat protein sequences from the Machair viruses showed that they spanned most of the diversity of the subfamily Gokushovirinae, whose members mainly infect obligate intracellular parasites.

The brown earth soil had a higher proportion of sequences that matched the morphologically similar family Circoviridae in BLAST searches. However, analysis of putative replicase proteins that were similar to those of viruses in the Circoviridae showed that they are a novel clade of Circoviridae-related CRESS-DNA viruses distinct from known Circoviridae genera. Different soils have substantially different taxonomic biodiversities even within ssDNA viruses, which may be driven by physicochemical factors.

Seasonal and weekly patterns of occurrence of acute cardiovascular diseases: Cardiovascular CV disease is the leading cause of death in women. It is known that acute CV events exhibit temporal patterns of onset, that is, seasonal and weekly. We aimed to verify whether such patterns show differences by gender. Total population and subgroups by gender percentage of monthly and daily events were tested for uniformity with the chi-square test, and a chronobiologic method was applied to monthly percentage of data for seasonal rhythmic analysis.

We considered , patients The monthly and seasonal distribution showed respective peaks in January and in winter, with no differences by gender. The weekly distribution showed a peak on Monday, with no differences by gender. A multivariate regression logistic analysis, including in the model either major CV risk factors hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and subgroups by age, did not find any difference in the temporal distribution of events in women and men.

The seasonal and day-of-week distribution of occurrence of CV events seems to be independent of gender. Distinct eosinophil cytokine expression patterns in skin diseases - the possible existence of functionally different eosinophil subpopulations.

The function of eosinophils has been attributed to host defense, immunomodulation, and fibrosis. Although eosinophils are found among infiltrating cells in a broad spectrum of skin diseases, their pathogenic role remains uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the cytokine expression by eosinophils in different skin diseases.

The number of eosinophils varied considerably in and between disease groups and did not correlate with the numbers of accompanying inflammatory cells. On the other hand, in autoimmune diseases, eosinophils largely contributed to MMP-9 production. ILgenerating eosinophils were particularly obvious in allergic and infectious diseases. In skin diseases, eosinophil expresses a broad spectrum of cytokines. The relative effect of noise at different times of day: An analysis of existing survey data.

This report examines survey evidence on the relative impact of noise at different times of day and assesses the survey methodology which produces that evidence. Analyses of the regression of overall hour annoyance on noise levels in different time periods can provide direct estimates of the value of the parameters in human reaction models which are used in environmental noise indices such as LDN and CNEL.

In this report these analyses are based on the original computer tapes containing the responses of 22, respondents from ten studies of response to noise in residential areas. The estimates derived from these analyses are found to be so inaccurate that they do not provide useful information for policy or scientific purposes. The possibility that the type of questionnaire item could be biasing the estimates of the time-of-day weightings is considered but not supported by the data.

Two alternatives to the conventional noise reaction model adjusted energy model are considered but not supported by the data. Pneumonia heavily contributes to global under-five mortality. Many countries use community case management to detect and treat childhood pneumonia. Community health workers CHWs have limited tools to help them assess signs of pneumonia. New respiratory rate RR counting devices and pulse oximeters are being considered for this purpose.

To explore perspectives of CHWs and national stakeholders regarding the potential usability and scalability of seven devices to aid community assessment of pneumonia signs. Pile sorting was conducted to rate the usability and scalability of 7 different RR counting aids and pulse oximeters amongst 16 groups of participants.

Pile-sorting data were aggregated for countries and participant groups. FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Comparative analysis was performed between countries and groups to identify thematic patterns. CHWs and national stakeholders across the four countries perceived the acute respiratory infection ARI timer and fingertip pulse oximeter as highly scalable and easy for CHWs to use.

National stakeholders were less receptive to new technologies. CHWs placed greater priority on device acceptability to caregivers and children. Both groups felt that heavy reliance on electricity reduced potential scalability and usability in rural areas. Device simplicity, affordability and sustainability were universally valued. CHWs and national stakeholders prioritise different device characteristics according to their specific focus of work.

Genetic variation at ribosomal genes supports the existence of two different European subspecies in the megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis. Samples of common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis caught in six different areas in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters were genetically analysed for variation at one mitochondrial gene, 16S rDNA, and one nuclear locus, 5S rDNA.

Differences between regions for both genes at sequence level support the existence of two differentiated subspecies totally isolated at genetic level, one in the Mediterranean Sea and other in the Atlantic Ocean.

The results are discussed in the context of the existence of genetic population substructure in marine fish species. Interspecific difference in the photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship: The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship is significantly different among species. Photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf nitrogen, termed as photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency PNUE , has been considered an important leaf trait to characterise species in relation to their leaf economics, physiology, and strategy.

Species with a high PNUE tend to have high growth rates and occur in disturbed or high productivity habitats, while those with a low PNUE occur in stressful or low productivity habitats. PNUE is an important leaf trait that correlates with other leaf traits, such as leaf mass per area LMA and leaf life span, irrespective of life form, phylogeny, and biomes.

Various factors are involved in the interspecific difference. In particular, nitrogen allocation within leaves and the mesophyll conductance for CO 2 diffusion are important. To produce tough leaves, plants need to allocate more biomass and nitrogen to make thick cell walls, leading to a reduction in the mesophyll conductance and in nitrogen allocation to the photosynthetic apparatus.

Since plants cannot maximise both PNUE and leaf toughness, there is a trade-off between photosynthesis and persistence, which enables the existence of species with various leaf characteristics on the earth.

Different Clinical Outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica in Malaysia: Does Genetic Diversity Exist? The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Orang Asli aborigine communities in Malaysia.

Examination was performed on stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in 3 different states using formalin-ether concentration, trichrome staining, and single-round PCR techniques. Out of stool samples, single infection of E. In addition, 10 samples had mixed infections with E. Six samples containing E. These findings suggest a predominant distribution of pathogenic potential of E.

Therefore, further studies on genotyping of E. Karyological evidence for meiosis in the three different types of life cycles existing in Agaricus bisporus. In Agaricus bisporus all cytological studies performed until now concerned the pseudohomothallic and bisporic var.

In the past 12 y two tetrasporic varieties have been described, the heterothallic var. Our aim was to compare the behavior of the nuclei in the vegetative and reproductive cells of the three varieties with light microscopy Feulgen and DAPI staining and transmission electron microscopy. Most of the vegetative cells contained nuclei in the three varieties.

Nuclear migrations through the septum were detected. In the basidia relative locations of nuclei and vacuoles, meiotic spindle alignments, relative content of nuclear DNA and synaptonemal complexes were measured or observed.

From the observation of numerous asynchronous second division of meiosis within basidia of var. Karyogamy and meiosis similarly occurred in the three varieties. In the case of A. The three different types of life cycles are described. Different clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica in Malaysia: Does deposition freezing really exist? At least different as we thought. Recent MD simulations on deposition freezing showed that water first deposits as liquid clusters and then crystallize isothermally from there [1].

We probe freezing of water on INPs of different structural and chemical properties under varying supersaturation conditions using non-linear optical spectroscopy, mainly second harmonic generation SHG and sum frequency generation SFG [2, 3]. This presentation will show very recent preliminary experimental results comparing deposition, condensation and immersion freezing DF, CF and IF respectively on an atmospheric relevant metal oxide surface mica using supercooled SHG measurements. It is found that the signal drops upon the formation of a thin film regardless of 1 the freezing path DF or CF , 2 the formed phase ice or liquid , indicating a similar molecular structuring.

The observed structuring similarity between DF, CF and LC films is a kick-off experimental confirmation of those computational results. Molinero, Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Leisner, Probing ice-nucleation processes on the molecular level using second harmonic generation spectroscopy. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Angewandte Chemie Submitted , Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of a cellular neural networks difference equation with delays and impulses. A class of cellular neural networks difference equation with delays and impulses are considered. Sufficient conditions for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution are obtained by using contraction mapping theorem and inequality techniques.

The results of this paper are completely new. A numerical example and its simulations are offered to show the effectiveness of our new results. No regularity singularities exist at points of general relativistic shock wave interaction between shocks from different characteristic families.

We give a constructive proof that coordinate transformations exist which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from C0,1 to C1,1 in a neighbourhood of points of shock wave collision in general relativity. The proof applies to collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result here implies that spacetime is locally inertial and corrects an error in our earlier Proc.

A publication, which led us to the false conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to C1,1, cannot exist. Thus, our result implies that regularity singularities a type of mild singularity introduced in our Proc. A paper do not exist at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result generalizes Israel's celebrated paper to the case of such shock wave interactions but our proof strategy differs fundamentally from that used by Israel and is an extension of the strategy outlined in our original Proc.

Whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein—Euler equations remains open.

We give a constructive proof that coordinate transformations exist which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from C 0,1 to C 1,1 in a neighbourhood of points of shock wave collision in general relativity.

A publication, which led us to the false conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to C 1,1 , cannot exist. Whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein-Euler equations remains open.

Gender differences exist in the association of leptin and adiponectin levels with insulin resistance parameters in prepubertal Arab children. Differences in correlations between leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in children exist in different ethnic populations.

No such information is available in Arab children. This study aims to fill this gap. Three hundred and twenty-five prepubertal children were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Body mass index BMI , waist and hip circumferences and fasting glucose were measured by standard procedures.

Leptin and adiponectin levels were significantly correlated with anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR and insulin in all subjects and with fasting glucose in girls only.

Gender differences exist in the distribution of adipocytokines in prepubertal children. The associations of adipocytokines with obesity biomarkers in prepubertal children suggest a causal link between childhood obesity and the risk of an early diabetes onset.

To rank outcomes identified as important to patients with psoriatic arthritis PsA and examine their representation in existing composite measures. Seven nominal group technique NGT meetings took place at 4 hospital sites. Two sorting rounds were conducted to generate a shortlist of outcomes followed by a group discussion and final ranking. In the final ranking round, patients were given 15 points each and asked to rank their top 5 outcomes from the shortlist.

The totals were summed across the 7 NGT groups and were presented as a percentage of the maximum possible priority score. Thirty-one patients took part: The highest-ranked outcomes that patients wished to see from treatment were pain with 93 points Reviewing existing composite measures for PsA demonstrated that no single measure adequately identifies all these outcomes. Pain and fatigue were ranked as the outcomes most important to patients receiving treatment for PsA and are not well represented within existing composite measures.

Future work will focus on validating composite measures modified to identify outcomes important to patients. Objective To study the effect of different mail- and phone-based strategies, along with patient- and research-related factors, on the time to contact with research participants.

Study Design and Setting A prospective evaluation of a week standardized protocol embedded with two randomized trials of mail- and phone-based strategies for contacting existing research participants for recruitment into a related study. Using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the different mail and phone strategies showed no significant difference in the time to contact with participants. Of 34 patient- and research-related factors evaluated, only 2 were independently associated with time to contact among all participants: Conclusion Few patient characteristics and research-related factors accurately predict time to contact.

Repeated attempts using different strategies are important to successful and timely contact with study participants. In microbial fuel cells MFC , wastewater is used as a fuel while organic and nutrient pollution in the wastewater are being treated. In the present study, commonly existing microbial populations in MFC anode biofilms were identified using high throughput FLX Titanium pyrosequencing to provide much more extensive information of anode microbial communities than previously possible.

Using FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 31, sequence reads with an average length of bp were obtained from 16S rRNA gene amplicons from different MFC anodes with different substrate exposure and respiration conditions, and microbial community structure and population identification were then analyzed using high-throughput bioinformatics methods. Although community profiles from the four samples were significantly different , hierarchical clustering analysis revealed several bacterial populations that commonly exist in the anode biofilm samples.

These bacteria were phylogenetically distributed in Firmicutes and the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-subclasses of Proteobacteria. In addition, most of these populations were found to be novel anode bacteria and exhibited oligotrophic or substrate-concentration-insensitive growth. These findings suggest that commonly existing anode bacteria may play a key role in the stable operations of MFCs, combined with wastewater treatment plants, under fluctuating substrate and respiration conditions.

The aim of the present multicenter study was to assess long term 36 months health related quality of life in patients after critical illness, compare ICU survivors health related quality of life to that of the general population and examine the impact of pre- existing disease and factors related to ICU care on health related quality of life. Prospective, longitudinal, multicentre trial in three combined medical and surgical intensive care units of one university and two general hospitals in Sweden.

By mailed questionnaires, health related quality of life was assessed at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after the stay in ICU by EQ-5D and SF, and information of pre- existing disease was collected at the 6 months measure. Only small improvements were recorded in health related quality of life up to 36 months after ICU admission. The majority of the reduction in health related quality of life after care in the ICU was related to the health related quality of life effects of pre- existing diseases.

No significant effect on the long-term health related quality of life by any of the ICU-related factors was discernible. A large proportion of the reduction in the health related quality of life after being in the ICU is attributable to pre- existing disease. The importance of the effect of pre- existing disease is further. Introduction The aim of the present multicenter study was to assess long term 36 months health related quality of life in patients after critical illness, compare ICU survivors health related quality of life to that of the general population and examine the impact of pre- existing disease and factors related to ICU care on health related quality of life.

Methods Prospective, longitudinal, multicentre trial in three combined medical and surgical intensive care units of one university and two general hospitals in Sweden. Results Only small improvements were recorded in health related quality of life up to 36 months after ICU admission. Conclusions A large proportion of the reduction in the health related quality of life after being in the ICU is attributable to pre- existing disease. The importance of the. Pre- existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index BMI over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre- existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre- existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity.

Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1 the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2 over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3 motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4 cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function.

As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats.

This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre- existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals.

Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada.

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Comparative experimental data correlation with the data presented. The results of these tests indicate that the LES -6 thruster, with some identifiable design improvements, represents an attractive reaction control thruster for attitude contol applications on long-life spacecraft requiring small metered impulse bits for precise pointing control of science instruments.

The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons.

Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones.

Confirmatory tests are underway. The presentation is include as an addition to this report. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle. They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D.

The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable. The function of mitochondria depends on the proper organization of mitochondrial membranes.

The morphology of the inner membrane is regulated by the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and crista organizing system MICOS complex.

MICOS mutants exhibit alterations in crista formation, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MIC 19 proteins undergo oxidation in mitochondria and require the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly MIA pathway, which couples the oxidation and import of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins for mitochondrial localization.

Detailed analyses identified yeast Mic 19 in two different redox forms. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp.

Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition.

The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly.

Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway. Vancomycin MICs did not creep in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from to in a setting with low vancomycin usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate MIC trends for clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin over a 5 year period in a hospital in Spain. All clinical isolates of S. MICs for the different groups in the different years were compared with the linear-trend chi 2 test. A total of strains of S. One of the MRSA strains 0.

The rest were susceptible. In a setting of low consumption of vancomycin and with a large collection of S. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus displaying increased MICs of ceftaroline. These isolates were clonally related and one strain was selected for further characterization.

