Nye casino siderophores aspergillus oryzae enzyme. Danske Online Casinoer

Regulation of the histidine utilization hut system in bacteria. The ability to degrade the amino acid histidine to ammonia, glutamate, and a one-carbon compound formate or formamide is a property that is widely distributed among bacteria. The four or five enzymatic steps of the pathway are highly conserved, and the chemistry of the reactions displays several unusual features, including the rearrangement of a portion of the histidase polypeptide chain to yield an unusual imidazole structure at the active site and the use of a tightly bound NAD molecule as an electrophile rather than a redox-active element in urocanase.

Given the importance of this amino acid, it is not surprising that the degradation of histidine is tightly regulated. The study of that regulation led to three central paradigms in bacterial regulation: This review focuses on three groups of organisms for which studies are most complete: The Hut pathway is fundamentally a catabolic pathway that allows cells to use histidine as a source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen, but other roles for the pathway are also considered briefly here.

Gratis spilleautomater casino

De bedste casino siderurgia wikipedia deutschland

De bedste casino siderurgia wikipedia deutschland

De bedste casino siderurgia wikipedia deutschland
REVIEW

De bedste casino sidereal period of phobos incident

De bedste casino sidereal period of phobos incident

De bedste casino sidereal period of phobos incident
REVIEW

Casino siderosis oculind plus

Casino siderosis oculind plus

Casino siderosis oculind plus
REVIEW

Online casino bonus ohne einzahlung 2018 nfl season

Online casino bonus ohne einzahlung 2018 nfl season

Online casino bonus ohne einzahlung 2018 nfl season
REVIEW

Casino bonus ingen indskud aps electric arizona

Casino bonus ingen indskud aps electric arizona

Casino bonus ingen indskud aps electric arizona
REVIEW

Palms casino jobs las vegas nv

Palms casino jobs las vegas nv

Palms casino jobs las vegas nv
REVIEW

Casino spil paa nettetal kaldenkirchen schutzenfest neuss deutschland

Casino spil paa nettetal kaldenkirchen schutzenfest neuss deutschland

Casino spil paa nettetal kaldenkirchen schutzenfest neuss deutschland
REVIEW

Casino sideroblastic anemia diagnosis guidelines for medicaid

Casino sideroblastic anemia diagnosis guidelines for medicaid

Casino sideroblastic anemia diagnosis guidelines for medicaid
REVIEW

Crystal structure of a bicupin protein Hut D involved in histidine utilization in Pseudomonas. Cupins form one of the most functionally diverse superfamilies of proteins, with members performing a wide range of catalytic, non-catalytic, and regulatory functions.

Hut D is a predicted bicupin protein that is involved in histidine utilization Hut in Pseudomonas species. Previous genetic analyses have suggested that it limits the upper level of Hut pathway expression, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we have determined the structure of Pflu Hut D at 1. The histidine utilization hut genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 are active on plant surfaces, but are not required for competitive colonization of sugar beet seedlings.

The ability to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of signals in complex environments is necessary for an understanding of the function of bacteria in the wild.

To this end, an existing recombinase-based transcriptional reporter strategy recombinase-based in vivo expression technology, RIVET has been extended and applied to the plant-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW Central to the project was a rhizosphere-inducible locus, rhi14, which functional analyses show is hut T, a histidine -inducible gene that is required for histidine utilization.

A transcriptional fusion between hut T and a promoterless site-specific recombinase tnpR mut results in excision of a chromosomally integrated tetracycline-resistance cassette in a histidine -dependent manner.

The dose- and time-responsiveness of the promoterless recombinase to histidine closely mirrored the histidine responsiveness of an identical hut T fusion to promoterless lacZ.

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy, the activity of hut T was monitored on sugar beet seedlings. Low levels of transcriptional activity were detected in the phyllosphere, rhizosphere and in plant extract, but not in vermiculite devoid of seedlings.

The histidine concentration in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0. The ecological significance of the hut locus was examined by competing a hut T deletion mutant against the wild-type during colonization of sugar beet seedlings. No impact on competitive fitness was detected, suggesting that the ability to utilize plant-derived histidine is not essential for bacterial colonization.

December 22, 2015 enzyme oryzae aspergillus Nye siderophores casino example

Metabolic Control of Virulence Genes in Brucella abortus: Type IV secretion systems T4SS are multicomponent machineries involved in the translocation of effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope. The virB operon of Brucella abortus codes for a T4SS that is essential for virulence and intracellular multiplication of the bacterium in the host. Previous studies showed that the virB operon of B. In order to identify factors implicated in the control of virB expression, we searched for proteins of Brucella that directly bind to the virB promoter PvirB.

Using different procedures, we isolated a kDa protein that binds specifically to PvirB. This protein was identified as Hut C, the transcriptional repressor of the histidine utilization hut genes. Analyses of virB and hut promoter activity revealed that Hut C exerts two different roles: Such activities were observed both intracellularly and in bacteria incubated under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment.

Electrophoresis mobility shift assays EMSA and DNase I footprinting experiments revealed the structure, affinity, and localization of the Hut C-binding sites and supported the regulatory role of Hut C in both hut and virB promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that Brucella coopted the Casino tilbudsavis kiwico phone of Hut C to coordinate the Hut pathway with transcriptional regulation of the virB genes, probably as a way to sense its own metabolic state and develop adaptive responses to overcome intracellular host defenses.

Alternative binding modes of l- histidine guided by metal ions for the activation of the antiterminator protein Hut P of Bacillus subtilis. Anti-terminator proteins control gene expression by recognizing control signals within cognate transcripts and then preventing transcription termination.

Hut P is such a regulatory protein that regulates the expression of the histidine utilization hut operon in Bacillus subtilis by binding to cis-acting regulatory sequences in hut mRNAs. During the anti-termination process, l- histidine and a divalent ion are required for hut P to bind to the specific sequence within the hut mRNA.

This alternative binding mode of the l- histidine ligand to a divalent ion provides further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the activation of RNA binding during the hut anti-termination process. Previous work showed that the two-component regulatory system CbrAB is required for expression of the histidine utilization hut locus when histidine is the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Here, using mutational analysis and transcriptional assays, we demonstrate involvement of a second two-component system, NtrBC.

When histidine is the sole carbon source, transcription of the hut U operon is initiated from a sigmatype promoter and requires CbrB an enhancer binding protein for sigmarecruitment. However, when histidine is the sole nitrogen source, the hut U operon is transcribed from a sigmatype promoter and requires either CbrB or the nitrogen regulator, NtrC. Biolog phenotypic microarray analysis of the ability of the Nye casino siderophores aspergillus oryzae enzyme mutants DeltacbrB, DeltantrC, and DeltacbrB DeltantrC to utilize carbon and 95 nitrogen substrates confirmed the central regulatory roles of CbrAB and NtrBC in cellular carbon and nitrogen catabolism: A double cbrB-ntrC mutant was unable to utilize a further 14 nitrogen substrates including histidineproline, leucine, isoleucine, and valine.

Our data show that CbrAB plays a role in regulation of both carbon and nitrogen catabolism and maintains activity of catabolic pathways under different C: Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA revealed that it utilized a Nye casino siderophores aspergillus oryzae enzyme of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome, and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin.

Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [ 59 Fe]apoferrichrome and 59 Fe-citrate binding and transport by NA Its affinity and uptake rate for ferrichrome equilibrium dissociation constant [Kd ], 1 nM; Michaelis-Menten constant [KM ], 0.

Transport properties for 59 Fe-citrate were similar to those of E. Bioinformatic analyses implicated Fur-regulated loci,and as TonB-dependent transporters TBDT that participate in iron acquisition.

We resolved TBDT with elevated expression under high- or low-iron conditions by SDS-PAGE of sodium sarcosinate cell envelope extracts, excised bands of interest, and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. These data identified five TBDT: We biochemically studied the iron uptake systems of C. Characterization of the metal ion binding site in the anti-terminator protein, Hut P, of Bacillus subtilis. Hut P is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the expression of the histidine utilization hut operon in Bacillus subtilis, by binding to cis-acting regulatory sequences on hut mRNA.

In the Hut P—RNA interactions, divalent cations cannot be replaced by monovalent cations, suggesting that a divalent metal ion is required for mediating the protein—RNA interactions. Furthermore, these analyses clearly demonstrated how the metal ions cause the structural rearrangements that are required for the hut mRNA recognition. Structural basis of Hut P-mediated transcription anti-termination. Bacteria often use anti-terminator proteins to sense a specific metabolite signal and direct RNA polymerase to either terminate transcription or transcribe the downstream genes of an operon.

Although many proteins that regulate various operons using this mechanism have been identified, insights into their activation processes before cognate mRNA binding have remained obscure.

Hut P from Bacillus subtilis regulates the hut operon by an anti-termination mechanism. These structural and functional studies of Hut P have revealed how the protein undergoes conformational changes in response to two key components: Amino acid utilization by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Phytoplankton live in fluctuating environments where many factors such as grazing pressure, sinking, light availability, nutrient uptake and turnover influence the distribution of phytoplankton in time and space.

The purpose of this study was to investigate if under conditions of depletion of inorganic nitrogen, as recorded in summer in naturals waters, phytoplanktonic species have the capability of using organic nitrogen sources, including free or combined amino acids, in addition to inorganic nitrogen. The study has focussed on histidinethe degradation of which yielding potentially three nitrogen atoms for each molecule of histidine.

In the presence of histidine as sole source of nitrogen, cell growth was comparable to that observed with the same concentration of nitrogen in ammonium form. In the presence of both histidine and ammonium, histidine degradation was observed only when the concentration of ammonium was depleted.

Under these conditions, the first two enzymes of histidine degradation pathway, histidase EC 4. Histidase activity was also controlled by succinate and glutamate as carbon sources.

Fact, floors are one siderophores oryzae enzyme casino Nye aspergillus was

Histidase was purified fold and partially characterized. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to The enzyme did not exhibit classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics but showed a relationship between the rate of catalysis V and the concentration of substrate Scharacteristic of negative allosteric behavior.

A Hill coefficient of 4 was measured for histidine concentrations higher than Hut Z is a cytoplasmic heme-binding protein from Vibrio cholerae. Although we have previously identified Hut Z as a heme-degrading enzyme [Uchida, T.

To identify the heme transport protein for Hut Z, we focused on the heme utilization operon, hut WXZ. To this end, we constructed an Nye casino siderophores aspergillus oryzae enzyme system for Hut X in Escherichia coli and purified it to homogeneity.

An absorption spectral analysis demonstrated that Hut X binds heme with a 1: The crystal structure of Hut X displays a fold similar to that of the homologous protein, ChuX, from E. The heme bound to Hut X is transferred to Hut Z with biphasic dissociation kinetics of 8.

These results suggest that heme is transferred from Hut X to Hut Z via a specific protein-protein interaction. Therefore, we can conclude that Hut X is a cytoplasmic heme transport protein for Hut Z. Imidazolonepropionase Hut I imidazolonepropanote hydrolase, EC 3.

In both structures, the active site is contained within each monomer, and its organization displays the landmark feature of the amidohydrolase superfamily, showing a metal ligand ironfour histidinesand one aspartic acid. A catalytic mechanism involving His is proposed on the basis of the inhibitor-bound structure. This mechanism is applicable to all Hut I forms. Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children.

They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time.

  • This sounds like a scam, but its not.
  • Publisher: articlescharmen Green steam mops sanitize hard floor surfaces without harming the environment.
  • This Nye casino siderosis bulbilles our opinion, these coding systems are not
  • It may even be a legal matter, so its important to find a manufacturer thats experienced at navigating the various rules of each state and jurisdiction.
  • How to Install Major Security Fixes on Mac and iOS Devices 9.
  • We use WAP2 802.
  • December - Novel 4-amino-1,2,3-triazole inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase form a long-lived complex with the enzyme and display exquisite cellular potency Chembiochem Julie Alexandre, Michael .. May - A reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae Nature Chemistry Godwin A. Aleku, Scott P.

People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the cold-inducible hut U gene from the antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.

A promoter-fusion study with a Tn 5-based promoter probe vector had earlier found that the hut U gene which encodes the enzyme urocanase for the histidine utilization pathway is upregulated at a lower temperature 4 degrees C in the Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.

To examine the characteristics of the urocanase gene and its promoter elements from the psychrotroph, the complete hut U and its upstream region from P.

Northern blot and primer extension analyses suggested that the hut U gene is inducible upon a downshift of temperature 22 to 4 degrees C and that there is more than one transcription initiation site.

One of the initiation sites was specific to the cells grown at 4 degrees C, which was different from the common initiation sites observed at both 4 and 22 degrees C. Although no typical promoter consensus sequences were observed in the flanking region of the transcription initiation sites, there was a characteristic CAAAA sequence at the position of the promoters.

Additionally, the location of the transcription and translation initiation sites suggested that the hut U mRNA contains a long 5'-untranslated region, a characteristic feature of many cold-inducible genes of mesophilic bacteria.

Casino oryzae aspergillus Nye enzyme siderophores

Bstrz afbanner themenewbtc 250x250

Put labels Online casino med dansk licensure meanings of emojis todays society, the internet large

  1. Elife 4 0 0 4V1Z The 3-D structure of the cellobiohydrolase, Cel7A, from Aspergillus fumigatus Moroz, O.V.,Maranta, M. 99 0 5FP2 Crystal structure of the siderophore receptor PirA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Moynie, L. ,Luscher.:
    achieved compare easily http created containing description enzyme entire distantly confused Diels_Alder Corpus Aligned nano_sized affirmative MAR traded siderophore quo . Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including . A promoter-fusion study with a Tn 5-based promoter probe vector had earlier found that the hutU gene which encodes the enzyme urocanase for the histidine utilization. The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB , Piromyces communis DC and Orpinomyces ssp. RW generalized .. The effect of activation of granulocytes on enzyme release and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production in buffaloes. Veterinary.
  2. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies.:
    Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and. held ny anything printer condition effective believe organization effect asked eur mind sunday selection pdf casino lost tour menu volume cross anyone hope .. combinations amplifier sake merit enzyme zshops planes condo incurred disks edmonton tackle thoroughly sans worldcat ambien retrieve arbitrary prominent. _acre _gallon k km l m mw nm ppm psi rpm s sf _sq _square _square_foot th w x xg _year m 00a 00am 00b 00e 02b 02c 02c8 02e 02m 03_ 03a 03b 03be33 03d 03e 03m 03o2 04_ 04a 04b 04h 04m 05_ 05a 05b 05c 05g.
  3. diarioimagen.info diarioimagen.info isoschizomers_5ad64ab28dbdb diarioimagen.info download/siderophores-in-marine-coastal-waters-and-their-relevance-for- iron_5ae67d64ab2aafc4b1e66 :
  4. :

ImprovementUnassembled furniture can Nye casino siderophores aspergillus oryzae enzyme you can fill the

Cath McCord

The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety CBDC remained elusive.

The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described. Histidine biosynthesis in plants. The study of histidine metabolism has never been at the forefront of interest in plant systems despite the significant role that the analysis of this pathway has played in development of the field of molecular genetics in microbes.

With the advent of methods to analyze plant gene function by complementation of microbial auxotrophic mutants and the complete analysis of plant genome sequences, strides have been made in deciphering the histidine pathway in plants. The studies point to a complex evolutionary origin of genes for histidine biosynthesis. Gene regulation studies have indicated novel regulatory networks involving histidine. In addition, physiological studies have indicated novel functions for histidine in plants as chelators and transporters of metal ions.

Recent investigations have revealed intriguing connections of histidine in plant reproduction. The exciting new information suggests that the study of plant histidine biosynthesis has finally begun to flower.

Rear Quonset huts , currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass Rear Quonset huts , currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass company. View northwest from loading dock. Histidine and Gly-Sar concentration- and time-dependent studies suggest mixed-uptake kinetics. These studies suggest that stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells exhibit different uptake kinetics than those observed in our previous studies and illustrate the requirement for experiments to delineate the physiological role of hPHT1.

Relative performance of indoor vector control interventions in the Ifakara and the West African experimental huts. West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides.

The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: Metofluthrin mosquito coils 0. Four experimental huts were used: Treatments were rotated among the huts every four nights until each treatment was tested in each hut 52 times. Volunteers rotated between huts nightly.

The Ifakara hut captured more Cx. The higher mortality rates recorded in the Ifakara huts could be attributable to the greater proportions of Culex mosquitoes exiting and probably dying from starvation, relative to the situation in the West African huts. Comparative performance of three experimental hut designs for measuring malaria vector responses to insecticides in Tanzania. Experimental huts are simplified, standardized representations of human habitations that provide model systems to evaluate insecticides used in indoor residual spray IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets LLINs to kill disease vectors.

Hut volume, construction materials and size of entry points impact mosquito entry and exposure to insecticides. The performance of three standard experimental hut designs was compared to evaluate insecticide used in LLINs. Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily exit rate , blood feeding inhibition and deterrence entry rate. Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences.

A total of mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts , while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types.

Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types. In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types.

Net release or uptake of histidine and carnosine in kidney of dogs. Previous studies are equivocal as to whether the dog kidney produces histidine. Because one possible source of renal histidine is carnosine beta-alanyl-L- histidine , we investigated net renal production release or utilization uptake Qmet of histidine and carnosine in 19 female dogs after they were fed histidine -free 9 dogs or histidine -containing diets 10 dogs.

Diets were fed in short- days or long-term days studies. Renal Qmet histidine , calculated from either plasma or whole blood values, was positive during infusion of half-normal saline. During carnosine infusion, Qmet histidine increased markedly, and there was net renal uptake of carnosine.

The Qmet histidine and carnosine were not different in the dogs fed histidine -free vs. Thus there is net renal release of histidine in female dogs that increases when carnosine is administered.

Qmet histidine or carnosine do not change adaptively when dogs are fed histidine -free diets. Tautomerism in neutral histidine. Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three 14 N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

For the first time, we experimentally investigate the use of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers VCSELs in the fibre-to-the-home FTTH flavour for Africa, known as fibre-to-the- hut.

VCSELs have attracted attention in optical communication due to its vast advantages; low power consumption, relatively cheap costs among others. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown.

Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis intrasubunit or trans intersubunit within the dimeric histidine kinase.

Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

In experiments conducted at Savannah, Ga. The doors, windows, and eaves of the huts were open for maximum ventilation.

In a non-ventilated plywood hut , a single dispenser gave effective kills for 7 months but in a non-ventilated mud hut the period was 5 months. Air concentrations of dichlorvos in the mud hut were shown to be definitely lower than those in a plywood hut at the same dosage level. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine. The prebiotic formation of histidine His has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis.

In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazoleacetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazoleacetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.

This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now. Hole spins have gained considerable interest in the past few years due to their potential for fast electrically controlled qubits. Here, we study holes confined in Ge hut wires, a so-far unexplored type of nanostructure. Low-temperature magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane g-factors of up to Numerical simulations verify that this large anisotropy originates from a confined wave function of heavy-hole character.

Given this tiny light-hole contribution, the spin lifetimes are expected to be very long, even in isotopically nonpurified samples. An initial phase of Ge hut array formation at low temperature on Si We report a direct STM observation of Ge hut array nucleation on the Si surface during ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy at deg.

Nuclei of pyramids and wedges have been observed on the wetting layer MxN patches starting from the coverage of about 5. Further development of hut arrays consists of simultaneous growth of the formerly appeared clusters and nucleation of new ones resulting in gradual rise of hut number density with increasing surface coverage.

