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  1. Recent Advances: In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase ( DAO) along with 3MST. Harnessing Bacterial Signals for Suppression of Biofilm Formation in the Nosocomial Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.:
    A promoter-fusion study with a Tn 5-based promoter probe vector had earlier found that the hutU gene which encodes the enzyme urocanase for the histidine utilization pathway is upregulated at a lower AGP from fungus Aspergillus niger is identified to possess a high preference towards the histidine residues. COMT's enzyme activity, and the neurochemistry and behaviour of COMT knockout mice are both markedly sexually dimorphic. ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens ( Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans. These findings tend to negate the almost complete lack of polymeric rhamnose within the intact L-form as being due to the absence of membrane enzymes The composition and organization of the cell walls from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
  2. Carboline antifilarials: effects on carbohydrate metabolising enzymes in Litomosoides carinii female. Indian Journal of .. fruticosus (L.) Ait. Fil. Rastitel' nye Resursy 33(1): .. Case report: pathomorphology of an experimental disseminated Aspergillus fumigatus infection in rabbits. Berliner und Munchener .:
    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. A soluble fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus fumigatus conidia--structure, specificity and possible role in fungal pathogenicity. diarioimagen.info Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 Aspergillus fumigatus grew and voricona-zole treatment was started, but the patient was lost from multiple organ failure (MOF. In diagnosis of.
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The main HDP complications were: The pregnant women assessed presented risk factors for HDP, reinforcing the idea that the health status and the disease and health process are directly influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the population.

Site- specific indolation of proline-based peptides via copper II -catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides. The first site- specific and purely chemical method for modifying proline-based peptides was developed via a convenient, copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides with indoles. This novel approach features high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity, mild conditions, and compatibility with various functional groups.

In addition, a simplified process was realized in one pot and two steps via in situ oxidative coupling of tertiary amine and indoles.

The understanding of RNA in regulating gene expression has exploded over the past 15 years. The key finding was that the cluster structure explained the differential processing of the miRNA hairpins by Drosha. We outline the technical difficulties involved in probing large RNAs and data visualization using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and how we adapted the existing approaches to probe large RNAs.

Structural evolution of the Kamchatka - Aleutian arc junction area in the Late Mesozoic and Tertiary. Structural , sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies have been conducted within the Kamchatka - Aleutian junction area aiming to a reconstruction of the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene.

Pre-Pliocene structures of the area are comprised of 1 Achaivayam -Valaginskiy Olyutorskiy arc, 2 Vetlovskiy terrane, 3 Kronotskiy arc, and 4 Tyushevka basin, which goes along the boundary between Vetlovskiy and Kronotskiy units. In the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deformations within the area of study were controlled by the following processes: We reconstruct seven structural complexes with individual structural patterns, which document different episodes of the regional deformation history.

Age of the Kronotskiy arc collision is constrained by that 1 the Tyushevka foreland basin developed during the Late Eocene? Syn-collisional deformations were controlled by the northwest motion of the Kronotskiy arc as part of the Pacific plate, and by the simultaneous motion of the entire northeast Eurasia margin toward the South. This caused deflection of the western segment of the Kronotskiy arc toward the south; it's rotation up to 90o counterclockwise and the subsequent bent of the arc into a large knee-like structure.

The eastern portion of the. We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional 3D structure prediction and then quaternary structure docking of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein MVP that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes.

Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat Rattus norvegicus vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults.

These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults.

The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via. One of the leading candidates for the site of a large impact is the Chicxulub structure located on the northern Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

The Chicxulub structure is a subsurface zone of upper Cretaceous igneous rocks, carbonates, and breccias. The structure has been interpreted to be a km diameter; however, there is some question to the size of the structure or to the fact that it even is an impact feature.

Little is known about the mineralogy of this structure ; the objective of this study was to determine the clay mineralogy of core samples from within the Chicxulub structure. The successful prediction of protein structure from amino acid sequence requires two features: As a step toward addressing both issues, a threading-based method of secondary and tertiary restraint prediction has been developed and applied to ab initio folding.

Such restraints are derived by extracting consensus contacts and local secondary structure from at least weakly scoring structures that, in some cases, can lack any global similarity to the sequence of interest. Furthermore, to generate representative protein structures , a reduced lattice-based protein model is used with replica exchange Monte Carlo to explore conformational space. For 47 40 proteins, a cluster centroid whose rms deviation from native is below 6.

The number of correctly predicted proteins increases to 50 when atomic detail is added and a knowledge-based atomic potential is combined with clustered and nonclustered structures for candidate selection. The combination of the ratio of the relative number of contacts to the protein length and the number of clusters generated by the folding algorithm is a reliable indicator of the likelihood of successful fold prediction, thereby opening the way for genome-scale ab initio folding.

Riboswitches exemplify this modularity in terms of both structural and functional adaptability of RNA components. Here, we extend our computational approach based on tree graph sampling to the prediction of riboswitch topologies by defining additional edges to mimick pseudoknots. Starting from a secondary 2D structure , we construct an initial graph deduced from predicted junction topologies by our data-mining algorithm RNAJAG trained on known RNAs; we sample these graphs in 3D space guided by knowledge-based statistical potentials derived from bending and torsion measures of internal loops as well as radii of gyration for known RNAs.

We present graph sampling results for 10 representative riboswitches, 6 of them with pseudoknots, and compare our predictions to solved structures based on global and local RMSD measures. Our results indicate that the helical arrangements in riboswitches can be approximated using our combination of modified 3D tree graph representations for pseudoknots, junction prediction, graph moves, and scoring functions. Future challenges in the field of riboswitch prediction and design are also discussed.

Conformational analysis of processivity clamps in solution demonstrates that tertiary structure does not correlate with protein dynamics. The relationship between protein sequence, structure , and dynamics has been elusive.

Here, we report a comprehensive analysis using an in-solution experimental approach to study how the conservation of tertiary structure correlates with protein dynamics. Hydrogen exchange measurements of eight processivity clamp proteins from different species revealed that, despite highly similar three-dimensional structures , clamp proteins display a wide range of dynamic behavior. Differences were apparent both for structurally similar domains within proteins and for corresponding domains of different proteins.

Several of the clamps contained regions that underwent local unfolding with different half-lives. Our observations reveal that tertiary structure and dynamics are not directly correlated and that primary structure plays an important role in dynamics. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein.

The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface. Pri-miRa transcript folds into a tertiary structure and autoregulates its processing. Expressions of miRNAs are highly regulated in tissues, disruption of which leads to disease.

How this regulation is achieved and maintained is still largely unknown. MiRNAs that reside on clustered or polycistronic transcripts represent a more complex case where individual miRNAs from a cluster are processed with different efficiencies despite being cotranscribed. To shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that might be operating in these cases, we considered the long polycistronic primary miRNA transcript pri-miRa that contains six miRNAs with diverse functions.

The six miRNA domains on this cluster are differentially processed to produce varying amounts of resultant mature miRNAs in different tissues. How this is achieved is not known. We show, using various biochemical and biophysical methods coupled with mutational studies, that pri-miRa adopts a specific three-dimensional architecture that poses a kinetic barrier to its own processing.

This tertiary structure could create suboptimal protein recognition sites on the pri-miRNA cluster due to higher-order structure formation. This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes.

Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…. Bhageerath—Targeting the near impossible: Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure prediction.

Protein folding, considered to be the holy grail of molecular biology, remains intractable even after six decades since the report of the first crystal structure. Over 70, X-ray and NMR structures are now available in protein structural repositories and no physico-chemical solution is in sight. Molecular simulation methodologies have evolved to a stage to provide a computational solution to the tertiary structures of small proteins. Knowledge base driven methodologies are maturing in predicting the tertiary structures of query sequences which share high similarities with sequences of known structures in the databases.

We describe here the development of Bhageerath an ab initio model and Bhageerath-H a hybrid model and present a critique on the current status of prediction of protein tertiary structures. Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia. Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years.

Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy.

The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages to reduce noise from the source rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously. The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e. Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates. Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet UV vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication.

Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E in TM III and amino acid sites 87—93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen.

Both mutagenesis analyses of EQ and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light. Concentric geophysical anomalies associated with enigmatic occurrences of Upper Cretaceous breccias and andesitic rocks led Penfield and Camargo1 to suspect that this structure was a buried impact basin. The Chicxulub melt rocks that we studied contain anomalously high levels of iridium up to Myr, in good agreement with the mean plateau age of Furthermore, these melt rocks acquired a remanent magnetization indicating that they cooled during an episode of reversed geomagnetic polarity.

Hypochlorous acid-mediated protein oxidation: Hypochlorous acid HOCl is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies. As proteins and amino acids are highly abundant in vivo and react rapidly with HOCl, they are likely to be major targets for HOCl.

In this study, two small globular proteins, lysozyme and insulin, have been oxidized with increasing excesses of HOCl to determine whether the pattern of HOCl-mediated amino acid consumption is consistent with reported kinetic data for isolated amino acids and model compounds.