All strains originated from the same hospital. Penicillin-binding protein PBP affinities for ceftaroline and comparators were determined. Strains were typed by single-locus typing i. The presence of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types was assessed. We also performed nucleotide sequencing of the mecA encoding PBP2a promoter and ribosomal binding site rbs regions and mecR1.

Strain contains a wild-type PBP2a, while strains and have N K and E K alterations in the non-penicillin-binding domain. Additionally, has one substitution H N in the transpeptidase domain. Alterations in the mecR1, mecA promoter or rbs regions were not observed. Relationship of MICs to efficacy of cefotaxime in treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections.

To assess the predictive values of the recommended breakpoints, retrospective data were collected from patients who had S. Susceptibilities based on the NCCLS interpretative categories were compared with clinical and bacteriologic outcomes. Of 75 cefotaxime-treated patients for whom cefotaxime MICs were recorded, 73 were clinically cured or improved 37 of 37 with meningitis and 36 of 38 with other infections.

One case of bacteremia and one case of bone-and-joint infection were scored as therapeutic failures because initial monotherapy had to be modified because of an adverse drug reaction. Excluding these patients, there were 18 patients infected with S. The results of this analysis demonstrate that successful treatment with cefotaxime did not correlate well with the guidelines for the susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates to either penicillin or cefotaxime established by the NCCLS breakpoint recommendations.

Because of this study and other similar findings, the NCCLS adopted more clinically relevant guidelines in Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents. Ergonomia , , 30, 13 physique que psychologique. Cela tend A damontrer que Ergonomia , , 30, Sleep in normal and pathological aging.

When modeling coexpression networks from high-throughput time course data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient PCC is one of the most effective and popular similarity functions.

However, its reliability is limited since it cannot capture non-linear interactions and time shifts. Technical Center ; Clayton, C. The biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion MIC involve the transformation of chemical species at a metal surface. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS is utilized in conjunction with conventional microbiological and Quantitative Chemical Analytical techniques to better understand the effect of environmental conditions on microbial behavior as well as the ability of bacteria to alter local environmental conditions.

This is the first phase of a systematic study of microbial activity and the effects of alloy elements and thermo-mechanical treatments on the MIC resistance of stainless steels. Myelin imaging compound MIC enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myelination. The vertebrate nervous system is characterized by myelination, a fundamental biological process that protects the axons and facilitates electric pulse transduction.

Damage to myelin is considered a major effect of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis MS. Currently, therapeutic interventions are focused on protecting myelin integrity and promoting myelin repair. These efforts need to be accompanied by an effective imaging tool that correlates the disease progression with the extent of myelination. To date, magnetic resonance imaging MRI is the primary imaging technique to detect brain lesions in MS.

However, conventional MRI cannot differentiate demyelinated lesions from other inflammatory lesions and therefore cannot predict disease progression in MS. To address this problem, we have prepared a Gd-based contrast agent, termed MIC myelin imaging compound , which binds to myelin with high specificity. In this work, we demonstrate that MIC exhibits a high kinetic stability toward transmetalation with promising relaxometric properties.

MIC was used for in vivo imaging of myelination following intracerebroventricular infusion in the rat brain. MIC was found to distribute preferentially in highly myelinated regions and was able to detect regions of focally induced demyelination. Gene-specific cell labeling using Mi MIC transposons. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon.

Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. Mi MIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic Mi MIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps.

In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic Mi MIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family.

From a standing-room-only screening of Chasing Ice to a day of science communication workshops to new events such as Open Mic Night and AGU Cinema, AGU's Public Information office presented a range of events at this year's Fall Meeting, all designed to encourage and highlight ways that Earth and space scientists can share their research.

Mitochondrial cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via crista junctions which are implicated in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and import of lipids and proteins.

These knockout cells show a complete loss of crista junctions demonstrating that MIC 13 is strictly required for the formation of crista junctions. MIC 13 is also dispensable for assembly of respiratory chain complexes and for maintaining mitochondrial network morphology.

Still, lack of MIC 13 resulted in a moderate reduction of mitochondrial respiration. In summary, we show that MIC 13 has a fundamental role in crista junction formation and that assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes is independent of mitochondrial cristae shape. Application of open-source photogrammetric software Mic Mac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models. Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software Mic Mac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms.

Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: Mic Mac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models DEMs and orthorectified images of model surfaces. Mic Mac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images.

Mic Mac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of Mic Mac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems. Topical report, July February Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite TxL and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia.

The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process.

Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic -1 consortium. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic -1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC. In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography IC with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. Co MIC , the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood.

In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of Co MIC during mitochondrial division. Analysis AFSA past for solving the traveling salesman problem, the algorithm efficiency is often a big problem, and the algorithm processing method, it does not fully responsive to the characteristics of the traveling salesman problem to deal with, and therefore proposes a parallel join improved AFSA process.

The simulation with the current TSP known optimal solutions were analyzed, the results showed that the AFSA iterations improved less, on the MIC cards doubled operating efficiency, efficiency significantly.

In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium.

Very major errors VMEs i. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. On the parallelization approaches for Intel MIC architecture. The Intel MIC architecture is one of the main processor architectures used for the production of computational accelerators.

Increasing energy and cost-effciency of accelerators is one important option for building new HPC systems. However, the effective use of accelerators requires careful optimization on all stages of the algorithm and use of appropriate parallelization approaches. In the domain of statistical methods the quasi-Monte Carlo methods present distinct challenges when thousands of computational cores are to be involved in a computation.

In this paper we describe in detail and study the performance of algorithms for generating some popular low-discrepancy sequences, aimed at devices with Intel MIC architecture. By leveraging the powerful vector instructions of the Intel MIC architecture to process many coordinates of the sequences in parallel, we obtain fast implementations that can be plugged-in in any parallel quasi-Monte Carlo computation.

We present extensive numerical and timing results that demonstrate the benefit of our algorithms and their parallel effciency. The effects of using hyperthreading are also studied. The generation routines are provided under the GPL. An international standarizaed utility to collect data, MIC.

Multi-Instrument Collect, MIC , is rapidly becoming the international standard for safeguard data collection. First implemented in , it was adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency the following year and fielded in numerous locations around the world. This application is capable of simultaneous collection from up to independent instruments. It supports a variety of instrument types and a variety of communications media. Although created and currently being maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Science and Technology Group, N1, effort is underway completion planned mid-year to open up the architecture promoting outside or third party development.

This effort is nearly unique in the safeguards arena. It provides a standard user interface philosophy for a multiplicity of hardware vendors. User community advantages are: There are also significant advantages to the instrument developer. For example a variety of pre-existing communications objects may be used, pre-existing power management capabilities exist, and extensive data management capabilities.

All of these may be leveraged into a vendors development effort - significantly decreasing the amount of development effort and consequently decreasing cost. The presentation will include an overview of the existing MIC and MIC utilities from a developers and a users point of view, the user interface philosophy, and will discuss the open architecture allowing third party development.

Monitoring biofilm formation and incipient MIC in real time. Microbiologically Influenced corrosion MIC and microbiological fouling of piping and heat exchanger materials is a common and often costly problem in industrial cooling water and process water systems.

MIC failures have caused expensive unplanned outages, the need for local repairs, and, in some cases, complete system replacement. The control of biofilm on surfaces has been shown to be the most effective tool for mitigating MIC as well as for maintaining heat transfer in heat exchangers.

The most common method for control of microbiological fouling is the use of oxidizing biocides. Effluent limits and the corrosion penalties associated with their use drive users toward optimizing treatments in order to control biofilm effectively while meeting discharge limitations and without incurring excessive corrosion due to the treatment.

Optimized treatments require accurate monitoring of biofilm activity. An electrochemical sensor has been developed to provide plant owners with a tool for monitoring biofilm activity on metallic surfaces - a useful method for predicting system conditions and for controlling biocide additions. The probe has recently been incorporated into a complete system that includes on-line data acquisition and data analysis capabilities.

Those capabilities permit plant personnel to determine the presence and activity of biofilms on metal surfaces in their systems in real time; a powerful tool for optimization of biological controls.

Results from these activities, using data from actual plant installations, are described, along with implementation strategies for the use of the system to provide satisfactory microbiological control at the lowest cost. Broth microdilution was compared with tube macrodilution and a simplified population analysis agar method for evaluating vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs and detecting glycopeptide-intermediate isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

Vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC distributions by tube macrodilution and agar testing were also markedly different from those evaluated by broth microdilution.

The fold-lower inoculum size used for broth microdilution compared to macrodilution and agar MIC assays explained in part, but not entirely, the systematic trend toward lower vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by microdilution compared to other methods.

Broth microdilution assay led to underdetection of the vancomycin-intermediate S. Detection rates of isolates with elevated vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by macrodilution and agar testing assays were higher at 48 h than at 24 h. In conclusion, the sensitivity of broth microdilution MIC testing is questionable for reliable detection and epidemiological surveys of glycopeptide-intermediate resistance in S.

We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin.

They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current either polarity forced back into their outputs. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package.

Five 5 parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi. Imipenem and meropenem Vitek 2 MICs were evaluated for a panel of Enterobacteriaceae for identification of carbapenemase producers.

Is vancomycin MIC "creep" method dependent? Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility trends in blood isolates from North East Scotland from to This study investigated "creep" in vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates from blood cultures over a 5-year period in a hospital in the United Kingdom, using different susceptibility testing methods.

However, neither trend was replicated in MICs from automated or retrospective testing. Inconsistent evidence on vancomycin MIC creep and the relevance of the MIC to clinical outcome may arise from differences in susceptibility testing methods, including storage of isolates. There is a need to standardize and streamline susceptibility testing of vancomycin against MRSA.

Suppression of tricarboxylic acid cycle in Escherichia coli exposed to sub- MICs of aminoglycosides. High-performance and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques were utilized to evaluate the concentrations of metabolic reactants, intermediates, and end products. The data reported indicate that aminoglycosides inhibit or delay bacterial catabolism of carboxylic acids, with the following relative degrees of activity: The decrease in total biomass production was proportional to the degree of tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibition.

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast. We found that In contrast, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole 1 to 32 and isavuconazole 0. We experimentally evaluate the performance of computing devices on core operations of the application. We correlate the observed performance with the characteristics of computing devices and data access patterns, computation complexities, and parallelization forms of the operations. The results show a significant variability in the performance of operations with respect to the device used.

The performances of operations with regular data access are comparable or sometimes better on a MIC than that on a GPU. We propose new performance-aware scheduling strategies that consider variabilities in operation speedups.

Our scheduling strategies significantly improve application performance compared to classic strategies in hybrid configurations. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground.

The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The gain of the oscillator is 0. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.

Developing a wireless implantable body sensor network in MICS band. Through an integration of wireless communication and sensing technologies, the concept of a body sensor network BSN was initially proposed in the early decade with the aim to provide an essential technology for wearable, ambulatory, and pervasive health monitoring for elderly people and chronic patients.

It has become a hot research area due to big opportunities as well as great challenges it presents. Though the idea of an implantable BSN was proposed in parallel with the on-body sensor network, the development in this area is relatively slow due to the complexity of human body, safety concerns, and some technological bottlenecks such as the design of ultralow-power implantable RF transceiver. This system innovatively incorporates both sensing and actuation nodes to form a closed-control loop for physiological monitoring and drug delivery for critically ill patients.

The sensing node, which is designed using system-on-chip technologies, takes advantage of the newly available ultralow-power Zarlink MICS transceiver for wireless data transmission. Finally, the specific absorption rate distribution of the proposed system was simulated to determine the in vivo electromagnetic field absorption and the power safety limits.

We present a novel approach, based on robust principal components analysis RPCA and maximal information coefficient MIC , to study the redshift dependence of halo baryonic properties. Our data are composed of a set of different physical quantities for primordial minihaloes: We find that Mdm and Mgas are dominant factors for variance, particularly at high redshift.

Nonetheless, with the emergence of the first stars and subsequent feedback mechanisms, xmol, SFR and Z start to have a more dominant role. Our analysis also suggests that all the gaseous properties have a stronger correlation with Mgas than with Mdm, while Mgas has a deeper correlation with xmol than with Z or SFR. Finally, a comparison between MIC and Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the former is a more reliable indicator when halo properties are weakly correlated.

The measured phase noise is Data were obtained at 2. The outer Jovian planet candidate offers a plausible dynamical explanation for the observed debris disk dynamics of moving "clumps" on several year time-scales. It may be possible to directly image the outer planet candidate with the current generation of high contrast imaging instruments. The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification Mic GAS Process.

The objectives of the research during FY were to: Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou. The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

We evaluated LTX and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. The post antibiotic effect PAE is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub- MIC effect SME which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics.

LTX, as compared to mupirocin, demonstrated prolonged time of effect for these pharmacodynamic parameters, which supports persistent activity for several hours after the drug is no longer present or is below the MIC. The pharmacodynamic parameters studied here suggest LTX is less likely than mupirocin to generate resistance to S.

This article is protected by copyright. In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode.

We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD T was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix.

Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD T due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.

Mic Mac GIS application: The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System RPAS for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. Mic Mac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface for each command. Python language was used to develop the application.

This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces.

The toolbar is composed by three buttons: They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements.

This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities. Within this context, we evaluated the interaction established by recombinant Tg MIC 4 the whole molecule with sialylated bovine fetuin and desialylated asialofetuin glycoproteins by using functionalized quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring QCM-D.

Effect of methyl isocyanate MIC gas on the eyes of Fischer rats. The accidental release of methyl isocyanate gas in Bhopal, India, was reported to cause temporary blindness and other eye injuries in many of the exposed people. Methyl isocyanate MIC is known to be corrosive and to irritate intact skin and mucous membranes, but little is known about the extent of ocular damage incurred during exposure to its vapors. The eyes of male and female Fischer rats were evaluated immediately after a 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm of MIC , and periodically thereafter during a day recovery period.

During exposure to 10 ppm and higher concentrations, rats kept their eyes partially closed. Copious lacrimation and occasional frothy nasal discharge were evident. Eyes were examined under ultraviolet light after topical application of sodium fluorescein, and histopathologic examination included lids, cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve, and Harderian gland. There was no significant gross or microscopic evidence of epithelial erosion or ulceration of the cornea, or of adjacent tissues immediately after, or at any time following exposures.

No skin irritation was noted. It would appear that the natural protective mechanisms of the eye of rats were adequate to prevent ocular damage at these exposure levels. Rapid broth macrodilution method for determination of MICs for Mycobacterium avium isolates. A multicenter study was done to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of a method for determining the MICs of antimicrobial agents against the Mycobacterium avium complex in 7H12 broth with the BACTEC system.