Huts nucleate reconstructing the patch surface from the usual c 4x2 or p 2x2 structure to one of two recently described formations composed by epitaxially oriented Ge dimer pairs and chains of four dimers. Substitution of a highly conserved histidine in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor, sigma32, affects promoter utilization in vitro and leads to overexpression of the biofilm-associated flu protein in vivo.

The heat shock sigma factor sigma 32 in Escherichia coli directs the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoters of a specific sequence to form a stable complex, competent to initiate transcription of genes whose products mitigate the effects of exposure of the cell to high temperatures. The histidine at position of sigma 32 is at the homologous position of a tryptophan residue at position of the main sigma factor of E.

This tryptophan is essential for the strand separation step leading to the formation of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase-promoter complex. The heat shock sigma factors of all gammaproteobacteria sequenced have a histidine at this position, while in the alpha- and deltaproteobacteria, it is a tryptophan.

In vitro the alanine-for- histidine substitution at position HA destabilizes complexes between the GroE promoter and RNA polymerase containing sigma 32 , implying that H plays a role in formation or maintenance of the strand-separated complex.

In vivo, the HA substitution in sigma 32 impedes recovery from heat shock exposure to 42 degrees C , and it also leads to overexpression at lower temperatures 30 degrees C of the Flu protein, which is associated with biofilm formation. Microwave emission models are a critical component of snow water equivalent retrieval algorithms applied to passive microwave measurements. Several such emission models exist, but their differences need to be systematically compared. This paper compares the basic theories of two models: By comparing the mathematical formulation side-by-side, three major differences were identified: Simulation experiments indicate that, the large scattering coefficient of the HUT model compensates for its large forward scattering ratio to some extent, but the effects of 1-flux simplification and the trapped radiation still result in different T sub B simulations between the HUT model and MEMLS.

No optimization of the snow grain size was performed. MEMLS with the physically-based improved Born approximation performed best among the models, with a bias of Probing the Tautomerism of Histidine. Wood-destroying soft rot fungi in the historic expedition huts of Antarctica. Scott and Ernest Shackleton, sheltered and stored the supplies for up to 48 men for 3 years during their explorations and scientific investigation in the South Pole region. The huts , built with wood taken to Antarctica by the early explorers, have deteriorated over the past decades.

Although Antarctica has one of the coldest and driest environments on earth, microbes have colonized the wood and limited decay has occurred. Some wood in contact with the ground contained distinct microscopic cavities within secondary cell walls caused by soft rot fungi.

By using internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA and morphological characteristics, several species of Cadophora were identified, including C. Several previously undescribed Cadophora spp.

Pure cultures of Cadophora used in laboratory decay studies caused dark staining of all woods tested and extensive soft rot in Betula and Populus wood. The presence of Cadophora species, but only limited decay, suggests there is no immediate threat to the structural integrity of the huts.

These fungi, however, are widely found in wood from the historic huts and have the capacity to cause extensive soft rot if conditions that are more conducive to decay become common. Indications and outcomes of helicopter rescue missions in alpine mountain huts: High Alt Med Biol This retrospective study describes the rescue indications and outcome of patients rescued by helicopter from mountain huts in the Swiss Alps.

The hospital course and operational data were also studied. Among 14, helicopter rescue missions undertaken during the year study period, 2. Hospital diagnoses were extremely varied. A winching procedure was performed 18 times and 19 missions included a night flight. Helicopter rescue missions in mountain huts are a small part of all rescue missions. Our study provides a better understanding of medical emergencies arising in mountain huts. The diagnoses encountered are extremely varied in their type and severity.

Hut keepers should be prepared for these situations as they will often have to act as first responders in the case of medical problems. Ordered growth of germanium hut islands on Si molecular bonded substrates. We show that the growth organization is induced by an array of interfacial tilt dislocations. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations show that the orientation and period of the tilt dislocation array determine the orientation, period, and length of elongated germanium hut islands.

The strain field generated by an array of tilt dislocations is proposed as the driving force of the reported organization. Measuring hole spin states of single quantum dot in germanium hut wire. As a group IV material with confined holes, the germanium hut wire is considered a promising candidate for achieving fast electrically controlled spin qubits. Here we fabricated a single quantum dot device on a germanium hut wire and a standard charge stability diagram with excited states was observed by DC transport measurements.

By analyzing the Zeeman splitting behaviors of each state, we chose a window for distinguishing different hole parities and spin states, launching the first step towards a useful spin qubit. Effective g-factors around 4. Field experiments on the behaviour of malaria vectors in an unsprayed hut and in a hut sprayed with DDT in Northern Nigeria.

Investigations on the behaviour of malaria vectors in DDT-sprayed houses are of special interest in malaria control campaigns. In the Northern Region of Nigeria the behaviour of the local vectors was studied by means of experimental huts fitted with exit window-traps. The results obtained show a marked reduction in the number of mosquitos entering the sprayed hut and a depression of the biting rate. The most striking observation is the large number of A.

Both figures show a very marked increase in subsequent months after spraying, indicating a rapid loss of the lethal action of the DDT residue along with a long-lasting irritant effect. It is concluded that under the particular local conditions the application of 1. Gene inactivation in Lactococcus lactis: Lactococcus lactis strains from dairy and nondairy sources were tested for the ability to grow in the absence of histidine.

Among 60 dairy strains tested, 56 required histidine , whereas only 1 of 11 nondairy strains had this requirement. This indicates that adaptation to milk often results in histidine auxotrophy. The histidine operon was detected by Southern hybridization in eight dairy auxotrophic strains tested.

A large part of the histidine operon 8 kb, containing seven histidine biosynthetic genes and three unrelated open reading frames [ORFs] was cloned from an auxotroph, which had an inactive hisD gene, as judged by its inability to grow on histidinol.

Complementation analysis of three genes, hisA, hisB, and hisG, in Escherichia coli showed that they also were inactive. Sequence analysis of the cloned histidine region, which revealed In addition, several mutations were detected in the promoter region of the operon.

Northern RNA hybridization analysis showed a much lower amount of the his transcript in the auxotrophic strain than in the prototrophic strain. The mutations detected account for the histidine auxotrophy of the analyzed strain. Cellular transport of L- histidine in Hartnup disease. The urinary excretion, the intestinal absorption, and the elimination of histidine from blood were studied in two patients with Hartnup disease.

On standard diet the patients lost a great proportion of the dietary histidine in the urine, whereas the fecal loss was negligible. A high oral dose of L- histidine gave only a slight increase in plasma histidine and no increase in fecal histidine , but a considerable increase in the urinary histidine output. Intravenously administered L- histidine was eliminated more rapidly than in controls. The lack of increase in plasma histidine after the oral loading may be explained by the rapid elimination from the blood.

This was mainly due to a rapid cellular uptake of histidine which is supposed to be a normal reaction of histidine -deprived cells. Thus the only obvious defect in the histidine transport in Hartnup disease is the reabsorption defect in the renal tubules. A generally impaired cellular transport of L- histidine is improbable. Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy.

It is shown that extension of a hut base along directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer.

We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed. Schematics of these processes are presented. It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them.

Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding. The earliest archaeological remains of dwelling huts built by Homo sapiens were found in various European Upper Paleolithic open-air camps.

Although floors of huts were found in a small number of cases, modern organization of the home space that includes defined resting areas and bedding remains was not discovered. We report here the earliest in situ bedding exposed on a brush hut floor.

It has recently been found at the previously submerged, excellently preserved 23,year-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp of Ohalo II, situated in Israel on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. The grass bedding consists of bunches of partially charred Puccinellia confer convoluta stems and leaves, covered by a thin compact layer of clay. It is arranged in a repeated pattern, on the floor, around a central hearth. This study describes the bedding in its original context on a well preserved intentionally constructed floor.

It also reconstructs on the basis of direct evidence combined with ethnographic analogies the Upper Paleolithic hut as a house with three major components: Pizza Hut , Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization. Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut 's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying….

It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass.

To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology TKK has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does.

This airborne instrument, called HUT -2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir.

The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT -2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. Uma Lulik holy house , accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor house for sleep , containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house.

The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special.

One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut ".

People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut ", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form.

The "conical huts " contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has.

Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India. To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January to June During the study period, deliveries occurred at the delivery huts.

The mean age of the mothers was Of mothers for whom data were available, The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8. Belonging to a disadvantaged social group in terms of caste or education was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. L- histidine but not D- histidine attenuates brain edema following cryogenic injury in rats. Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the genesis of traumatic brain injury and brain edema BE.

Recent studies have suggested that hydroxyl radical can initiate lipid peroxidation, thus producing lipid-free radicals that may become important sources of singlet oxygen. L- histidine , a singlet oxygen scavenger, potentially can be used to treat BE. In this study we investigated the effects of L- histidine and D- histidine on BE following cryogenic injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Vasogenic BE was produced by a cortical freezing lesion. Generation of singlet oxygen from photoactivation of rose bengal was studied by electron spin resonance ESR.

Animals were separated into four groups: Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after lesion production and the brain water content was determined by the dry-wet weight method. L- histidine had no effect on rectal and brain temperature. Election Spin Resonance studies demonstrated that L- histidine is a singlet oxygen scavenger.

L- histidine but not D- histidine significantly attenuated BE following cryogenic injury p histidine is useful in the treatment of traumatic BE. Ivory Tower and Mud Hut: Causes of the increasing gap between the educational researcher and the classroom teacher are investigated.

As a possible solution, the author suggests involving the teacher in the research process as a teacher-researcher. Research designs that could be utilized are detailed. Engineered scaffold proteins ESP are high-affinity binders that can be used as probes for radionuclide imaging. Earlier studies demonstrated that the use of a histidine-glutamate-histidine-glutamate-histidine -glutamate HE 3-tag instead of the commonly used hexahistidine H6 -tag reduces hepatic uptake of radiolabeled ESP and short peptides.

Apparently, the effect of a histidine -containing tag on the biodistribution is highly dependent on the scaffold composition of the ESP. Environmental decision support for the construction of a "green" mountain hut. The construction of a modern mountain hut nearthe mountains Matterhorn and Dufourspitze in the Swiss Alps is investigated from an environmental point of view.

A prospective environmental assessment was performed to minimize the environmental impact already in the planning phase of the new building; construction will start in autumn An energy balance of the existing hut was made to detect optimization potentials and to predict the necessary energy generating systems of the new building.

In addition to energy supply, the environmental impacts of materials and processes were compared and evaluated with the help of Life Cycle Assessment Although energy use will increase in the new building, mainly due to the installation of a wastewater purification system, total greenhouse gas emissions will decrease. Histidine degradation via an aminotransferase increases the nutritional flexibility of Candida glabrata.

The ability to acquire nutrients during infections is an important attribute in microbial pathogenesis. Amino acids are a valuable source of nitrogen if they can be degraded by the infecting organism. In this work, we analyzed histidine utilization in the fungal pathogen of humans Candida glabrata. Hemiascomycete fungi, like C. We show that C. Although ARO8 is also present in S.

Accordingly, an ARO9 deletion had no effect on growth with aromatic amino acids. In contrast, in S. Differences in the genomic structure of the ARO9 gene between C. Thus, we show that, in contrast to S. Ascertaining free histidine from mixtures with histidine -containing proteins using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The use of photoluminescent probes for differentiating free amino acids from biomolecules containing the same amino acids is challenging.

Photoluminescent probes generally present similar emission spectra when in the presence of either free-amino acids or protein containing those same amino acids. Probes based on cyclometalated iridium III complexes Ir L 2 sol 2 where L is 2-phenylpyridine, 2- 2,4-difluorophenyl pyridine, or benzo[h]quinolone, and sol is a solvent molecule present long-lived emission when bound to histidine. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that free histidine can be discerned from a mixture with histidine -containing proteins by using time-resolved photoluminescence decays.

In the presence of multiple sources of histidine , iridium III probes display a multiexponential decay, which can be fitted by nonlinear least-squares methods to separate the different components. Because the pre-exponential factor of the ns lifetime is proportional to the concentration of free histidine , we can use it to assess the amount of free histidine in solution even in the presence of proteins such as bovine serum albumin.

We also show that iridium III probes displaying different photoluminescence maxima can be produced by modifying the ancillary ligands of the metal complex. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence OSL.

We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between and A. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between and A. Analysis of the equivalent dose DE dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments.

In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software.

The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts ' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism.

The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators.

In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

Particle-based simulations running on large high-performance computing systems over many time steps can generate an enormous amount of particle- and field-based data for post-processing and analysis.

We present the H5 hut library, an implementation of several data models for particle-based simulations that encapsulates the complexity of HDF5 and is simple to use, yet does not compromise performance. Six foundation beams were then placed on the blocks These compari- sons are needed to ensure that the The exact location of each HFT and wall. An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds. The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration.

The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations.

In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA.

Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp.

Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the.

Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome HFRS with various degree of severity. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

Prebiotic synthesis of histidyl- histidine. Histidyl- histidine His-His has been synthesized in a yield of up to A trace amount of His trimer was also detected.

Because the imidazole group of His is involved in a number of important enzymatic reactions, and His-His has been shown to catalyze the prebiotic synthesis of glycyl-glycine, we expect this work will stimulate further studies on the catalytic activities of simple His-containing peptides in prebiotic reactions. A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented.

Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. Cellular transport of l- histidine in Hartnup disease. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts. Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens.

The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts , would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition.

The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Effect of dietary electrolytes and histidine on histidine metabolism and acid-base balance in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri.

Rainbow trout fingerlings were fed diets containing 1. Histidine increased plasma and muscle histidine levels, increased hepatic histidase activity, but did not affect hepatic histidine -pyruvate aminotransferase activity. The electrolyte balance of the diet has a marked effect on the metabolism of histidine in trout. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets.

It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers.

However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality.

Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission. The primary objective of the STS mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments.

Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. Effects of copper dental alloys on HuT T-cells.

Copper based dental alloys currently being used are known to exhibit high corrosion rates. Canine studies with these Cu alloys reported enhanced levels of Cu ions associated with a chronic inflammatory response in adjacent gingiva. Due to the accumulation of Cu ions in the local gingiva and the potential for adversely affecting cellular immunity, the HuT T-cell line was exposed to the commercial Cu dental alloys, Goldent and Trindium, and a brass alloy for 24 hr.

The brass alloy is based on an alloy no longer commercially available. Only the brass alloy caused statistically higher production of IL-2 per number of viable HuT cells as compared to controls.

The potential for continued release of Cu and other metallic ions from either Goldent or Trindium raises the concern that these alloys may also reduce cellular viability and elicit higher IL-2 production.

Immune function can be altered by changes in cation concentrations. Therefore, if these alloys are used, they have the potential to alter the activity and function of the cellular immune response. Protonation and geometry of histidine rings. The presence of H atoms connected to either or both of the two N atoms of the imidazole moiety in a histidine residue affects the geometry of the five-membered ring. Analysis of the imidazole moieties found in histidine residues of atomic resolution protein crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank PDB , and in small-molecule structures retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database CSD , identified characteristic patterns of bond lengths and angles related to the protonation state of the imidazole moiety.

Using discriminant analysis, two functions could be defined, corresponding to linear combinations of the four most sensitive stereochemical parameters, two bond lengths ND1-CE1 and CE1-NE2 and two endocyclic angles -ND1- and -NE2- , that uniquely identify the protonation states of all imidazole moieties in the CSD and can be used to predict which N atom s of the histidine side chains in protein structures are protonated.

Updated geometrical restraint target values are proposed for differently protonated histidine side chains for use in macromolecular refinement. Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut. Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts , not fully protected from mosquitoes.

These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers.

Pair-wise mosquito surveys were conducted in four villages in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania in 20 randomly-selected Shamba huts located in the distant rice fields and in 20 matched houses within the main villages, to assess biting densities and Plasmodium infection rates. A portable mosquito-proof hut was designed and tested in semi-field and field settings against Shamba hut replicas, and actual Shamba huts. Also, semi-structured interviews were conducted, timed-participant observations, and focus-group discussions to assess experiences and behaviours of the farmers regarding mosquito-bites and the mosquito-proof huts.

Strain relief during Ge hut cluster formation on Si studied by high-resolution LEED and surface-stress-induced optical deflection. The kinetics of Ge hut cluster formation and the evolution of film stress have been studied during Ge deposition at and deg. C by high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction and surface-stress-induced optical deflection.

The sudden onset of hut formation is observed at 3. Individual hut clusters instantly grow to a width of 20 nm. Together with this Ge only two additional monolayers of Ge are necessary to cover the entire surface with fully evolved hut clusters. Histidine , an essential amino acid for adult dogs. Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to evaluate whether histidine is an essential amino acid.

The histidine -free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5. In the short-term studies, there were no differences between the responses of the dogs fed the histidine -free and histidine -replete diets. In the long-term studies, dogs fed the histidine -free diet developed a significant decrease in plasma and muscle histidine , muscle carnosine, body weight, hematocrit and serum albumin.

The dogs fed the histidine -free diet tried to avoid the feedings, and after several weeks, they often manifested reduced activity and listlessness. One dog died on the 72nd day.

None of these manifestations occurred in the dogs fed the histidine -replete diet in the long-term studies. Plasma zinc and copper were not different in the two groups of dogs. However, at the end of the long-term studies, the dogs fed the histidine -free diet had significantly lower final whole blood zinc and copper concentrations as compared to the histidine -replete dogs. These findings indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in adult female dogs.

The syndrome associated with histidine -deficiency tends to develop slowly over many days to several weeks. Except for uropod formation and cell capping, UVA has induced the same plasma-membrane alterations, and was more deleterious to structural cytoplasmic integrity than 8-MOP. Morphologic changes of the plasma membrane in PUVA-exposed cells tended to replicate structural alterations elicited independently during the dark reaction by suprapharmacologic 8-MOP concentrations.

Partial retention of microvilli by cells after PUVA was the sole exception. In light of all available evidence we conclude that psoralen during the dark reactions interacts with plasma membrane lipids by as yet undisclosed mechanisms and that in addition to lipids, membrane proteins are also the primary target of the initial interaction of HUT cells with psoralen during PUVA treatment.

Heavy holes confined in quantum dots are predicted to be promising candidates for the realization of spin qubits with long coherence times.

Here we focus on such heavy-hole states confined in Germanium hut wires. By tuning the growth density of the latter we can realize a T-like structure between two neighboring wires. Such a structure allows the realization of a charge sensor, which is electrostatically and tunnel coupled to a quantum dot, with charge-transfer signals as high as 0.

By integrating the T-like structure into a radio-frequency reflectometry setup, single-shot measurements allowing the extraction of hole tunneling times are performed. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission. Background Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity.

However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray IRS on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission.

Methods The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence - reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency — induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users.

Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that. Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field.

Outcomes were deterrence--reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency--induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Therefore, it is suggested that airborne pyrethroids, if delivered in suitable. The histidine phosphatase superfamily: The histidine phosphatase superfamily is a large functionally diverse group of proteins. Expressions of miRNAs are highly regulated in tissues, disruption of which leads to disease.

How this regulation is achieved and maintained is still largely unknown. MiRNAs that reside on clustered or polycistronic transcripts represent a more complex case where individual miRNAs from a cluster are processed with different efficiencies despite being cotranscribed. To shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that might be operating in these cases, we considered the long polycistronic primary miRNA transcript pri-miRa that contains six miRNAs with diverse functions.

The six miRNA domains on this cluster are differentially processed to produce varying amounts of resultant mature miRNAs in different tissues. How this is achieved is not known. We show, using various biochemical and biophysical methods coupled with mutational studies, that pri-miRa adopts a specific three-dimensional architecture that poses a kinetic barrier to its own processing.