Identical experiments have been carried out with mixtures of N-acetyl amino acids to prevent reaction at the alpha-amino groups that mimic the protein composition to examine the role of protein structure on reactivity.

The results indicate that tertiary structure facilitates secondary chlorine transfer reactions of chloramines formed on His and Lys side chains. In light of these data, second-order rate constants for reactions of Lys side chain and Gly chloramines with Trp side chains and disulfide bonds have been determined, together with those for further oxidation of Met sulfoxide by HOCl and His side chain chloramines.

Computational kinetic models incorporating these additional rate constants closely predict the experimentally observed amino acid consumption. These studies provide insight into the roles of chloramine formation and three-dimensional structure on the reactions of HOCl with isolated proteins and demonstrate that kinetic models can predict the outcome of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation. We report paleomagnetic results for core samples of the breccia and andesitic rocks recovered from the Yucatan-6 Petrolcos Mexicanos exploratory well within the Chicxulub structure about 60 km SSW from its center , northern Yucatan, Mexico.

Andesitic rocks are characterized by stable single-component magnetizations with a mean inclination of Breccias present a complex paleomagnetic record characterized by multivectorial magnetizations with widely different initial NRM inclinations. However, after alternating field demagnetization, well defined characteristic components with upward inclinations are defined. IRM acquisition experiments, comparison of IRM and NRM coercivity spectra and the single component magnetization of the andesitic rocks indicate the occurrence of iron-rich titanomagnetites of single or pseudo-single domain states as the dominant magnetic carriers.

The inclination is also consistent with the expected value and corresponding paleolatitude for the site estimated from the reference polar wander curve for North America. Structuring a body of knowledge for continuing and tertiary education in South Africa. The limited attempts in this regard are furthermore taking place in isolation, with practically no dialogue between the limited facilities management industry and the providers of the limited education that is available.

Although the study that was undertaken did not have the objective to create comprehensive interaction between the existing role-players, the stated problems were addressed by involving the industry, participants in continuing education programmes and other role-players in the condensed research problem as stated below.

Research was therefore undertaken to address the structuring of educational programmes. These surveys provided information that led to the resultant educational activities stated below. The most important aspects that were determined were the following: It was possible to create and test amongst facilities management practitioners a diagrammatic presentation that contextualised facilities management.

The literature survey, including international and South African sources, contributed towards compiling a primary knowledge framework for facilities management. The perceived value of the contents of a continuing education programme that had been attended by numerous groups of delegates over a number of years was established. A proposed tertiary education programme was presented to practitioners. Site- specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals.

Seven secondary S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33 and two tertiary T and T site- specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms C connected to the next-nearest-neighbor N-N-N C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range K. This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes.

The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane iso-octane , and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures K using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic.

Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1 5 transition of OH spectrum near Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1].

Subsequent to that, site- specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures TLS are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites.

The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues. Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl OH radicals with nine large branched alkanes i.

In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range K.

Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over K, are given as the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon: Major structural controls on the distribution of pre- Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada. The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds.

This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre- Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west.

Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time.

Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes.

Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat.

The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral. High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years.

Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochrono Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge.

This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge SAK. SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations PFnets of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…. A regularity index for the selection of native-like tertiary structures of proteins.

Automated protein tertiary structure prediction from sequence information alone remains an elusive goal to computational prescriptions. Dividing the problem into three stages viz. We have analysed the dihedrals in loop regions in a non-redundant dataset of proteins drawn from the Protein Data Bank and categorized them as helix-like or sheet-like regular or irregular. The regularity index is presented here as a simple tool that finds its application in protein structure analysis as a discriminatory scoring function for rapid screening before the more compute intensive atomic level energy calculations could be undertaken.

The tool is made freely accessible over the internet at www. Structural similarity and category- specificity. It has been suggested that category- specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage.

On this account one might expect a positive relationship Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where In summary, we describe the first example of pri-miRNA structure modulating differential expression of constituent miRNAs. Infiltration of regulatory T Treg cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses.

However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures TA-TLSs. TA-TLSs have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. Thus, we propose that Treg cells in TA-TLSs can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells might provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.

Contributions of historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors to phylogeographic structure in a Tertiary relict species, Emmenopterys henryi Rubiaceae. Examining how historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors contribute to genetic divergence at different evolutionary scales is a central yet largely unexplored question in ecology and evolution.

Here, we examine this key question by investigating how environmental and geographic factors across different epochs have driven genetic divergence at deeper phylogeographic and shallower landscape genetic evolutionary scales in the Chinese Tertiary relict tree Emmenopterys henryi. We found that geography played a predominant role at all levels - phylogeographic clades are broadly geographically structured , the deepest levels of divergence are associated with major geological or pre-Quaternary climatic events, and isolation by distance IBD primarily explained population genetic structure.

However, environmental factors are clearly also important - climatic fluctuations since the Last Interglacial LIG have likely contributed to phylogeographic structure , and the population genetic structure in our AFLP dataset was partly explained by isolation by environment IBE , which may have resulted from natural selection in environments with divergent climates. Thus, historical and contemporary geography and historical and contemporary environments have all shaped patterns of genetic structure in E.

Specific "scientific" data structures , and their processing. Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific , embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations.

Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data in particular: Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure.

The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models.

The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. Folding of RNA tertiary structure: Linkages between backbone phosphates, ions, and water.

The functional forms of many RNAs have compact architectures. The placement of phosphates within such structures must be influenced not only by the strong electrostatic repulsion between phosphates, but also by networks of interactions between phosphates, water, and mobile ions.

This review first explores what has been learned of the basic thermodynamic constraints on these arrangements from studies of hydration and ions in simple DNA molecules, and then gives an overview of what is known about ion and water interactions with RNA structures.

A brief survey of RNA crystal structures identifies several interesting architectures in which closely spaced phosphates share hydration shells or phosphates are buried in environments that provide intramolecular hydrogen bonds or site-bound cations.

Formation of these structures must require strong coupling between the uptake of ions and release of water. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin A: We analyzed the results quantitatively on the basis of published data indicating that the sulfhydryl exists in two conformations that are coupled to the transition between two tertiary structures of hemoglobin in dynamic equilibrium.

Our analyses show that the ionizable groups linked to the DTNB reaction have lower pKas of ionization in deoxyhemoglobin compared to oxyhemoglobin. So these ionizable groups should make negative contributions to the Bohr effect. A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 GH44 protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography.

Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies. Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates lamprey and hagfish is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat LRR gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor VLR genes. Tertiary structure and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum.

The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates.

Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C. It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a min assay of 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with atrial fibrillation in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China. Methods In a single center, inpatients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease prior to catheter ablation were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, Results MetS was found in Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer.

The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done. Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols. To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyllinoleoyl-sn- glycerol 8: Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated From the present study we conclude that the medium-chain fatty acids from STAG, in addition to absorption into the portal blood as free fatty acids, are absorbed by the same pathway as the conventional long-chain triacylglycerols, that is, they are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, absorbed The leading industries of the tertiary sector of Changsha are selected by means of hierarchy analysis, and some measures to realize the structure optimization of the tertiary sector in Changsha are put forward, which include increasing investment, promoting innovation mechanism of the tertiary sector, strengthening the management organs of the sector and reinforcing the construction of legal system.

Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids mostly essential fatty acids and medium or short chain fatty acids.

In case of specific-structured lipids SSLs , each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or Site- specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy. The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states.

Isotopically edited infrared IR spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site- specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized. The site- specific thermal unfolding probed by 13 C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure.

Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif.

These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models. Full Text Available PTPN12 is an important tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in various physiological processes.

However, the molecular basis underlying the substrate specificity of PTPN12 remains uncertain. Here, enzymological and crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify two distinct structural features that are crucial determinants of PTPN12 substrate specificity: Taken together, our results not only provide the working mechanisms of PTPN12 for desphosphorylation of its substrates but will also help in designing specific inhibitors of PTPN Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter.

Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem—loop II. Although progress has been made in defining singularities like the RNA pseudoknot near this AUG, the sequence and structural features of the HCV IRES which stimulate accurate and efficient initiation of protein synthesis are only partially defined.

Here we report that a region further upstream from the AUG, stem—loop II of the HCV IRES, also contains an element of local tertiary structure which we have detected using RNase H cleavage and have mapped using the singular ability of two bases therein to undergo covalent intra-chain crosslinking stimulated by UV light.

Several earlier studies have shown that the correct sequence between bases 45 and 70 of the HCV IRES stem—loop II domain is required for initiation of protein synthesis. Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem—loop II element is directly involved in IRES action.

The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine replaced three individual adenines, two of which make long-range stacking interactions and one that also forms hydrogen bonds. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that kinetics of tertiary structure formation upon addition of MgCl2 are also site specific , with local conformational changes occurring from 5 ms to 4s and with global folding from 1 to 5s.

Site- specific substitution with 15 N-nucleobases allowed observation of stable hydrogen bond formation by NMR experiments. Loss of ordered molecular structure in proteins is known to increase their adhesion to surfaces. The aim of this work was to study the stability of norovirus secondary and tertiary structures and its implications for viral adhesion to fresh foods and agrifood surfaces.

The pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions studied correspond to those prevalent in the principal vehicles of viral transmission vomit and feces and in the food processing and handling environment pasteurization and refrigeration. The structures of virus-like particles representing GI. The particles were remarkably stable under most of the conditions. Combining temperature with pH or ionic strength caused variable losses of structure depending on the particle type.

Regardless of pH, heating to pasteurization temperatures or higher would be required to increase GII. Regardless of temperature, increased ionic strength would increase GII. FCV adsorption would be greater at refrigeration, pasteurization, or high temperature combined with a low salt concentration or at a higher NaCl concentration regardless of temperature.

Norovirus adhesion mediated by hydrophobic interaction may depend on hydrophobic residues normally exposed on the capsid surface at pH 3, pH 8, physiological ionic strength, and low temperature, while at pasteurization temperatures it may rely more on buried hydrophobic residues exposed upon structural rearrangement. Structural basis for substrate specificities of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases. Compared to the human kinase, the Drosophila kinase has a wider substrate cleft, which may be responsible for the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme.

The human deoxyguanosine kinase is highly specific for purine substrates The two new structures provide an explanation for the substrate specificity of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase. The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone AHL quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria.

In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species. Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed.

The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds. Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5.

This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transpl Many patients with primary progressive aphasia PPA are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these….

Structural similarity and category- specificity: On this account one might expect a positive relationshi The genus Erophaca comprises a single herbaceous perennial species with two subspecies distributed at opposite ends of the Mediterranean region. We used nrDNA ITS to investigate the phylogeny of the genus, and AFLP markers 9 primers, 20 populations to establish the genetic relationship between subspecies, and among populations at each side of the Gibraltar Strait.

Life form attributes and molecular clock estimates suggest that Erophaca is one of the many Tertiary relicts that form part of the present Mediterranean flora. Within the occidental subspecies, European plants are clearly derived from North-African populations Morocco which, despite being rare on a regional scale, present the highest genetic diversity as estimated by private and rare fragment numbers.

In general, genetic diversity decreased with increasing distance from Morocco. Possible causes for their disjunct distribution are discussed. Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein famil. Amphibian and reptile road-kills on tertiary roads in relation to landscape structure: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide.

However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns. The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads.

Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along Relations between land cover classes and amphibian and reptile road-kills were analysed with conditional probabilities and general linear models GLM. We also estimated the potential cost-efficiency of a large scale citizen science monitoring project. We recorded amphibian and 72 reptile road-kills comprising eight species mainly occurring on agricultural roads.

Overall, hotspots of amphibian and reptile road-kills were next to the land cover classes arable land, suburban areas and vineyards.

Conditional probabilities and GLMs identified road-kills especially next to preferred habitats of green toad, common toad and grass snake, the most often found road-killed species. Our findings showed that freely available remote sensing data in combination with a.

However, interpreting results obtained using these analogs has been difficult due to their low isotype specificity. Additionally, each isotype has two binding sites with different cGMP affinities and analog selectivities, making understanding the molecular basis for isotype specificity of these compounds even more challenging.

To determine isotype specificity of cGMP analogs and their structural basis, we generated the full-length regulatory domains of PKG I and II isotypes with each binding site disabled, determined their affinities for these analogs, and obtained cocrystal structures of both isotypes bound with cGMP analogs. Our structural and functional results explain the selectivity of these analogs for each PKG isotype and provide a starting point for the rational design of isotype selective activators.

Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction. Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects. Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component.

Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications. Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text. This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone.

For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al. Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone. Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups FOG and maximum common substructure MCS similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features.

The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category- specific disorders and argue that this model can help Structural properties of proteins specific to the myelin sheath.

The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane layer surrounding myelinated axons in vertebrates, which is formed when the plasma membrane of an oligodendrocyte or a Schwann cell wraps itself around the axon. A large fraction of the total protein in this membrane layer is comprised of only a small number of individual proteins, which have certain intriguing structural properties. The myelin proteins are implicated in a number of neurological diseases, including, for example, autoimmune diseases and peripheral neuropathies.

In this review, the structural properties of a number of myelin- specific proteins are described. In this paper we present a framework to analyze conflicts of contracts written in structured English. A contract that has manually been rewritten in a structured English is automatically translated into a formal language using the Grammatical Framework GF.

In particular we use the contract language CL as a target formal language for this translation. In our framework CL specifications could then be input into the tool CLAN to detect the presence of conflicts whether there are contradictory obligations, permissions, and prohibitions. We discuss the implementation of such a framework. Structure and function of the phosphothreonine- specific FHA domain. The forkhead-associated FHA domain is the only known phosphoprotein-binding domain that specifically recognizes phosphothreonine pThr residues, distinguishing them from phosphoserine pSer residues.

In contrast to its very strict specificity toward pThr, the FHA domain recognizes very diverse patterns in the residues surrounding the pThr residue. For example, the FHA domain of Ki67, a protein associated with cellular proliferation, binds to an extended target surface involving residues remote from the pThr, whereas the FHA domain of Dun1, a DNA damage-response kinase, specifically recognizes a doubly phosphorylated Thr-Gln TQ cluster by virtue of its possessing two pThr-binding sites.

The FHA domain exists in various proteins with diverse functions and is particularly prevalent among proteins involved in the DNA damage response. Despite a very short history, a number of unique structural and functional properties of the FHA domain have been uncovered. This review highlights the diversity of biological functions of the FHA domain-containing proteins and the structural bases for the novel binding specificities and multiple binding modes of FHA domains.

Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes.

Gray; Hoyt, David W. Human high-density lipoprotein HDL plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway that delivers excess cholesterol back to the liver for clearance. In vivo, HDL particles vary in size, shape and biological function. One of the major problems for high-resolution structural studies of discoidal HDL is the difficulty in obtaining pure and, foremost, homogenous sample. Using an ultracentrifugation method, we quickly removed lipid-poor apoAI.

A small rHDL has a diameter of 7. We show that these two different sizes of discoidal HDL particles display different stability and phospholipid-binding activity. Our result further provides the first high-resolution NMR data, demonstrating a promise of structural determination of discoidal HDL at atomic resolution using a combination of NMR and other biophysical techniques. Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity. Tobacco vein mottling virus TVMV is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses.

The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus TEV is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities.

This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters k cat and K m for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Using molecular principal axes for structural comparison: Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of different protein x-ray structures has previously been made in a number of different ways; for example, by visual examination, by differences in the locations of secondary structures , by explicit superposition of structural elements, e.

Results A new approach is applied to determine the structural changes that an antibody protein domain experiences upon its interaction with an antigenic target. These changes are determined with the use of two different, however comparable, sets of principal axes that are obtained by diagonalizing the second-order tensors that yield the moments-of-geometry as well as an ellipsoidal characterization of domain shape, prior to and after interaction.

Determination of these sets of axes for structural comparison requires no internal symmetry features of the domains, depending solely upon their representation in three-dimensional space. The present analysis utilizes residue centroids. When the structural changes are minimal, the principal axes of the domains, prior to and after interaction, are essentially comparable and consequently may be used for structural comparison.

When the differences of the axes cannot be neglected, but are nevertheless slight, a smaller relatively invariant substructure of the domains may be utilized for comparison. The procedure yields two distance metrics for structural comparison. In homogeneous networks, the expression was applied for the most common types of frequency reuse techniques: The expression was examined by comparing it with previously developed ones in the literature and the comparison showed that the expression is valid for any type of frequency reuse scheme and any network topology.

Furthermore, the expression was extended to include the heterogeneous network; the expression includes the problem of co-tier and cross-tier interference in heterogeneous networks HetNet and it was examined by the same method of the homogeneous one.

Performance comparison of weighted sum-minimum mean square error and virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithms in simulated and measured channels. A real measurement environment consisting of two BS and two users have been studied to evaluate the simulation results The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered.

When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth. The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels.

The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers. The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio SIR analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry IRMS instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity.

The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: In this paper, an uplink power control problem is considered for code division multiple access CDMA systems. A distributed algorithm is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory.

The proposed scheme minimizes the sum of the power and the error of signal-to-interference ratio SIR. A power controller is designed by constructing an optimization problem of a stochastic linear quadratic type in Krein space and solving a Kalman filter problem. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels.

Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios CRs is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service QoS in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio SIR constraint among CRs.

This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance.

A new cost function for SIR -based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant.

For wireless cellular systems, several control mechanisms, such as power control mechanisms, rate control mechanisms, and allocation of radio resource, are based on SIR estimation. In previous researches, most of researchers concentrated on WCDMA systems, in which pilot symbol is time-multiplexed with data symbol; the method developed in this case is not feasible for cdma systems where pilot symbol is code-multiplexed with data symbol. This paper first develops the SIR estimators based on the reverse pilot channel and then derives the approximate analytic expression for its Mean Squared Error MSE function, the accuracy of which is validated through simulation.