In phase I, with eight drugs and 10 strains, intralaboratory reproducibility was The results of phase II testing with 41 additional strains were consistent with those obtained in phase I, with good interlaboratory reproducibility. Three test concentrations of each drug and the tentative interpretation of results are proposed. Radiometric MIC determination has the potential to become the method of choice for clinical microbiology laboratories and evaluation of new agents for the treatment of M.

A primary requirement in distributed robotic software systems is the dissemination of data to all interested collaborative entities in a timely and scalable manner. However, providing such a service in a highly dynamic and resource-limited robotic environment is a challenging task, and existing robot software infrastructure has limitations in this aspect.

This paper presents a novel robot software infrastructure, mic ROS-drt, which supports real-time and scalable data distribution. The solution is based on a loosely coupled data publish-subscribe model with the ability to support various time-related constraints. And to realize this model, a mature data distribution standard, the data distribution service for real-time systems DDS , is adopted as the foundation of the transport layer of this software infrastructure.

By elaborately adapting and encapsulating the capability of the underlying DDS middleware, mic ROS-drt can meet the requirement of real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems.

Evaluation results in terms of scalability, latency jitter and transport priority as well as the experiment on real robots validate the effectiveness of this work. The proposed QC ranges would aid clinical laboratories in testing these compounds following their development for treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections.

Sub-mitochondrial localization of the genetic-tagged mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging components Mic 19, Mic 60 and Sam Each mitochondrial compartment contains varying protein compositions that underlie a diversity of localized functions. Insights into the localization of mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging MIB components will have an impact on our understanding of mitochondrial architecture, dynamics and function.

Tagged Mic 19 and Mic 60 were located at CJs, distributed in a network pattern along the mitochondrial periphery and also enriched inside cristae. We discovered an association of Mic 19 with cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV.

It was also found that tagged Sam50 is not uniformly distributed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and appears to incompletely overlap with Mic or Mic positive domains, most notably at the CJs. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Les hommes regardent le ciel. Le mouvement du soleil. La lune et ses mouvements. Le temps et les calendriers. Les mythes de la fin du monde. Fluoroquinolones are some of the most prescribed antibiotics in the United States.

Previously, we and others showed that the fluoroquinolones exhibit a class effect with regard to the CLSI-established breakpoints for resistance, such that decreased susceptibility i. For defined strains, however, clear differences exist in the pharmacodynamic properties of each fluoroquinolone and the extent to which resistance-associated genotypes affect the MICs of each fluoroquinolone.

In a pilot study of clinical Escherichia coli isolates, we uncovered tremendous variation in norfloxacin MICs. Thus, although the fluoroquinolones can be considered equivalent with regard to clinical susceptibility or resistance, fluoroquinolone MICs differ dramatically for fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates, likely because of differences in drug structure.

Comparative antianaerobic activities of doripenem determined by MIC and time-kill analysis. Against anaerobe strains, the investigational carbapenem doripenem had an MIC 50 of 0.

Results were similar to those for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Time-kill studies showed that doripenem had very good bactericidal activity compared to other carbapenems, with Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks. Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones mics as well as on-board barometers.

Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones.

Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: Global deployment may be fast and easy www. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing.

The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Therapy induced regression of primary tumors and eliminated metastasis in preclinical models.

High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections.

We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency.

No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. The study examined MRSA isolates from blood cultures collected at several hospitals in two German cities between and The vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. The range of vancomycin MIC as determined by Etest was 0. The geometric mean MIC increased by 1.

The MIC mixture is an environmentally friendly, lead-free composition, so Replacement of the lead styphnate only would have the disadvantage of retaining the antimony sulfide and barium nitrate pollutants in the Direct process annual cost for lead styphnate. Aescin escin derived from the seeds of horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration 0. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. For permissions, please e-mail: Overexpression of MIC -3 indicates a direct role for the MIC gene family in mediating Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

Transgene-based analysis of the MIC -3 gene provides the first report of a cotton gene having a direct role in mediating cotton resistance to root-knot nematode. Major quantitative trait loci have been mapped to Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Multiple lines of circumstantial evidence have strongly suggested that the MIC Meloidogyne Induced Cotton gene family plays an integral role in mediating cotton resistance to RKN.

MIC -3 transcript and protein overexpression were confirmed in root tissues of multiple independent transgenic lines with each line showing a similar level of increased resistance to RKN. In addition, we determined that this effect of MIC -3 overexpression was specific to RKN as no effect was observed on reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction.

Transgenic lines did not show obvious alterations in growth, morphology, flowering, or fiber quality traits. Gene expression analyses showed that MIC -3 transcript levels in uninfected transgenic roots exceeded levels observed in RKN-infected roots of naturally resistant plants and that overexpression did not alter the regulation of native MIC genes in the genome. These results are the first report describing a direct role for a specific gene family in mediating cotton resistance to a plant-parasitic nematode.

Intermedilysin release by Streptococcus intermedius: Intermedilysin is a cytolytic toxin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, a pathogen of humans. In vitro studies showed that exposure of S. The most potent antibiotic was clindamycin. On the other hand, exposure to cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics generally showed insignificant changes in intermedilysin release at sub- MIC concentrations.

However, no significant differences in the mRNA levels of the intermedilysin gene were observed. Treatment for pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis is difficult.

Since current treatment has limitation, new application is needed. Fluoroquinolone is one of candidates. We have investigated the feasibility of sitafloxacin STFX. Adverse events were slight. Vancomycin has been a key antibiotic agent for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA infections. However, little is known about the relationship between vancomycin MIC values at the higher end of the susceptibility range and clinical outcomes.

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of MRSA bacteremia on clinical outcomes in patients with a vancomycin MIC near the upper limit of the susceptible range. We examined the relationship between MIC , genotype, primary source of bacteremia, and mortality. There was no significant difference between the presence of agr dysfunction and SCCmec type between the two groups. A higher vancomycin MIC was not found to be associated with mortality. In contrast, high-risk bloodstream infection sources hazard ratio [HR], 4.

Our study suggests that a high-risk source of bacteremia is likely to be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes, but a high vancomycin MIC in a susceptible range, as well as genotype characteristics, are not associated with mortality. The MICOS complex mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system is essential for mitochondrial inner membrane organization and mitochondrial membrane contacts, however, the molecular regulation of MICOS assembly and the physiological functions of MICOS in mammals remain obscure.

Impaired MICOS assembly causes the formation of 'giant mitochondria' because of dysregulated mitochondrial fusion and fission. Also, mtDNA nucleoids are disorganized and clustered in these giant mitochondria in which mtDNA transcription is attenuated because of remarkable downregulation of some key mtDNA nucleoid-associated proteins. Les urgences infectieuses ORL. Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples.

These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria.

Decreased tigecycline susceptibility mediated by efflux pump systems is being reported in clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC data would prove useful in managing infections by these multidrug resistant bacteria and optimizing use of tigecycline.

To evaluate the MIC values of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion Kirby-bauer was done for E. Out of isolates tested, Sensitivity pattern of these two bacterial isolates shows a high level of resistance to most. The present study tested in vitro susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates to fluconazole to determine if the ratio of the fluconazole area under the concentration-time curve AUC or weight-normalized daily dose dose wn to MIC correlated with mortality.

Fluconazole susceptibility and outcome data were determined for 77 patients with a positive Candida blood culture between and The most commonly isolated Candida species were C. Fluconazole MICs were highest against C.

Overall the crude mortality assessed at hospital discharge was Mortality rates by species were as follows: These data support the dose-dependent properties of fluconazole. Underdosing fluconazole against less-susceptible Candida isolates has the potential to increase the risk of mortality associated with candidemia.

The present study tested in vitro susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates to fluconazole to determine if the ratio of the fluconazole area under the concentration-time curve AUC or weight-normalized daily dose dosewn to MIC correlated with mortality.

MICs of 32 antimicrobial agents for Rhodococcus equi isolates of animal origin. The aim of this study was to determine the MICs of 32 antimicrobial agents for isolates of Rhodococcus equi of animal origin by applying a recently described broth microdilution protocol, and to investigate isolates with distinctly elevated rifampicin MICs for the genetic basis of rifampicin resistance. The study included R. MIC testing of 32 antimicrobial agents or combinations thereof followed a recently published protocol.

A novel PCR protocol for the joint amplification of the three rpoB regions in which rifampicin resistance-mediating mutations have been reported was applied to isolates with elevated rifampicin MICs. The amplicons were sequenced and screened for mutations. Susceptibility testing revealed a rather uniform distribution of MICs for most of the antimicrobial agents tested. The lowest MICs were seen for clarithromycin, rifampicin and imipenem.

In five of these six isolates, single bp exchanges, which resulted in the amino acid exchanges GlnLeu, AspVal, HisAsp or SerLeu, were detected in the rifampicin resistance-determining region 1 of the rpoB gene, with GlnLeu representing a novel substitution for R. This study shows the MIC distribution of 32 antimicrobial agents for a large collection of R. Isolates that exhibited distinctly elevated MICs of rifampicin were only rarely detected.

MIC 16 gene represents a potential novel genetic marker for population genetic studies of Toxoplasma gondii. The zoonotic agent Toxoplasma gondii is distributed world-wide, and can infect a broad range of hosts including humans.

Microneme protein 16 of T. In this study, we examined sequence variation in MIC 16 gene among T. The entire genomic region of the MIC 16 gene was amplified and sequenced, and phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using Bayesian inference BI and maximum parsimony MP based on the MIC 16 gene sequences.

The results of sequence alignments showed two lengths of the sequence of MIC 16 gene among all the examined 12 T. Despite these problems, intervention studies with bronchodilator drugs, inhaled corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation appear to reduce the frequency of exacerbation events.

Individual studies vary depending upon the recruitment protocol. Patients who experience symptomatic benefit may be those in whom a clinically important change in exacerbations occurs but this concept requires testing prospectively.

Existing methodologies for estimating clinically important differences are hard to apply with a binary outcome like this, and more work will be needed to develop a robust approach for dealing with this important clinical variable.

This study employed purposive sampling across 20 SE Idaho schools to explore PK-3 educators' perceptions regarding the value and importance of creativity education in the early childhood education setting PK A survey instrument and semi-structured interview protocol were developed for use.

Surveys were distributed by mail and through on-site…. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability.

Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders.

This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system. Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies UMDs.

Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history.

As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders.

Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Space structure vibration modes: Which ones are important? This report attempts to shed some light on the two issues raised in the title, namely, how many vibration modes does a real structure have, and which of these modes are important?

The surprise-free answers to these two questions are, respectively, an infinite number and the first several modes. The author argues that the absurd subspace all but the first billion modes is not a strength of continuum modeling, but, in fact, a weakness.

Partial differential equations are not real structures, only mathematical models. This note also explains 1 that the PDE model and the finite element model are, in fact, the same model, the latter being a numerical method for dealing with the former, 2 that modes may be selected on dynamical grounds other than frequency alone, and 3 that long slender rods are useful as primitive cases but dangerous to extrapolate from. Motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist before their first donation experience.

The demand for plasma products has increased rapidly. It is therefore important to understand donating behavior by plasma donors. This study investigates whether motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist at the beginning of a donor career.

The questionnaire assessed variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and norms , conscientiousness, and donation anxiety. Three years later it was determined who became whole blood or plasma donor. Multivariable linear regression analyses for intention were fitted separately for whole blood and plasma donors. A logistic regression analysis was executed to estimate the effect of intention at the beginning of a donor career on becoming a plasma donor.

Plasma donors had a higher intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and conscientiousness and a lower anxiety than whole blood donors.

Having a high level of intention increased the odds of becoming a plasma donor odds ratio, 1. Motivational differences already exist between future whole blood and plasma donors before their first donation. Although a feeling of self-efficacy is necessary for all new donors, more favorable cognitions are important for future plasma donors. Recruitment strategies for plasma donors should focus on attracting the more self-confident donors by highlighting the usefulness of plasma donation.

Minimally important difference estimates and methods: Introduction Patient-reported outcomes PROs are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. The minimally important difference MID provides a measure of the smallest change in the PRO that patients perceive as important. An anchor-based approach is the most appropriate method for MID determination.

No study or database currently exists that provides all anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments; nor are there any accepted standards for appraising the credibility of MID estimates. Our objectives are to complete a systematic survey of the literature to collect and characterise published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments used in evaluating the effects of interventions on chronic medical and psychiatric conditions and to assess their credibility. Teams of two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts of citations, and extract relevant data.

On the basis of findings from studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs, we will summarise the available methods and develop an instrument addressing the credibility of empirically ascertained MIDs.

We will evaluate the credibility of all studies reporting on the empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs using the credibility instrument, and assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability. We will separately present reports for adult and paediatric populations. Ethics and dissemination No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies.

Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor. Patient-reported outcomes PROs are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies.

Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments which will help. The clinicopathologic differences in papillary thyroid carcinoma with or without co- existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

The goal of this study is to determine the clinicopathologic differences in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma PTC with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis CLT. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymph node dissection from April to March The differences in clinicopathologic factors, such as age, gender, size of primary tumor, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and central lymph node CLN metastasis, were analyzed in PTC patients with or without CLT.

Among patients, 56 Also, patients with CLT Compared to patients with PTC without CLT, patients with CLT were younger with a female predominance, which are the most important and well-known prognostic variables for thyroid cancer mortality. Do Differences in Disciplines Exist? Within existing ICT degrees there is a widely-held belief that content must be tailored for different "kinds" of students--often two differing student groups: Our institution has produced….

To be the first study to consider the difference between men's and women's perceptions of most important mentoring functions.

Survey recipients identified the three most important things that mentors can do for their proteges. Two independent coders categorized the behaviors listed by the respondents. Differences in the methanogen population exist in sika deer Cervus nippon fed different diets in China. Understanding the methanogen structure from sika deer Cervus nippon in China may be beneficial to methane mitigation.

In the present preliminary study, we investigated the methanogen community in the rumen of domesticated sika deer fed either tannin-rich plants oak leaf, OL group or corn stalk CS group using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Methanogens related to the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant phylotypes representing Methanobrevibacter millerae was the most abundant species in both libraries, but the proportion of M.

Moreover, Methanobrevibacter wolinii-related clones Methanobrevibacter smithii-related clones and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium-related clones accounted for 6. However, these clones were absent from the OL library. The concentrations of butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids SCFAs were significantly higher in the OL group, but the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and valerate and the acetate to propionate ratio in the OL group were not significantly different between the two groups.

Tannin-rich plants may have affected the distribution of genus Methanobrevibacter phylotypes at the species level and the concentration and composition of SCFAs. By employing a nonlinear alternative for contractive maps, we investigate the existence of solutions for a boundary value problem of fractional q- difference inclusions with nonlocal substrip type boundary conditions.