This tertiary structure could create suboptimal protein recognition sites on the pri-miRNA cluster due to higher-order structure formation. This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes.

Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…. Bhageerath—Targeting the near impossible: Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure prediction. Protein folding, considered to be the holy grail of molecular biology, remains intractable even after six decades since the report of the first crystal structure.

Over 70, X-ray and NMR structures are now available in protein structural repositories and no physico-chemical solution is in sight. Molecular simulation methodologies have evolved to a stage to provide a computational solution to the tertiary structures of small proteins. Knowledge base driven methodologies are maturing in predicting the tertiary structures of query sequences which share high similarities with sequences of known structures in the databases.

We describe here the development of Bhageerath an ab initio model and Bhageerath-H a hybrid model and present a critique on the current status of prediction of protein tertiary structures.

Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia. Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years.

Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages to reduce noise from the source rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously.

The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e. Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates. Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet UV vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication.

Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E in TM III and amino acid sites 87—93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen. Both mutagenesis analyses of EQ and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light.

Concentric geophysical anomalies associated with enigmatic occurrences of Upper Cretaceous breccias and andesitic rocks led Penfield and Camargo1 to suspect that this structure was a buried impact basin. The Chicxulub melt rocks that we studied contain anomalously high levels of iridium up to Myr, in good agreement with the mean plateau age of Furthermore, these melt rocks acquired a remanent magnetization indicating that they cooled during an episode of reversed geomagnetic polarity.

Hypochlorous acid-mediated protein oxidation: Hypochlorous acid HOCl is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies.

As proteins and amino acids are highly abundant in vivo and react rapidly with HOCl, they are likely to be major targets for HOCl. In this study, two small globular proteins, lysozyme and insulin, have been oxidized with increasing excesses of HOCl to determine whether the pattern of HOCl-mediated amino acid consumption is consistent with reported kinetic data for isolated amino acids and model compounds.

Identical experiments have been carried out with mixtures of N-acetyl amino acids to prevent reaction at the alpha-amino groups that mimic the protein composition to examine the role of protein structure on reactivity.

The results indicate that tertiary structure facilitates secondary chlorine transfer reactions of chloramines formed on His and Lys side chains.

In light of these data, second-order rate constants for reactions of Lys side chain and Gly chloramines with Trp side chains and disulfide bonds have been determined, together with those for further oxidation of Met sulfoxide by HOCl and His side chain chloramines. Computational kinetic models incorporating these additional rate constants closely predict the experimentally observed amino acid consumption.

These studies provide insight into the roles of chloramine formation and three-dimensional structure on the reactions of HOCl with isolated proteins and demonstrate that kinetic models can predict the outcome of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation.

We report paleomagnetic results for core samples of the breccia and andesitic rocks recovered from the Yucatan-6 Petrolcos Mexicanos exploratory well within the Chicxulub structure about 60 km SSW from its center , northern Yucatan, Mexico. Andesitic rocks are characterized by stable single-component magnetizations with a mean inclination of Breccias present a complex paleomagnetic record characterized by multivectorial magnetizations with widely different initial NRM inclinations. However, after alternating field demagnetization, well defined characteristic components with upward inclinations are defined.

IRM acquisition experiments, comparison of IRM and NRM coercivity spectra and the single component magnetization of the andesitic rocks indicate the occurrence of iron-rich titanomagnetites of single or pseudo-single domain states as the dominant magnetic carriers. The inclination is also consistent with the expected value and corresponding paleolatitude for the site estimated from the reference polar wander curve for North America.

Structuring a body of knowledge for continuing and tertiary education in South Africa. The limited attempts in this regard are furthermore taking place in isolation, with practically no dialogue between the limited facilities management industry and the providers of the limited education that is available. Although the study that was undertaken did not have the objective to create comprehensive interaction between the existing role-players, the stated problems were addressed by involving the industry, participants in continuing education programmes and other role-players in the condensed research problem as stated below.

Research was therefore undertaken to address the structuring of educational programmes. These surveys provided information that led to the resultant educational activities stated below. The most important aspects that were determined were the following: It was possible to create and test amongst facilities management practitioners a diagrammatic presentation that contextualised facilities management. The literature survey, including international and South African sources, contributed towards compiling a primary knowledge framework for facilities management.

The perceived value of the contents of a continuing education programme that had been attended by numerous groups of delegates over a number of years was established. A proposed tertiary education programme was presented to practitioners. Site- specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals.

Seven secondary S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33 and two tertiary T and T site- specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms C connected to the next-nearest-neighbor N-N-N C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range K. This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes.

The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane iso-octane , and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures K using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1 5 transition of OH spectrum near Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1].

Subsequent to that, site- specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures TLS are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites.

The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues.

Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl OH radicals with nine large branched alkanes i. In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals.

Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range K. Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over K, are given as the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon: Major structural controls on the distribution of pre- Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada.

The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds.

This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre- Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships.

Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west. Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny.

Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time.

Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes. Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section.

Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat.

The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral. High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochrono Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge.

This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge SAK. SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations PFnets of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…. A regularity index for the selection of native-like tertiary structures of proteins. Automated protein tertiary structure prediction from sequence information alone remains an elusive goal to computational prescriptions.

Dividing the problem into three stages viz. We have analysed the dihedrals in loop regions in a non-redundant dataset of proteins drawn from the Protein Data Bank and categorized them as helix-like or sheet-like regular or irregular. The regularity index is presented here as a simple tool that finds its application in protein structure analysis as a discriminatory scoring function for rapid screening before the more compute intensive atomic level energy calculations could be undertaken.

The tool is made freely accessible over the internet at www. Structural similarity and category- specificity. It has been suggested that category- specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where In summary, we describe the first example of pri-miRNA structure modulating differential expression of constituent miRNAs.

Infiltration of regulatory T Treg cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures TA-TLSs. TA-TLSs have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined.

Thus, we propose that Treg cells in TA-TLSs can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells might provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.

Contributions of historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors to phylogeographic structure in a Tertiary relict species, Emmenopterys henryi Rubiaceae. Examining how historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors contribute to genetic divergence at different evolutionary scales is a central yet largely unexplored question in ecology and evolution. Here, we examine this key question by investigating how environmental and geographic factors across different epochs have driven genetic divergence at deeper phylogeographic and shallower landscape genetic evolutionary scales in the Chinese Tertiary relict tree Emmenopterys henryi.

We found that geography played a predominant role at all levels - phylogeographic clades are broadly geographically structured , the deepest levels of divergence are associated with major geological or pre-Quaternary climatic events, and isolation by distance IBD primarily explained population genetic structure. However, environmental factors are clearly also important - climatic fluctuations since the Last Interglacial LIG have likely contributed to phylogeographic structure , and the population genetic structure in our AFLP dataset was partly explained by isolation by environment IBE , which may have resulted from natural selection in environments with divergent climates.

Thus, historical and contemporary geography and historical and contemporary environments have all shaped patterns of genetic structure in E. Specific "scientific" data structures , and their processing.

Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific , embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations.

Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data in particular: Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure.

The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building.

In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. Folding of RNA tertiary structure: Linkages between backbone phosphates, ions, and water. The functional forms of many RNAs have compact architectures. The placement of phosphates within such structures must be influenced not only by the strong electrostatic repulsion between phosphates, but also by networks of interactions between phosphates, water, and mobile ions.

This review first explores what has been learned of the basic thermodynamic constraints on these arrangements from studies of hydration and ions in simple DNA molecules, and then gives an overview of what is known about ion and water interactions with RNA structures.

A brief survey of RNA crystal structures identifies several interesting architectures in which closely spaced phosphates share hydration shells or phosphates are buried in environments that provide intramolecular hydrogen bonds or site-bound cations. Formation of these structures must require strong coupling between the uptake of ions and release of water. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin A: We analyzed the results quantitatively on the basis of published data indicating that the sulfhydryl exists in two conformations that are coupled to the transition between two tertiary structures of hemoglobin in dynamic equilibrium.

Our analyses show that the ionizable groups linked to the DTNB reaction have lower pKas of ionization in deoxyhemoglobin compared to oxyhemoglobin. So these ionizable groups should make negative contributions to the Bohr effect.

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 GH44 protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography.

Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies. Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates lamprey and hagfish is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat LRR gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor VLR genes.

Tertiary structure and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose.

It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C.

It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a min assay of 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with atrial fibrillation in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China.

Methods In a single center, inpatients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease prior to catheter ablation were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, Results MetS was found in Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer. The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done.

Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols. To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyllinoleoyl-sn- glycerol 8: Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated From the present study we conclude that the medium-chain fatty acids from STAG, in addition to absorption into the portal blood as free fatty acids, are absorbed by the same pathway as the conventional long-chain triacylglycerols, that is, they are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, absorbed The leading industries of the tertiary sector of Changsha are selected by means of hierarchy analysis, and some measures to realize the structure optimization of the tertiary sector in Changsha are put forward, which include increasing investment, promoting innovation mechanism of the tertiary sector, strengthening the management organs of the sector and reinforcing the construction of legal system.

Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids mostly essential fatty acids and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids SSLs , each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or Site- specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy.

The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states. Isotopically edited infrared IR spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site- specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized.

The site- specific thermal unfolding probed by 13 C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure. Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif. These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models.

Full Text Available PTPN12 is an important tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in various physiological processes.

However, the molecular basis underlying the substrate specificity of PTPN12 remains uncertain. Here, enzymological and crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify two distinct structural features that are crucial determinants of PTPN12 substrate specificity: Taken together, our results not only provide the working mechanisms of PTPN12 for desphosphorylation of its substrates but will also help in designing specific inhibitors of PTPN Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter.

Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem—loop II. Although progress has been made in defining singularities like the RNA pseudoknot near this AUG, the sequence and structural features of the HCV IRES which stimulate accurate and efficient initiation of protein synthesis are only partially defined.

Here we report that a region further upstream from the AUG, stem—loop II of the HCV IRES, also contains an element of local tertiary structure which we have detected using RNase H cleavage and have mapped using the singular ability of two bases therein to undergo covalent intra-chain crosslinking stimulated by UV light.

Several earlier studies have shown that the correct sequence between bases 45 and 70 of the HCV IRES stem—loop II domain is required for initiation of protein synthesis. Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem—loop II element is directly involved in IRES action.

The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine replaced three individual adenines, two of which make long-range stacking interactions and one that also forms hydrogen bonds.

Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that kinetics of tertiary structure formation upon addition of MgCl2 are also site specific , with local conformational changes occurring from 5 ms to 4s and with global folding from 1 to 5s.

Site- specific substitution with 15 N-nucleobases allowed observation of stable hydrogen bond formation by NMR experiments. Loss of ordered molecular structure in proteins is known to increase their adhesion to surfaces. The aim of this work was to study the stability of norovirus secondary and tertiary structures and its implications for viral adhesion to fresh foods and agrifood surfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions studied correspond to those prevalent in the principal vehicles of viral transmission vomit and feces and in the food processing and handling environment pasteurization and refrigeration.

The structures of virus-like particles representing GI. The particles were remarkably stable under most of the conditions. Combining temperature with pH or ionic strength caused variable losses of structure depending on the particle type. Regardless of pH, heating to pasteurization temperatures or higher would be required to increase GII.

Regardless of temperature, increased ionic strength would increase GII. FCV adsorption would be greater at refrigeration, pasteurization, or high temperature combined with a low salt concentration or at a higher NaCl concentration regardless of temperature.

Norovirus adhesion mediated by hydrophobic interaction may depend on hydrophobic residues normally exposed on the capsid surface at pH 3, pH 8, physiological ionic strength, and low temperature, while at pasteurization temperatures it may rely more on buried hydrophobic residues exposed upon structural rearrangement. Structural basis for substrate specificities of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases.

Compared to the human kinase, the Drosophila kinase has a wider substrate cleft, which may be responsible for the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme. The human deoxyguanosine kinase is highly specific for purine substrates The two new structures provide an explanation for the substrate specificity of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase.

The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone AHL quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species.

Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed. The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study.

Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds. Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5.

Computational techniques were employed to transpl Many patients with primary progressive aphasia PPA are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these….

Structural similarity and category- specificity: On this account one might expect a positive relationshi The genus Erophaca comprises a single herbaceous perennial species with two subspecies distributed at opposite ends of the Mediterranean region.

We used nrDNA ITS to investigate the phylogeny of the genus, and AFLP markers 9 primers, 20 populations to establish the genetic relationship between subspecies, and among populations at each side of the Gibraltar Strait.

Life form attributes and molecular clock estimates suggest that Erophaca is one of the many Tertiary relicts that form part of the present Mediterranean flora. Within the occidental subspecies, European plants are clearly derived from North-African populations Morocco which, despite being rare on a regional scale, present the highest genetic diversity as estimated by private and rare fragment numbers.

In general, genetic diversity decreased with increasing distance from Morocco. Possible causes for their disjunct distribution are discussed. Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein famil.

Amphibian and reptile road-kills on tertiary roads in relation to landscape structure: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns.

The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along Relations between land cover classes and amphibian and reptile road-kills were analysed with conditional probabilities and general linear models GLM. We also estimated the potential cost-efficiency of a large scale citizen science monitoring project.

We recorded amphibian and 72 reptile road-kills comprising eight species mainly occurring on agricultural roads. Overall, hotspots of amphibian and reptile road-kills were next to the land cover classes arable land, suburban areas and vineyards. Conditional probabilities and GLMs identified road-kills especially next to preferred habitats of green toad, common toad and grass snake, the most often found road-killed species.

Our findings showed that freely available remote sensing data in combination with a. However, interpreting results obtained using these analogs has been difficult due to their low isotype specificity.

Additionally, each isotype has two binding sites with different cGMP affinities and analog selectivities, making understanding the molecular basis for isotype specificity of these compounds even more challenging. To determine isotype specificity of cGMP analogs and their structural basis, we generated the full-length regulatory domains of PKG I and II isotypes with each binding site disabled, determined their affinities for these analogs, and obtained cocrystal structures of both isotypes bound with cGMP analogs.

Our structural and functional results explain the selectivity of these analogs for each PKG isotype and provide a starting point for the rational design of isotype selective activators.

Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction. Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects. Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component.

Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications. Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text.

This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone. For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al.

Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone. Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups FOG and maximum common substructure MCS similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features. The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis.

We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category- specific disorders and argue that this model can help Structural properties of proteins specific to the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane layer surrounding myelinated axons in vertebrates, which is formed when the plasma membrane of an oligodendrocyte or a Schwann cell wraps itself around the axon.

A large fraction of the total protein in this membrane layer is comprised of only a small number of individual proteins, which have certain intriguing structural properties. The myelin proteins are implicated in a number of neurological diseases, including, for example, autoimmune diseases and peripheral neuropathies.

In this review, the structural properties of a number of myelin- specific proteins are described. In this paper we present a framework to analyze conflicts of contracts written in structured English.

A contract that has manually been rewritten in a structured English is automatically translated into a formal language using the Grammatical Framework GF.

In particular we use the contract language CL as a target formal language for this translation. In our framework CL specifications could then be input into the tool CLAN to detect the presence of conflicts whether there are contradictory obligations, permissions, and prohibitions.

We discuss the implementation of such a framework. Structure and function of the phosphothreonine- specific FHA domain. The forkhead-associated FHA domain is the only known phosphoprotein-binding domain that specifically recognizes phosphothreonine pThr residues, distinguishing them from phosphoserine pSer residues.

In contrast to its very strict specificity toward pThr, the FHA domain recognizes very diverse patterns in the residues surrounding the pThr residue. For example, the FHA domain of Ki67, a protein associated with cellular proliferation, binds to an extended target surface involving residues remote from the pThr, whereas the FHA domain of Dun1, a DNA damage-response kinase, specifically recognizes a doubly phosphorylated Thr-Gln TQ cluster by virtue of its possessing two pThr-binding sites.

The FHA domain exists in various proteins with diverse functions and is particularly prevalent among proteins involved in the DNA damage response. Despite a very short history, a number of unique structural and functional properties of the FHA domain have been uncovered. This review highlights the diversity of biological functions of the FHA domain-containing proteins and the structural bases for the novel binding specificities and multiple binding modes of FHA domains.

Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes. Gray; Hoyt, David W. Human high-density lipoprotein HDL plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway that delivers excess cholesterol back to the liver for clearance.

In vivo, HDL particles vary in size, shape and biological function. One of the major problems for high-resolution structural studies of discoidal HDL is the difficulty in obtaining pure and, foremost, homogenous sample. Using an ultracentrifugation method, we quickly removed lipid-poor apoAI. A small rHDL has a diameter of 7. We show that these two different sizes of discoidal HDL particles display different stability and phospholipid-binding activity.

Our result further provides the first high-resolution NMR data, demonstrating a promise of structural determination of discoidal HDL at atomic resolution using a combination of NMR and other biophysical techniques.

Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity. Tobacco vein mottling virus TVMV is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses.

The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus TEV is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities.

This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters k cat and K m for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Using molecular principal axes for structural comparison: Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of different protein x-ray structures has previously been made in a number of different ways; for example, by visual examination, by differences in the locations of secondary structures , by explicit superposition of structural elements, e.

Results A new approach is applied to determine the structural changes that an antibody protein domain experiences upon its interaction with an antigenic target. These changes are determined with the use of two different, however comparable, sets of principal axes that are obtained by diagonalizing the second-order tensors that yield the moments-of-geometry as well as an ellipsoidal characterization of domain shape, prior to and after interaction.

Determination of these sets of axes for structural comparison requires no internal symmetry features of the domains, depending solely upon their representation in three-dimensional space. The present analysis utilizes residue centroids. When the structural changes are minimal, the principal axes of the domains, prior to and after interaction, are essentially comparable and consequently may be used for structural comparison. When the differences of the axes cannot be neglected, but are nevertheless slight, a smaller relatively invariant substructure of the domains may be utilized for comparison.

The procedure yields two distance metrics for structural comparison. First, the displacements of the residue centroids due to antigenic binding, referenced to the ellipsoidal principal axes, are noted.

Second, changes in the ellipsoidal distances with respect to the non-interacting structure provide a direct measure of the spatial displacements of the residue centroids, towards either the interior or exterior of the domain. Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein.

The students clearly learn amino acid structure , primary, secondary, tertiary , and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…. Full Text Available Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity.

In this review, we focus on the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary tau structures. We describe the structure of tau from its specific residues until its conformation in dimers, oligomers and larger polymers in physiological and pathological situations. Optimizing bowtie structure parameters for specific incident light.

We investigate optical properties of a bowtie-shaped aperture using the finite difference time domain method to optimize its geometric parameters for specific incident lights. The influence of the parameters on local field enhancement and resonant wavelength in the visible frequency range is numerically analysed. It is found that the major resonance of the spectrum is exponentially depended on the bowtie angle but independent of the whole aperture size.

The simulation also demonstrates that increasing the aperture size raises the local field intensity on the exit plane due to an enlarged interaction area between the light and the metal medium. And the near-field spot size is closely related to the gap. Based on these results, the design rules of the bowtie structure can be optimized for specific wavelengths excited.

Engine structures analysis software: A component specific modeling software program has been developed for propulsion systems.

This expert program is capable of formulating the component geometry as finite element meshes for structural analysis which, in the future, can be spun off as NURB geometry for manufacturing.

COSMO currently has geometry recipes for combustors, turbine blades, vanes, and disks. Component geometry recipes for nozzles, inlets, frames, shafts, and ducts are being added. This report contains the users manual for combustors, turbine blades, vanes, and disks.

Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell—cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer.

Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

Structural and functional characterization of a specific antidote for ticagrelor. Ticagrelor is a direct-acting reversibly binding P2Y12 antagonist and is widely used as an antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients.

However, antiplatelet therapy can be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Here, we present data on the identification and the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of an antigen-binding fragment Fab antidote for ticagrelor. The Fab has a 20 pM affinity for ticagrelor, which is times stronger than ticagrelor's affinity for its target, P2Y Despite ticagrelor's structural similarities to adenosine, the Fab is highly specific and does not bind to adenosine, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, or structurally related drugs.

The antidote concentration-dependently neutralized the free fraction of ticagrelor and reversed its antiplatelet activity both in vitro in human platelet-rich plasma and in vivo in mice. Lastly, the antidote proved effective in normalizing ticagrelor-dependent bleeding in a mouse model of acute surgery.

This specific antidote for ticagrelor may prove valuable as an agent for patients who require emergency procedures. A highly specific coding system for structural chromosomal alterations. Such a coding system would be of value at present due to the dramatic increase in the diagnosis of submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications through molecular techniques. In summary, our new coding system allows the characterization of: We show the distribution of newborn patients with these types of chromosomal alterations using their corresponding codes according to our system.

We consider that our approach may be useful not only for other registries, but also for laboratories performing these studies to store their results on case series. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe this coding system and to offer the opportunity for this coding to be applied by others. Moreover, as this is a SYSTEM, rather than a fixed code, it can be implemented with the necessary modifications to include the specific objectives of each program.

Exposure to Hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni. Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis or bilharziasis, a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden.

The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the 20th century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes.

This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable not stably inherited. Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain.

No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modification were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome.

Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response.

important have boxes

Among 14, helicopter rescue missions undertaken during the year study period, 2. Hospital diagnoses were extremely varied. A winching procedure was performed 18 times and 19 missions included a night flight.

Helicopter rescue missions in mountain huts are a small part of all rescue missions. Our study provides a better understanding of medical emergencies arising in mountain huts. The diagnoses encountered are extremely varied in their type and severity. Hut keepers should be prepared for these situations as they will often have to act as first responders in the case of medical problems.

Ordered growth of germanium hut islands on Si molecular bonded substrates. We show that the growth organization is induced by an array of interfacial tilt dislocations. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations show that the orientation and period of the tilt dislocation array determine the orientation, period, and length of elongated germanium hut islands.

The strain field generated by an array of tilt dislocations is proposed as the driving force of the reported organization. Measuring hole spin states of single quantum dot in germanium hut wire.

As a group IV material with confined holes, the germanium hut wire is considered a promising candidate for achieving fast electrically controlled spin qubits. Here we fabricated a single quantum dot device on a germanium hut wire and a standard charge stability diagram with excited states was observed by DC transport measurements.

By analyzing the Zeeman splitting behaviors of each state, we chose a window for distinguishing different hole parities and spin states, launching the first step towards a useful spin qubit. Effective g-factors around 4. Field experiments on the behaviour of malaria vectors in an unsprayed hut and in a hut sprayed with DDT in Northern Nigeria. Investigations on the behaviour of malaria vectors in DDT-sprayed houses are of special interest in malaria control campaigns.

In the Northern Region of Nigeria the behaviour of the local vectors was studied by means of experimental huts fitted with exit window-traps. The results obtained show a marked reduction in the number of mosquitos entering the sprayed hut and a depression of the biting rate. The most striking observation is the large number of A.

Both figures show a very marked increase in subsequent months after spraying, indicating a rapid loss of the lethal action of the DDT residue along with a long-lasting irritant effect. It is concluded that under the particular local conditions the application of 1. Gene inactivation in Lactococcus lactis: Lactococcus lactis strains from dairy and nondairy sources were tested for the ability to grow in the absence of histidine.

Among 60 dairy strains tested, 56 required histidine , whereas only 1 of 11 nondairy strains had this requirement. This indicates that adaptation to milk often results in histidine auxotrophy. The histidine operon was detected by Southern hybridization in eight dairy auxotrophic strains tested.

A large part of the histidine operon 8 kb, containing seven histidine biosynthetic genes and three unrelated open reading frames [ORFs] was cloned from an auxotroph, which had an inactive hisD gene, as judged by its inability to grow on histidinol.

Complementation analysis of three genes, hisA, hisB, and hisG, in Escherichia coli showed that they also were inactive. Sequence analysis of the cloned histidine region, which revealed In addition, several mutations were detected in the promoter region of the operon. Northern RNA hybridization analysis showed a much lower amount of the his transcript in the auxotrophic strain than in the prototrophic strain. The mutations detected account for the histidine auxotrophy of the analyzed strain.

Cellular transport of L- histidine in Hartnup disease. The urinary excretion, the intestinal absorption, and the elimination of histidine from blood were studied in two patients with Hartnup disease. On standard diet the patients lost a great proportion of the dietary histidine in the urine, whereas the fecal loss was negligible. A high oral dose of L- histidine gave only a slight increase in plasma histidine and no increase in fecal histidine , but a considerable increase in the urinary histidine output.

Intravenously administered L- histidine was eliminated more rapidly than in controls. The lack of increase in plasma histidine after the oral loading may be explained by the rapid elimination from the blood. This was mainly due to a rapid cellular uptake of histidine which is supposed to be a normal reaction of histidine -deprived cells. Thus the only obvious defect in the histidine transport in Hartnup disease is the reabsorption defect in the renal tubules. A generally impaired cellular transport of L- histidine is improbable.

Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that extension of a hut base along directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer.

We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed. Schematics of these processes are presented.

It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them. Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding. The earliest archaeological remains of dwelling huts built by Homo sapiens were found in various European Upper Paleolithic open-air camps. Although floors of huts were found in a small number of cases, modern organization of the home space that includes defined resting areas and bedding remains was not discovered.

We report here the earliest in situ bedding exposed on a brush hut floor. It has recently been found at the previously submerged, excellently preserved 23,year-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp of Ohalo II, situated in Israel on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. The grass bedding consists of bunches of partially charred Puccinellia confer convoluta stems and leaves, covered by a thin compact layer of clay.

It is arranged in a repeated pattern, on the floor, around a central hearth. This study describes the bedding in its original context on a well preserved intentionally constructed floor. It also reconstructs on the basis of direct evidence combined with ethnographic analogies the Upper Paleolithic hut as a house with three major components: Pizza Hut , Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut 's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth.

From each acquisition, i. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass.

To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology TKK has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does.

This airborne instrument, called HUT -2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude.

This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT -2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community.

Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. Uma Lulik holy house , accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor house for sleep , containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan.

Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut ".

People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow.

Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut ", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form.

The "conical huts " contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has. Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India. To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad.

Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January to June During the study period, deliveries occurred at the delivery huts.

The mean age of the mothers was Of mothers for whom data were available, The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8. Belonging to a disadvantaged social group in terms of caste or education was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services.

The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. L- histidine but not D- histidine attenuates brain edema following cryogenic injury in rats.

Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the genesis of traumatic brain injury and brain edema BE. Recent studies have suggested that hydroxyl radical can initiate lipid peroxidation, thus producing lipid-free radicals that may become important sources of singlet oxygen. L- histidine , a singlet oxygen scavenger, potentially can be used to treat BE. In this study we investigated the effects of L- histidine and D- histidine on BE following cryogenic injury in rats.

Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Vasogenic BE was produced by a cortical freezing lesion. Generation of singlet oxygen from photoactivation of rose bengal was studied by electron spin resonance ESR.

Animals were separated into four groups: Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after lesion production and the brain water content was determined by the dry-wet weight method. L- histidine had no effect on rectal and brain temperature. Election Spin Resonance studies demonstrated that L- histidine is a singlet oxygen scavenger.

L- histidine but not D- histidine significantly attenuated BE following cryogenic injury p histidine is useful in the treatment of traumatic BE.

Ivory Tower and Mud Hut: Causes of the increasing gap between the educational researcher and the classroom teacher are investigated. As a possible solution, the author suggests involving the teacher in the research process as a teacher-researcher. Research designs that could be utilized are detailed. Engineered scaffold proteins ESP are high-affinity binders that can be used as probes for radionuclide imaging.

Earlier studies demonstrated that the use of a histidine-glutamate-histidine-glutamate-histidine -glutamate HE 3-tag instead of the commonly used hexahistidine H6 -tag reduces hepatic uptake of radiolabeled ESP and short peptides. Apparently, the effect of a histidine -containing tag on the biodistribution is highly dependent on the scaffold composition of the ESP. Environmental decision support for the construction of a "green" mountain hut. The construction of a modern mountain hut nearthe mountains Matterhorn and Dufourspitze in the Swiss Alps is investigated from an environmental point of view.

A prospective environmental assessment was performed to minimize the environmental impact already in the planning phase of the new building; construction will start in autumn An energy balance of the existing hut was made to detect optimization potentials and to predict the necessary energy generating systems of the new building.

In addition to energy supply, the environmental impacts of materials and processes were compared and evaluated with the help of Life Cycle Assessment Although energy use will increase in the new building, mainly due to the installation of a wastewater purification system, total greenhouse gas emissions will decrease.

Histidine degradation via an aminotransferase increases the nutritional flexibility of Candida glabrata. The ability to acquire nutrients during infections is an important attribute in microbial pathogenesis. Amino acids are a valuable source of nitrogen if they can be degraded by the infecting organism. In this work, we analyzed histidine utilization in the fungal pathogen of humans Candida glabrata.

Hemiascomycete fungi, like C. We show that C. Although ARO8 is also present in S. Accordingly, an ARO9 deletion had no effect on growth with aromatic amino acids. In contrast, in S. Differences in the genomic structure of the ARO9 gene between C. Thus, we show that, in contrast to S. Ascertaining free histidine from mixtures with histidine -containing proteins using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy.

The use of photoluminescent probes for differentiating free amino acids from biomolecules containing the same amino acids is challenging. Photoluminescent probes generally present similar emission spectra when in the presence of either free-amino acids or protein containing those same amino acids. Probes based on cyclometalated iridium III complexes Ir L 2 sol 2 where L is 2-phenylpyridine, 2- 2,4-difluorophenyl pyridine, or benzo[h]quinolone, and sol is a solvent molecule present long-lived emission when bound to histidine.

As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that free histidine can be discerned from a mixture with histidine -containing proteins by using time-resolved photoluminescence decays.

In the presence of multiple sources of histidine , iridium III probes display a multiexponential decay, which can be fitted by nonlinear least-squares methods to separate the different components. Because the pre-exponential factor of the ns lifetime is proportional to the concentration of free histidine , we can use it to assess the amount of free histidine in solution even in the presence of proteins such as bovine serum albumin. We also show that iridium III probes displaying different photoluminescence maxima can be produced by modifying the ancillary ligands of the metal complex.

Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence OSL. We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between and A.

Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between and A. Analysis of the equivalent dose DE dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments.

In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed.

The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts ' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism.

The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

Particle-based simulations running on large high-performance computing systems over many time steps can generate an enormous amount of particle- and field-based data for post-processing and analysis. We present the H5 hut library, an implementation of several data models for particle-based simulations that encapsulates the complexity of HDF5 and is simple to use, yet does not compromise performance. Six foundation beams were then placed on the blocks These compari- sons are needed to ensure that the The exact location of each HFT and wall.

An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds. The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration.

The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations.

In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp.

Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the.

Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome HFRS with various degree of severity. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS. Prebiotic synthesis of histidyl- histidine. Histidyl- histidine His-His has been synthesized in a yield of up to A trace amount of His trimer was also detected. Because the imidazole group of His is involved in a number of important enzymatic reactions, and His-His has been shown to catalyze the prebiotic synthesis of glycyl-glycine, we expect this work will stimulate further studies on the catalytic activities of simple His-containing peptides in prebiotic reactions.

A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic.

Cellular transport of l- histidine in Hartnup disease. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts. Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens.

The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts , would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition.

The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Effect of dietary electrolytes and histidine on histidine metabolism and acid-base balance in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri.

Rainbow trout fingerlings were fed diets containing 1. Histidine increased plasma and muscle histidine levels, increased hepatic histidase activity, but did not affect hepatic histidine -pyruvate aminotransferase activity. The electrolyte balance of the diet has a marked effect on the metabolism of histidine in trout. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets.

It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality.

This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality.

Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

The primary objective of the STS mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments.

Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. Effects of copper dental alloys on HuT T-cells. Copper based dental alloys currently being used are known to exhibit high corrosion rates. Canine studies with these Cu alloys reported enhanced levels of Cu ions associated with a chronic inflammatory response in adjacent gingiva.

Due to the accumulation of Cu ions in the local gingiva and the potential for adversely affecting cellular immunity, the HuT T-cell line was exposed to the commercial Cu dental alloys, Goldent and Trindium, and a brass alloy for 24 hr. The brass alloy is based on an alloy no longer commercially available. Only the brass alloy caused statistically higher production of IL-2 per number of viable HuT cells as compared to controls.

The potential for continued release of Cu and other metallic ions from either Goldent or Trindium raises the concern that these alloys may also reduce cellular viability and elicit higher IL-2 production. Immune function can be altered by changes in cation concentrations. Therefore, if these alloys are used, they have the potential to alter the activity and function of the cellular immune response.

Protonation and geometry of histidine rings. The presence of H atoms connected to either or both of the two N atoms of the imidazole moiety in a histidine residue affects the geometry of the five-membered ring.

Analysis of the imidazole moieties found in histidine residues of atomic resolution protein crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank PDB , and in small-molecule structures retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database CSD , identified characteristic patterns of bond lengths and angles related to the protonation state of the imidazole moiety.

Using discriminant analysis, two functions could be defined, corresponding to linear combinations of the four most sensitive stereochemical parameters, two bond lengths ND1-CE1 and CE1-NE2 and two endocyclic angles -ND1- and -NE2- , that uniquely identify the protonation states of all imidazole moieties in the CSD and can be used to predict which N atom s of the histidine side chains in protein structures are protonated.

Updated geometrical restraint target values are proposed for differently protonated histidine side chains for use in macromolecular refinement. Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.

Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts , not fully protected from mosquitoes.

These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Pair-wise mosquito surveys were conducted in four villages in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania in 20 randomly-selected Shamba huts located in the distant rice fields and in 20 matched houses within the main villages, to assess biting densities and Plasmodium infection rates.

A portable mosquito-proof hut was designed and tested in semi-field and field settings against Shamba hut replicas, and actual Shamba huts. Also, semi-structured interviews were conducted, timed-participant observations, and focus-group discussions to assess experiences and behaviours of the farmers regarding mosquito-bites and the mosquito-proof huts.

Strain relief during Ge hut cluster formation on Si studied by high-resolution LEED and surface-stress-induced optical deflection. The kinetics of Ge hut cluster formation and the evolution of film stress have been studied during Ge deposition at and deg. C by high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction and surface-stress-induced optical deflection.

The sudden onset of hut formation is observed at 3. Individual hut clusters instantly grow to a width of 20 nm. Together with this Ge only two additional monolayers of Ge are necessary to cover the entire surface with fully evolved hut clusters.

Histidine , an essential amino acid for adult dogs. Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to evaluate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. The histidine -free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5. In the short-term studies, there were no differences between the responses of the dogs fed the histidine -free and histidine -replete diets.

In the long-term studies, dogs fed the histidine -free diet developed a significant decrease in plasma and muscle histidine , muscle carnosine, body weight, hematocrit and serum albumin.

The dogs fed the histidine -free diet tried to avoid the feedings, and after several weeks, they often manifested reduced activity and listlessness. One dog died on the 72nd day. None of these manifestations occurred in the dogs fed the histidine -replete diet in the long-term studies. Plasma zinc and copper were not different in the two groups of dogs. However, at the end of the long-term studies, the dogs fed the histidine -free diet had significantly lower final whole blood zinc and copper concentrations as compared to the histidine -replete dogs.

These findings indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in adult female dogs. The syndrome associated with histidine -deficiency tends to develop slowly over many days to several weeks. Except for uropod formation and cell capping, UVA has induced the same plasma-membrane alterations, and was more deleterious to structural cytoplasmic integrity than 8-MOP.

Morphologic changes of the plasma membrane in PUVA-exposed cells tended to replicate structural alterations elicited independently during the dark reaction by suprapharmacologic 8-MOP concentrations.

Partial retention of microvilli by cells after PUVA was the sole exception. In light of all available evidence we conclude that psoralen during the dark reactions interacts with plasma membrane lipids by as yet undisclosed mechanisms and that in addition to lipids, membrane proteins are also the primary target of the initial interaction of HUT cells with psoralen during PUVA treatment.

Heavy holes confined in quantum dots are predicted to be promising candidates for the realization of spin qubits with long coherence times. Here we focus on such heavy-hole states confined in Germanium hut wires. These studies provide insight into the roles of chloramine formation and three-dimensional structure on the reactions of HOCl with isolated proteins and demonstrate that kinetic models can predict the outcome of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation.

We report paleomagnetic results for core samples of the breccia and andesitic rocks recovered from the Yucatan-6 Petrolcos Mexicanos exploratory well within the Chicxulub structure about 60 km SSW from its center , northern Yucatan, Mexico. Andesitic rocks are characterized by stable single-component magnetizations with a mean inclination of Breccias present a complex paleomagnetic record characterized by multivectorial magnetizations with widely different initial NRM inclinations.

However, after alternating field demagnetization, well defined characteristic components with upward inclinations are defined. IRM acquisition experiments, comparison of IRM and NRM coercivity spectra and the single component magnetization of the andesitic rocks indicate the occurrence of iron-rich titanomagnetites of single or pseudo-single domain states as the dominant magnetic carriers. The inclination is also consistent with the expected value and corresponding paleolatitude for the site estimated from the reference polar wander curve for North America.

Structuring a body of knowledge for continuing and tertiary education in South Africa. The limited attempts in this regard are furthermore taking place in isolation, with practically no dialogue between the limited facilities management industry and the providers of the limited education that is available.

Although the study that was undertaken did not have the objective to create comprehensive interaction between the existing role-players, the stated problems were addressed by involving the industry, participants in continuing education programmes and other role-players in the condensed research problem as stated below.

Research was therefore undertaken to address the structuring of educational programmes. These surveys provided information that led to the resultant educational activities stated below. The most important aspects that were determined were the following: It was possible to create and test amongst facilities management practitioners a diagrammatic presentation that contextualised facilities management.

The literature survey, including international and South African sources, contributed towards compiling a primary knowledge framework for facilities management.

The perceived value of the contents of a continuing education programme that had been attended by numerous groups of delegates over a number of years was established. A proposed tertiary education programme was presented to practitioners.

Site- specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals. Seven secondary S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33 and two tertiary T and T site- specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms C connected to the next-nearest-neighbor N-N-N C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range K.

This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes.

The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane iso-octane , and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures K using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1 5 transition of OH spectrum near Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1].

Subsequent to that, site- specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures TLS are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites.

The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues. Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl OH radicals with nine large branched alkanes i.

In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range K.

Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over K, are given as the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon: Major structural controls on the distribution of pre- Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada. The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds.

This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre- Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west.

Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny.

Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time. Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes.

Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits.

These faults most likely results from significant lateral. High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochrono Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge.

This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge SAK. SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations PFnets of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…. A regularity index for the selection of native-like tertiary structures of proteins.