Finally, the estimate quality of the proposed method is further improved by long-termly averaging the sample interference. We investigated malignancy risk after renal transplantation in patients with and without systemic lupus erythematosus SLE. We found that smoking HR 2. Renal transplant recipients may need targeted counselling regarding surveillance and modifiable risk factors.

Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the dynamics of an epidemic model with vital dynamics and a nonlinear incidence rate of saturated mass action as a function of the ratio of the number of the infectives to that of the susceptibles. The stabilities of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium are first studied. Under the assumption of nonexistence of periodic solution, the global dynamics of the model is established: Computer simulation shows such results.

Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic- Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS. Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored.

We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic- ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department ED presentation. We evaluated the records of 53, ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation.

In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error RMSE are then compared by simulation.

However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table. It has been suggested that SIRS are triggered by superfluous pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and that organ injury is caused by uncontrolled inflammatory responses.

However, the results of clinical studies, on the usefulness of specific cytokine antagonists and anti-TNF antibodies for the treatment of septic shock, have been unsatisfactory. The reason for this might have been that when uncontrolled inflammatory reactions progressed locally, anti-inflammatory reactions were elevated in the circulated blood by way of CARS, thus the timing of administration and pharmacokinetics did not match clinical course. We introduce the recent knowledge which indicates that SIRS is a preliminary alert for not only organ dysfunction but also immunosuppression after severe injury or major surgery.

This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred". Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease.

We here report a case of severe SIRS , anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS , even without substantial visceral organ involvement. Influenza SIRS with minimal pneumonitis. Full Text Available While systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease.

We here report a case of severe SIRS , anasarca and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening.

In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde. This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition. This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively. Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD.

Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C. Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS. Sir Karl Popper and Education.

Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion.

This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…. Effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in alcoholic hepatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sepsis is frequently observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis AH and is an important mortality predictor. Several studies have also identified systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS as a significant prognostic factor.

The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in patients with AH. Participants in the included studies were adults with AH and those with developed SIRS or sepsis during hospitalization.

Data were extracted from six studies involving 1, patients of whom had SIRS and four studies involving 57, patients of whom 1, had sepsis. Not only is sepsis associated with mortality but also SIRS.

Identification of the key element of SIRS may thus provide a potential therapeutic target. The epidemic is an outbreak of an infectious disease situation in the population at a place that exceeds the normal approximation in a short period. When the disease is always contained in any place as well as with the causes, it is called endemic. SIRS models used in this study with the assumption Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and sepsis as causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS remain challenging to treat in polytrauma patients.

In this study, the focus was set on widely used scoring systems to assess their diagnostic quality. A total of patients mean age: The patients were subdivided into four groups: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis.

Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events.

Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity.

This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. Observations of weak short-period teleseismic body waves help to resolve lowermost mantle structure at short wavelengths, which is essential for understanding mantle dynamics and the interactions between the mantle and core. Their limited amount and uneven distribution are however major obstacles to solve for volumetric structure of the D" region, topography of the core-mantle boundary CMB and D" discontinuity, and the trade-offs among them.

Dense broadband seismic networks help to improve signal-to-noise ratio SNR of the target phases and signal-to-interference ratio SIR of other mantle phases when the slowness difference is large enough.

To improve SIR and SNR of teleseismic PcP data, we have introduced the slant-stacklet transform to define coherent-guided filters able to separate and enhance signals according to their slowness, time of arrival and frequency content. We observe that short-period P waves traveling through slabs are strongly affected by focusing, in agreement with the bias we have observed and corrected for due to mantle heterogeneities on PcP-P travel time differences. In Central America, this bias is by far the stronger anomaly we observe.

Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models. Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established.

Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained. Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light.

Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well- known feature in atmospheric optics. He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light.

This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena.

Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon. This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland. Stability of SIRS system with random perturbations. In this paper, we consider an epidemiological model, which is an SIRS model with or without distributed time delay influenced by random perturbations. We present the stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the associated stochastic SIRS system.

Sigurd Wagner of Princeton University. He is recognized for his g. Numerical solution of stochastic SIR model by Bernstein polynomials. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method.

Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation.

Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way.

Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission UPS from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way.

This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did. Oscillations in SIRS model with distributed delays.

The ubiquity of oscillations in epidemics presents a long standing challenge for the formulation of epidemic models.

Whether they are external and seasonally driven, or arise from the intrinsic dynamics is an open problem. It is known that fixed time delays destabilize the steady state solution of the standard SIRS model, giving rise to stable oscillations for certain parameters values. In this contribution, starting from the classical SIRS model, we make a general treatment of the recovery and loss of immunity terms.

We present oscillation diagrams amplitude and period in terms of the parameters of the model, showing how oscillations can be destabilized by the shape of the distributions of the two characteristic infectious and immune times. The formulation is made in terms of delay equations which are both numerically integrated and linearized. Results from simulations are included showing where they support the linear analysis and explaining why not where they do not.

Considerations and comparison with real diseases are presented along. In , the development of a medical brief, effectively detailing the specifications for a purpose-built oncology hospital and including the medical equipment and human resources required, was commenced.

Robust engagement by the relevant stakeholders, many of which hailed from the extant Sir Paul Boffa Hospital, ensured a very relevant proposal. SIR -B experiments in Japan. Among the test sites for the SIR -B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits. The SIR -B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution.

Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections RCS are used to relate the image data number to RCS. The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations. The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques.

The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics. Corner reflectors m apart can be recognized on the image, while those m apart seem a single target. The SIR -B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses.

The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away. To assess the clinical and demographic profile of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS and sepsis, among newly admitted children in different age groups in a hospital in North India. This prospective study was conducted at a referral care centre in Northern India. All children, age group 0 to SIRS and sepsis and to gain clinical and demographic data. During the study period, a total of patients were screened for SIRS.

Out of the latter 30, 19 had septic shock. Mean duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay in the SIRS group were 6. In the group without SIRS , mean duration were 2. In conclusion, the proportion of sepsis contributing to SIRS is high in a tertiary care hospital. Therefore rapid recognition of SIRS is essential. Goal directed treatment of sepsis is also important so that high mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock are prevented.

The sir A gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis.

Sir A orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of Sir A regulation has never been identified. Hepatic encephalopathy HE is a complication associated with worst prognosis in decompensated liver cirrhosis LC patients.

Previous studies have identified prognostic factors for HE, and recent studies reported an association between systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and liver disease. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for day mortality in alcoholic LC patients with HE who visited the emergency department ED. The primary outcomes were day mortality and prognostic factors for patients with HE visiting the ED.

In total, patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, the day mortality rate was 6. Application of SIR epidemiological model: The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR susceptible-infected-susceptible is presented to describe a reality. From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation.

In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions. A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model.

An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis J. The basic reproductive rate R 0 in the coupled system has been worked out. Using Aron's results cf. Mutu dari karet remah sangat dipengaruhi oleh adanya konsentrasi zat menguap sebagai salah satu parameter penentuan kualitas karet remah yang dihasilkan. Analisa perbandingan sangat efektif dilakukan dalam menentukan kualitas karet remah bermutu paling baik berdasarkan klasifikasi antara mutu SIR 20 dengan mutu SIR 3WF. Parameter yang digunakan adalah mengetahui konsentrasi zat menguap yang lebih besar atau lebih kecil berdasarkan Standard Indonesian Rubber SIR yang telah ditentukan.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is characterized by the activation of the innate immune system resulting in stimulation of inflammatory responses, coagulation, and platelet activation, that may contribute to complication such as the development of acute kidney injury AKI. AKI importantly worsens the outcome of SIRS , implying the existence of a detrimental cross-talk via systemic messages.

Mitochondria are a source of damage-associated molecular patterns DAMPs and are thought to form a molecular link between tissue injury and stimulation of innate immunity. Hence, we performed a case control study in critically ill patients with SIRS diagnosed with or without AKI, in which we determined mtDNA levels in plasma and urine, and correlated these to markers of renal impairment, inflammation, coagulation and platelet activation.

In addition, we exposed mice, primary renal tubular epithelial cells TECs and platelets to mtDNA or purified mitochondrial ligands, and measured their response to elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Our data reveal that increased systemic mtDNA levels in SIRS patients do not correlate with systemic inflammation and renal disease activity.

In contrast, we found that urinary mtDNA levels correlate with an elevated albumin creatinine ratio ACR as well as with increased urinary markers of inflammation, coagulation and platelet activation. Moreover, activation of platelets results in mtDNA release. A criterion groups comparison.

The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS -2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of criminal defendants males, 48 females who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning primarily the M-FAST at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS.

Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS -2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS -2 in this sample.

Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS -2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification.

Sir 2 and calorie restriction in yeast: Activation of Sir 2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction CR has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir 2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast. We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir 2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries.

Several specific cases where the Sir 2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted. These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir 2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model. Bass- SIR model for diffusion of new products. We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product.

We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass- SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery.

Therefore, diffusion in the Bass- SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones. Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer.

Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits.

In , he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases. Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between and , he discovered five new elements.

These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in , the first such prize to come to a British subject.