The main result is illustrated with the aid of an example. Existence of solutions with a single semicycle for a general second-order rational difference equation. By making use of inclusion theorem, we show in this paper the existence of solutions with a single semicycle for a general second-order rational difference equation. As a corollary, our results positively confirm Conjectures 4.

The importance of checking for sex differences. Existent research documents an unclear and contradictory pattern between cortisol and personality variables, especially neuroticism. Specifically, no effect, positive correlations and negative correlations have all been reported to exist between cortisol and neuroticism.

The current study tested whether males and females have a fundamentally different relationship between HPA activation and neuroticism and if this might partially account for some of the discrepancy in findings.

For women it was negatively correlated. This suggests a slight suppressor effect, explainable by prior research on correlates of oral contraceptive use. Overall, these findings may offer some explanation for the discrepant results that have been reported in the existing literature regarding neuroticism and cortisol measures.

Existence of entire solutions of some non-linear differential- difference equations. In this paper, we investigate the admissible entire solutions of finite order of the differential- difference equations [Formula: In addition, we investigate the non- existence of entire solutions of finite order of the differential- difference equation [Formula: Importance of the different posterolateral knee static stabilizers: PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the different static stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee in cadavers.

METHODS Tests were performed with the application of a varus and external rotation force to the knee in extension at 30 and 60 degrees of flexion using 10 cadaver knees. The forces were applied initially to an intact knee and then repeated after a selective sectioning of the ligaments into the following: The parameters studied were the angular deformity and stiffness when the knees were submitted to a 15 Newton-meter varus torque and a 6 Newton-meter external tibial torque.

The popliteofibular complex was the most important structure for external rotation stability at all angles of flexion and was also important for varus stability at 30 and 60 degrees. The posterolateral capsule was important for varus stability at 0 and 30 degrees and for external rotation stability in extension. Level IV cadaver study.

Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that all PBMC sequences grouped together into a branch which was separate from those of the inoculum.

For one of the two chronically infected patients, all the sequences from the PBMC and one from the liver clustered into a single branch while the sequences from the serum and all the other liver sequences grouped together in the other branch.

For the other patient, the sequences from the serum and PBMC and three sequences from the liver grouped together into one branch, while the remaining five sequences from the liver were separated in a different cluster. Fadeout in an Early Mathematics Intervention: Constraining Content or Pre- existing Differences?

A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did. One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of advanced content that children are prepared for after receiving the intervention, so lower-achieving children in the control groups of early mathematics interventions catch up to the higher-achieving children in the treatment groups.

We tested these two hypotheses using data from an effective preschool mathematics intervention previously known to show a diminishing treatment effect over time. We compared the intervention group to a matched subset of the control group with a similar mean and variance of scores at the end of treatment. We then tested the relative contributions of factors that similarly constrain learning in children from treatment and control groups with the same level of post-treatment achievement and pre- existing differences between these two groups to the fadeout of the treatment effect over time.

An important difference between "exposed" and "photodistributed" underscores the importance of identifying common reactions. This article presents the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to dermatology for what was suspected to be a photosensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, a common culprit in photodrug reactions. Despite the patient's insistence to the contrary, the cause of her eruption was an airborne allergic contact dermatitis to chemicals she was exposed to during her longtime hobby of soap-making.

This case serves as an important illustration of the anatomical differences between eruptions occurring in exposed and photodistributed areas. This article also discusses the causes of dermatitis that may mimic photodrug reactions.

Impact of blade geometry differences for the CFD performance analysis of existing turbines. Most of those analyses are based on the measurement of a single runner blade.

However, due to manufacturing techniques, in-situ modifications or repairs, there are often small differences between individual blades of the same runner. The impact of this non uniformity was not known thus far and was often assumed to be negligible given the size of the runner. This paper highlights the impact of such differences by presenting the CFD analysis of various blades measured on the same runner.

Two different geometries are used for demonstration: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs. In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation.

During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur.

We referred to these as a 'point', a 'loop', a 'backward pendulum' and a 'parabolic' transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types.

Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types.

We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery. Multi-locus typing of Histomonas meleagridis isolates demonstrates the existence of two different genotypes.

Histomonas meleagridis is the aetiological agent of histomonosis or "blackhead disease". Histomonosis is of special importance today, because there is no effective treatment to prevent its occurrence with considerable losses for the poultry industry.

Despite its importance only a few molecular studies have yet been performed to investigate the degree of genetic diversity between different isolates of this parasite. In the present study a collection of well defined samples, previously shown positive for the DNA of H. Samples originated from 25 turkey flocks collected in France between and Additionally, diagnostic samples, collected at our Clinic in Vienna, from different European countries and Azerbaijan, during to were included in the analyses.

For the analysis three different genetic loci were analyzed: Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated separation of H. The majority of isolates grouped within the cluster 1 and originated from different European countries. The cluster 2 was rare and predominantly found in samples originating from France. Considering that the genetic variability of clusters can be seen as two distinct genetic types we propose the term genotype instead of cluster.

Summary In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for exchange. For helping with housework, helping…. Different insulin types and regimens for pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes.

Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre- existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens e. To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

We included randomised controlled trials RCTs that compared different insulin types and regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes. We had planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials. We included studies published in abstract form and contacted the authors for further details when applicable. Conference abstracts were superseded by full publications.

Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted data extraction, assessed risk of bias, and checked for accuracy. The findings in this review were based on very low-quality evidence, from single, small sample sized trial estimates, with wide confidence intervals CI , some of which crossed the line of no effect; many of the prespecified outcomes were not reported.

Therefore, they should be interpreted with caution. We included five trials that included women and babies four open-label, multi-centre, two-arm trials; one single centre, four-arm RCT. All five trials were at a high or unclear risk of bias due to lack of blinding, unclear methods of randomisation, and selective reporting of outcomes.

Pooling of data from the trials was not possible, as each trial looked at a different comparison. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why? The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from to to explore gender differences in mobility.

Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks.

While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children.

Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively.

Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented. Brief pain inventory--facial minimum clinically important difference. Neurosurgeons are frequently the primary physicians measuring pain relief in patients with trigeminal neuralgia TN.

Unfortunately, the measurement of pain can be complex. It measures 3 domains of pain: The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with TN seen in a single neurosurgeon's office. Patients completed baseline and 1-month follow-up BPI-Facial questionnaires. Two statistical methods were employed: The BPI-Facial is a multidimensional pain scale that measures 3 domains of pain.

Although 2 statistical methods were used to calculate the MCID, the optimal cutoff point method was the superior one because it used data from the majority of subjects included in this study. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs.

Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1, U. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations Predictors of health vs.

The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs p Analyses of extracellular carbohydrates in oomycetes unveil the existence of three different cell wall types. Some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens belong to the oomycete class. The cell walls of these microorganisms represent an excellent target for disease control, but their carbohydrate composition is elusive.

We have undertaken a detailed cell wall analysis in 10 species from 2 major oomycete orders, the Peronosporales and the Saprolegniales, thereby unveiling the existence of 3 clearly different cell wall types: We propose a cell wall paradigm for oomycetes that can serve as a basis for the establishment of cell wall architectural models and the further identification of cell wall subtypes.

This paradigm is complementary to morphological and molecular criteria for taxonomic grouping and provides useful information for unraveling poorly understood cell wall carbohydrate biosynthetic pathways through the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes. The fibrillation propensity of the multidomain protein human serum albumin HSA was analyzed under different solution conditions.

The aggregation kinetics, protein conformational changes upon self-assembly, and structure of the different intermediates on the fibrillation pathway were determined by means of thioflavin T ThT fluorescence and Congo Red absorbance; far- and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism; tryptophan fluorescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; x-ray diffraction; and transmission electron, scanning electron, atomic force, and microscopies.

HSA fibrillation extends over several days of incubation without the presence of a lag phase, except for HSA samples incubated at acidic pH and room temperature in the absence of electrolyte. The absence of a lag phase occurs if the initial aggregation is a downhill process that does not require a highly organized and unstable nucleus.

These changes also involve the presence of different structural intermediates in the aggregation pathway, such as oligomeric clusters globules , bead-like structures, and ring-shaped aggregates. We suggest that fibril formation may take place through the role of association-competent oligomeric intermediates, resulting in a kinetic pathway via clustering of these oligomeric species to yield protofibrils and then fibrils.

The resultant fibrils are elongated but curly, and differ in length depending on solution conditions. Under acidic conditions, circular fibrils are commonly observed if the fibrils are sufficiently flexible and long enough for the ends to find themselves regularly in close proximity to each other.

Racial Differences in Intelligence: The Importance of the Executive System. The hypothesis that racial differences in IQ stem from differences in components of executive systems including knowledge base, control processes, and metacognition was investigated. Group differences in metamemory, strategy use, and general knowledge, but not perceptual efficiency, were observed. Metamemory predicted crystallized but not fluid…. ADHD in girls and boys — gender differences in co- existing symptoms and executive function measures.

Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls HC of the same gender.

Co- existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males.

Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of. Our team wanted to improve sampling methods for experiments on the thermal properties of martian sediments. We built a robot that could take the data autonomously over a period of days, and then compared them to existing models. Interpreting the clinical importance of group differences in chronic pain clinical trials: An essential component of the interpretation of results of randomized clinical trials of treatments for chronic pain involves the determination of their clinical importance or meaningfulness.

This involves two distinct processes--interpreting the clinical importance of individual patient improvements and the clinical importance of group differences --which are frequently misunderstood. In this article, we first describe the essential differences between the interpretation of the clinical importance of patient improvements and of group differences. We then discuss the factors to consider when evaluating the clinical importance of group differences , which include the results of responder analyses of the primary outcome measure, the treatment effect size compared to available therapies, analyses of secondary efficacy endpoints, the safety and tolerability of treatment, the rapidity of onset and durability of the treatment benefit, convenience, cost, limitations of existing treatments, and other factors.

The clinical importance of individual patient improvements can be determined by assessing what patients themselves consider meaningful improvement using well-described methods. In contrast, the clinical meaningfulness of group differences must be determined by a multi-factorial evaluation of the benefits and risks of the treatment and of other available treatments for the condition in light of the primary goals of therapy. Such determinations must be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and are ideally informed by patients and their significant others, clinicians, researchers, statisticians, and representatives of society at large.

Contrasting mechanisms of de novo copy number mutagenesis suggest the existence of different classes of environmental copy number mutagens. While gene copy number variations CNVs are abundant in the human genome, and often are associated with disease consequences, the mutagenic pathways and environmental exposures that cause these large structural mutations are understudied relative to conventional nucleotide substitutions in DNA.

The members of the environmental mutagenesis community are currently seeking to remedy this deficiency, and there is a renewed interest in the development of mutagenicity assays to identify and characterize compounds that may induce de novo CNVs in humans.

To achieve this goal, it is critically important to acknowledge that CNVs exist in two very distinct classes: The goal of this commentary is to emphasize the deep contrasts that exist between the proposed pathways that lead to these two mutation classes.

Nonrecurrent de novo CNVs originate primarily in mitotic cells through replication-dependent DNA repair pathways that involve microhomologies 10, bp , without an associated paternal age effect. Given the biological differences between the two CNV classes, it is our belief that nonrecurrent and recurrent CN mutagens will probably differ substantially in their modes of action. Therefore, each CNV class may require their own uniquely designed assays, so that we as a field may succeed in uncovering the broadest possible spectrum of environmental CN mutagens.

The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome. In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome DS still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description.

Importance of life domains in different cultural groups. This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered i. The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation.

As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis. An Important Part of Me: A Dialogue about Difference.

This article is an experiment in writing about and across differences ; it seeks to open up dialogue between adults and young people in childhood and youth studies research. The coauthors, Sofia and Wendy, met through Wendy's longitudinal research project, which explores the roles that gender, race, and immigrant status play in how young people…. Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes.

In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many….

Analysis of novel mycobacteriophages indicates the existence of different strategies for phage inheritance in mycobacteria. Mycobacteriophages have been essential in the development of mycobacterial genetics through their use in the construction of tools for genetic manipulation. Due to the simplicity of their isolation and variety of exploitable molecular features, we searched for and isolated 18 novel mycobacteriophages from environmental samples collected from several geographic locations.

Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the nm, genome size in the kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed.

Since some of our phages yielded pinpoint plaques, we improved plaque detection by including sub-inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid or ampicillin-sulbactam in the culture medium. Thus, searches for novel mycobacteriophages at low temperature and in the presence of these drugs would allow for the isolation of novel members that would otherwise not be detected.

Importantly , while eight phages lysogenized Mycobacterium smegmatis, four of them were also capable of lysogenizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Analysis of the complete genome sequence obtained for twelve mycobacteriophages the remaining six rendered partial genomic sequences allowed for the identification of a new singleton. In summary, we report here the isolation and preliminary characterization of mycobacteriophages that bring new information to the field.

Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the — nm, genome size in the 50—70 kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed. The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences.

From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is greater than per centimeter greater than 12, K.

Thus, cyanides are the more stable isomers and would likely be formed more preferentially over their isocyanide counterparts. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can.

Importance of education in bronchial asthma treatment - gender differences. Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma.

Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the adherence and compliance. The study included patients suffering from bronchial asthma and treated according to GINA guidelines in Allergy Clinic. Asthma control test ACT , analysis of patients' medical documentation and a self-constructed questionnaire concerning health promotion and education were used in the study.

Aim of this work was to assess differences in the influence of education on results of bronchial asthma control between sexes. Average duration of asthma was similar in women and men Weaker asthma control was found in women ACT In women an analysis of correlation concerning patients' knowledge and conducted health education with asthma control revealed a statistically significant positive correlation of knowledge acquired from the allergologist with asthma control, information about proceeding in acute attack, whereas negative correlation with asthma control with knowledge passed on by family doctor was found.

Among the male respondents positive correlations of knowledge with asthma control within the scope of knowledge from allergologist and information concerning proceeding in asthmatic attack were found, while negative correlation with information coming from family doctor was revealed. Health education in patients with asthma should be conducted by a specialist in allergic diseases and well-prepared healthcare professionals.

Hypothesis on two different functionalities co- existing in frontal lobe of human brains. Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations.

The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence.

Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co- existed inside one frontal lobe.

This neuron system is particularly for human beings. This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences , but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores.

Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context. Challenges of Fusion Power Plant Licensing: Differences and Commonalities with Existing Systems. At present, there are no regulatory guidelines to follow for US fusion power plant construction and operation. Developing new fusion-specific regulations stands out as the most logical option, but requires well-coordinated effort between DOE, regulatory agencies, and the fusion community with considerable funding and long lead-time.

Nevertheless, a few recent developments seem promising: Relationship between meaning in life and intensity of smoking: Little is known about the relationship between smoking and meaning in life, although the association of meaninglessness with other addictive behaviours has been widely investigated. The aim of this study is to examine whether a relationship exists between meaning in life and intensity of smoking as measured by cigarettes smoked per day. The study population was current smokers from the Hungarostudy Hungarian representative cross-sectional survey.