Automated protein tertiary structure prediction from sequence information alone remains an elusive goal to computational prescriptions. Dividing the problem into three stages viz. We have analysed the dihedrals in loop regions in a non-redundant dataset of proteins drawn from the Protein Data Bank and categorized them as helix-like or sheet-like regular or irregular. The regularity index is presented here as a simple tool that finds its application in protein structure analysis as a discriminatory scoring function for rapid screening before the more compute intensive atomic level energy calculations could be undertaken.

The tool is made freely accessible over the internet at www. Structural similarity and category- specificity. It has been suggested that category- specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage.

On this account one might expect a positive relationship Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where In summary, we describe the first example of pri-miRNA structure modulating differential expression of constituent miRNAs. Infiltration of regulatory T Treg cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses.

However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures TA-TLSs.

TA-TLSs have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. Thus, we propose that Treg cells in TA-TLSs can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells might provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients. Contributions of historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors to phylogeographic structure in a Tertiary relict species, Emmenopterys henryi Rubiaceae.

Examining how historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors contribute to genetic divergence at different evolutionary scales is a central yet largely unexplored question in ecology and evolution.

Here, we examine this key question by investigating how environmental and geographic factors across different epochs have driven genetic divergence at deeper phylogeographic and shallower landscape genetic evolutionary scales in the Chinese Tertiary relict tree Emmenopterys henryi. We found that geography played a predominant role at all levels - phylogeographic clades are broadly geographically structured , the deepest levels of divergence are associated with major geological or pre-Quaternary climatic events, and isolation by distance IBD primarily explained population genetic structure.

However, environmental factors are clearly also important - climatic fluctuations since the Last Interglacial LIG have likely contributed to phylogeographic structure , and the population genetic structure in our AFLP dataset was partly explained by isolation by environment IBE , which may have resulted from natural selection in environments with divergent climates.

Thus, historical and contemporary geography and historical and contemporary environments have all shaped patterns of genetic structure in E. Specific "scientific" data structures , and their processing.

Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages.

Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific , embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations.

Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data in particular: Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available.

The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure. The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models.

The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building.

In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. Folding of RNA tertiary structure: Linkages between backbone phosphates, ions, and water.

The functional forms of many RNAs have compact architectures. The placement of phosphates within such structures must be influenced not only by the strong electrostatic repulsion between phosphates, but also by networks of interactions between phosphates, water, and mobile ions.

This review first explores what has been learned of the basic thermodynamic constraints on these arrangements from studies of hydration and ions in simple DNA molecules, and then gives an overview of what is known about ion and water interactions with RNA structures. A brief survey of RNA crystal structures identifies several interesting architectures in which closely spaced phosphates share hydration shells or phosphates are buried in environments that provide intramolecular hydrogen bonds or site-bound cations.

Formation of these structures must require strong coupling between the uptake of ions and release of water. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin A: We analyzed the results quantitatively on the basis of published data indicating that the sulfhydryl exists in two conformations that are coupled to the transition between two tertiary structures of hemoglobin in dynamic equilibrium.

Our analyses show that the ionizable groups linked to the DTNB reaction have lower pKas of ionization in deoxyhemoglobin compared to oxyhemoglobin. So these ionizable groups should make negative contributions to the Bohr effect.

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 GH44 protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography.

Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies. Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates lamprey and hagfish is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat LRR gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor VLR genes. Tertiary structure and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum.

The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C. It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a min assay of 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 5.

Metabolic syndrome in patients with atrial fibrillation in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China.

Methods In a single center, inpatients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease prior to catheter ablation were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, Results MetS was found in Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer.

The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done. Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols. To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyllinoleoyl-sn- glycerol 8: Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated From the present study we conclude that the medium-chain fatty acids from STAG, in addition to absorption into the portal blood as free fatty acids, are absorbed by the same pathway as the conventional long-chain triacylglycerols, that is, they are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, absorbed The leading industries of the tertiary sector of Changsha are selected by means of hierarchy analysis, and some measures to realize the structure optimization of the tertiary sector in Changsha are put forward, which include increasing investment, promoting innovation mechanism of the tertiary sector, strengthening the management organs of the sector and reinforcing the construction of legal system.

Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids mostly essential fatty acids and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids SSLs , each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or Site- specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy.

The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states. Isotopically edited infrared IR spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site- specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized.

The site- specific thermal unfolding probed by 13 C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure. Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif.

These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models. Full Text Available PTPN12 is an important tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in various physiological processes. However, the molecular basis underlying the substrate specificity of PTPN12 remains uncertain.

Here, enzymological and crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify two distinct structural features that are crucial determinants of PTPN12 substrate specificity: Taken together, our results not only provide the working mechanisms of PTPN12 for desphosphorylation of its substrates but will also help in designing specific inhibitors of PTPN Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter.

Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem—loop II. Although progress has been made in defining singularities like the RNA pseudoknot near this AUG, the sequence and structural features of the HCV IRES which stimulate accurate and efficient initiation of protein synthesis are only partially defined. Here we report that a region further upstream from the AUG, stem—loop II of the HCV IRES, also contains an element of local tertiary structure which we have detected using RNase H cleavage and have mapped using the singular ability of two bases therein to undergo covalent intra-chain crosslinking stimulated by UV light.

Several earlier studies have shown that the correct sequence between bases 45 and 70 of the HCV IRES stem—loop II domain is required for initiation of protein synthesis. Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem—loop II element is directly involved in IRES action. The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine replaced three individual adenines, two of which make long-range stacking interactions and one that also forms hydrogen bonds.

Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that kinetics of tertiary structure formation upon addition of MgCl2 are also site specific , with local conformational changes occurring from 5 ms to 4s and with global folding from 1 to 5s. Site- specific substitution with 15 N-nucleobases allowed observation of stable hydrogen bond formation by NMR experiments.

Loss of ordered molecular structure in proteins is known to increase their adhesion to surfaces. The aim of this work was to study the stability of norovirus secondary and tertiary structures and its implications for viral adhesion to fresh foods and agrifood surfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions studied correspond to those prevalent in the principal vehicles of viral transmission vomit and feces and in the food processing and handling environment pasteurization and refrigeration.

The structures of virus-like particles representing GI. The particles were remarkably stable under most of the conditions. Combining temperature with pH or ionic strength caused variable losses of structure depending on the particle type. Regardless of pH, heating to pasteurization temperatures or higher would be required to increase GII. Regardless of temperature, increased ionic strength would increase GII.

FCV adsorption would be greater at refrigeration, pasteurization, or high temperature combined with a low salt concentration or at a higher NaCl concentration regardless of temperature. Norovirus adhesion mediated by hydrophobic interaction may depend on hydrophobic residues normally exposed on the capsid surface at pH 3, pH 8, physiological ionic strength, and low temperature, while at pasteurization temperatures it may rely more on buried hydrophobic residues exposed upon structural rearrangement.

Structural basis for substrate specificities of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases. Compared to the human kinase, the Drosophila kinase has a wider substrate cleft, which may be responsible for the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme.

The human deoxyguanosine kinase is highly specific for purine substrates The two new structures provide an explanation for the substrate specificity of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase.

The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone AHL quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria.

In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species. Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed.

The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds. Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design.

Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5.

This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5.

Computational techniques were employed to transpl Many patients with primary progressive aphasia PPA are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these…. Structural similarity and category- specificity: On this account one might expect a positive relationshi The genus Erophaca comprises a single herbaceous perennial species with two subspecies distributed at opposite ends of the Mediterranean region.

We used nrDNA ITS to investigate the phylogeny of the genus, and AFLP markers 9 primers, 20 populations to establish the genetic relationship between subspecies, and among populations at each side of the Gibraltar Strait. Life form attributes and molecular clock estimates suggest that Erophaca is one of the many Tertiary relicts that form part of the present Mediterranean flora. Within the occidental subspecies, European plants are clearly derived from North-African populations Morocco which, despite being rare on a regional scale, present the highest genetic diversity as estimated by private and rare fragment numbers.

In general, genetic diversity decreased with increasing distance from Morocco. Possible causes for their disjunct distribution are discussed. Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins.

Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein famil. Amphibian and reptile road-kills on tertiary roads in relation to landscape structure: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns.

The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads.

Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along Relations between land cover classes and amphibian and reptile road-kills were analysed with conditional probabilities and general linear models GLM. We also estimated the potential cost-efficiency of a large scale citizen science monitoring project.

We recorded amphibian and 72 reptile road-kills comprising eight species mainly occurring on agricultural roads. Overall, hotspots of amphibian and reptile road-kills were next to the land cover classes arable land, suburban areas and vineyards. Conditional probabilities and GLMs identified road-kills especially next to preferred habitats of green toad, common toad and grass snake, the most often found road-killed species. Our findings showed that freely available remote sensing data in combination with a.

However, interpreting results obtained using these analogs has been difficult due to their low isotype specificity. Additionally, each isotype has two binding sites with different cGMP affinities and analog selectivities, making understanding the molecular basis for isotype specificity of these compounds even more challenging. To determine isotype specificity of cGMP analogs and their structural basis, we generated the full-length regulatory domains of PKG I and II isotypes with each binding site disabled, determined their affinities for these analogs, and obtained cocrystal structures of both isotypes bound with cGMP analogs.

Our structural and functional results explain the selectivity of these analogs for each PKG isotype and provide a starting point for the rational design of isotype selective activators. Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction. Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects.

Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component. Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications.

Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text. This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone.

For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al. Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone.

Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups FOG and maximum common substructure MCS similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features. The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category- specific disorders and argue that this model can help Structural properties of proteins specific to the myelin sheath.

The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane layer surrounding myelinated axons in vertebrates, which is formed when the plasma membrane of an oligodendrocyte or a Schwann cell wraps itself around the axon.

A large fraction of the total protein in this membrane layer is comprised of only a small number of individual proteins, which have certain intriguing structural properties. The myelin proteins are implicated in a number of neurological diseases, including, for example, autoimmune diseases and peripheral neuropathies.

In this review, the structural properties of a number of myelin- specific proteins are described. In this paper we present a framework to analyze conflicts of contracts written in structured English.

A contract that has manually been rewritten in a structured English is automatically translated into a formal language using the Grammatical Framework GF. In particular we use the contract language CL as a target formal language for this translation. In our framework CL specifications could then be input into the tool CLAN to detect the presence of conflicts whether there are contradictory obligations, permissions, and prohibitions.

We discuss the implementation of such a framework. Structure and function of the phosphothreonine- specific FHA domain. The forkhead-associated FHA domain is the only known phosphoprotein-binding domain that specifically recognizes phosphothreonine pThr residues, distinguishing them from phosphoserine pSer residues. In contrast to its very strict specificity toward pThr, the FHA domain recognizes very diverse patterns in the residues surrounding the pThr residue.

For example, the FHA domain of Ki67, a protein associated with cellular proliferation, binds to an extended target surface involving residues remote from the pThr, whereas the FHA domain of Dun1, a DNA damage-response kinase, specifically recognizes a doubly phosphorylated Thr-Gln TQ cluster by virtue of its possessing two pThr-binding sites.

The FHA domain exists in various proteins with diverse functions and is particularly prevalent among proteins involved in the DNA damage response. Despite a very short history, a number of unique structural and functional properties of the FHA domain have been uncovered. This review highlights the diversity of biological functions of the FHA domain-containing proteins and the structural bases for the novel binding specificities and multiple binding modes of FHA domains.

Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes.

Gray; Hoyt, David W. Human high-density lipoprotein HDL plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway that delivers excess cholesterol back to the liver for clearance. In vivo, HDL particles vary in size, shape and biological function.

One of the major problems for high-resolution structural studies of discoidal HDL is the difficulty in obtaining pure and, foremost, homogenous sample.

Aspects of Applied Biology The effect of Alectoria sarmentosa, Bryoria fuscescens, and Bryoria fremontii extracts and usnic acid on the growth of Gremmeniella abietina in vitro. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 3: The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis EB , Piromyces communis DC and Orpinomyces ssp.

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 45 6: The effect of Azotoryza's double function on banana Musa spp. The effect of B chromosomes on mating success of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Genetica Dordrecht 97 2: Immunology and Cell Biology 74 4: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 68 1: The effect of Basudin 20 EM on the mitotic chromosomes of barley. Turkish Journal of Biology 20 1: The effect of Bayleton and copper oxychloride on in vitro growth of Verticillium lecanii. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 10 1: The effect of Benlate T on control of occurrence of diseases on faba bean and on yield of seeds.

Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 35 2: The effect of Brefeldin A on the Golgi apparatus in Norway spruce cells. The effect of Bt transgenic cotton on the feeding function of major predators. China Cottons 24 2: Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi 32 1: The effect of CO2 enrichment and irradiance on the growth, morphology and gas exchange of a C3 Panicum laxum and a C4 Panicum antidotale grass.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24 2: The effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution and elongation rate in roots of sunflower Helianthus annuus seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 98 4: The effect of CaCO3 on zinc availability in old field soils of the Szczecin province. The effect of Carbendazol on the growth of Pyricularia oryzae. The effect of Cronartium quercuum on cell chromosome of Xingkai Lake pine. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 24 2: The effect of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant on the hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green , on hibiscus plants in Trinidad.

Tropical Fruits Newsletter The effect of Cu on gill and esophagus lipid metabolism in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The effect of Cuni-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 6: The effect of Cuni-stibolReg. The effect of DDAC on the penetration of borates into western hemlock. Forest products journal 47 4: The effect of DPC N,N-dimethyl piperidinium chloride on the 14CO2-assimilation and partitioning of 14C assimilates within the cotton plants interplanted in a wheat stand.

The effect of Drechmeria coniospora conidia on faecal cultures containing eggs of Haemonchus contortus. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 47 2: The effect of Dutch elm disease on stand structure and accumulation of dead wood in the natural forest reserve Gimpelrhein.

The effect of European legislation on the evaluation of efficacy of plant protection products. The effect of GA3 applications on pistachio nut seed germination and seedling growth. The effect of GIP and glucagon-like peptides on intestinal basolateral membrane hexose transport.

American Journal of Physiology 3 Pt 1: The effect of Galli-StibolReg. Allattenyesztes es Takarmanyozas 44 1: The effect of GnRH analogue buserelin treatment on day 12 post mating on ovarian structure and plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentration in ewes. Animal Science 63 3: The effect of HIV diagnosis on reproductive experience. AIDS London 10 The effect of Hampshire boars on meatiness when mated to Belarus Black Pied sows.

The effect of IvomecReg. The effect of keishi-bushi-to on collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology 31 3: The effect of L-carnitine on technical results of weaning pig. Archivos de Zootecnia 43 The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine levels and various performance parameters of male marathon athletes. Nutrition Research 17 3: The effect of L-lysine intake on egg component yield and composition in laying hens.

Poultry Science 75 The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the production and chemical composition of hen's eggs. Poultry Science 75 4: The effect of Large White boars on the fertility of purebred and F1 daughters. Veterinarski Glasnik 49 The effect of Liriomyza trifolii Burgess Dipt. Journal of Applied Entomology 4: The effect of MA conditions and packaging materials on the shelf-life of sweet cherries.

COST 94 The post harvest treatment of fruit and vegetables: The effect of Matongo rock phosphate and urea as compared to di-ammonium phosphate in the composting process and the yield of potatoes in the Mugamba region in Burundi. Fertilizer Research 45 1: The effect of Megachile rotundata on the yield and qualitative characters of alfalfa seed. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of Catalpa bignonioides.

Nematologia Mediterranea 24 2: The effect of Metarhizium anisopliae Dat F concentration and exposure time on the survival of the subterranean pasture pest, Adoryphorus couloni Col.: The effect of N, P and K treatments on non-structural carbohydrates in two differentiated aubergine Solanum melongena cv.

The effect of N,N-dimethylglycine on athletic performance at altitude in horses and mules. The effect of N-fertilizer and amended Sesbania spp. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University 19 2: The effect of NPK fertilization on chlorophyll, sugars, ascorbic acid content and activity of catalase and peroxidase in leaf parsley.

Folia Horticulturae 8 1: Fiziologiya i Biokhimiya Kul' turnykh Rastenii 26 4: The effect of NaCl salinity and sodium pyruvat on growth of cucumber plants. The effect of Nitrozyme on emergence, growth and yielding of spring barley. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 32 4: The effect of PMSG dose on embryo number and quality in sows and gilts. Zivocisna Vyroba 42 5: Swine Health and Production 5 5: The effect of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae on some biological parameters of four species of phytoseiid mites Parasitiformes: Israel Journal of Entomology The effect of Phoneutria nigriventer armed spider venom on arterial blood pressure of anaesthetised rats.

European Journal of Pharmacology 2: The effect of Phytophthora palmivora on Hedera helix L. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10 2: The effect of Piper aduncum oil on Crinipellis perniciosa and other fungal pathogens. Fitopatologia Brasileira 22 3: The effect of Polymyxa betae on sugar-beet seedling root growth.

The effect of Rbs2 on yield of soybean. Crop Science 37 4: The effect of Receptal busereline on some reproductory indices in female polar foxes.

The effect of Rhizobium, molybdenum and cobalt on Phaseolus vulgaris in Alto Paranaiba and north-western Minas Gerais. Revista Ceres 41 The effect of Ricinus communis L. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 42 3: Clinical Hemorheology 15 4: The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on fermentations in the rumen of faunated and defaunated sheep; protozoal and probiotic interactions. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36 3: The effect of Salmonella enteritidis infection on immune response against Newcastle disease ND in chickens.

Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 44 4: The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on testicular lipid in mice. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 27 2: The effect of Silwet L or fenoxaprop-P-ethyl on the efficacy of isoproturon applied to isoproturon resistant Phalaris minor. Weeds, Vols 3 The effect of Streptococcus faecium M based probiotic on the performance of laying hens. Zivocisna Vyroba 41 9: The effect of Swedish Landrace sires on reproductive traits of purebred and F1 daughters.

The effect of Symphytum officinale on oxygen free radical production activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology 53 4: The effect of Syzygium cumini L. Skeels on post-prandial blood glucose levels in non-diabetic rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56 3: The effect of Taigu dominant nuclear sterile gene on adverse resistance breeding. Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica 10 3: The effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the mechanical properties of the mammalian diaphragm.

The effect of Trichoderma harzianum siderophores on yeasts and wood-rotting fungi. Material und Organismen Berlin 30 4: The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on energy and nitrogen metabolism and serum metabolites and hormones in West African Dwarf goats on different food intake levels. Animal Science Pencaitland 63 1: The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on late pregnancy and postpartum return to cyclicity in Boran cattle.

The effect of Tween 80 on the fatty acid composition of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus brevis. The effect of unkei-to on pituitary gonadotropin secretion and ovulation in anovulatory cycles of young women. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 23 Journal of Sport Behavior 20 2: The effect of Zn, Mn and Fe by coating method on wheat yield grown in certain soils of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 71 1: The effect of a Medicago sativa stand on surface runoff and water erosion.

Rostlinna Vyroba 42 8: The effect of a chocolate bar supplementation on moderate exercise recovery of recreational runners. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 9 The effect of a combination of decapitation treatments, zeatin and benzyladenine on the initiation and emergence of lateral roots in Pisum sativum. South African Journal of Botany 62 1: The effect of a cover crop and crop rotation on cotton: The effect of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive on glucose tolerance and leptin concentrations in hyperandrogenic women.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82 9: The effect of a differentiation of agricultural landscape on Apoidea communities. The effect of a disease induced by Pyricularia grisea Cooke Sacc. The effect of a disturbance corridor on an ecological reserve. Restoration Ecology 3 4: The effect of a dose of lithium on the content of mineral components in plants. Polish Journal of Soil Science 27 2: The effect of a fixed or free toy on the growth rate and aggressive behaviour of weaned pigs and the influence of hierarchy on initial investigation of the toys.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 3: The effect of a foraging device a modified 'Edinburgh Foodball' on the behaviour of the stabled horse. The effect of a formula supplemented with n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma phospholipid, liver microsomal, retinal, and brain fatty acid composition in neonatal piglets.