He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize. The effects were analyzed by the SIRS -related indexes.

The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In consecutive patients, SIRS status SIRS patients were Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS caused by non-infectious agents.

Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled.

We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS , and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders.

Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.

Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide.

These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. Sir A orthologs affect both motility and virulence. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sir A may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon.

We examined the effect of a sir A mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control. Sir A had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium less than fivefold. However, in various types of motility agar plates, sir A was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding fold. Mutations in the sir A orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sir A orthologs.

The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed. An Interview with Sir Michael Marmot. Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. This interview was conducted by email in May of this year. This was an important affirmation of democratic values. When thinking about health inequalities people often use the analogue of the ladder to show how the gradient of worsening health outcomes affects all people in society except presumably those at the very top.

Thinking about the ladder leads us to pose the following question: Is making the ladder shorter i. All societies have hier-archies. It is not conceivable, therefore, to have a society with no ladder.

The conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health leads us to think of at least two linked ways to address the relation between position on the ladder and health: The first argues for reducing the slope of the social gradient. To see this, suppose, just for a moment, that the ladder were defined on the basis of years of education. People who had three years or fewer had life expectancy of 50 years. Sir Victor Horsley is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery.

He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in , and in he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on.

Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square, London , and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis , written in by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia.

They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type.

The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry.

The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language.

Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments. Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous?

The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry.

Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues like open-mindedness and tolerance may be subjected to sterner tests.

Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues.

The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take.

One day, Sir , you may tax it. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable — as it turned out, electric light.

Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of Sir William Mitchell This was a difficult period for CERN.

Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes.

On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary The Pragmatics of Sir Thomas Bodley. Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, — offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence.

These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed.

Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied. The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions.

The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry.

If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century.

The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified.

Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku.

Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria. SIRS is valid in discriminating between severe and moderate diabetic foot infections.

This retrospective, single-center study was designed to distinguish severe diabetic foot infection DFI from moderate DFI based on the presence or absence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. The database of a single academic foot and ankle program was reviewed and patients were identified.

Severe DFI was defined as local infection associated with manifestation of two or more objective findings of systemic toxicity using SIRS criteria. Patients with severe DFI experienced a 2. The risk of minor amputations was not significantly different between the two groups odds ratio 1. The odds of having a severe DFI was 7. Patients with severe DFI, as by manifesting two or more signs of systemic inflammation or toxicity, had higher rates of major amputation and longer hospital stays and required more surgery and more subsequent admissions than patients who did not manifest SIRS.

Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis.

The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents.

Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses.

The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines.

Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically.

T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis.

Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis. Regulation of omega-3 fish oil emulsion on the SIRS during the initial stage of severe acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of parenteral supplementation with omega-3 fish oil emulsion Omegaven on systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS during the initial stage of severe acute pancreatitis SAP.

Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery. Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square.

In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others. In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated.

Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses.

He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic.

Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion.

We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function.

In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex.

When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished.

The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter.

A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives.

numbers will entered the

We have developed an all-atom free-energy force field PFF01 for protein tertiary structure prediction. PFF01 is based on physical interactions and was parameterized using experimental structures of a family of proteins believed to span a wide variety of possible folds.

It contains empirical, although sequence-independent terms for hydrogen bonding. Its solvent-accessible surface area solvent model was first fit to transfer energies of small peptides. The parameters of the solvent model were then further optimized to stabilize the native structure of a single protein, the autonomously folding villin headpiece, against competing low-energy decoys. Here we validate the force field for five nonhomologous helical proteins with 20—60 amino acids.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chimera proteins are widely used for the analysis of the protein-protein interaction region. One of the major issues is the epitope analysis of the monoclonal antibody. In the analysis, a continuous portion of an antigen is sequentially substituted into a different sequence.

This method works well for an antibody recognizing a linear epitope, but not for that recognizing a discontinuous epitope. Although the designing the chimera proteins based on the tertiary structure information is required in such situations, there is no appropriate tool so far.

Results In light of the problem, we developed a tool named TCP standing for a Tool for designing Chimera Proteins, which extracts some sets of mutually orthogonal cutting surfaces for designing chimera proteins using a genetic algorithm.

The test results of our method indicate that the TCP is robust and applicable to various shapes of proteins. Conclusion We developed TCP, a tool for designing chimera proteins based on the tertiary structure information. TCP is robust and possesses several favourable features, and we believe it is a useful tool for designing chimera proteins.

TCP is freely available as an additional file of this manuscript for academic and non-profit organization. In short, the project is designed to predict the native fold, or native tertiary structure , of a given protein by inputting only the primary sequence of the protein one or three letter code.

The algorithm is based on a general learning, or evolutionary algorithm and is called Genetic Algorithm GAS. In our particular application of GAS, we search for native folds, or lowest energy structures , using two different descriptions for the interactions of the atoms and residues in a given protein sequence.

One potential energy function is based on a free energy description, while the other function is a threading potential derived by Moult and Samudrala.

This modified genetic algorithm was loosely termed a Comparative Genetic Algorithm and was designed to search for native folded structures on both potential energy surfaces, simultaneously. We tested the algorithm on a series of peptides ranging from 11 to 15 residues in length, which are thought to be independent folding units and thereby will fold to native structures independent of the larger protein environment. Our initial results indicated a modest increase in accuracy, as compared to a standard Genetic Algorithm.

We are now in the process of improving the algorithm to increase the sensitivity to other inputs, such as secondary structure requirements. The project did not involve additional students and as of yet, the work has not been published. Antifouling materials with buffering capability are particularly useful for many biomedical applications. In this work, an integrated zwitterionic polymeric material, poly 2- 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methacrylamidoethyl ammonio acetate PCBMAA-1T , was synthesized to carry desired properties antifouling, switchability and buffering capability.

A tertiary amine was used to replace quaternary ammonium as the cation to endow the materials with buffering capability under neutral pH. Through this study, a better understanding on the structure -property relationship of zwitterionic materials was obtained. The tertiary amine cation does not compromise antifouling properties of zwitterionic materials. It is found that the tertiary amine is favorable to obtain good lactone ring stability in switchable PCB materials. To the best of our knowledge, such an all-in-one material has not been reported.

We believe this material might be potentially used for a variety of applications, including tissue engineering, chronic wound healing and medical device coating. Specific hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in a tertiary hospital in northeastern brazil epidemiological profile.

Full Text Available Objective: The study included 1, pregnant women admitted with HDP from January to December regardless of age, education, marital status, place of birth, place of residence and outcome discharge, death and ongoing pregnancy.

Regarding fetal status, The main HDP complications were: The pregnant women assessed presented risk factors for HDP, reinforcing the idea that the health status and the disease and health process are directly influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the population. Site- specific indolation of proline-based peptides via copper II -catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides.

The first site- specific and purely chemical method for modifying proline-based peptides was developed via a convenient, copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides with indoles. This novel approach features high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity, mild conditions, and compatibility with various functional groups.

In addition, a simplified process was realized in one pot and two steps via in situ oxidative coupling of tertiary amine and indoles. The understanding of RNA in regulating gene expression has exploded over the past 15 years. The key finding was that the cluster structure explained the differential processing of the miRNA hairpins by Drosha. We outline the technical difficulties involved in probing large RNAs and data visualization using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and how we adapted the existing approaches to probe large RNAs.

Structural evolution of the Kamchatka - Aleutian arc junction area in the Late Mesozoic and Tertiary. Structural , sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies have been conducted within the Kamchatka - Aleutian junction area aiming to a reconstruction of the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene.

Pre-Pliocene structures of the area are comprised of 1 Achaivayam -Valaginskiy Olyutorskiy arc, 2 Vetlovskiy terrane, 3 Kronotskiy arc, and 4 Tyushevka basin, which goes along the boundary between Vetlovskiy and Kronotskiy units. In the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deformations within the area of study were controlled by the following processes: We reconstruct seven structural complexes with individual structural patterns, which document different episodes of the regional deformation history.

Age of the Kronotskiy arc collision is constrained by that 1 the Tyushevka foreland basin developed during the Late Eocene? Syn-collisional deformations were controlled by the northwest motion of the Kronotskiy arc as part of the Pacific plate, and by the simultaneous motion of the entire northeast Eurasia margin toward the South.

This caused deflection of the western segment of the Kronotskiy arc toward the south; it's rotation up to 90o counterclockwise and the subsequent bent of the arc into a large knee-like structure. The eastern portion of the. We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional 3D structure prediction and then quaternary structure docking of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation.

Our test case is the major vault protein MVP that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat Rattus norvegicus vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults.

These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via.

One of the leading candidates for the site of a large impact is the Chicxulub structure located on the northern Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

The Chicxulub structure is a subsurface zone of upper Cretaceous igneous rocks, carbonates, and breccias.

The structure has been interpreted to be a km diameter; however, there is some question to the size of the structure or to the fact that it even is an impact feature. Little is known about the mineralogy of this structure ; the objective of this study was to determine the clay mineralogy of core samples from within the Chicxulub structure. The successful prediction of protein structure from amino acid sequence requires two features: As a step toward addressing both issues, a threading-based method of secondary and tertiary restraint prediction has been developed and applied to ab initio folding.