Age, educational level, marital status, subjective financial status, household income, coffee consumption, hazardous alcohol use, general well-being, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were included in the analyses as covariates.

On the bivariate level, life meaning was associated with smoking intensity in the total sample and among women p Different pathways for the nuclear import of yeast RNA polymerase II. Recent studies suggest that RNA polymerase II Pol II has to be fully assembled before being imported into the nucleus, while other reports indicate a distinct mechanism to import large and small subunits.

In yeast, Iwr1 binds to the holoenzyme assembled in the cytoplasm and directs its nuclear entry. In this paper, we investigate the transport into the nucleus of several large and small Pol II subunits in the mutants of genes involved in Pol II biogenesis. We also analyse subcellular localization in the presence of drugs that can potentially affect Pol II nuclear import.

Our results show differences in the cellular distribution between large and small subunits when Pol II biogenesis was impaired. Our data suggest that, in addition to the fully assembled holoenzyme, Pol II subunits can be imported to the nucleus, either independently or as partial assemblies, through different pathways, including passive diffusion for the small subunits.

Do Generational Differences Exist? As digital technologies form an inextricable part of young people's everyday lives, some commentators claim that the current generation of learners think and learn differently from their predecessors. This study investigated the validity of this claim by surveying undergraduate and 81 postgraduate students at a large research-intensive….

The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge Study 1 , the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge Study 2.

Results indicated that middle-income…. The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African American boys achieve less in school than African American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically i. When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children N…. Advanced emphysema in African-American and white patients: Emphysema is the only smoking-related disease in which white patients have higher prevalence and higher attributable mortality rates than African-American patients.

Epidemiologic studies have not addressed, nor explained, the observed racial differences in emphysema. To determine whether white and African-American patients differ with respect to the magnitude, anatomic distribution, and physiologic impairments of emphysema. Characteristics of patients with severe and very severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were examined and compared.

Of the 1, patients enrolled in the trial, 42 were African American 3. Quality of life measures were similar between the groups, but African Americans had a lower socioeconomic status, lower education level, and fewer were married. Radiographic analysis of the extent of emphysema in African Americans, who were matched with selected white patients, revealed significantly less emphysema in the former group and different distribution of severe emphysema.

African Americans with emphysema were younger and had a similar degree of lung impairment as the white study population despite smoking less. In a subgroup of matched patients, the severity and distribution of emphysema by quantitative radiographic analysis were different. Study Design Literature review. Objective Several studies have shown that the accuracy of pedicle screw placement significantly improves with use of computed tomography CT -based navigation systems.

Yet, there has been no systematic review directly comparing accuracy of pedicle screw placement between different CT-based navigation systems. The objective of this study is to review the results presented in the literature and compare CT-based navigation systems relative only to screw placement accuracy. Studies included were randomized clinical trials, case series, and case—control trials reporting the accuracy of pedicle screws placement using CT-based navigation.

Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the selected studies that met our inclusion criteria. Publications were grouped based on the CT-based navigation system used for pedicle screw placement. The mean weighted accuracy of pedicle screws placement based on the CT-based navigation system was found to be Conclusion This review summarizes results presented in the literature and compares screw placement accuracy using different CT-based navigation systems.

Robust differences in antisaccade performance exist between COGS schizophrenia cases and controls regardless of recruitment strategies. The impaired ability to make correct antisaccades i. However, it is unclear how the ascertainment biases that unavoidably result from recruitment differences in schizophrenia subjects identified in family versus case-control studies may influence patient-control differences in antisaccade performance.

To assess the impact of ascertainment bias, researchers from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia COGS compared antisaccade performance and antisaccade metrics latency and gain in schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-1, a family-based schizophrenia study, to schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-2, a corresponding case-control study.

COGS-2 schizophrenia subjects were substantially older; had lower education status, worse psychosocial function, and more severe symptoms; and were three times more likely to be a member of a multiplex family than COGS-1 schizophrenia subjects. Despite these variations, which were likely the result of ascertainment differences as described in the introduction to this special issue , the effect sizes of the control-schizophrenia differences in antisaccade performance were similar in both studies Cohen's d effect size of 1.

This suggests that, in addition to the robust, state-independent schizophrenia-related deficits described in endophenotype studies, group differences in antisaccade performance do not vary based on subject ascertainment and recruitment factors. Published by Elsevier B. Distinct circular single-stranded DNA viruses exist in different soil types. The potential dependence of virus populations on soil types was examined by electron microscopy, and the total abundance of virus particles in four soil types was similar to that previously observed in soil samples.

The four soil types examined differed in the relative abundances of four morphological groups of viruses. Machair, a unique type of coastal soil in western Scotland and Ireland, differed from the others tested in having a higher proportion of tailed bacteriophages. The other soils examined contained predominantly spherical and thin filamentous virus particles, but the Machair soil had a more even distribution of the virus types.

Phylogenetic analysis of Microviridae major coat protein sequences from the Machair viruses showed that they spanned most of the diversity of the subfamily Gokushovirinae, whose members mainly infect obligate intracellular parasites.

The brown earth soil had a higher proportion of sequences that matched the morphologically similar family Circoviridae in BLAST searches. However, analysis of putative replicase proteins that were similar to those of viruses in the Circoviridae showed that they are a novel clade of Circoviridae-related CRESS-DNA viruses distinct from known Circoviridae genera.

Different soils have substantially different taxonomic biodiversities even within ssDNA viruses, which may be driven by physicochemical factors. Seasonal and weekly patterns of occurrence of acute cardiovascular diseases: Cardiovascular CV disease is the leading cause of death in women. It is known that acute CV events exhibit temporal patterns of onset, that is, seasonal and weekly. We aimed to verify whether such patterns show differences by gender. Total population and subgroups by gender percentage of monthly and daily events were tested for uniformity with the chi-square test, and a chronobiologic method was applied to monthly percentage of data for seasonal rhythmic analysis.

We considered , patients The monthly and seasonal distribution showed respective peaks in January and in winter, with no differences by gender. The weekly distribution showed a peak on Monday, with no differences by gender. A multivariate regression logistic analysis, including in the model either major CV risk factors hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and subgroups by age, did not find any difference in the temporal distribution of events in women and men.

The seasonal and day-of-week distribution of occurrence of CV events seems to be independent of gender.

Distinct eosinophil cytokine expression patterns in skin diseases - the possible existence of functionally different eosinophil subpopulations.

The function of eosinophils has been attributed to host defense, immunomodulation, and fibrosis. Although eosinophils are found among infiltrating cells in a broad spectrum of skin diseases, their pathogenic role remains uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the cytokine expression by eosinophils in different skin diseases.

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With the rise of next-generation sequencing NGS , a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: We have developed an algorithm to automatically and efficiently genotype microsatellites from a collection of reads sorted by individual e. As the sequencing and the PCR amplification introduce artefactual insertions or deletions, the set of reads from a single microsatellite allele shows several length variants.

The algorithm infers, without alignment, the true unknown allele s of each individual from the observed distributions of microsatellites length of all individuals. MicNeSs , a python implementation of the algorithm, can be used to genotype any microsatellite locus from any organism and has been tested on pyrosequencing data of several loci from fruit flies a model species and red deers a nonmodel species.

Without any parallelization, it automatically genotypes 22 loci from individuals in 11 hours on a standard computer. The comparison of MicNeSs inferences to the standard method shows an excellent agreement, with some differences illustrating the pros and cons of both methods.

In ovo vaccination with the Eimeria tenella Et MIC 2 gene induces protective immunity against coccidiosis. An Eimeria tenella microneme recombinant gene Et MIC 2 and encoded protein were evaluated as potential vaccines against avian coccidiosis.

In addition, vaccinated birds developed protective immunity against infection by E. Combined in ovo DNA vaccination plus post-hatch boosting with Et MIC 2 DNA or protein did not improve antibody titers or protective immunity beyond that achieved with in ovo vaccination alone.

These results provide evidence that in ovo immunization with a recombinant Eimeria microneme gene stimulates protective intestinal immunity against coccidiosis. The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion MIC in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines.

The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign a. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents.

Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies.

Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is associated with clonality. Abstract The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA blood isolates of different clones over an year period.

Three periods, namely to , to , and , were included and MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs were determined by E-test. All the isolates were molecularly characterized. MRSA molecular epidemiology evolved from 1 predominant pulsotype type A to 5 major pulsotypes of 3 clonal complexes CC.

Throughout the study period, the overall vancomycin modal MIC was stable at 1. Molecular epidemiology MRSA bloodstream isolates in northern Taiwan evolved from throughout , which was subsequently associated with the changing distribution of antibiotic MICs. The impact of these changes on clinical treatment response deserves further investigations.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA blood isolates of different clones over an year period. Numerical evaluation of cavitation shedding structure around 3D Hydrofoil: The results are compared with available experimental data Foeth The PANS and LES reasonably reproduce the cavitation shedding patterns around the twisted hydrofoil with primary and secondary shedding, while the RANS model fails to simulate the unsteady cavitation shedding phenomenon and yields an almost steady flow with a constant cavity shape and vapor volume.

Besides, it is noted that the predicted shedding vapor cavity by PANS is more turbulent and the shedding vortex is stronger than that by LES , which is more consistent with experimental photos.

Describes formative and self-regulating evaluation , developed by Citogroep and used for primary schools in the Netherlands to signal the progress of year-old students and monitor their learning. Presents the structure, principles, and tools of the management of the improvement of differential pedagogy and key ideas for teacher education.

A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was conducted in 13 Spanish university hospitals. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Overall, patients were included in the analysis; The biliary tract was the most common source of infection Crude 30 day mortality rates were For Permissions, please e-mail: The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC.

A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed.

The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

Activity of linezolid and daptomycin against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci with increased MIC for vancomycin isolated from blood cultures in pediatric patients. We evaluated minimal inhibitory concentration MIC for vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci MR-CoNS.

This large proportion of pathogens with MIC around the breakpoint suggests a possible risk of treatment failure with these drugs. This phenomenon is worth further and constant monitoring.

Testing and evaluation of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster by means of a torsion pendulum system. Performance characteristics of the LES -6 pulsed plasma thruster over a range of input conditions were investigated by means of a torsion pendulum system.

Parameters of particular interest included the impulse bit and time average thrust and their repeatability , specific impulse, mass ablated per discharge, specific thrust, energy per unit area, efficiency, and variation of performance with ignition command rate. Intermittency of the thruster as affected by input energy and igniter resistance were also investigated. Comparative experimental data correlation with the data presented.

The results of these tests indicate that the LES -6 thruster, with some identifiable design improvements, represents an attractive reaction control thruster for attitude contol applications on long-life spacecraft requiring small metered impulse bits for precise pointing control of science instruments.

The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons.

Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth.

Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. The presentation is include as an addition to this report. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle. They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D.

The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable.

The function of mitochondria depends on the proper organization of mitochondrial membranes. The morphology of the inner membrane is regulated by the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and crista organizing system MICOS complex. MICOS mutants exhibit alterations in crista formation, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MIC 19 proteins undergo oxidation in mitochondria and require the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly MIA pathway, which couples the oxidation and import of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins for mitochondrial localization.

Detailed analyses identified yeast Mic 19 in two different redox forms. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation.

A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results.

The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway. Vancomycin MICs did not creep in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from to in a setting with low vancomycin usage.

The aim of this study was to evaluate MIC trends for clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin over a 5 year period in a hospital in Spain. All clinical isolates of S. MICs for the different groups in the different years were compared with the linear-trend chi 2 test. A total of strains of S.

One of the MRSA strains 0. The rest were susceptible. In a setting of low consumption of vancomycin and with a large collection of S. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus displaying increased MICs of ceftaroline.

These isolates were clonally related and one strain was selected for further characterization. All strains originated from the same hospital. Penicillin-binding protein PBP affinities for ceftaroline and comparators were determined. Strains were typed by single-locus typing i. The presence of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types was assessed.

We also performed nucleotide sequencing of the mecA encoding PBP2a promoter and ribosomal binding site rbs regions and mecR1. Strain contains a wild-type PBP2a, while strains and have N K and E K alterations in the non-penicillin-binding domain.

Additionally, has one substitution H N in the transpeptidase domain. Alterations in the mecR1, mecA promoter or rbs regions were not observed. Relationship of MICs to efficacy of cefotaxime in treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. To assess the predictive values of the recommended breakpoints, retrospective data were collected from patients who had S. Susceptibilities based on the NCCLS interpretative categories were compared with clinical and bacteriologic outcomes.

Of 75 cefotaxime-treated patients for whom cefotaxime MICs were recorded, 73 were clinically cured or improved 37 of 37 with meningitis and 36 of 38 with other infections. One case of bacteremia and one case of bone-and-joint infection were scored as therapeutic failures because initial monotherapy had to be modified because of an adverse drug reaction. Excluding these patients, there were 18 patients infected with S. The results of this analysis demonstrate that successful treatment with cefotaxime did not correlate well with the guidelines for the susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates to either penicillin or cefotaxime established by the NCCLS breakpoint recommendations.

Because of this study and other similar findings, the NCCLS adopted more clinically relevant guidelines in Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents. Ergonomia , , 30, 13 physique que psychologique.

Cela tend A damontrer que Ergonomia , , 30, Sleep in normal and pathological aging. When modeling coexpression networks from high-throughput time course data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient PCC is one of the most effective and popular similarity functions.

However, its reliability is limited since it cannot capture non-linear interactions and time shifts. Technical Center ; Clayton, C. The biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion MIC involve the transformation of chemical species at a metal surface.

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS is utilized in conjunction with conventional microbiological and Quantitative Chemical Analytical techniques to better understand the effect of environmental conditions on microbial behavior as well as the ability of bacteria to alter local environmental conditions. This is the first phase of a systematic study of microbial activity and the effects of alloy elements and thermo-mechanical treatments on the MIC resistance of stainless steels.

Myelin imaging compound MIC enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myelination. The vertebrate nervous system is characterized by myelination, a fundamental biological process that protects the axons and facilitates electric pulse transduction. Damage to myelin is considered a major effect of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis MS.

Currently, therapeutic interventions are focused on protecting myelin integrity and promoting myelin repair. These efforts need to be accompanied by an effective imaging tool that correlates the disease progression with the extent of myelination. To date, magnetic resonance imaging MRI is the primary imaging technique to detect brain lesions in MS.

However, conventional MRI cannot differentiate demyelinated lesions from other inflammatory lesions and therefore cannot predict disease progression in MS.

To address this problem, we have prepared a Gd-based contrast agent, termed MIC myelin imaging compound , which binds to myelin with high specificity. In this work, we demonstrate that MIC exhibits a high kinetic stability toward transmetalation with promising relaxometric properties. MIC was used for in vivo imaging of myelination following intracerebroventricular infusion in the rat brain. MIC was found to distribute preferentially in highly myelinated regions and was able to detect regions of focally induced demyelination.