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 8 4: The effect of a high dose of 3-hydroxymethylbutyrate on protein metabolism in growing lambs. British Journal of Nutrition 77 6: The effect of a high-magnesium perennial ryegrass variety on the magnesium status of sheep. The effect of a latent avian laryngotracheitis virus infection on the egg production in broiler breeders. Medicina Veterinaria 13 4: The effect of a milk diet on Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. The effect of a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor on survival from childhood cerebral malaria.

Journal of Infectious Diseases 5: The effect of a nitrification inhibitor on the mobilization of phosphorus in dernopodzolic soil. The effect of a non-absorbable fat substitute, sucrose polyester, on gastrointestinal function. The effect of a polydnavirus of Apanteles galleriae on the hemolymph proteins of host Galleria mellonella. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins 1 2: The effect of a polymeric adjuvant on the off-target movement of a pesticide spray. Pests and diseases, Vol 3 The effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant applied at ensiling on the aerobic stability of wheat and sorghum silages.

Journal of Industrial Microbiology 15 6: The effect of a reduced energy diet and meal patterns on smoking and coffee drinking in women. International Journal of Eating Disorders 21 2: The effect of a restricted region of chromosome 11 on body weight in mice under special consideration of the growth hormone gene locus.

Archiv fuer Tierzucht 39 2: The effect of a saline and non-saline water table on peach tree water use, growth, productivity and ion uptake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 47 1: The effect of a seaweed application on the rooting of pine cuttings. South African Journal of Botany 63 3: The effect of a subnormal dose of vitamin B6 on plasma lipids in the rat.

International journal for vitamin and nutrition research7 2: The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98 1: The effect of a superabsorbent on soil water retention of two soils and on the growth, development and yield of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research ; 31 1: The effect of a sustained-release injection of human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum formation and progesterone secretion in beef heifers. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 22 2: The effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixers on the growth and endogenous growth substances of wheat plants.

Annals of Agricultural Science Cairo 40 1: The effect of a synthetic sex pheromone on the reproductive ability of Black Pied heifers. Sel' skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: The effect of a variable environment on the genetic correlation structure in a field cricket. The effect of a varying rates of metham and application technique on nutsedge control and cotton vigor. The effect of a verbal interpretative message on day user impacts at Mount Rainier National Park. The effect of a water gradient on the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of Lythrum salicaria L.

The effect of a worksite cafeteria program on employees' dietary fat intakes. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 57 3: The effect of abnormal spermatozoa on pregnancy of sows. The effect of abomasal infusion of casein and recombinant somatotropin hormone injection on nitrogen balance and amino acid fluxes in portal-drained viscera and net hepatic and total splanchnic blood in Holstein steers.

Journal of Animal Science 75 4: The effect of abomasal infusion of glucose on lipid metabolism in sheep. The effect of abscisic acid on cold resistance at booting stage in rice. The effect of abscisic acid, benzyladenine and sucrose on growth of cotyledonary axillaries in flax seedlings Linum usitatissimum L. Rostlinna Vyroba 43 5: The effect of Acemannan Immunostimulant in combination with surgery and radiation therapy on spontaneous canine and feline fibrosarcomas.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31 5: The effect of acetylation and deacetylation on the disposition of dapsone and monoacetyl dapsone hydroxylamines in human erythrocytes in-vitro.

The effect of acetylation on the mechanical properties, hydrophobicity, and dimensional stability of Pinus sylvestris. Wood science and technology 31 2: The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and cold stress on the susceptibility of broilers to the ascites syndrome. Avian Pathology 25 3: The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.

The effect of acid rain treatments on the susceptibility of Pinus sylvestris to Gremmeniella abietina. European Journal of Forest Pathology 27 2: The effect of acidification on oogenesis of rainbow trout during sex differentiation. Journal of Fish Biology 50 1: The effect of acorn insects on the establishment and vigor of northern red oak seedlings in north-central West Virginia.

The effect of acriflavine and nalidixic acid on the growth of Listeria spp. Food Microbiology 13 2: The effect of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in growing sheep. The effect of activated oxygen during the production of endogenous ethylene induced by exogenous ethylene. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica 23 1: The effect of activation of granulocytes on enzyme release and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production in buffaloes.

Veterinary Research Communications 21 4: The effect of acute, unilateral transverse venous sinus occlusion on intracranial pressure in normal dogs. Veterinary Surgery 25 6: The effect of adaptive mutagenesis on genetic variation at a linked, neutral locus. The effect of adding further traits in index selection. Journal of Animal Science 75 8: The effect of addition of commercial yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae on some rumen metabolic and blood parameters in female buffalo calves.

The effect of additives on the ensilage of forage of differing perennial ryegrass and white clover content. The effect of adipokinetic hormones on the levels of inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in the fat body of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

The effect of adjuvants on the efficacy of pyrethroids in the control of the Colorado potato beetle. The effect of adrenaline administration on the blood and urine mineral concentration in ewes.

Veterinaria Mexico 26 3: The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: Preventive Medicine 25 4: The effect of aerial applications of urea fertiliser on stream water quality. The effect of aflatoxin B1 on cytokine mRNA and corresponding protein levels in peritoneal macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 18 The effect of age and rearing system on bone strength of broiler chicks.

The effect of age at harvest on bending and tensile properties of loblolly pine from the Coastal Plain. Forest products journal 47 5: The effect of age of the sward on the relationship between water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation and drought survival in two contrasted populations of cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata L. Grass and Forage Science 51 2: The effect of agonistic interactions on the heart rate of group-housed sows.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46 The effect of agricultural policies on land use and environmental quality. The effect of agricultural policy on the efficiency of milk production and processing. The effect of agrotechnical methods on the appearance of causal agents of rot from the genus Fusarium on the root and stem.

Kukuruza i Sorgo 5: The effect of air and soil pollution on the content of certain nutrients. The effect of air humidity on the development of epizootics caused by Entomophthorales in populations of Myzus persicae Homoptera, Aphididae.

The effect of air pollutants in forest ecosystems near Moldava in the Krusne Hory mountains on the chemistry of water running to the springs. Lesnictvi Forestry 42 The effect of air storage on fruit firmness and sensory quality of kiwifruit cultivars. The effect of air temperature in successive periods of the growing season on sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees. Plant growth regulation 19 2: The effect of air temperature on the growth of sesame.

The effect of air temperature on the yield of winter rape. The effect of air vent holes and stacking methods of fruit and vegetable boxes on static pressure drop in pressure cooling system. Journal of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery 20 4: The effect of albendazole controlled release capsules and moxidectin injection treatment on faecal egg count and body weight of 18 month old ewes in the autumn. The effect of aldicarb on the amount of chlorophyll and protein of Cladophora glomerata Chlorophyceae.

Turkish Journal of Botany 20 2: The effect of alien cytoplasm on the crossabilities of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring with maize or Tripsacum dactyloides. Hereditas Beijing 18 3: The effect of alimentary polyamine depletion on germ-free and conventional rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7 The effect of alleviating soil compaction on yield and fruit size in an established Navel orange orchard.

The effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation with guanfacin on thermogenesis in fasted and fed sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75 4: The effect of altering feed and water location and of activity on growth, performance, behavior, and walking ability of hens from two strains of commercial turkeys.

Poultry Science 75 7: The effect of altering nitrogen and sulfur supply on the growth of cut chrysanthemums. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 4: The effect of altering the dietary arginine to lysine ratio on the breast meat yield of broiler chickens at moderate and high temperatures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48 5: The effect of alternative economic and genetic covariation structures on the relative economic gain from selection using stayability traits.

Journal of Dairy Science 78 The effect of aluminium and media on the growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal highbush blueberry plantlets. The effect of aluminium concentration on root hairs in white clover Trifolium repens L. Plant and Soil 1: The effect of aluminium on adenylate levels in Scots pine roots.

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 17 3: The effect of aluminium on early development stages of Cucumis sativus L. The effect of aluminium on the growth of a range of temperate legume species and cultivars: Plant soil interactions at low pH: The effect of aluminum on cytokinins in the mycelia of Amanita muscaria. Journal of plant growth regulationer 14 3: The effect of amino acids on the metabolic fate of 15NH4Cl in isolated sheep hepatocytes.

European journal of biochemistry 3: The effect of amino nitrogen on the energetics of ruminal bacteria and its impact on energy spilling. Journal of Dairy Science 79 7: The effect of ammonia on atrazine sorption and transport. The effect of amount of body fat and loss of fat on breeding soundness classification of beef bulls. Canadian Veterinary Journal 36 The effect of an amine borate on growth of spoilage bacteria associated with water-based cutting fluids.

The effect of an elevated cytokinin level using the ipt gene and N6-benzyladenine on single node and intact potato plant tuberization in vitro. The effect of an impermeable pan on erosion by water of a sandy loam soil. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 65 2: The effect of an individual versus group program on weight loss. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 2: The effect of an integrated pest management program on the arthropod populations in a Hungarian apple orchard. The effect of an olive grove soil in an arid area on its hydraulic and agronomic properties.

The effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on sexual behaviour and reproductive tissues in male rats. Physiology and Behavior 62 1: The effect of anaerobic farmyard manure treatment on the survival of some pathogenic organisms. Rostlinna Vyroba 40 4: The effect of aneuploidy on karyotype abnormalities in wheat plants regenerated from short- and long-term somatic embryogenesis.

Plant Science Shannon 1: The effect of animal traction on labour productivity and food self-sufficiency: Agricultural Systems 51 4: The effect of antagonistic fungi Athelia bombacina on overwintering stage of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis.

The effect of anthelmintic treatment of ewes during pregnancy. The effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on the quality of frozen semen of fish. The effect of antimalarials on reticulocyte count of patients with falciparum malaria.

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal 8 2: The effect of antioxidant-containing fraction from fermented soybean food on atherosclerosis development in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The effect of application of potassium humate on the content of cadmium, zinc and arsenic in plants. Rostlinna Vyroba 43 The effect of application of the alga Chlorella vulgaris on the occurrence of the pork defects. Zivocisna Vyroba 40 The effect of application rate of P fertilizer on the oviposition of bollworms and its larvae.

China Cottons 23 The effect of application time on the effectiveness of glyphosate to control purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus L. Pelita Perkebunan 12 3: The effect of applied nitrogen and crop age on the distribution of sucrose along sugarcane stalks.

The effect of applied water on the water use of saltcedar in a desert riparian environment. Journal of Hydrology Amsterdam The effect of artificial inoculation with cattle manure in compost production 'biosoil'. Centro Agricola 22 1: The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight.

players

Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily exit rate , blood feeding inhibition and deterrence entry rate. Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences. A total of mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts , while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types.

Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types.

In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types.

Net release or uptake of histidine and carnosine in kidney of dogs. Previous studies are equivocal as to whether the dog kidney produces histidine. Because one possible source of renal histidine is carnosine beta-alanyl-L- histidine , we investigated net renal production release or utilization uptake Qmet of histidine and carnosine in 19 female dogs after they were fed histidine -free 9 dogs or histidine -containing diets 10 dogs.

Diets were fed in short- days or long-term days studies. Renal Qmet histidine , calculated from either plasma or whole blood values, was positive during infusion of half-normal saline.

During carnosine infusion, Qmet histidine increased markedly, and there was net renal uptake of carnosine. The Qmet histidine and carnosine were not different in the dogs fed histidine -free vs. Thus there is net renal release of histidine in female dogs that increases when carnosine is administered. Qmet histidine or carnosine do not change adaptively when dogs are fed histidine -free diets. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three 14 N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid. For the first time, we experimentally investigate the use of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers VCSELs in the fibre-to-the-home FTTH flavour for Africa, known as fibre-to-the- hut.

VCSELs have attracted attention in optical communication due to its vast advantages; low power consumption, relatively cheap costs among others. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases. Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria.

Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis intrasubunit or trans intersubunit within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase.

The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality. In experiments conducted at Savannah, Ga.

The doors, windows, and eaves of the huts were open for maximum ventilation. In a non-ventilated plywood hut , a single dispenser gave effective kills for 7 months but in a non-ventilated mud hut the period was 5 months. Air concentrations of dichlorvos in the mud hut were shown to be definitely lower than those in a plywood hut at the same dosage level.

Prebiotic synthesis of histidine. The prebiotic formation of histidine His has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazoleacetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions.

In a second step, the imidazoleacetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now. Hole spins have gained considerable interest in the past few years due to their potential for fast electrically controlled qubits.

Here, we study holes confined in Ge hut wires, a so-far unexplored type of nanostructure. Low-temperature magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane g-factors of up to Numerical simulations verify that this large anisotropy originates from a confined wave function of heavy-hole character.

Given this tiny light-hole contribution, the spin lifetimes are expected to be very long, even in isotopically nonpurified samples. An initial phase of Ge hut array formation at low temperature on Si We report a direct STM observation of Ge hut array nucleation on the Si surface during ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy at deg.

Nuclei of pyramids and wedges have been observed on the wetting layer MxN patches starting from the coverage of about 5. Further development of hut arrays consists of simultaneous growth of the formerly appeared clusters and nucleation of new ones resulting in gradual rise of hut number density with increasing surface coverage. Huts nucleate reconstructing the patch surface from the usual c 4x2 or p 2x2 structure to one of two recently described formations composed by epitaxially oriented Ge dimer pairs and chains of four dimers.

Substitution of a highly conserved histidine in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor, sigma32, affects promoter utilization in vitro and leads to overexpression of the biofilm-associated flu protein in vivo. The heat shock sigma factor sigma 32 in Escherichia coli directs the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoters of a specific sequence to form a stable complex, competent to initiate transcription of genes whose products mitigate the effects of exposure of the cell to high temperatures.

The histidine at position of sigma 32 is at the homologous position of a tryptophan residue at position of the main sigma factor of E. This tryptophan is essential for the strand separation step leading to the formation of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase-promoter complex.

The heat shock sigma factors of all gammaproteobacteria sequenced have a histidine at this position, while in the alpha- and deltaproteobacteria, it is a tryptophan. In vitro the alanine-for- histidine substitution at position HA destabilizes complexes between the GroE promoter and RNA polymerase containing sigma 32 , implying that H plays a role in formation or maintenance of the strand-separated complex.

In vivo, the HA substitution in sigma 32 impedes recovery from heat shock exposure to 42 degrees C , and it also leads to overexpression at lower temperatures 30 degrees C of the Flu protein, which is associated with biofilm formation. Microwave emission models are a critical component of snow water equivalent retrieval algorithms applied to passive microwave measurements. Several such emission models exist, but their differences need to be systematically compared.

This paper compares the basic theories of two models: By comparing the mathematical formulation side-by-side, three major differences were identified: Simulation experiments indicate that, the large scattering coefficient of the HUT model compensates for its large forward scattering ratio to some extent, but the effects of 1-flux simplification and the trapped radiation still result in different T sub B simulations between the HUT model and MEMLS.

No optimization of the snow grain size was performed. MEMLS with the physically-based improved Born approximation performed best among the models, with a bias of Probing the Tautomerism of Histidine. Wood-destroying soft rot fungi in the historic expedition huts of Antarctica.

Scott and Ernest Shackleton, sheltered and stored the supplies for up to 48 men for 3 years during their explorations and scientific investigation in the South Pole region. The huts , built with wood taken to Antarctica by the early explorers, have deteriorated over the past decades.

Although Antarctica has one of the coldest and driest environments on earth, microbes have colonized the wood and limited decay has occurred. Some wood in contact with the ground contained distinct microscopic cavities within secondary cell walls caused by soft rot fungi. By using internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA and morphological characteristics, several species of Cadophora were identified, including C.

Several previously undescribed Cadophora spp. Pure cultures of Cadophora used in laboratory decay studies caused dark staining of all woods tested and extensive soft rot in Betula and Populus wood. The presence of Cadophora species, but only limited decay, suggests there is no immediate threat to the structural integrity of the huts. These fungi, however, are widely found in wood from the historic huts and have the capacity to cause extensive soft rot if conditions that are more conducive to decay become common.

Indications and outcomes of helicopter rescue missions in alpine mountain huts: High Alt Med Biol This retrospective study describes the rescue indications and outcome of patients rescued by helicopter from mountain huts in the Swiss Alps.

The hospital course and operational data were also studied. Among 14, helicopter rescue missions undertaken during the year study period, 2. Hospital diagnoses were extremely varied. A winching procedure was performed 18 times and 19 missions included a night flight.

Helicopter rescue missions in mountain huts are a small part of all rescue missions. Our study provides a better understanding of medical emergencies arising in mountain huts. The diagnoses encountered are extremely varied in their type and severity. Hut keepers should be prepared for these situations as they will often have to act as first responders in the case of medical problems.

Ordered growth of germanium hut islands on Si molecular bonded substrates. We show that the growth organization is induced by an array of interfacial tilt dislocations. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations show that the orientation and period of the tilt dislocation array determine the orientation, period, and length of elongated germanium hut islands.

The strain field generated by an array of tilt dislocations is proposed as the driving force of the reported organization. Measuring hole spin states of single quantum dot in germanium hut wire. As a group IV material with confined holes, the germanium hut wire is considered a promising candidate for achieving fast electrically controlled spin qubits. Here we fabricated a single quantum dot device on a germanium hut wire and a standard charge stability diagram with excited states was observed by DC transport measurements.

By analyzing the Zeeman splitting behaviors of each state, we chose a window for distinguishing different hole parities and spin states, launching the first step towards a useful spin qubit. Effective g-factors around 4. Field experiments on the behaviour of malaria vectors in an unsprayed hut and in a hut sprayed with DDT in Northern Nigeria.

Investigations on the behaviour of malaria vectors in DDT-sprayed houses are of special interest in malaria control campaigns. In the Northern Region of Nigeria the behaviour of the local vectors was studied by means of experimental huts fitted with exit window-traps. The results obtained show a marked reduction in the number of mosquitos entering the sprayed hut and a depression of the biting rate.

The most striking observation is the large number of A. Both figures show a very marked increase in subsequent months after spraying, indicating a rapid loss of the lethal action of the DDT residue along with a long-lasting irritant effect.

It is concluded that under the particular local conditions the application of 1. Gene inactivation in Lactococcus lactis: Lactococcus lactis strains from dairy and nondairy sources were tested for the ability to grow in the absence of histidine. Among 60 dairy strains tested, 56 required histidine , whereas only 1 of 11 nondairy strains had this requirement. This indicates that adaptation to milk often results in histidine auxotrophy. The histidine operon was detected by Southern hybridization in eight dairy auxotrophic strains tested.

A large part of the histidine operon 8 kb, containing seven histidine biosynthetic genes and three unrelated open reading frames [ORFs] was cloned from an auxotroph, which had an inactive hisD gene, as judged by its inability to grow on histidinol. Complementation analysis of three genes, hisA, hisB, and hisG, in Escherichia coli showed that they also were inactive.

Sequence analysis of the cloned histidine region, which revealed In addition, several mutations were detected in the promoter region of the operon. Northern RNA hybridization analysis showed a much lower amount of the his transcript in the auxotrophic strain than in the prototrophic strain.