Such restraints are derived by extracting consensus contacts and local secondary structure from at least weakly scoring structures that, in some cases, can lack any global similarity to the sequence of interest. Furthermore, to generate representative protein structures , a reduced lattice-based protein model is used with replica exchange Monte Carlo to explore conformational space. For 47 40 proteins, a cluster centroid whose rms deviation from native is below 6.

The number of correctly predicted proteins increases to 50 when atomic detail is added and a knowledge-based atomic potential is combined with clustered and nonclustered structures for candidate selection. The combination of the ratio of the relative number of contacts to the protein length and the number of clusters generated by the folding algorithm is a reliable indicator of the likelihood of successful fold prediction, thereby opening the way for genome-scale ab initio folding.

Riboswitches exemplify this modularity in terms of both structural and functional adaptability of RNA components. Here, we extend our computational approach based on tree graph sampling to the prediction of riboswitch topologies by defining additional edges to mimick pseudoknots. Starting from a secondary 2D structure , we construct an initial graph deduced from predicted junction topologies by our data-mining algorithm RNAJAG trained on known RNAs; we sample these graphs in 3D space guided by knowledge-based statistical potentials derived from bending and torsion measures of internal loops as well as radii of gyration for known RNAs.

We present graph sampling results for 10 representative riboswitches, 6 of them with pseudoknots, and compare our predictions to solved structures based on global and local RMSD measures. Our results indicate that the helical arrangements in riboswitches can be approximated using our combination of modified 3D tree graph representations for pseudoknots, junction prediction, graph moves, and scoring functions. Future challenges in the field of riboswitch prediction and design are also discussed.

Conformational analysis of processivity clamps in solution demonstrates that tertiary structure does not correlate with protein dynamics. The relationship between protein sequence, structure , and dynamics has been elusive.

Here, we report a comprehensive analysis using an in-solution experimental approach to study how the conservation of tertiary structure correlates with protein dynamics. Hydrogen exchange measurements of eight processivity clamp proteins from different species revealed that, despite highly similar three-dimensional structures , clamp proteins display a wide range of dynamic behavior. Differences were apparent both for structurally similar domains within proteins and for corresponding domains of different proteins.

Several of the clamps contained regions that underwent local unfolding with different half-lives. Our observations reveal that tertiary structure and dynamics are not directly correlated and that primary structure plays an important role in dynamics.

The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

Pri-miRa transcript folds into a tertiary structure and autoregulates its processing. Expressions of miRNAs are highly regulated in tissues, disruption of which leads to disease. How this regulation is achieved and maintained is still largely unknown. MiRNAs that reside on clustered or polycistronic transcripts represent a more complex case where individual miRNAs from a cluster are processed with different efficiencies despite being cotranscribed.

To shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that might be operating in these cases, we considered the long polycistronic primary miRNA transcript pri-miRa that contains six miRNAs with diverse functions. The six miRNA domains on this cluster are differentially processed to produce varying amounts of resultant mature miRNAs in different tissues.

How this is achieved is not known. We show, using various biochemical and biophysical methods coupled with mutational studies, that pri-miRa adopts a specific three-dimensional architecture that poses a kinetic barrier to its own processing. This tertiary structure could create suboptimal protein recognition sites on the pri-miRNA cluster due to higher-order structure formation. This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes.

Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…. Bhageerath—Targeting the near impossible: Pushing the frontiers of atomic models for protein tertiary structure prediction. Protein folding, considered to be the holy grail of molecular biology, remains intractable even after six decades since the report of the first crystal structure.

Over 70, X-ray and NMR structures are now available in protein structural repositories and no physico-chemical solution is in sight. Molecular simulation methodologies have evolved to a stage to provide a computational solution to the tertiary structures of small proteins. Knowledge base driven methodologies are maturing in predicting the tertiary structures of query sequences which share high similarities with sequences of known structures in the databases. We describe here the development of Bhageerath an ab initio model and Bhageerath-H a hybrid model and present a critique on the current status of prediction of protein tertiary structures.

Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia. Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy.

The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages to reduce noise from the source rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously. The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e. Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates.

Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet UV vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication. Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E in TM III and amino acid sites 87—93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen.

Both mutagenesis analyses of EQ and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light. Concentric geophysical anomalies associated with enigmatic occurrences of Upper Cretaceous breccias and andesitic rocks led Penfield and Camargo1 to suspect that this structure was a buried impact basin.

The Chicxulub melt rocks that we studied contain anomalously high levels of iridium up to Myr, in good agreement with the mean plateau age of Furthermore, these melt rocks acquired a remanent magnetization indicating that they cooled during an episode of reversed geomagnetic polarity.

Hypochlorous acid-mediated protein oxidation: Hypochlorous acid HOCl is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes.

HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies. As proteins and amino acids are highly abundant in vivo and react rapidly with HOCl, they are likely to be major targets for HOCl.

In this study, two small globular proteins, lysozyme and insulin, have been oxidized with increasing excesses of HOCl to determine whether the pattern of HOCl-mediated amino acid consumption is consistent with reported kinetic data for isolated amino acids and model compounds. Identical experiments have been carried out with mixtures of N-acetyl amino acids to prevent reaction at the alpha-amino groups that mimic the protein composition to examine the role of protein structure on reactivity.

The results indicate that tertiary structure facilitates secondary chlorine transfer reactions of chloramines formed on His and Lys side chains. In light of these data, second-order rate constants for reactions of Lys side chain and Gly chloramines with Trp side chains and disulfide bonds have been determined, together with those for further oxidation of Met sulfoxide by HOCl and His side chain chloramines. Computational kinetic models incorporating these additional rate constants closely predict the experimentally observed amino acid consumption.

These studies provide insight into the roles of chloramine formation and three-dimensional structure on the reactions of HOCl with isolated proteins and demonstrate that kinetic models can predict the outcome of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation.

We report paleomagnetic results for core samples of the breccia and andesitic rocks recovered from the Yucatan-6 Petrolcos Mexicanos exploratory well within the Chicxulub structure about 60 km SSW from its center , northern Yucatan, Mexico. Andesitic rocks are characterized by stable single-component magnetizations with a mean inclination of Breccias present a complex paleomagnetic record characterized by multivectorial magnetizations with widely different initial NRM inclinations.

However, after alternating field demagnetization, well defined characteristic components with upward inclinations are defined. IRM acquisition experiments, comparison of IRM and NRM coercivity spectra and the single component magnetization of the andesitic rocks indicate the occurrence of iron-rich titanomagnetites of single or pseudo-single domain states as the dominant magnetic carriers.

The inclination is also consistent with the expected value and corresponding paleolatitude for the site estimated from the reference polar wander curve for North America.

Structuring a body of knowledge for continuing and tertiary education in South Africa. The limited attempts in this regard are furthermore taking place in isolation, with practically no dialogue between the limited facilities management industry and the providers of the limited education that is available. Although the study that was undertaken did not have the objective to create comprehensive interaction between the existing role-players, the stated problems were addressed by involving the industry, participants in continuing education programmes and other role-players in the condensed research problem as stated below.

Research was therefore undertaken to address the structuring of educational programmes. These surveys provided information that led to the resultant educational activities stated below.

The most important aspects that were determined were the following: It was possible to create and test amongst facilities management practitioners a diagrammatic presentation that contextualised facilities management. The literature survey, including international and South African sources, contributed towards compiling a primary knowledge framework for facilities management. The perceived value of the contents of a continuing education programme that had been attended by numerous groups of delegates over a number of years was established.

A proposed tertiary education programme was presented to practitioners. Site- specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals. Seven secondary S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33 and two tertiary T and T site- specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms C connected to the next-nearest-neighbor N-N-N C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range K.

This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes. The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane iso-octane , and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures K using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1 5 transition of OH spectrum near Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1].

Subsequent to that, site- specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures TLS are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites.

The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues. Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl OH radicals with nine large branched alkanes i.

In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range K.

Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over K, are given as the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon: Major structural controls on the distribution of pre- Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada.

The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds. This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre- Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships.

Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west.

Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time.

Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes.

Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits.

These faults most likely results from significant lateral. High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past years. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochrono Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge.

This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge SAK. SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations PFnets of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the….

A regularity index for the selection of native-like tertiary structures of proteins. Automated protein tertiary structure prediction from sequence information alone remains an elusive goal to computational prescriptions.

Dividing the problem into three stages viz. We have analysed the dihedrals in loop regions in a non-redundant dataset of proteins drawn from the Protein Data Bank and categorized them as helix-like or sheet-like regular or irregular. The regularity index is presented here as a simple tool that finds its application in protein structure analysis as a discriminatory scoring function for rapid screening before the more compute intensive atomic level energy calculations could be undertaken.

The tool is made freely accessible over the internet at www. Structural similarity and category- specificity. It has been suggested that category- specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where In summary, we describe the first example of pri-miRNA structure modulating differential expression of constituent miRNAs.

Infiltration of regulatory T Treg cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated.

We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures TA-TLSs.

TA-TLSs have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. Thus, we propose that Treg cells in TA-TLSs can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells might provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.

Contributions of historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors to phylogeographic structure in a Tertiary relict species, Emmenopterys henryi Rubiaceae. Examining how historical and contemporary geographic and environmental factors contribute to genetic divergence at different evolutionary scales is a central yet largely unexplored question in ecology and evolution.

Here, we examine this key question by investigating how environmental and geographic factors across different epochs have driven genetic divergence at deeper phylogeographic and shallower landscape genetic evolutionary scales in the Chinese Tertiary relict tree Emmenopterys henryi.

We found that geography played a predominant role at all levels - phylogeographic clades are broadly geographically structured , the deepest levels of divergence are associated with major geological or pre-Quaternary climatic events, and isolation by distance IBD primarily explained population genetic structure.

However, environmental factors are clearly also important - climatic fluctuations since the Last Interglacial LIG have likely contributed to phylogeographic structure , and the population genetic structure in our AFLP dataset was partly explained by isolation by environment IBE , which may have resulted from natural selection in environments with divergent climates. Thus, historical and contemporary geography and historical and contemporary environments have all shaped patterns of genetic structure in E.

Specific "scientific" data structures , and their processing. Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific , embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations.

Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data in particular: Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure.

The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states.

Folding of RNA tertiary structure: Linkages between backbone phosphates, ions, and water. The functional forms of many RNAs have compact architectures. The placement of phosphates within such structures must be influenced not only by the strong electrostatic repulsion between phosphates, but also by networks of interactions between phosphates, water, and mobile ions. This review first explores what has been learned of the basic thermodynamic constraints on these arrangements from studies of hydration and ions in simple DNA molecules, and then gives an overview of what is known about ion and water interactions with RNA structures.

A brief survey of RNA crystal structures identifies several interesting architectures in which closely spaced phosphates share hydration shells or phosphates are buried in environments that provide intramolecular hydrogen bonds or site-bound cations. Formation of these structures must require strong coupling between the uptake of ions and release of water. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin A: We analyzed the results quantitatively on the basis of published data indicating that the sulfhydryl exists in two conformations that are coupled to the transition between two tertiary structures of hemoglobin in dynamic equilibrium.

Our analyses show that the ionizable groups linked to the DTNB reaction have lower pKas of ionization in deoxyhemoglobin compared to oxyhemoglobin. So these ionizable groups should make negative contributions to the Bohr effect. A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 GH44 protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.

The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography.

Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies. Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates lamprey and hagfish is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat LRR gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor VLR genes. Tertiary structure and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum.

The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates.

Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is much higher than that of the isolated C. It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a min assay of 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with atrial fibrillation in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease from a tertiary hospital in China. Methods In a single center, inpatients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease prior to catheter ablation were retrospectively reviewed.

Among them, Results MetS was found in Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer. The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done.

Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols. To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyllinoleoyl-sn- glycerol 8: Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated From the present study we conclude that the medium-chain fatty acids from STAG, in addition to absorption into the portal blood as free fatty acids, are absorbed by the same pathway as the conventional long-chain triacylglycerols, that is, they are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, absorbed The leading industries of the tertiary sector of Changsha are selected by means of hierarchy analysis, and some measures to realize the structure optimization of the tertiary sector in Changsha are put forward, which include increasing investment, promoting innovation mechanism of the tertiary sector, strengthening the management organs of the sector and reinforcing the construction of legal system.

Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids mostly essential fatty acids and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids SSLs , each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or Site- specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy.

The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states. Isotopically edited infrared IR spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site- specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized.

The site- specific thermal unfolding probed by 13 C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure. Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif. These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models.

Full Text Available PTPN12 is an important tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in various physiological processes. However, the molecular basis underlying the substrate specificity of PTPN12 remains uncertain. Here, enzymological and crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify two distinct structural features that are crucial determinants of PTPN12 substrate specificity: Taken together, our results not only provide the working mechanisms of PTPN12 for desphosphorylation of its substrates but will also help in designing specific inhibitors of PTPN Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter.

Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem—loop II. Although progress has been made in defining singularities like the RNA pseudoknot near this AUG, the sequence and structural features of the HCV IRES which stimulate accurate and efficient initiation of protein synthesis are only partially defined. Here we report that a region further upstream from the AUG, stem—loop II of the HCV IRES, also contains an element of local tertiary structure which we have detected using RNase H cleavage and have mapped using the singular ability of two bases therein to undergo covalent intra-chain crosslinking stimulated by UV light.

Several earlier studies have shown that the correct sequence between bases 45 and 70 of the HCV IRES stem—loop II domain is required for initiation of protein synthesis. Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem—loop II element is directly involved in IRES action.

The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine replaced three individual adenines, two of which make long-range stacking interactions and one that also forms hydrogen bonds. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that kinetics of tertiary structure formation upon addition of MgCl2 are also site specific , with local conformational changes occurring from 5 ms to 4s and with global folding from 1 to 5s.

Site- specific substitution with 15 N-nucleobases allowed observation of stable hydrogen bond formation by NMR experiments.

Loss of ordered molecular structure in proteins is known to increase their adhesion to surfaces. The aim of this work was to study the stability of norovirus secondary and tertiary structures and its implications for viral adhesion to fresh foods and agrifood surfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions studied correspond to those prevalent in the principal vehicles of viral transmission vomit and feces and in the food processing and handling environment pasteurization and refrigeration.

The structures of virus-like particles representing GI. The particles were remarkably stable under most of the conditions. Combining temperature with pH or ionic strength caused variable losses of structure depending on the particle type.

Regardless of pH, heating to pasteurization temperatures or higher would be required to increase GII. Regardless of temperature, increased ionic strength would increase GII. FCV adsorption would be greater at refrigeration, pasteurization, or high temperature combined with a low salt concentration or at a higher NaCl concentration regardless of temperature.

Norovirus adhesion mediated by hydrophobic interaction may depend on hydrophobic residues normally exposed on the capsid surface at pH 3, pH 8, physiological ionic strength, and low temperature, while at pasteurization temperatures it may rely more on buried hydrophobic residues exposed upon structural rearrangement.

Structural basis for substrate specificities of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases. Compared to the human kinase, the Drosophila kinase has a wider substrate cleft, which may be responsible for the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme.

The human deoxyguanosine kinase is highly specific for purine substrates The two new structures provide an explanation for the substrate specificity of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase.

The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone AHL quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species. Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed.

The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds. Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5.

This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transpl Many patients with primary progressive aphasia PPA are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these….

Structural similarity and category- specificity: On this account one might expect a positive relationshi The genus Erophaca comprises a single herbaceous perennial species with two subspecies distributed at opposite ends of the Mediterranean region. We used nrDNA ITS to investigate the phylogeny of the genus, and AFLP markers 9 primers, 20 populations to establish the genetic relationship between subspecies, and among populations at each side of the Gibraltar Strait.

Life form attributes and molecular clock estimates suggest that Erophaca is one of the many Tertiary relicts that form part of the present Mediterranean flora.

Within the occidental subspecies, European plants are clearly derived from North-African populations Morocco which, despite being rare on a regional scale, present the highest genetic diversity as estimated by private and rare fragment numbers. In general, genetic diversity decreased with increasing distance from Morocco.

Possible causes for their disjunct distribution are discussed. Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein famil.

Amphibian and reptile road-kills on tertiary roads in relation to landscape structure: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns.

The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along Relations between land cover classes and amphibian and reptile road-kills were analysed with conditional probabilities and general linear models GLM.

We also estimated the potential cost-efficiency of a large scale citizen science monitoring project. We recorded amphibian and 72 reptile road-kills comprising eight species mainly occurring on agricultural roads. Overall, hotspots of amphibian and reptile road-kills were next to the land cover classes arable land, suburban areas and vineyards.

Conditional probabilities and GLMs identified road-kills especially next to preferred habitats of green toad, common toad and grass snake, the most often found road-killed species.

Our findings showed that freely available remote sensing data in combination with a. However, interpreting results obtained using these analogs has been difficult due to their low isotype specificity. Additionally, each isotype has two binding sites with different cGMP affinities and analog selectivities, making understanding the molecular basis for isotype specificity of these compounds even more challenging. To determine isotype specificity of cGMP analogs and their structural basis, we generated the full-length regulatory domains of PKG I and II isotypes with each binding site disabled, determined their affinities for these analogs, and obtained cocrystal structures of both isotypes bound with cGMP analogs.

Our structural and functional results explain the selectivity of these analogs for each PKG isotype and provide a starting point for the rational design of isotype selective activators. Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction. Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects.

Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component. Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications. Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text.

This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone. For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al.

Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone. Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups FOG and maximum common substructure MCS similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features. The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis.

We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category- specific disorders and argue that this model can help Structural properties of proteins specific to the myelin sheath.

The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane layer surrounding myelinated axons in vertebrates, which is formed when the plasma membrane of an oligodendrocyte or a Schwann cell wraps itself around the axon.

A large fraction of the total protein in this membrane layer is comprised of only a small number of individual proteins, which have certain intriguing structural properties. The myelin proteins are implicated in a number of neurological diseases, including, for example, autoimmune diseases and peripheral neuropathies. In this review, the structural properties of a number of myelin- specific proteins are described. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion.

Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion.

In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion.

Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished.

The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development.

Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage.

Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds. The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases.

The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak. Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al.

Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition.

This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital.

Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis.

It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria.

Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality. SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions.

We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery. Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture.

SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality.

The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure.

The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems.

Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial.

But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life.

Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated. It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists.

Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized.

Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI.

SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. A geometric mean filter is then used to merge the output signals obtained with different duples, and to form a global broadband maximum signal-to-interference ratio SIR enhancement apparatus.

The resulting filter outputs are enhanced acoustic Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. It adaptively changes the number of blocks to improve the throughput performance and frequency efficiency according to the Signal to Interference Ratio SIR. Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood.

Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness. We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering.

We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases.

SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established.

Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h.

Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives.

It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy.

Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation.

In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion. A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping.

The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined.

SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead.

The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated.

Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner.

These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed.

This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body.

We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling.

By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues.

After listening to a short passage of connected speech, subjects generate a rating proportional to its intelligibility using an equal-appearing interval scale from 0 to Before test passages are presented, the signal-to-babble ratio SBR is adjusted to a level that elicits intelligibility ratings of for a "setup" passage.

Then, with SBR held constant, three or more test passages are rated and the results averaged for each aided condition. This paper describes the generation of recorded test materials and their investigation using normally hearing listeners. Based on these data, a critical difference of about 2 scale intervals is recommended. A future paper will deal with results for hearing-impaired subjects. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B.

Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B. It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established.

The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined.

The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia. Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2.

To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors. We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day.

Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS.

There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery.

In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people.

Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history. This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine.

This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley.

The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level.

Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence. This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century.

Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike.

Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington. Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost.

However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits.

Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides.

Sir Walter Langdon-Brown Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology.

He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour. Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone SIR -ZEE was born about the year as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities.

Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, , is one of Sir William's less well known addresses.

Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management.

His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality.

Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War. Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model. Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths.

The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence.

This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered SIR model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty.

A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data. We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics.

Catabolite repression of the Sir A regulatory cascade in Salmonella enterica. BarA is a sensor kinase that responds to an unknown signal by phosphorylating the response regulator Sir A. A second regulatory RNA, csrC, is also strongly regulated by Sir A, although gel mobility shift assays do not demonstrate a direct interaction. Additionally, we have determined that the sir A gene is activated by crp and cya. The effects of crp and cya were also observed on the downstream members of the Sir A regulon, hilA, sopB, csrB, and csrC.

Supplementation of a rich medium with phosphate diminished the catabolite control of the csr portion but not the virulence portion of the Sir A regulon.

Discord in Models Measuring Healthcare Quality. The government publishes 3 different public report surgical site infection SSI metrics, all called standardized infection ratios SIRs , that impact perceived hospital quality. We conducted a non-random cross-sectional observational pilot study of 20 California hospitals that voluntarily submitted colon surgery and SSI data.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; The trend of stable point of the infection ratio is analyzed by changing different parameters, which help to draw a conclusion that immunization rate, spontaneous immune loss rate, and passenger number have a great influence on the final infected ratio.

The research plays a vital role in helping the government and subway administration to master the panic spread mechanism and reduce the panic spread by improving measures and also provides certain reference significance for rail system construction, emergency contingency plans, and the construction and implementation of emergency response system. Time from onset of SIRS to antibiotic administration and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection. We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population. We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH.

Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale mRS.

Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores OR per hour, 0. Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.

Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group. SIR -A radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields. Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR -A synthetic aperture radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields are presented and preliminary interpretation provided.

Even a very small amount of vegetation provides some backscatter, however. Interdune areas frequently contain rough lag gravels which outline the dunes. Lava flows are typically very rough surfaces which are bright areas on radar images. Cinder cones are smooth and therefore black on the image unless they have a blocky crater rim at the SIR -A incidence angle.

Ash dunes and ash fields are smooth and imaged as dark areas. Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS. MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

The barA and sir A genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively.

This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes. In this study, we examined the pathways by which Sir A affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that hilA had no effect on flhDC.

Therefore, although the flhDC and hilA regulatory cascades interact, sir A affects each of them independently. Phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the hilA and hilC promoters in gel mobility shift assays but not the flhD, fliA, hilD, and invF promoters.

The sir A gene did not regulate csrA but did activate csrB expression. Consistent with these results, phosphorylated Sir A was found to directly bind the csrB promoter but not the csrA promoter. We propose a model in which Sir A directly activates virulence expression via hilA and hilC while repressing the flagellar regulon indirectly via csrB. Agoraphobia is a disease: The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks.

In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity. These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis.

An SIRS epidemic model incorporating media coverage with time delay is proposed. The positivity and boundedness are studied firstly. The locally asymptotical stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is studied in succession. And then, the conditions on which periodic orbits bifurcate are given. Furthermore, we show that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the delay.

The obtained results show that the time delay in media coverage can not affect the stability of the disease-free equilibrium when the basic reproduction number R0 1, the stability of the endemic equilibrium will be affected by the time delay; there will be a family of periodic orbits bifurcating from the endemic equilibrium when the time delay increases through a critical value.

Finally, some examples for numerical simulations are also included. Full Text Available A simple and compact 4. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator SIR based bandpass filter BPF. The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors.

The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss S21 and return loss S11 were 0.

Traffic-driven SIR epidemic model on networks. We propose a novel SIR epidemic model which is driven by the transmission of infection packets in networks. Specifically, infected nodes generate and deliver infection packets causing the spread of the epidemic, while recovered nodes block the delivery of infection packets, and this inhibits the epidemic spreading.

We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. Stochastic SIR epidemics in a population with households and schools.

In each of the types, every individual is part of one school and one household. In the independent partition model, the partitions of the population into schools and households are independent of each other. This model corresponds to the well-studied household-workplace model. In the hierarchical model which we introduce here, members of the same household are also members of the same school. We introduce computable branching process approximations for both types of populations and use these to compare the probabilities of a large outbreak.

The branching process approximation in the hierarchical model is novel and of independent interest. We prove by a coupling argument that if all households and schools have the same size, an epidemic spreads easier in the sense that the number of individuals infected is stochastically larger in th I - Sensor calibration experiment.

A sensor calibration experiment was proposed as part of SIR -B experiments in Japan, together with the rice crop experiment and the ocean oil-pollution detection experiment.

This sensor calibration experiment was intended 1 to establish a transfer function from image data to radar backscattering characteristics, 2 to evaluate 3-dB resolutions, 3 to verify the ability to resolve two closely-spaced targets, and 4 to clarify sidelobe structures due to range and azimuth compressions. The disused Akita Airport was chosen as the main test site for the calibration experiment on the first three objectives.

This paper describes the test site, the design of the corner reflectors, and briefly predicts the results. Optimal vaccination policies for an SIR model with limited resources. The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination.

We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited. These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination.

With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school. During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria.

Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college.

During his service until his retirement in he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least local doctors. Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond.

Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically.

On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form.

The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network.

Simulations and Analytical Models. The standard pair approximation equations PA for the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered-Susceptible SIRS model of infection spread on a network of homogeneous degree k predict a thin phase of sustained oscillations for parameter values that correspond to diseases that confer long lasting immunity. Here we present a study of the dependence of this oscillatory phase on the parameter k and of its relevance to understand the behaviour of simulations on networks.

We show that for parameter values in the oscillatory phase, and even for large system sizes, the simulations either die out or exhibit damped oscillations, depending on the initial conditions. This failure of the standard PA model to capture the qualitative behaviour of the simulations on large RRGs is currently being investigated. Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence.

In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived.

A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains.

Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation.

We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 TREM-1 was reported to play a key roll in amplification of production of inflammatory cytokines. TREM-1 is suggested to be a specific biomarker for sepsis for this reason, but the clinical significance of TREM-1 has not been elucidated. TREM-1 expressions on the surfaces of monocytes and neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Little is known regarding systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS criteria and mortality in developing countries.

We evaluated the utility of the SIRS criteria to predict death among a paediatric surgical population in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Age, SIRS variables temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and leucocyte count , diagnosis, surgical procedure and outcome were analysed for paediatric surgical patients during Age-specific criteria for SIRS variables were then applied to the data. Using published SIRS criteria, temperature was the only variable that correlated with mortality.

When norms for an African population were used, leucocyte count also correlated with mortality. With the exception of temperature, published SIRS criteria were not predictive of mortality. Leucocyte count became predictive of death using norms specific to an African population.

SIRS and its component data are a worthwhile area of future prospective research in developing countries. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: Contribution of the Sir A regulon to biofilm formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.