Gene-specific cell labeling using Mi MIC transposons. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon.

Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. Mi MIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic Mi MIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps.

In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic Mi MIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression.

We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family.

From a standing-room-only screening of Chasing Ice to a day of science communication workshops to new events such as Open Mic Night and AGU Cinema, AGU's Public Information office presented a range of events at this year's Fall Meeting, all designed to encourage and highlight ways that Earth and space scientists can share their research.

Mitochondrial cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via crista junctions which are implicated in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and import of lipids and proteins.

These knockout cells show a complete loss of crista junctions demonstrating that MIC 13 is strictly required for the formation of crista junctions. MIC 13 is also dispensable for assembly of respiratory chain complexes and for maintaining mitochondrial network morphology.

Still, lack of MIC 13 resulted in a moderate reduction of mitochondrial respiration. In summary, we show that MIC 13 has a fundamental role in crista junction formation and that assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes is independent of mitochondrial cristae shape.

Application of open-source photogrammetric software Mic Mac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models. Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software Mic Mac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms. Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: Mic Mac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models DEMs and orthorectified images of model surfaces.

Mic Mac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images. Mic Mac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of Mic Mac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems.

Topical report, July February Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite TxL and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite.

Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic -1 consortium.

Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic -1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC. In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography IC with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. Co MIC , the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2.

However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of Co MIC during mitochondrial division.

Analysis AFSA past for solving the traveling salesman problem, the algorithm efficiency is often a big problem, and the algorithm processing method, it does not fully responsive to the characteristics of the traveling salesman problem to deal with, and therefore proposes a parallel join improved AFSA process. The simulation with the current TSP known optimal solutions were analyzed, the results showed that the AFSA iterations improved less, on the MIC cards doubled operating efficiency, efficiency significantly.

In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium.

Very major errors VMEs i. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. On the parallelization approaches for Intel MIC architecture. The Intel MIC architecture is one of the main processor architectures used for the production of computational accelerators.

Increasing energy and cost-effciency of accelerators is one important option for building new HPC systems. However, the effective use of accelerators requires careful optimization on all stages of the algorithm and use of appropriate parallelization approaches. In the domain of statistical methods the quasi-Monte Carlo methods present distinct challenges when thousands of computational cores are to be involved in a computation. In this paper we describe in detail and study the performance of algorithms for generating some popular low-discrepancy sequences, aimed at devices with Intel MIC architecture.

By leveraging the powerful vector instructions of the Intel MIC architecture to process many coordinates of the sequences in parallel, we obtain fast implementations that can be plugged-in in any parallel quasi-Monte Carlo computation. We present extensive numerical and timing results that demonstrate the benefit of our algorithms and their parallel effciency. The effects of using hyperthreading are also studied. The generation routines are provided under the GPL. An international standarizaed utility to collect data, MIC.

Multi-Instrument Collect, MIC , is rapidly becoming the international standard for safeguard data collection. First implemented in , it was adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency the following year and fielded in numerous locations around the world.

This application is capable of simultaneous collection from up to independent instruments. It supports a variety of instrument types and a variety of communications media. Although created and currently being maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Science and Technology Group, N1, effort is underway completion planned mid-year to open up the architecture promoting outside or third party development.

This effort is nearly unique in the safeguards arena. It provides a standard user interface philosophy for a multiplicity of hardware vendors. User community advantages are: There are also significant advantages to the instrument developer. For example a variety of pre-existing communications objects may be used, pre-existing power management capabilities exist, and extensive data management capabilities. All of these may be leveraged into a vendors development effort - significantly decreasing the amount of development effort and consequently decreasing cost.

The presentation will include an overview of the existing MIC and MIC utilities from a developers and a users point of view, the user interface philosophy, and will discuss the open architecture allowing third party development. Monitoring biofilm formation and incipient MIC in real time. Microbiologically Influenced corrosion MIC and microbiological fouling of piping and heat exchanger materials is a common and often costly problem in industrial cooling water and process water systems.

MIC failures have caused expensive unplanned outages, the need for local repairs, and, in some cases, complete system replacement. The control of biofilm on surfaces has been shown to be the most effective tool for mitigating MIC as well as for maintaining heat transfer in heat exchangers. The most common method for control of microbiological fouling is the use of oxidizing biocides. Effluent limits and the corrosion penalties associated with their use drive users toward optimizing treatments in order to control biofilm effectively while meeting discharge limitations and without incurring excessive corrosion due to the treatment.

Optimized treatments require accurate monitoring of biofilm activity. An electrochemical sensor has been developed to provide plant owners with a tool for monitoring biofilm activity on metallic surfaces - a useful method for predicting system conditions and for controlling biocide additions. The probe has recently been incorporated into a complete system that includes on-line data acquisition and data analysis capabilities.

Those capabilities permit plant personnel to determine the presence and activity of biofilms on metal surfaces in their systems in real time; a powerful tool for optimization of biological controls. Results from these activities, using data from actual plant installations, are described, along with implementation strategies for the use of the system to provide satisfactory microbiological control at the lowest cost.

Broth microdilution was compared with tube macrodilution and a simplified population analysis agar method for evaluating vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs and detecting glycopeptide-intermediate isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC distributions by tube macrodilution and agar testing were also markedly different from those evaluated by broth microdilution. The fold-lower inoculum size used for broth microdilution compared to macrodilution and agar MIC assays explained in part, but not entirely, the systematic trend toward lower vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by microdilution compared to other methods.

Broth microdilution assay led to underdetection of the vancomycin-intermediate S. Detection rates of isolates with elevated vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs by macrodilution and agar testing assays were higher at 48 h than at 24 h. In conclusion, the sensitivity of broth microdilution MIC testing is questionable for reliable detection and epidemiological surveys of glycopeptide-intermediate resistance in S.

We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current either polarity forced back into their outputs.

Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package.

Five 5 parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die.

The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi. Imipenem and meropenem Vitek 2 MICs were evaluated for a panel of Enterobacteriaceae for identification of carbapenemase producers.

Is vancomycin MIC "creep" method dependent? Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility trends in blood isolates from North East Scotland from to This study investigated "creep" in vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates from blood cultures over a 5-year period in a hospital in the United Kingdom, using different susceptibility testing methods. However, neither trend was replicated in MICs from automated or retrospective testing.

Inconsistent evidence on vancomycin MIC creep and the relevance of the MIC to clinical outcome may arise from differences in susceptibility testing methods, including storage of isolates.

There is a need to standardize and streamline susceptibility testing of vancomycin against MRSA. Suppression of tricarboxylic acid cycle in Escherichia coli exposed to sub- MICs of aminoglycosides. High-performance and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques were utilized to evaluate the concentrations of metabolic reactants, intermediates, and end products.

The data reported indicate that aminoglycosides inhibit or delay bacterial catabolism of carboxylic acids, with the following relative degrees of activity: The decrease in total biomass production was proportional to the degree of tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibition. Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast. We found that In contrast, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole 1 to 32 and isavuconazole 0. We experimentally evaluate the performance of computing devices on core operations of the application.

We correlate the observed performance with the characteristics of computing devices and data access patterns, computation complexities, and parallelization forms of the operations. The results show a significant variability in the performance of operations with respect to the device used.

The performances of operations with regular data access are comparable or sometimes better on a MIC than that on a GPU. We propose new performance-aware scheduling strategies that consider variabilities in operation speedups. Our scheduling strategies significantly improve application performance compared to classic strategies in hybrid configurations.

The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved.

The gain of the oscillator is 0. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1. Developing a wireless implantable body sensor network in MICS band. Through an integration of wireless communication and sensing technologies, the concept of a body sensor network BSN was initially proposed in the early decade with the aim to provide an essential technology for wearable, ambulatory, and pervasive health monitoring for elderly people and chronic patients.

It has become a hot research area due to big opportunities as well as great challenges it presents. Though the idea of an implantable BSN was proposed in parallel with the on-body sensor network, the development in this area is relatively slow due to the complexity of human body, safety concerns, and some technological bottlenecks such as the design of ultralow-power implantable RF transceiver.

This system innovatively incorporates both sensing and actuation nodes to form a closed-control loop for physiological monitoring and drug delivery for critically ill patients. The sensing node, which is designed using system-on-chip technologies, takes advantage of the newly available ultralow-power Zarlink MICS transceiver for wireless data transmission. Finally, the specific absorption rate distribution of the proposed system was simulated to determine the in vivo electromagnetic field absorption and the power safety limits.

We present a novel approach, based on robust principal components analysis RPCA and maximal information coefficient MIC , to study the redshift dependence of halo baryonic properties. Our data are composed of a set of different physical quantities for primordial minihaloes: We find that Mdm and Mgas are dominant factors for variance, particularly at high redshift. Nonetheless, with the emergence of the first stars and subsequent feedback mechanisms, xmol, SFR and Z start to have a more dominant role.

Our analysis also suggests that all the gaseous properties have a stronger correlation with Mgas than with Mdm, while Mgas has a deeper correlation with xmol than with Z or SFR. Finally, a comparison between MIC and Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the former is a more reliable indicator when halo properties are weakly correlated.

The measured phase noise is Data were obtained at 2. The outer Jovian planet candidate offers a plausible dynamical explanation for the observed debris disk dynamics of moving "clumps" on several year time-scales. It may be possible to directly image the outer planet candidate with the current generation of high contrast imaging instruments.

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification Mic GAS Process. The objectives of the research during FY were to: Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably.

Results are discussed on the following: Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou. The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S.

The post antibiotic effect PAE is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub- MIC effect SME which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics.

LTX, as compared to mupirocin, demonstrated prolonged time of effect for these pharmacodynamic parameters, which supports persistent activity for several hours after the drug is no longer present or is below the MIC.

The pharmacodynamic parameters studied here suggest LTX is less likely than mupirocin to generate resistance to S. This article is protected by copyright. In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach.

In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD T was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD T due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card.

Additionally, we obtain up to 1. Mic Mac GIS application: The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System RPAS for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery.

Mic Mac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface for each command. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM.

The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

Within this context, we evaluated the interaction established by recombinant Tg MIC 4 the whole molecule with sialylated bovine fetuin and desialylated asialofetuin glycoproteins by using functionalized quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring QCM-D. Effect of methyl isocyanate MIC gas on the eyes of Fischer rats.

The accidental release of methyl isocyanate gas in Bhopal, India, was reported to cause temporary blindness and other eye injuries in many of the exposed people. Methyl isocyanate MIC is known to be corrosive and to irritate intact skin and mucous membranes, but little is known about the extent of ocular damage incurred during exposure to its vapors.

The eyes of male and female Fischer rats were evaluated immediately after a 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm of MIC , and periodically thereafter during a day recovery period. During exposure to 10 ppm and higher concentrations, rats kept their eyes partially closed.

Copious lacrimation and occasional frothy nasal discharge were evident. Eyes were examined under ultraviolet light after topical application of sodium fluorescein, and histopathologic examination included lids, cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve, and Harderian gland.

There was no significant gross or microscopic evidence of epithelial erosion or ulceration of the cornea, or of adjacent tissues immediately after, or at any time following exposures. No skin irritation was noted. It would appear that the natural protective mechanisms of the eye of rats were adequate to prevent ocular damage at these exposure levels.

Rapid broth macrodilution method for determination of MICs for Mycobacterium avium isolates. A multicenter study was done to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of a method for determining the MICs of antimicrobial agents against the Mycobacterium avium complex in 7H12 broth with the BACTEC system. In phase I, with eight drugs and 10 strains, intralaboratory reproducibility was The results of phase II testing with 41 additional strains were consistent with those obtained in phase I, with good interlaboratory reproducibility.

Three test concentrations of each drug and the tentative interpretation of results are proposed. Radiometric MIC determination has the potential to become the method of choice for clinical microbiology laboratories and evaluation of new agents for the treatment of M.

A primary requirement in distributed robotic software systems is the dissemination of data to all interested collaborative entities in a timely and scalable manner. However, providing such a service in a highly dynamic and resource-limited robotic environment is a challenging task, and existing robot software infrastructure has limitations in this aspect.

This paper presents a novel robot software infrastructure, mic ROS-drt, which supports real-time and scalable data distribution. The solution is based on a loosely coupled data publish-subscribe model with the ability to support various time-related constraints. And to realize this model, a mature data distribution standard, the data distribution service for real-time systems DDS , is adopted as the foundation of the transport layer of this software infrastructure.

By elaborately adapting and encapsulating the capability of the underlying DDS middleware, mic ROS-drt can meet the requirement of real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems. Evaluation results in terms of scalability, latency jitter and transport priority as well as the experiment on real robots validate the effectiveness of this work.

The proposed QC ranges would aid clinical laboratories in testing these compounds following their development for treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections.

Sub-mitochondrial localization of the genetic-tagged mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging components Mic 19, Mic 60 and Sam Each mitochondrial compartment contains varying protein compositions that underlie a diversity of localized functions. Insights into the localization of mitochondrial intermembrane space-bridging MIB components will have an impact on our understanding of mitochondrial architecture, dynamics and function. Tagged Mic 19 and Mic 60 were located at CJs, distributed in a network pattern along the mitochondrial periphery and also enriched inside cristae.

We discovered an association of Mic 19 with cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. It was also found that tagged Sam50 is not uniformly distributed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and appears to incompletely overlap with Mic or Mic positive domains, most notably at the CJs.

Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Les hommes regardent le ciel. Le mouvement du soleil. La lune et ses mouvements. Le temps et les calendriers. Les mythes de la fin du monde. Fluoroquinolones are some of the most prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Previously, we and others showed that the fluoroquinolones exhibit a class effect with regard to the CLSI-established breakpoints for resistance, such that decreased susceptibility i.

For defined strains, however, clear differences exist in the pharmacodynamic properties of each fluoroquinolone and the extent to which resistance-associated genotypes affect the MICs of each fluoroquinolone. In a pilot study of clinical Escherichia coli isolates, we uncovered tremendous variation in norfloxacin MICs.

Thus, although the fluoroquinolones can be considered equivalent with regard to clinical susceptibility or resistance, fluoroquinolone MICs differ dramatically for fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates, likely because of differences in drug structure. Comparative antianaerobic activities of doripenem determined by MIC and time-kill analysis. Against anaerobe strains, the investigational carbapenem doripenem had an MIC 50 of 0.

Results were similar to those for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Time-kill studies showed that doripenem had very good bactericidal activity compared to other carbapenems, with Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks. Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones mics as well as on-board barometers.

Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: Global deployment may be fast and easy www. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing.

The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers.

We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Therapy induced regression of primary tumors and eliminated metastasis in preclinical models. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry.

Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S.

The study examined MRSA isolates from blood cultures collected at several hospitals in two German cities between and The vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. The range of vancomycin MIC as determined by Etest was 0.

The geometric mean MIC increased by 1. The MIC mixture is an environmentally friendly, lead-free composition, so Replacement of the lead styphnate only would have the disadvantage of retaining the antimony sulfide and barium nitrate pollutants in the Direct process annual cost for lead styphnate.

Aescin escin derived from the seeds of horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration 0. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method.

For permissions, please e-mail: Overexpression of MIC -3 indicates a direct role for the MIC gene family in mediating Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Transgene-based analysis of the MIC -3 gene provides the first report of a cotton gene having a direct role in mediating cotton resistance to root-knot nematode.

Major quantitative trait loci have been mapped to Upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Multiple lines of circumstantial evidence have strongly suggested that the MIC Meloidogyne Induced Cotton gene family plays an integral role in mediating cotton resistance to RKN. MIC -3 transcript and protein overexpression were confirmed in root tissues of multiple independent transgenic lines with each line showing a similar level of increased resistance to RKN.

In addition, we determined that this effect of MIC -3 overexpression was specific to RKN as no effect was observed on reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction. Transgenic lines did not show obvious alterations in growth, morphology, flowering, or fiber quality traits. Gene expression analyses showed that MIC -3 transcript levels in uninfected transgenic roots exceeded levels observed in RKN-infected roots of naturally resistant plants and that overexpression did not alter the regulation of native MIC genes in the genome.

These results are the first report describing a direct role for a specific gene family in mediating cotton resistance to a plant-parasitic nematode. Intermedilysin release by Streptococcus intermedius: The existence of solutions of q- difference -differential equations.

By using the Nevanlinna theory of value distribution, we investigate the existence of solutions of some types of non-linear q- difference differential equations. In particular, we generalize the Rellich-Wittich-type theorem and Malmquist-type theorem about differential equations to the case of q- difference differential equations system.

Migraine Care Among Different Ethnicities: Objective Evaluate whether, in a primary care setting, Caucasians C and African Americans AA with moderately to severely disabling migraines differed in regards to: Background Research has documented ethnic disparities in pain management.

It is also important to consider whether ethnic differences exist for trust and communication between patients and physicians, as these are essential when diagnosing and treating migraine.

Participants completed measures of migraine disability MIDAS , migraine health-care utilization, diagnosis and treatment history, mistrust of the medical community, patient—physician communication PPC , and migraine triggers. Analysis of covariance controlling for SES and recruitment site , chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlations were conducted.

Following membrane depolarization SV release their content into the synaptic cleft. A strict segregation of vesicular transporters is mandatory for the precise functioning of synaptic communication and of neuronal circuits. In the last years, evidence accumulates that subsets of neurons express more than one of these transporters leading to synaptic co-release of different and functionally opposing transmitters and modulation of synaptic plasticity.

Synaptic co- existence of transporters may change during pathological scenarios in order to ameliorate misbalances in neuronal activity. In addition, evidence increases that transporters also co- exist on the same vesicle providing another layer of regulation. Thus, a vesicular synergy of transporters depending on the combination may increase or decrease the filling of SV with the principal transmitter.

Additionally, we discuss functional aspects of vesicular synergy of transmitter transporters. The purpose of this causal comparative study is to test the theory of no significant difference that compares pre- and post-test assessment scores, controlling for the instructional delivery model of online and face-to-face students at a Mid-Atlantic university.

Online education and virtual distance learning programs have increased in popularity…. Fundamental and Regular Elementary Schools: This study compared the academic achievement and other outcomes of three public fundamental elementary schools with three regular elementary schools in a metropolitan school district.

Modeled after the John Marshal Fundamental School in Pasadena, California, which opened in the fall of , fundamental schools differ from regular schools in that…. As the campaign to eradicate bovine brucellosis Brucella abortus and tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian livestock nears completion, the importance of extraneous sources of these diseases increases. This review summarizes the literature on brucellosis and tuberculosis in Canadian wildlife species to determine existing and potential hosts.

Canadian caribou Rangifer tarandus are reservoirs of Brucella suis biotype 4 which is pathogenic in caribou, humans and muskoxen but reportedly nonpathogenic in livestock. Bison Bison bison and elk Cervus canadensis are significant reservoirs of B abortus and M.

The bison in and around Wood Buffalo National Park have both diseases and are the only wildlife reservoir in Canada. Free-ranging elk are important reservoirs of brucellosis in Wyoming, and captive elk initiated the recent outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in 20 American states which has also involved bison and cattle herds.

If bison and elk ranching continues to develop in Canada, the industry will have to be monitored to prevent the introduction and spread of infectious diseases like brucellosis and tuberculosis.

It has often been suggested in recent years that Geology programs in the USA obtain some sort of accreditation. While this discussion continues, it is worthwhile for administrators of Geology, Earth Science, and Geophysics programs to become familiar with the current practices of ABET-accredited Engineering programs, particularly those in Geological Engineering on the one hand, and with the current practices of AMS-accredited programs in Atmospheric Sciences on the other hand.

All Engineering programs accredited by ABET have agreed to a common core of seven criteria that must be met. Some of these criteria require each institution to have established their own educational objectives and the means by which these objectives are regularly reviewed and their success objectively assessed.

The curriculum itself is not specified, although some requirements are in place regarding the minimum amount of science, math, and "engineering" coursework required. An important issue, however, is "program outcomes", some of which are in common across all engineering disciplines, while others are established in the case of Geological Engineering by SME.

The coursework necessary to achieve these outcomes must be in place and taken by all students, and there must be an assessment mechanism in place and regularly executed to evaluate the success of learning the "outcome". Most engineers are required by their practice to.

Minimal clinically important difference --exacerbations of COPD. Exacerbations of COPD are now recognised as being important events in the natural history of the condition and become more frequent as the disease worsens. Defining a minimum clinically important difference in exacerbation rate is fraught with difficulty. There is substantial between and within subject differences in the occurrence of these events that makes an individual evaluation of their importance problematic.

At present, the most widely used definition of an exacerbation identifies an episode where the patient seeks medical help rather than a predefined change in one or more symptoms.

Despite these problems, intervention studies with bronchodilator drugs, inhaled corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation appear to reduce the frequency of exacerbation events. Individual studies vary depending upon the recruitment protocol.

Patients who experience symptomatic benefit may be those in whom a clinically important change in exacerbations occurs but this concept requires testing prospectively. Existing methodologies for estimating clinically important differences are hard to apply with a binary outcome like this, and more work will be needed to develop a robust approach for dealing with this important clinical variable. This study employed purposive sampling across 20 SE Idaho schools to explore PK-3 educators' perceptions regarding the value and importance of creativity education in the early childhood education setting PK A survey instrument and semi-structured interview protocol were developed for use.

Surveys were distributed by mail and through on-site…. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability.

Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies UMDs.

Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history.

As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders.

Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data.

Space structure vibration modes: Which ones are important? This report attempts to shed some light on the two issues raised in the title, namely, how many vibration modes does a real structure have, and which of these modes are important? The surprise-free answers to these two questions are, respectively, an infinite number and the first several modes. The author argues that the absurd subspace all but the first billion modes is not a strength of continuum modeling, but, in fact, a weakness.

Partial differential equations are not real structures, only mathematical models. This note also explains 1 that the PDE model and the finite element model are, in fact, the same model, the latter being a numerical method for dealing with the former, 2 that modes may be selected on dynamical grounds other than frequency alone, and 3 that long slender rods are useful as primitive cases but dangerous to extrapolate from.

Motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist before their first donation experience. The demand for plasma products has increased rapidly. It is therefore important to understand donating behavior by plasma donors.

This study investigates whether motivational differences between whole blood and plasma donors already exist at the beginning of a donor career.

The questionnaire assessed variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and norms , conscientiousness, and donation anxiety. Three years later it was determined who became whole blood or plasma donor. Multivariable linear regression analyses for intention were fitted separately for whole blood and plasma donors. A logistic regression analysis was executed to estimate the effect of intention at the beginning of a donor career on becoming a plasma donor.

Plasma donors had a higher intention, self-efficacy, attitude, and conscientiousness and a lower anxiety than whole blood donors.

Having a high level of intention increased the odds of becoming a plasma donor odds ratio, 1. Motivational differences already exist between future whole blood and plasma donors before their first donation. Although a feeling of self-efficacy is necessary for all new donors, more favorable cognitions are important for future plasma donors. Recruitment strategies for plasma donors should focus on attracting the more self-confident donors by highlighting the usefulness of plasma donation.

Minimally important difference estimates and methods: Introduction Patient-reported outcomes PROs are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. The minimally important difference MID provides a measure of the smallest change in the PRO that patients perceive as important.

An anchor-based approach is the most appropriate method for MID determination. No study or database currently exists that provides all anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments; nor are there any accepted standards for appraising the credibility of MID estimates. Our objectives are to complete a systematic survey of the literature to collect and characterise published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments used in evaluating the effects of interventions on chronic medical and psychiatric conditions and to assess their credibility.

Teams of two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, review full texts of citations, and extract relevant data. On the basis of findings from studies addressing methods to estimate anchor-based MIDs, we will summarise the available methods and develop an instrument addressing the credibility of empirically ascertained MIDs.

We will evaluate the credibility of all studies reporting on the empirical ascertainment of anchor-based MIDs using the credibility instrument, and assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability.

We will separately present reports for adult and paediatric populations. Ethics and dissemination No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies. Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor.

Patient-reported outcomes PROs are often the outcomes of greatest importance to patients. No research ethics approval was required as we will be using aggregate data from published studies. Our work will summarise anchor-based methods available to establish MIDs, provide an instrument to assess the credibility of available MIDs, determine the reliability of that instrument, and provide a comprehensive compendium of published anchor-based MIDs associated with PRO instruments which will help.

The clinicopathologic differences in papillary thyroid carcinoma with or without co- existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. The goal of this study is to determine the clinicopathologic differences in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma PTC with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis CLT. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymph node dissection from April to March The differences in clinicopathologic factors, such as age, gender, size of primary tumor, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and central lymph node CLN metastasis, were analyzed in PTC patients with or without CLT.

Among patients, 56 Also, patients with CLT Compared to patients with PTC without CLT, patients with CLT were younger with a female predominance, which are the most important and well-known prognostic variables for thyroid cancer mortality. Do Differences in Disciplines Exist? Within existing ICT degrees there is a widely-held belief that content must be tailored for different "kinds" of students--often two differing student groups: Our institution has produced….

To be the first study to consider the difference between men's and women's perceptions of most important mentoring functions. Survey recipients identified the three most important things that mentors can do for their proteges. Two independent coders categorized the behaviors listed by the respondents.

Differences in the methanogen population exist in sika deer Cervus nippon fed different diets in China. Understanding the methanogen structure from sika deer Cervus nippon in China may be beneficial to methane mitigation. In the present preliminary study, we investigated the methanogen community in the rumen of domesticated sika deer fed either tannin-rich plants oak leaf, OL group or corn stalk CS group using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

Methanogens related to the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant phylotypes representing Methanobrevibacter millerae was the most abundant species in both libraries, but the proportion of M. Moreover, Methanobrevibacter wolinii-related clones Methanobrevibacter smithii-related clones and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium-related clones accounted for 6. However, these clones were absent from the OL library.

The concentrations of butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids SCFAs were significantly higher in the OL group, but the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and valerate and the acetate to propionate ratio in the OL group were not significantly different between the two groups. Tannin-rich plants may have affected the distribution of genus Methanobrevibacter phylotypes at the species level and the concentration and composition of SCFAs.

By employing a nonlinear alternative for contractive maps, we investigate the existence of solutions for a boundary value problem of fractional q- difference inclusions with nonlocal substrip type boundary conditions. The main result is illustrated with the aid of an example. Existence of solutions with a single semicycle for a general second-order rational difference equation.

By making use of inclusion theorem, we show in this paper the existence of solutions with a single semicycle for a general second-order rational difference equation.

As a corollary, our results positively confirm Conjectures 4. The importance of checking for sex differences. Existent research documents an unclear and contradictory pattern between cortisol and personality variables, especially neuroticism. Specifically, no effect, positive correlations and negative correlations have all been reported to exist between cortisol and neuroticism.

The current study tested whether males and females have a fundamentally different relationship between HPA activation and neuroticism and if this might partially account for some of the discrepancy in findings. For women it was negatively correlated. This suggests a slight suppressor effect, explainable by prior research on correlates of oral contraceptive use. Overall, these findings may offer some explanation for the discrepant results that have been reported in the existing literature regarding neuroticism and cortisol measures.

Existence of entire solutions of some non-linear differential- difference equations. In this paper, we investigate the admissible entire solutions of finite order of the differential- difference equations [Formula: In addition, we investigate the non- existence of entire solutions of finite order of the differential- difference equation [Formula: Importance of the different posterolateral knee static stabilizers: PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the different static stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee in cadavers.

METHODS Tests were performed with the application of a varus and external rotation force to the knee in extension at 30 and 60 degrees of flexion using 10 cadaver knees. The forces were applied initially to an intact knee and then repeated after a selective sectioning of the ligaments into the following: The parameters studied were the angular deformity and stiffness when the knees were submitted to a 15 Newton-meter varus torque and a 6 Newton-meter external tibial torque.

The popliteofibular complex was the most important structure for external rotation stability at all angles of flexion and was also important for varus stability at 30 and 60 degrees. The posterolateral capsule was important for varus stability at 0 and 30 degrees and for external rotation stability in extension.

Level IV cadaver study. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that all PBMC sequences grouped together into a branch which was separate from those of the inoculum. For one of the two chronically infected patients, all the sequences from the PBMC and one from the liver clustered into a single branch while the sequences from the serum and all the other liver sequences grouped together in the other branch.

For the other patient, the sequences from the serum and PBMC and three sequences from the liver grouped together into one branch, while the remaining five sequences from the liver were separated in a different cluster. Fadeout in an Early Mathematics Intervention: Constraining Content or Pre- existing Differences? A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did.

One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of advanced content that children are prepared for after receiving the intervention, so lower-achieving children in the control groups of early mathematics interventions catch up to the higher-achieving children in the treatment groups.

We tested these two hypotheses using data from an effective preschool mathematics intervention previously known to show a diminishing treatment effect over time. We compared the intervention group to a matched subset of the control group with a similar mean and variance of scores at the end of treatment. We then tested the relative contributions of factors that similarly constrain learning in children from treatment and control groups with the same level of post-treatment achievement and pre- existing differences between these two groups to the fadeout of the treatment effect over time.

An important difference between "exposed" and "photodistributed" underscores the importance of identifying common reactions. This article presents the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to dermatology for what was suspected to be a photosensitivity reaction to hydroxychloroquine, a common culprit in photodrug reactions.