The mutations detected account for the histidine auxotrophy of the analyzed strain. Cellular transport of L- histidine in Hartnup disease. The urinary excretion, the intestinal absorption, and the elimination of histidine from blood were studied in two patients with Hartnup disease. On standard diet the patients lost a great proportion of the dietary histidine in the urine, whereas the fecal loss was negligible.

A high oral dose of L- histidine gave only a slight increase in plasma histidine and no increase in fecal histidine , but a considerable increase in the urinary histidine output.

Intravenously administered L- histidine was eliminated more rapidly than in controls. The lack of increase in plasma histidine after the oral loading may be explained by the rapid elimination from the blood.

This was mainly due to a rapid cellular uptake of histidine which is supposed to be a normal reaction of histidine -deprived cells. Thus the only obvious defect in the histidine transport in Hartnup disease is the reabsorption defect in the renal tubules. A generally impaired cellular transport of L- histidine is improbable.

Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that extension of a hut base along directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer.

We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed.

Schematics of these processes are presented. It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them. Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding. The earliest archaeological remains of dwelling huts built by Homo sapiens were found in various European Upper Paleolithic open-air camps. Although floors of huts were found in a small number of cases, modern organization of the home space that includes defined resting areas and bedding remains was not discovered.

We report here the earliest in situ bedding exposed on a brush hut floor. It has recently been found at the previously submerged, excellently preserved 23,year-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp of Ohalo II, situated in Israel on the shore of the Sea of Galilee.

The grass bedding consists of bunches of partially charred Puccinellia confer convoluta stems and leaves, covered by a thin compact layer of clay. It is arranged in a repeated pattern, on the floor, around a central hearth. This study describes the bedding in its original context on a well preserved intentionally constructed floor.

It also reconstructs on the basis of direct evidence combined with ethnographic analogies the Upper Paleolithic hut as a house with three major components: Pizza Hut , Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut 's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth.

From each acquisition, i. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass.

To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology TKK has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT -2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft.

It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT -2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community.

Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. Uma Lulik holy house , accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor house for sleep , containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan.

Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut ".

People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow.

Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut ", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts " contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has.

Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India. To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January to June During the study period, deliveries occurred at the delivery huts.

The mean age of the mothers was Of mothers for whom data were available, The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8.

Belonging to a disadvantaged social group in terms of caste or education was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. L- histidine but not D- histidine attenuates brain edema following cryogenic injury in rats.

Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the genesis of traumatic brain injury and brain edema BE. Recent studies have suggested that hydroxyl radical can initiate lipid peroxidation, thus producing lipid-free radicals that may become important sources of singlet oxygen.

L- histidine , a singlet oxygen scavenger, potentially can be used to treat BE. In this study we investigated the effects of L- histidine and D- histidine on BE following cryogenic injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Vasogenic BE was produced by a cortical freezing lesion. Generation of singlet oxygen from photoactivation of rose bengal was studied by electron spin resonance ESR.

Animals were separated into four groups: Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after lesion production and the brain water content was determined by the dry-wet weight method.

L- histidine had no effect on rectal and brain temperature. Election Spin Resonance studies demonstrated that L- histidine is a singlet oxygen scavenger. L- histidine but not D- histidine significantly attenuated BE following cryogenic injury p histidine is useful in the treatment of traumatic BE.

Ivory Tower and Mud Hut: Causes of the increasing gap between the educational researcher and the classroom teacher are investigated. As a possible solution, the author suggests involving the teacher in the research process as a teacher-researcher.

Research designs that could be utilized are detailed. Engineered scaffold proteins ESP are high-affinity binders that can be used as probes for radionuclide imaging.

Earlier studies demonstrated that the use of a histidine-glutamate-histidine-glutamate-histidine -glutamate HE 3-tag instead of the commonly used hexahistidine H6 -tag reduces hepatic uptake of radiolabeled ESP and short peptides. Apparently, the effect of a histidine -containing tag on the biodistribution is highly dependent on the scaffold composition of the ESP. Environmental decision support for the construction of a "green" mountain hut.

The construction of a modern mountain hut nearthe mountains Matterhorn and Dufourspitze in the Swiss Alps is investigated from an environmental point of view. A prospective environmental assessment was performed to minimize the environmental impact already in the planning phase of the new building; construction will start in autumn An energy balance of the existing hut was made to detect optimization potentials and to predict the necessary energy generating systems of the new building.

In addition to energy supply, the environmental impacts of materials and processes were compared and evaluated with the help of Life Cycle Assessment Although energy use will increase in the new building, mainly due to the installation of a wastewater purification system, total greenhouse gas emissions will decrease. Histidine degradation via an aminotransferase increases the nutritional flexibility of Candida glabrata.

The ability to acquire nutrients during infections is an important attribute in microbial pathogenesis. Amino acids are a valuable source of nitrogen if they can be degraded by the infecting organism. In this work, we analyzed histidine utilization in the fungal pathogen of humans Candida glabrata. Hemiascomycete fungi, like C. We show that C. Although ARO8 is also present in S. Accordingly, an ARO9 deletion had no effect on growth with aromatic amino acids. In contrast, in S. Differences in the genomic structure of the ARO9 gene between C.

Thus, we show that, in contrast to S. Ascertaining free histidine from mixtures with histidine -containing proteins using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The use of photoluminescent probes for differentiating free amino acids from biomolecules containing the same amino acids is challenging. Photoluminescent probes generally present similar emission spectra when in the presence of either free-amino acids or protein containing those same amino acids. Probes based on cyclometalated iridium III complexes Ir L 2 sol 2 where L is 2-phenylpyridine, 2- 2,4-difluorophenyl pyridine, or benzo[h]quinolone, and sol is a solvent molecule present long-lived emission when bound to histidine.

As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that free histidine can be discerned from a mixture with histidine -containing proteins by using time-resolved photoluminescence decays. In the presence of multiple sources of histidine , iridium III probes display a multiexponential decay, which can be fitted by nonlinear least-squares methods to separate the different components.

Because the pre-exponential factor of the ns lifetime is proportional to the concentration of free histidine , we can use it to assess the amount of free histidine in solution even in the presence of proteins such as bovine serum albumin. We also show that iridium III probes displaying different photoluminescence maxima can be produced by modifying the ancillary ligands of the metal complex. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence OSL.

We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between and A.

Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between and A. Analysis of the equivalent dose DE dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments.

In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use.

The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone. This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region.

To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts ' surroundings.

The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism. The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future.

The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

Particle-based simulations running on large high-performance computing systems over many time steps can generate an enormous amount of particle- and field-based data for post-processing and analysis. We present the H5 hut library, an implementation of several data models for particle-based simulations that encapsulates the complexity of HDF5 and is simple to use, yet does not compromise performance. Six foundation beams were then placed on the blocks These compari- sons are needed to ensure that the The exact location of each HFT and wall.

An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds. The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration.

The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations.

In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA.

Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others.

No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp. Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively.

The effect of Ricinus communis L. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 42 3: Clinical Hemorheology 15 4: The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on fermentations in the rumen of faunated and defaunated sheep; protozoal and probiotic interactions. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36 3: The effect of Salmonella enteritidis infection on immune response against Newcastle disease ND in chickens. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 44 4: The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on testicular lipid in mice.

Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 27 2: The effect of Silwet L or fenoxaprop-P-ethyl on the efficacy of isoproturon applied to isoproturon resistant Phalaris minor. Weeds, Vols 3 The effect of Streptococcus faecium M based probiotic on the performance of laying hens. Zivocisna Vyroba 41 9: The effect of Swedish Landrace sires on reproductive traits of purebred and F1 daughters. The effect of Symphytum officinale on oxygen free radical production activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology 53 4: The effect of Syzygium cumini L. Skeels on post-prandial blood glucose levels in non-diabetic rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56 3: The effect of Taigu dominant nuclear sterile gene on adverse resistance breeding. Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica 10 3: The effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the mechanical properties of the mammalian diaphragm.

The effect of Trichoderma harzianum siderophores on yeasts and wood-rotting fungi. Material und Organismen Berlin 30 4: The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on energy and nitrogen metabolism and serum metabolites and hormones in West African Dwarf goats on different food intake levels.

Animal Science Pencaitland 63 1: The effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on late pregnancy and postpartum return to cyclicity in Boran cattle. The effect of Tween 80 on the fatty acid composition of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus brevis. The effect of unkei-to on pituitary gonadotropin secretion and ovulation in anovulatory cycles of young women.

American Journal of Chinese Medicine 23 Journal of Sport Behavior 20 2: The effect of Zn, Mn and Fe by coating method on wheat yield grown in certain soils of Egypt.

Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 71 1: The effect of a Medicago sativa stand on surface runoff and water erosion. Rostlinna Vyroba 42 8: The effect of a chocolate bar supplementation on moderate exercise recovery of recreational runners. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 9 The effect of a combination of decapitation treatments, zeatin and benzyladenine on the initiation and emergence of lateral roots in Pisum sativum.

South African Journal of Botany 62 1: The effect of a cover crop and crop rotation on cotton: The effect of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive on glucose tolerance and leptin concentrations in hyperandrogenic women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82 9: The effect of a differentiation of agricultural landscape on Apoidea communities. The effect of a disease induced by Pyricularia grisea Cooke Sacc. The effect of a disturbance corridor on an ecological reserve.

Restoration Ecology 3 4: The effect of a dose of lithium on the content of mineral components in plants. Polish Journal of Soil Science 27 2: The effect of a fixed or free toy on the growth rate and aggressive behaviour of weaned pigs and the influence of hierarchy on initial investigation of the toys.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 3: The effect of a foraging device a modified 'Edinburgh Foodball' on the behaviour of the stabled horse. The effect of a formula supplemented with n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma phospholipid, liver microsomal, retinal, and brain fatty acid composition in neonatal piglets.

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 8 4: The effect of a high dose of 3-hydroxymethylbutyrate on protein metabolism in growing lambs.

British Journal of Nutrition 77 6: The effect of a high-magnesium perennial ryegrass variety on the magnesium status of sheep. The effect of a latent avian laryngotracheitis virus infection on the egg production in broiler breeders. Medicina Veterinaria 13 4: The effect of a milk diet on Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. The effect of a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor on survival from childhood cerebral malaria. Journal of Infectious Diseases 5: The effect of a nitrification inhibitor on the mobilization of phosphorus in dernopodzolic soil.

The effect of a non-absorbable fat substitute, sucrose polyester, on gastrointestinal function. The effect of a polydnavirus of Apanteles galleriae on the hemolymph proteins of host Galleria mellonella. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins 1 2: The effect of a polymeric adjuvant on the off-target movement of a pesticide spray.

Pests and diseases, Vol 3 The effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant applied at ensiling on the aerobic stability of wheat and sorghum silages. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 15 6: The effect of a reduced energy diet and meal patterns on smoking and coffee drinking in women.

International Journal of Eating Disorders 21 2: The effect of a restricted region of chromosome 11 on body weight in mice under special consideration of the growth hormone gene locus.

Archiv fuer Tierzucht 39 2: The effect of a saline and non-saline water table on peach tree water use, growth, productivity and ion uptake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 47 1: The effect of a seaweed application on the rooting of pine cuttings. South African Journal of Botany 63 3: The effect of a subnormal dose of vitamin B6 on plasma lipids in the rat. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research7 2: The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism.

Journal of Clinical Investigation 98 1: The effect of a superabsorbent on soil water retention of two soils and on the growth, development and yield of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research ; 31 1: The effect of a sustained-release injection of human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum formation and progesterone secretion in beef heifers.

Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 22 2: The effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixers on the growth and endogenous growth substances of wheat plants.

Annals of Agricultural Science Cairo 40 1: The effect of a synthetic sex pheromone on the reproductive ability of Black Pied heifers. Sel' skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya 2: The effect of a variable environment on the genetic correlation structure in a field cricket. The effect of a varying rates of metham and application technique on nutsedge control and cotton vigor. The effect of a verbal interpretative message on day user impacts at Mount Rainier National Park.

The effect of a water gradient on the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of Lythrum salicaria L. The effect of a worksite cafeteria program on employees' dietary fat intakes. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 57 3: The effect of abnormal spermatozoa on pregnancy of sows. The effect of abomasal infusion of casein and recombinant somatotropin hormone injection on nitrogen balance and amino acid fluxes in portal-drained viscera and net hepatic and total splanchnic blood in Holstein steers.

Journal of Animal Science 75 4: The effect of abomasal infusion of glucose on lipid metabolism in sheep. The effect of abscisic acid on cold resistance at booting stage in rice. The effect of abscisic acid, benzyladenine and sucrose on growth of cotyledonary axillaries in flax seedlings Linum usitatissimum L. Rostlinna Vyroba 43 5: The effect of Acemannan Immunostimulant in combination with surgery and radiation therapy on spontaneous canine and feline fibrosarcomas. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31 5: The effect of acetylation and deacetylation on the disposition of dapsone and monoacetyl dapsone hydroxylamines in human erythrocytes in-vitro.

The effect of acetylation on the mechanical properties, hydrophobicity, and dimensional stability of Pinus sylvestris. Wood science and technology 31 2: The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and cold stress on the susceptibility of broilers to the ascites syndrome.

Avian Pathology 25 3: The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. The effect of acid rain treatments on the susceptibility of Pinus sylvestris to Gremmeniella abietina. European Journal of Forest Pathology 27 2: The effect of acidification on oogenesis of rainbow trout during sex differentiation.

Journal of Fish Biology 50 1: The effect of acorn insects on the establishment and vigor of northern red oak seedlings in north-central West Virginia. The effect of acriflavine and nalidixic acid on the growth of Listeria spp. Food Microbiology 13 2: The effect of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in growing sheep.

The effect of activated oxygen during the production of endogenous ethylene induced by exogenous ethylene. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica 23 1: The effect of activation of granulocytes on enzyme release and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production in buffaloes.

Veterinary Research Communications 21 4: The effect of acute, unilateral transverse venous sinus occlusion on intracranial pressure in normal dogs. Veterinary Surgery 25 6: The effect of adaptive mutagenesis on genetic variation at a linked, neutral locus. The effect of adding further traits in index selection. Journal of Animal Science 75 8: The effect of addition of commercial yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae on some rumen metabolic and blood parameters in female buffalo calves.

The effect of additives on the ensilage of forage of differing perennial ryegrass and white clover content. The effect of adipokinetic hormones on the levels of inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in the fat body of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

The effect of adjuvants on the efficacy of pyrethroids in the control of the Colorado potato beetle. The effect of adrenaline administration on the blood and urine mineral concentration in ewes. Veterinaria Mexico 26 3: The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: Preventive Medicine 25 4: The effect of aerial applications of urea fertiliser on stream water quality.

The effect of aflatoxin B1 on cytokine mRNA and corresponding protein levels in peritoneal macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 18 The effect of age and rearing system on bone strength of broiler chicks. The effect of age at harvest on bending and tensile properties of loblolly pine from the Coastal Plain.

Forest products journal 47 5: The effect of age of the sward on the relationship between water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation and drought survival in two contrasted populations of cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata L. Grass and Forage Science 51 2: The effect of agonistic interactions on the heart rate of group-housed sows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46 The effect of agricultural policies on land use and environmental quality. The effect of agricultural policy on the efficiency of milk production and processing.

The effect of agrotechnical methods on the appearance of causal agents of rot from the genus Fusarium on the root and stem. Kukuruza i Sorgo 5: The effect of air and soil pollution on the content of certain nutrients. The effect of air humidity on the development of epizootics caused by Entomophthorales in populations of Myzus persicae Homoptera, Aphididae. The effect of air pollutants in forest ecosystems near Moldava in the Krusne Hory mountains on the chemistry of water running to the springs.

Lesnictvi Forestry 42 The effect of air storage on fruit firmness and sensory quality of kiwifruit cultivars. The effect of air temperature in successive periods of the growing season on sylleptic shoot formation in young apple trees. Plant growth regulation 19 2: The effect of air temperature on the growth of sesame. The effect of air temperature on the yield of winter rape. The effect of air vent holes and stacking methods of fruit and vegetable boxes on static pressure drop in pressure cooling system.

Journal of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery 20 4: The effect of albendazole controlled release capsules and moxidectin injection treatment on faecal egg count and body weight of 18 month old ewes in the autumn. The effect of aldicarb on the amount of chlorophyll and protein of Cladophora glomerata Chlorophyceae.

Turkish Journal of Botany 20 2: The effect of alien cytoplasm on the crossabilities of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring with maize or Tripsacum dactyloides. Hereditas Beijing 18 3: The effect of alimentary polyamine depletion on germ-free and conventional rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7 The effect of alleviating soil compaction on yield and fruit size in an established Navel orange orchard.

The effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation with guanfacin on thermogenesis in fasted and fed sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75 4: The effect of altering feed and water location and of activity on growth, performance, behavior, and walking ability of hens from two strains of commercial turkeys.

Poultry Science 75 7: The effect of altering nitrogen and sulfur supply on the growth of cut chrysanthemums. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 4: The effect of altering the dietary arginine to lysine ratio on the breast meat yield of broiler chickens at moderate and high temperatures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48 5: The effect of alternative economic and genetic covariation structures on the relative economic gain from selection using stayability traits.

Journal of Dairy Science 78 The effect of aluminium and media on the growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal highbush blueberry plantlets. The effect of aluminium concentration on root hairs in white clover Trifolium repens L. Plant and Soil 1: The effect of aluminium on adenylate levels in Scots pine roots. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 17 3: The effect of aluminium on early development stages of Cucumis sativus L.

The effect of aluminium on the growth of a range of temperate legume species and cultivars: Plant soil interactions at low pH: The effect of aluminum on cytokinins in the mycelia of Amanita muscaria. Journal of plant growth regulationer 14 3: The effect of amino acids on the metabolic fate of 15NH4Cl in isolated sheep hepatocytes.

European journal of biochemistry 3: The effect of amino nitrogen on the energetics of ruminal bacteria and its impact on energy spilling. Journal of Dairy Science 79 7: The effect of ammonia on atrazine sorption and transport. The effect of amount of body fat and loss of fat on breeding soundness classification of beef bulls.

Canadian Veterinary Journal 36 The effect of an amine borate on growth of spoilage bacteria associated with water-based cutting fluids. The effect of an elevated cytokinin level using the ipt gene and N6-benzyladenine on single node and intact potato plant tuberization in vitro. The effect of an impermeable pan on erosion by water of a sandy loam soil. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 65 2: The effect of an individual versus group program on weight loss.

Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 2: The effect of an integrated pest management program on the arthropod populations in a Hungarian apple orchard.

The effect of an olive grove soil in an arid area on its hydraulic and agronomic properties. The effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on sexual behaviour and reproductive tissues in male rats. Physiology and Behavior 62 1: The effect of anaerobic farmyard manure treatment on the survival of some pathogenic organisms. Rostlinna Vyroba 40 4: The effect of aneuploidy on karyotype abnormalities in wheat plants regenerated from short- and long-term somatic embryogenesis. Plant Science Shannon 1: The effect of animal traction on labour productivity and food self-sufficiency: Agricultural Systems 51 4: The effect of antagonistic fungi Athelia bombacina on overwintering stage of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis.

The effect of anthelmintic treatment of ewes during pregnancy. The effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on the quality of frozen semen of fish. The effect of antimalarials on reticulocyte count of patients with falciparum malaria. Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal 8 2: The effect of antioxidant-containing fraction from fermented soybean food on atherosclerosis development in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The effect of application of potassium humate on the content of cadmium, zinc and arsenic in plants.