Despite the patient's insistence to the contrary, the cause of her eruption was an airborne allergic contact dermatitis to chemicals she was exposed to during her longtime hobby of soap-making.

This case serves as an important illustration of the anatomical differences between eruptions occurring in exposed and photodistributed areas.

This article also discusses the causes of dermatitis that may mimic photodrug reactions. Impact of blade geometry differences for the CFD performance analysis of existing turbines. Most of those analyses are based on the measurement of a single runner blade. However, due to manufacturing techniques, in-situ modifications or repairs, there are often small differences between individual blades of the same runner.

The impact of this non uniformity was not known thus far and was often assumed to be negligible given the size of the runner. This paper highlights the impact of such differences by presenting the CFD analysis of various blades measured on the same runner. Two different geometries are used for demonstration: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs.

In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur.

We referred to these as a 'point', a 'loop', a 'backward pendulum' and a 'parabolic' transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation.

In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types.

We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

Multi-locus typing of Histomonas meleagridis isolates demonstrates the existence of two different genotypes. Histomonas meleagridis is the aetiological agent of histomonosis or "blackhead disease".

Histomonosis is of special importance today, because there is no effective treatment to prevent its occurrence with considerable losses for the poultry industry. Despite its importance only a few molecular studies have yet been performed to investigate the degree of genetic diversity between different isolates of this parasite.

In the present study a collection of well defined samples, previously shown positive for the DNA of H. Samples originated from 25 turkey flocks collected in France between and Additionally, diagnostic samples, collected at our Clinic in Vienna, from different European countries and Azerbaijan, during to were included in the analyses.

For the analysis three different genetic loci were analyzed: Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated separation of H. The majority of isolates grouped within the cluster 1 and originated from different European countries. The cluster 2 was rare and predominantly found in samples originating from France.

Considering that the genetic variability of clusters can be seen as two distinct genetic types we propose the term genotype instead of cluster. Summary In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation.

Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for exchange. For helping with housework, helping…. Different insulin types and regimens for pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes.

Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre- existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens e.

To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We included randomised controlled trials RCTs that compared different insulin types and regimens in pregnant women with pre- existing diabetes. We had planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials. We included studies published in abstract form and contacted the authors for further details when applicable.

Conference abstracts were superseded by full publications. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted data extraction, assessed risk of bias, and checked for accuracy. The findings in this review were based on very low-quality evidence, from single, small sample sized trial estimates, with wide confidence intervals CI , some of which crossed the line of no effect; many of the prespecified outcomes were not reported.

Therefore, they should be interpreted with caution. We included five trials that included women and babies four open-label, multi-centre, two-arm trials; one single centre, four-arm RCT. All five trials were at a high or unclear risk of bias due to lack of blinding, unclear methods of randomisation, and selective reporting of outcomes.

Pooling of data from the trials was not possible, as each trial looked at a different comparison. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why? The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from to to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion.

The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident.

Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children.

Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women.

Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented. Brief pain inventory--facial minimum clinically important difference. Neurosurgeons are frequently the primary physicians measuring pain relief in patients with trigeminal neuralgia TN. Unfortunately, the measurement of pain can be complex.

It measures 3 domains of pain: The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with TN seen in a single neurosurgeon's office. Patients completed baseline and 1-month follow-up BPI-Facial questionnaires.

Two statistical methods were employed: The BPI-Facial is a multidimensional pain scale that measures 3 domains of pain. Although 2 statistical methods were used to calculate the MCID, the optimal cutoff point method was the superior one because it used data from the majority of subjects included in this study. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs.

Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1, U. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations Predictors of health vs. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs p Analyses of extracellular carbohydrates in oomycetes unveil the existence of three different cell wall types.

Some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens belong to the oomycete class. The cell walls of these microorganisms represent an excellent target for disease control, but their carbohydrate composition is elusive.

We have undertaken a detailed cell wall analysis in 10 species from 2 major oomycete orders, the Peronosporales and the Saprolegniales, thereby unveiling the existence of 3 clearly different cell wall types: We propose a cell wall paradigm for oomycetes that can serve as a basis for the establishment of cell wall architectural models and the further identification of cell wall subtypes.

This paradigm is complementary to morphological and molecular criteria for taxonomic grouping and provides useful information for unraveling poorly understood cell wall carbohydrate biosynthetic pathways through the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes. The fibrillation propensity of the multidomain protein human serum albumin HSA was analyzed under different solution conditions.

The aggregation kinetics, protein conformational changes upon self-assembly, and structure of the different intermediates on the fibrillation pathway were determined by means of thioflavin T ThT fluorescence and Congo Red absorbance; far- and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism; tryptophan fluorescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; x-ray diffraction; and transmission electron, scanning electron, atomic force, and microscopies. HSA fibrillation extends over several days of incubation without the presence of a lag phase, except for HSA samples incubated at acidic pH and room temperature in the absence of electrolyte.

The absence of a lag phase occurs if the initial aggregation is a downhill process that does not require a highly organized and unstable nucleus. These changes also involve the presence of different structural intermediates in the aggregation pathway, such as oligomeric clusters globules , bead-like structures, and ring-shaped aggregates.

We suggest that fibril formation may take place through the role of association-competent oligomeric intermediates, resulting in a kinetic pathway via clustering of these oligomeric species to yield protofibrils and then fibrils. The resultant fibrils are elongated but curly, and differ in length depending on solution conditions. Under acidic conditions, circular fibrils are commonly observed if the fibrils are sufficiently flexible and long enough for the ends to find themselves regularly in close proximity to each other.

Racial Differences in Intelligence: The Importance of the Executive System. The hypothesis that racial differences in IQ stem from differences in components of executive systems including knowledge base, control processes, and metacognition was investigated. Group differences in metamemory, strategy use, and general knowledge, but not perceptual efficiency, were observed. Metamemory predicted crystallized but not fluid…. ADHD in girls and boys — gender differences in co- existing symptoms and executive function measures.

Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls HC of the same gender. Co- existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings.

The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of. Our team wanted to improve sampling methods for experiments on the thermal properties of martian sediments.

We built a robot that could take the data autonomously over a period of days, and then compared them to existing models. Interpreting the clinical importance of group differences in chronic pain clinical trials: An essential component of the interpretation of results of randomized clinical trials of treatments for chronic pain involves the determination of their clinical importance or meaningfulness.

This involves two distinct processes--interpreting the clinical importance of individual patient improvements and the clinical importance of group differences --which are frequently misunderstood. In this article, we first describe the essential differences between the interpretation of the clinical importance of patient improvements and of group differences.

We then discuss the factors to consider when evaluating the clinical importance of group differences , which include the results of responder analyses of the primary outcome measure, the treatment effect size compared to available therapies, analyses of secondary efficacy endpoints, the safety and tolerability of treatment, the rapidity of onset and durability of the treatment benefit, convenience, cost, limitations of existing treatments, and other factors.

The clinical importance of individual patient improvements can be determined by assessing what patients themselves consider meaningful improvement using well-described methods.

In contrast, the clinical meaningfulness of group differences must be determined by a multi-factorial evaluation of the benefits and risks of the treatment and of other available treatments for the condition in light of the primary goals of therapy. Such determinations must be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and are ideally informed by patients and their significant others, clinicians, researchers, statisticians, and representatives of society at large.

Contrasting mechanisms of de novo copy number mutagenesis suggest the existence of different classes of environmental copy number mutagens. While gene copy number variations CNVs are abundant in the human genome, and often are associated with disease consequences, the mutagenic pathways and environmental exposures that cause these large structural mutations are understudied relative to conventional nucleotide substitutions in DNA.

The members of the environmental mutagenesis community are currently seeking to remedy this deficiency, and there is a renewed interest in the development of mutagenicity assays to identify and characterize compounds that may induce de novo CNVs in humans. To achieve this goal, it is critically important to acknowledge that CNVs exist in two very distinct classes: The goal of this commentary is to emphasize the deep contrasts that exist between the proposed pathways that lead to these two mutation classes.

Nonrecurrent de novo CNVs originate primarily in mitotic cells through replication-dependent DNA repair pathways that involve microhomologies 10, bp , without an associated paternal age effect. Given the biological differences between the two CNV classes, it is our belief that nonrecurrent and recurrent CN mutagens will probably differ substantially in their modes of action. Therefore, each CNV class may require their own uniquely designed assays, so that we as a field may succeed in uncovering the broadest possible spectrum of environmental CN mutagens.

The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome. In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome DS still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description.

Importance of life domains in different cultural groups. This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians.

Based on Sagie and Elizur's multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered i. The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

An Important Part of Me: A Dialogue about Difference. This article is an experiment in writing about and across differences ; it seeks to open up dialogue between adults and young people in childhood and youth studies research. The coauthors, Sofia and Wendy, met through Wendy's longitudinal research project, which explores the roles that gender, race, and immigrant status play in how young people….

Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes. In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many…. Analysis of novel mycobacteriophages indicates the existence of different strategies for phage inheritance in mycobacteria.

Mycobacteriophages have been essential in the development of mycobacterial genetics through their use in the construction of tools for genetic manipulation. Due to the simplicity of their isolation and variety of exploitable molecular features, we searched for and isolated 18 novel mycobacteriophages from environmental samples collected from several geographic locations.

Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the nm, genome size in the kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed.

Since some of our phages yielded pinpoint plaques, we improved plaque detection by including sub-inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid or ampicillin-sulbactam in the culture medium. Thus, searches for novel mycobacteriophages at low temperature and in the presence of these drugs would allow for the isolation of novel members that would otherwise not be detected.

Importantly , while eight phages lysogenized Mycobacterium smegmatis, four of them were also capable of lysogenizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Analysis of the complete genome sequence obtained for twelve mycobacteriophages the remaining six rendered partial genomic sequences allowed for the identification of a new singleton.

In summary, we report here the isolation and preliminary characterization of mycobacteriophages that bring new information to the field. Characterization of these phages did not differ from most of the previously described ones in the predominant physical features virion size in the — nm, genome size in the 50—70 kbp, morphological features compatible with those corresponding to the Siphoviridae family , however novel characteristics for propagation were noticed.

The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is greater than per centimeter greater than 12, K. Thus, cyanides are the more stable isomers and would likely be formed more preferentially over their isocyanide counterparts. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can.

Importance of education in bronchial asthma treatment - gender differences. Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma. Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the adherence and compliance. The study included patients suffering from bronchial asthma and treated according to GINA guidelines in Allergy Clinic.

Asthma control test ACT , analysis of patients' medical documentation and a self-constructed questionnaire concerning health promotion and education were used in the study.

Aim of this work was to assess differences in the influence of education on results of bronchial asthma control between sexes. Average duration of asthma was similar in women and men Weaker asthma control was found in women ACT In women an analysis of correlation concerning patients' knowledge and conducted health education with asthma control revealed a statistically significant positive correlation of knowledge acquired from the allergologist with asthma control, information about proceeding in acute attack, whereas negative correlation with asthma control with knowledge passed on by family doctor was found.

Among the male respondents positive correlations of knowledge with asthma control within the scope of knowledge from allergologist and information concerning proceeding in asthmatic attack were found, while negative correlation with information coming from family doctor was revealed.

Health education in patients with asthma should be conducted by a specialist in allergic diseases and well-prepared healthcare professionals. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co- existing in frontal lobe of human brains.

Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically.

From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions.

By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co- existed inside one frontal lobe. This neuron system is particularly for human beings. This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck.

The Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences , but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context.

Challenges of Fusion Power Plant Licensing: Differences and Commonalities with Existing Systems. At present, there are no regulatory guidelines to follow for US fusion power plant construction and operation. Developing new fusion-specific regulations stands out as the most logical option, but requires well-coordinated effort between DOE, regulatory agencies, and the fusion community with considerable funding and long lead-time.

Nevertheless, a few recent developments seem promising: Relationship between meaning in life and intensity of smoking: Little is known about the relationship between smoking and meaning in life, although the association of meaninglessness with other addictive behaviours has been widely investigated.

The aim of this study is to examine whether a relationship exists between meaning in life and intensity of smoking as measured by cigarettes smoked per day. The study population was current smokers from the Hungarostudy Hungarian representative cross-sectional survey. Age, educational level, marital status, subjective financial status, household income, coffee consumption, hazardous alcohol use, general well-being, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were included in the analyses as covariates.

On the bivariate level, life meaning was associated with smoking intensity in the total sample and among women p Different pathways for the nuclear import of yeast RNA polymerase II. Recent studies suggest that RNA polymerase II Pol II has to be fully assembled before being imported into the nucleus, while other reports indicate a distinct mechanism to import large and small subunits.

In yeast, Iwr1 binds to the holoenzyme assembled in the cytoplasm and directs its nuclear entry. In this paper, we investigate the transport into the nucleus of several large and small Pol II subunits in the mutants of genes involved in Pol II biogenesis. We also analyse subcellular localization in the presence of drugs that can potentially affect Pol II nuclear import.

Our results show differences in the cellular distribution between large and small subunits when Pol II biogenesis was impaired. Our data suggest that, in addition to the fully assembled holoenzyme, Pol II subunits can be imported to the nucleus, either independently or as partial assemblies, through different pathways, including passive diffusion for the small subunits.

Do Generational Differences Exist? As digital technologies form an inextricable part of young people's everyday lives, some commentators claim that the current generation of learners think and learn differently from their predecessors. This study investigated the validity of this claim by surveying undergraduate and 81 postgraduate students at a large research-intensive….

The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge Study 1 , the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge Study 2. Results indicated that middle-income…. The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African American boys achieve less in school than African American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically i.

When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children N…. Advanced emphysema in African-American and white patients: Emphysema is the only smoking-related disease in which white patients have higher prevalence and higher attributable mortality rates than African-American patients.

Epidemiologic studies have not addressed, nor explained, the observed racial differences in emphysema. To determine whether white and African-American patients differ with respect to the magnitude, anatomic distribution, and physiologic impairments of emphysema. Characteristics of patients with severe and very severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were examined and compared. Of the 1, patients enrolled in the trial, 42 were African American 3.

Quality of life measures were similar between the groups, but African Americans had a lower socioeconomic status, lower education level, and fewer were married.

Radiographic analysis of the extent of emphysema in African Americans, who were matched with selected white patients, revealed significantly less emphysema in the former group and different distribution of severe emphysema. African Americans with emphysema were younger and had a similar degree of lung impairment as the white study population despite smoking less.

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Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus composition of the cultivation movedcm/htowardthecathodewhensubjected A of siderophores \ . Phytotoxin production in Aspergillus terreus is regulated by independent environmental signals. Markus Gressler, Florian Meyer. an Aspergillus fumigatus Transacetylase Involved in Biosynthesis of the Siderophores Aspergillus oryzae; At, Aspergillus terreus cultivation time, as.

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