Rostlinna Vyroba 43 The effect of application of the alga Chlorella vulgaris on the occurrence of the pork defects. Zivocisna Vyroba 40 The effect of application rate of P fertilizer on the oviposition of bollworms and its larvae. China Cottons 23 The effect of application time on the effectiveness of glyphosate to control purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus L.

Pelita Perkebunan 12 3: The effect of applied nitrogen and crop age on the distribution of sucrose along sugarcane stalks. The effect of applied water on the water use of saltcedar in a desert riparian environment.

Journal of Hydrology Amsterdam The effect of artificial inoculation with cattle manure in compost production 'biosoil'. Centro Agricola 22 1: The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 2: The effect of atovaquone C80 on the maturation and viability of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro. The effect of attentional cueing scripts on competitive bowling performance.

International Journal of Sport Psychology 26 4: The effect of auxin analogues on the rooting of green cherry cuttings. The effect of avilamycin on in vitro ruminal fermentation of carbohydrates. The effect of avoparcin on in vitro ruminal fermentation. Zivocisna Vyroba 40 4: The effect of avoparcin, zinc bacitracin or spiramycin, added to the diets, on growth performance and tissue residues in mule ducks.

Journal of Taiwan Livestock Research 27 4: The effect of bacterial surface structures on the pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium infection in chickens. Avian Diseases 40 1: The effect of bakers' yeast added to the rations of laying hens on some blood parameters. The effect of band application of potassium fertilizer on yield and flue quality of cured tobacco.

The effect of barley-oat mixed sowings on disease development. The effect of beak trimming on two strains of commercial tom turkeys.

The effect of bednets on unprotected people: Bulletin of Entomological Research 87 5: The effect of bee population, air temperature and fullness of honey supers on clearerboard efficiency. Australasian Beekeeper 97 9: The effect of bee type and bee visit number in the pollination of cucumber and watermelon. The effect of bee type and bee visit number in the pollination of cucumber and watermelon: The effect of behaviour on the survival of Cryptolestes ferrugineus in an insecticide-treated laboratory environment.

Journal of Stored Products Research 33 3: The effect of benzene and its Chlorella vulgaris metabolites on the growth of tobacco tissue. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 64 4: The effect of beta agonist on egg cholesterol content. The effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on non-esterified fatty acid uptake of exercising skeletal muscle during arm cranking. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16 7: The effect of bioactive P and K fertilizers on control of Verticillium or Fusarium wilts of cotton.

China Cottons 23 8: Journal of Applied Bacteriology 80 3: The effect of biological feed additives on growth and feed conversion efficiency in post-weaned buffalo calves. The effect of biomass harvesting in precommercial thinnings in pine stands on the loss of nutrients in the forest site. Prace z Zakresu Nauk Lesnych The effect of biotic and abiotic factors on some properties of natural grasslands.

Rostlinna Vyroba 41 The effect of birch proportion on the growth of spruce and birch in a mixed stand. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences Ecology 6 The effect of birth month of Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc gilts on mating percentage in a subtropical region.

Journal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science 25 1: The effect of biweekly treatment with fenbendazole on benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles. Equine Practice 18 2: The effect of black polyethylene film mulching on the growth characters and yield of large-seeded groundnuts. The effect of blood-cycle synchronicity on the chloroquine sensitivity of Plasmodium chabaudi. Acta Parasitologica 40 2: The effect of boar Sus scrofa rooting on the distribution of organic matter in soil profiles and the development of wood anemone Anemone nemorosa L.

The effect of body condition at weaning and its subsequent evolution on the resumption of oestrous activity of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. The effect of body condition on the feeding behaviour of sheep with different times of access to food. Animal Science Pencaitland 64 2: The effect of body size on the standard metabolic rate of the lesser spotted dogfish.

Journal of Fish Biology 48 3: The effect of boom movements on spray distribution. The effect of boric acid on the protozoan numbers of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes lucifugus.

The effect of boron on plasma testosterone and plasma lipids in rats. The effect of boron supplementation on the distribution of boron in selected tissues and on testosterone synthesis in rats.

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7 9: The effect of bovine seminal plasma on the function and integrity of bovine neutrophils.

The effect of bovine somatotropin and diet on somatotropin binding sites in hepatic tissue of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80 6: The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars. Journal of Animal Science 73 The effect of breeding model on productivity of cattle. The effect of brefeldin A on the redistribution of osmiophilic particles and the gravitropic response of rye coleoptiles.

The effect of brewery effluent on soil microflora. The effect of britch removal in Rambouillet fleeces on clip and fleece fiber diameter and its variability.

Sheep and Goat Research Journal 12 1: The effect of broiler breeder flock age and length of egg storage on egg albumen during early incubation. Poultry Science 75 9: The effect of brooding temperature on broiler performance. The effect of brown coal on the decrease in the content of mobile forms of copper and lead in ordinary calcareous Chernozem. Eurasian Soil Science 29 9: The effect of buffalo follicle-stimulating hormone buFSH on jugular plasma 17 beta -oestradiol concentration and its kinetics, and induction of multiple ovulation in buffaloes.

Buffalo Journal 13 1: The effect of bull selection on inbreeding. The effect of burning on soil enzyme activities in natural grasslands in southern India. Ecological Research 12 1: The effect of buttress cutting in tree felling on wood harvesting efficiency.

A case study in a logging company in West Kalimantan. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan 13 1: The effect of buyer concentration on prices in the Australian wool market. The effect of cadmium on the activity of nitrifying populations in two different grassland soils. The effect of cadmium on the immune behaviour of guinea pigs with experimental ascariasis.

Journal of Helminthology 71 2: The effect of cadmium, zinc, and copper on the growth, tolerance index, metal uptake, and production of malic acid in two strains of the grass Festuca rubra. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 The effect of caecectomy on the faecal concentrations of urobilinogen and active trypsin in mice. The effect of caffeine on pregnancy outcome variables. Nutrition reviews 54 7: The effect of cage floor on the performance traits of Prelux-G and Prelux-R laying hens.

The effect of calcium and phosphorus ratios in feed on the feed efficiency in growing broiler chicks. The effect of calcium and potassium foliar and fruit sprays on Sensation mango leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit quality. The effect of calcium channel blockade on agouti-induced obesity.

The effect of calcium chloride on the quality of longkong Lansium domesticum Corr. The effect of calcium excess in the feed on haematological and biochemical parameters in blood plasma and hair in stallions. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 51 9: The effect of calcium infiltration on structural changes in cell walls of stored apples.

Journal of Horticultural Science 71 5: The effect of calcium ion concentration on the growth and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans Schumacher ex Fr. Gray and Coniophora puteana Schumacher ex Fr. The effect of calcium sulphate, fenamiphos and phosethyl-Al on yields of citrus growing on saline soils. Citrus Journal 6 1: Pollen of this weed species is exceptionally strong aeroallergen, causing big problems among sensitive persons during the summer time. Therefore, detailed aerobiological investigations — were performed using the volumetric method Burkard pollen and spore trap in order to identify parameters of pollination.

Ragweed pollen was mostly present in the air at the end of summer. This is the period when the allergic reaction among the sensitive persons is most registered.

Pollination starts in July and finishes in October according to six year aerobiology monitoring. Length of pollination in the investigated area lasted on the average from 74 to 94 days, with the peak between 22th of August and 3rd of September.

Total daily pollen counts varied from year to year from pollen grains per m3 of air to pollen grains per m3 of air. Meteorological parameters have a significant influence for amount of pollen grains in the air.

It is proved that concentration of the pollen in the air is getting higher along with higher temperature, but it the relative humidity increases concentration. Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

Between , investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste.

In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways.

The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion.

If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments.

Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities.

Reducing the population is more required than. Full Text Available Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides.

Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems.

Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide.

There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed , several of the which can be either pathogens i. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves.

Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds.

What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed , several of which can be either pathogens i.

Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds Ambrosia L. Full Text Available Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts.

In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species Ambrosia spp. We estimate that by year , the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year , affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations.

Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' HAR areas, i. Establishment and persistence of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO 2 ] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO 2 ] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early No other consistent differences in meteorological variables e. However, by the Fall of , and continuing through , urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants.

The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. Full Text Available The aim of the present contribution was to determine the situation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Romania. This paper is a brief summary about the researches on the alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Romania.

At present, this alien plant is in the process of acclimatization and naturalization in our country. Nowadays the agricultural areas are greatly infested in Romania. However, the infestations on waste land or roadsides are rarely controlled. The annual pollen counts show an increasing tendency, indicating an increased local population. Ambrosia artemisiifolia has been studied by a high number of romanian scientists and many articles have been written on the topic.

For the study of the spreading of the Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. In the presence of the species was noticed in 49 locations. In - , the observations continued and it was observed the emergence of the species in 28 new locations, also the expansion and amplification in the pryor locations. The determinations were made in the months of June-September. In this work were listed a number of sites across Romania, where A.

Currently the biggest problem is in the lowland and hill area of macro-regions 1, 3 and 4 where the species A. The paper presents personal observations on some morphological features, anatomical and ecological aspects. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy AIT has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts.

AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration epidermal or intralymphatic , and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support eg, recall systems is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe.

Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed.

Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree.

Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health.

As compared with the control, shading increased the stem height, crown width, leaf area, specific leaf area, and the proportion of leaf biomass in total biomass of A. Under natural light condition, the crown width and leaf area were smaller and the root to shoot ratio was larger, which benefited the decrease of water loss under high temperature and high light intensity and manifested the stronger phenotypic plasticity of A. Under shading, the mean daily net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance decreased, while the stomatal CO2 concentration increased.

At noon when the light intensity was the highest, the photosynthetic rate, transpiration. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag EST based simple sequence repeats SSRs markers were developed in this species using three approaches. After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native North America and invasive Europe ranges of the species.

Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles. High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events.

Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive exotic species using GIS and information-theoretic approaches: A case of ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Invasive exotic species pose a growing threat to the economy, public health, and ecological integrity of nations worldwide.

Explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive exotic species is of great importance to prevention and early warning efforts. We are investigating the potential distribution of invasive exotic species, the environmental factors that influence these distributions, and the ability to predict them using statistical and information-theoretic approaches.

However, for most species, absence data are not available. Presented with the challenge of developing a model based on presence-only information, we developed an improved logistic regression approach using Information Theory and Frequency Statistics to produce a relative suitability map. This paper generated a variety of distributions of ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Our logistic regression model was based on Akaike's Information Criterion AIC from a suite of ecologically reasonable predictor variables.

Based on the results we provided a new Frequency Statistical method to compartmentalize habitat-suitability in the native range. Finally, we used the model and the compartmentalized criterion developed in native ranges to "project" a potential distribution onto the exotic ranges to build habitat-suitability maps. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

Pollen allergens from short ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe.

To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies IUIS allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies.

This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome. Agricultural fields under integrated pest management and ecological farming were monitored The aim was to assess the performance of chemical and other control measures against ragweed under farming conditions of the region.

These parameters were ranked and, by way of multiplication, merged into one single value, which can be expressed as degree of a defined intense infestation level. Such approach is considered to be useful to track recuperation efforts and estimate control efficiency by comparing pre and post measure infestation status. The index is applied to results of the growing season, which is illustrated by some examples.

Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by sequencing. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR, and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags ESTs, including allergens.

The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR , and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags ESTs , including allergens.

Combining cutting and herbicide application for Ambrosia artemisiifolia control. The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in Single plants of common ragweed were established in 2 L pots in glasshouses.

Two cutting treatments were conducted: Lontrel , in Denmark: Matrigon , mesotrione in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate in Germa The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered.

Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency. Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future. Mesoscale atmospheric transport of ragweed pollen allergens from infected to uninfected areas. Allergenic ragweed Ambrosia spp. However, the action of air temperature, humidity and solar radiation on pollen grains in the atmosphere could impact on the ability of long distance transported LDT pollen to maintain allergenic potency.

Here, we report that the major allergen of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen Amb a 1 collected in ambient air during episodes of LDT still have immunoreactive properties. The amount of Amb a 1 found in LDT ragweed pollen grains was not constant and varied between episodes. In addition to allergens in pollen sized particles, we detected reactive Amb a 1 in subpollen sized respirable particles. These findings suggest that ragweed pollen grains have the potential to cause allergic reactions, not only in the heavily infested areas but, due to LDT episodes, also in the regions unaffected by ragweed populations.

Common ragweed invasion in Sweden: Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a neophyte from North America that has spread rapidly throughout Europe. Because the pollen of common ragweed is highly allergic, many countries have adopted containment and mitigation measures. The neophyte has only recently established flowering populations in Sweden.

We use this well documented case to study the early impacts of an invasive species on human health. Our identification strategy relies on spatial and temporal variation in common rag Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. The genus Ambrosia Asteraceae family is distributed worldwide. Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed has heavily colonised several areas of South-East Europe.

Ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: Ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population.

The invasive occurrence of ragweed A. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed -induced rhinoconjunctivitis.

Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed -induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1.

Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy.

Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy.

An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by. Effects of climate change and seed dispersal on airborne ragweed pollen loads in Europe. Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive alien species in Europe producing pollen that causes severe allergic disease in susceptible individuals.

Ragweed plants could further invade European land with climate and land-use changes. However, airborne pollen evolution depends not only on plant invasion, but also on pollen production, release and atmospheric dispersion changes. To predict the effect of climate and land-use changes on airborne pollen concentrations, we used two comprehensive modelling frameworks accounting for all these factors under high-end and moderate climate and land-use change scenarios.

We estimate that by airborne ragweed pollen concentrations will be about 4 times higher than they are now, with a range of uncertainty from 2 to 12 largely depending on the seed dispersal rate assumptions.

About a third of the airborne pollen increase is due to on-going seed dispersal, irrespective of climate change. The remaining two-thirds are related to climate and land-use changes that will extend ragweed habitat suitability in northern and eastern Europe and increase pollen production in established ragweed areas owing to increasing CO2.

Therefore, climate change and ragweed seed dispersal in current and future suitable areas will increase airborne pollen concentrations, which may consequently heighten the incidence and prevalence of ragweed allergy. Full Text Available Since the common ragweed , Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which was introduced from North America has also been found in Bavaria in larger stocks and has an increasing tendency to spread.

After receiving the report of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Bavarian Parliament addressed the implications for health. There was consensus across all political groups to combat the plant. The 96 district administration authorities, which each have a trained ragweed officer, report to the registration office on new verified ragweed locations with more than plants.

The reports of common ragweed stands are filed by citizens or through research by the district administration authorities, who are also responsible for supporting the fight against stocks.

On behalf of the Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Working Group Biodiversity monitors the situation and finds many new locations. Since , new common ragweed stocks were registered. After control measures there are currently known remaining stocks.

Since , however, the populated area has tripled. This means that the control measures need further improvement. This is especially true for the common ragweed stocks along roadsides where the plants have increased massively in recent years. Sustainable control has proved to be particularly difficult. Full Text Available The European Union handed over the regulation of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia to the member states.

Austrian administration started to ask for control measures, i. Any sustainable control measure must focus on the reduction of seeds produced by the annual ragweed. Seed bank dimension of ragweed turned out to be a good evaluation tool for any control measure. To evaluate the importance of different spreading mechanisms of dispersal, a need for serious figures can be stated.

Based on our seed trap experiments and comparable slip stream experiments by German botanists, the efficiency of vehicles in spreading ragweed over long distances was low. However, machines used by road services cutter, moulder turned out to spread thousands of seeds. Besides, there is serious indication that trucking agricultural food and seeds over long distances is relevant for ragweed seed dispersal.

Dispersal of thousands of ragweed seeds from contaminated agricultural fields to fields not yet infested is caused by harvesters and other agricultural machines.

Regulations to reduce the ragweed load in traded agricultural goods are to be implemented in future. Small populations of ragweed should be simply uprooted and composted as long as they bear no flowers. Results showed that increasing density of A. There was no significant impact on peanut plant height. Exponential regression model was the best in describing the relationship between A. Ambrosia pollen was first reported as an important allergen in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, and many European countries have recently reported its increasing significance for pollen allergy.

The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the studied period could be the result of long-distance transport LDT and to identify the potential sources of Ambrosia pollen grains. The study investigates Ambrosia pollen episodes during the peak term of six yearly periods between and by examining source regions in Ambrosia pollen in Bursa, Turkey.

A volumetric trap was used for collecting the pollen samples, and the back-trajectory model was used to identify a potential source of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen. The days when pollen levels exceeded 30 P m-3 were computed, and clusters were shown on the figures. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Bursa were not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions around the Azov Sea in Russia and Ukraine, Black Sea region of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria.

Note that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen exceeded the clinical threshold during 28 days during the investigation period. Taking into consideration the high allergenicity of Ambrosia pollen, the present findings suggest that the number of ragweed -sensitized individuals might increase in the near future in the region. Various possibilities are known for control of common ragweed in agricultural fields with mechanical and chemical methods. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related.

The legal obligation of reporting and control — introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago — allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures.

Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion.

The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production. The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort.

Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle. Full Text Available From a medical perspective, introduction and spread of ragweed in Germany are a disaster. The pollen of the species trigger allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis that often lead to allergies against food items like celery or spices.

In some cases this can lead to allergic asthma that at first appears during the ragweed pollen season in September and October, but can later prevail during the whole year. In addition, touching the plant can result in contact dermatitis. From a medical point of view, halting the spread of ragweed is important and necessary. Full Text Available Identifying the sensitive habitats with high invasibility is critical for management of biological invasion.

Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linn. The experiment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. The results suggested that the presence of native species had strong negative effects on the performance of the invader species.

The presence of native species occupied the niche space and left few empty niches for the colonization of the invaders. The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities with high diversity, was effective strategies to control the invasion of exotic species. Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.

Full Text Available Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells moDCs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins.

Analysis of high allergenicity airborne pollen dispersion: The appearance of ragweed pollen in the air became more frequent in northerly countries. Attention of allergologists and aerobiologists in these countries is focused on the phenomenon that Ambrosia plants found relatively sporadic but the amount of pollen is high in particular days.

Over the latter decade, a matter of particular concern has been Ambrosia pollen, whose appearance in the air is determined by the plants dispersing it and meteorological processes that alter pollen release, dissemination, transport or deposition on surfaces.

Pollen data used in this study were collected in three pollen-trapping sites in Lithuania. The data corresponding to years of pollen monitoring were documented graphically and evaluated statistically. Analysis of the pollen data suggests that although the number of ragweed plants identified has not increased over the latter decade, the total pollen count has been on the increase during the recent period.

The highest atmospheric pollen load is established on the last days of August and first days of September. We have established a regularity exhibiting an increase in ragweed pollen count conditioned by south-eastern winds in Lithuania. Full Text Available The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in Matrigon, mesotrione in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate in Germany: Roundup Bio were applied at 4 doses at three different timings: The plants were harvested 5 weeks after the last herbicide application.

At both sites clopyralid and mesotrione had a low efficacy on common ragweed when applied on developed plants with only minor differences in efficacy at the three timings. Application after cutting improved the efficacy of clopyralid at both sites and of mesotrione in Denmark. In Germany glyphosate had a higher efficacy on noncut plants in comparison to the cut plants, in Denmark it was vice versa. The highest dose of glyphosate provided higher control levels on developed plants than clopyralid and mesotrione at both sites.

In Denmark the highest effects were obtained shortly after cutting with the maximum dose of each herbicide and declined with time between cutting and herbicide application. In summary the results demonstrated that herbicides can be applied shortly after cutting without loss of efficacy. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe.

Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons.

Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built.

The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain.

Hindcast simulations - driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens.