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Andrade, Wesley Pereira [Hospital A. In Stewart and Treves described a syndrome related to the association between lymphangiosarcoma and chronic lymphedema due to radical mastectomy and radiotherapy. Currently, literature data reveals around published cases. However, this pathology is becoming each time rarer due to the growing indication of conservative breast surgery and sentinel lymphonode research, thus reducing the need of axillary lymph node dissection with subsequent lymphedema.

Described will be the case of a woman that developed angiosarcoma in shoulder 17 years after mastectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy. Stewart- Treves syndrome is related to the rise of angiosarcoma in patients with chronic lymphedema. It is currently treated as a rare disease. We describe the case of a woman who developed angiosarcoma in shoulder 17 years after mastectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Steward- Treves syndrome is a cutaneous angiosarcoma that usually appears after long evolution of a lymphoedema after mastectomy for mammary neoplasia associated with an axillary dissection.

Nye casino siderophores aspergillus fumigatus allergy is a rare disease develop most of the time in upper arm and often confounded with cutaneous metastasis. Only the biopsy and immunohistochemical study confirm the diagnosis. The treatment is surgical and consists of large cutaneous excision, an amputation of the limb or even its disarticulation and will be followed by chemotherapy.

Despite the treatment, the prognosis remains severe with poor survival. We report the case of a patient who had a Steward- Treves syndrome 20 years after lymphoedema following a left mastectomy with axillary dissection. Angiosarcoma associated with chronic lymphedema Stewart- Treves syndrome of the leg: Magnetic resonance MR imaging findings of two patients with Stewart- Treves syndrome are presented.

MR imaging showed edematous changes in the subcutaneous fat and skin masses that proved to be angiosarcomas. MR signal intensity of the tumor was low compared with fat on T1-weighted images and intermediate and heterogeneous on T2-weighted images. In one patient, administration of intravenous Gd-DTPA showed marked enhancement in the early phase, which persisted until the delayed phase. These finding on dynamic MR imaging may reflect the abundant vascular spaces seen in these tumors.

Stewart- Treves syndrome — case report and review of the literature. Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic lymphedema, mainly due to total mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection for breast cancer, can induce development of rare and highly malignant cutaneous angiosarcoma. There are only about cases of STS reported in the literature. Limb amputation appears to be the treatment of choice. Histopathological examination of the tumor was consistent with angiosarcoma.

Given unsatisfactory treatment options, the prevention of long-lasting lymphedema is crucial to improve prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Il est de mauvais pronostic. Lymphedema of the extremities is a debilitating disease characterized by chronic swelling due to interstitial edema caused by insufficient lymphatic drainage capacity.

Progression with skin thickening Congenital Treves ' field transmesenteric hernia in children: A case series and literature Jackpot party casino on facebook apps. Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernia is abdominal visceral herniation through a congenital or acquired mesenteric defect.

Treves ' field is the area of terminal ileal mesentery circumscribed by the ileocolic artery and its last ileal branch. It is very susceptible to congenital defects. To clarify the clinical course of congenital Treves ' field transmesenteric hernia cTFTH, we retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases and conducted a literature review.

Five consecutive pediatric cTFTH cases one male, four females underwent emergency laparotomy at our institutions from April and December We analyzed their demographics, preoperative findings, surgical procedures, and outcomes, along with a literature review. Abdominal plain X-ray showed displaced intestinal gas with gas paucity in the center of the abdomen in two cases and diffusely increased intestinal gas in two others. Abdominal computed tomography CT in four cases showed intestinal loop clusters, mesenteric vessel changes, small-bowel obstruction, and ascites.

All cases Nye casino siderophores aspergillus fumigatus allergy emergency laparotomy for ileal resection with ileocecal valve preservation. Simultaneous anastomoses were performed in four cases; the remaining case underwent ileostomy because of prematurity.

Although one case needed reoperation for postoperative bowel obstruction, all patients survived. Literature review of pediatric cTFTH showed a high frequency of necrosis Among pediatric cTFTH cases, A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

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The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, transporter genes, and azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Disease spectrum, treatment practices, and outcomes.

Full Text Available The Stewart- Treves syndrome is a rare and deadly entity, which is defined as angiosarcoma arising in the setting of chronic lymphedema.

It typically presents in women who develop lymphedema in the upper extremity secondary to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer surgery.

It is extremely uncommon in the lower extremities as a result of idiopathic chronic lymphedema. Here, we present the case of a year-old female patient with idiopathic chronic lymphedema of the lower extremities having morbid obesity BMI She developed multiple confluent, hemorrhagic and necrotic elevated purple-black papules in the lower extremities, for which the initial diagnosis was cellulitis. Because there was no improvement with antibiotics, a lower extremity ultrasound and biopsy was performed which showed multiple masses in the left inner upper calf with solid and cystic components.

The pathology results of the punch biopsies were consistent with angiosarcoma. Because of the patient's weight and medical comorbidities, no further extensive diagnostic tests were performed to detect metastatic disease, and because of contraindications, no further medical treatment was provided. The patient subsequently died 1 month after diagnosis.

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The Poster staff recognizes that this article does not include everyone who was involved in the response to the Ebola crisis, both at NCI at Frederick and in Africa. Members of the Clinical Monitoring Research Program CMRP were instrumental not only in setting up the clinical trials of the vaccine in Liberia, but also in providing training, community outreach, and recruitment strategies for the trials.

It has been suggested that SIRS are triggered by superfluous pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and that organ injury is caused by uncontrolled inflammatory responses. However, the results of clinical studies, on the usefulness of specific cytokine antagonists and anti-TNF antibodies for the treatment of septic shock, have been unsatisfactory. The reason for this might have been that when uncontrolled inflammatory reactions progressed locally, anti-inflammatory reactions were elevated in the circulated blood by way of CARS, thus the timing of administration and pharmacokinetics did not match clinical course.

We introduce the recent knowledge which indicates that SIRS is a preliminary alert for not only organ dysfunction but also immunosuppression after severe injury or major surgery. Stewart- Treves syndrome angiosarcoma expresses phenotypes of both blood and lymphatic capillaries. This rare and fatal complication is associated with chronic post mastectomy lymphoedema and radiotherapy for breast cancer. Angiosarcoma spread is facilitated by the formation of blood vessels angiogenesis and lymph vessels lymphangiogenesis.

In the future antiangiogenic therapy may improve the poor outcome of current treatments. There was evidence that blocking the angiogenenesis would inhibit progression of angiosarcoma.

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It seems reasonable to hypothesize that blocking the lymphangiogenesis may yield similar results. Although angiosarcomas commonly derive from blood vessels,in case of STS angiosarcomas chronic lymphoedema may suggest its lymphatic origin. The goal of this study was to visualize interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of STS angiosarcoma. Methods On tissue samples obtained from STS angiosarcoma we have performed: STS angiosarcoma morphology was assessed by comparison of pictures obtained on lymphography,microscopy and confocal microscopy.

Results STS angiosarcomas present heterogenous morphology with areas dominated by hemangiosarcoma and lymphangiosarcoma structures. STS angiosarcoma expressed phenotypes of both blood and lymphatic endothelia. Morphology of lymphatic vessels and spaces in the tumour suggest absence of their normal lymphatic function.

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Conclusions Our results confirmed both hemangio-and lymphangiogenic origin of STS angiosarcoma. An American Adult Educator. Throughout his life, Frederick Douglass struggled to be something extraordinary. He rose from a life in slavery to become the most prominent African-American of his day and a leading figure in the abolitionist movement.

Lost in the discussion of his life are the adult education roles that he played throughout his life and career. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community Poster. Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time.

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This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred". Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease.

We here report a case of severe SIRSanasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRSeven without substantial visceral organ involvement.

This article has been updated since it was originally posted on August 22, Each year, the Employee Diversity Team EDT acknowledges a group of women for their great achievements and contributions towards the mission of the National Cancer Institute at Frederick.

Details of their achievements and unique personalities were on display in Building in March, and we present a brief summary of each below:. October 19, — President Richard Nixon announced that Fort Detrick would be converted from a biological warfare facility to a cancer research center Covert, Norman M.

A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland, —, pp. Influenza SIRS with minimal pneumonitis. Full Text Available While systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRSis a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease.

We here report a case of severe SIRSanasarca and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

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Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening.

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  1. Despite the patient's insistence to the contrary, the cause of her eruption was an airborne allergic contact dermatitis to chemicals she was exposed to during her ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, .:
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Due to the name of the phenomenon in the German literature of Head's zones, the illustrations were expected to be based mainly on Head's work. However, a comparison of all available illustrations led to the conclusion that Kleinschmidt chiefly used information from Mackenzie as a model for his illustration.

Due to the inexact reproduction of Mackenzie's work by the illustrator some important features were lost that had been reported by the original authors.

These include the phenomenon of Head's maximum points, which nowadays has fallen into oblivion. Therefore current charts, based on the illustration by Kleinschmidt from , lack experimental evidence and appear to be a simplification of the observational results of both Head's and Mackenzie's original systematic works. Fredericks ; Photo The ceremony, held Dec. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon. This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

Stability of SIRS system with random perturbations. In this paper, we consider an epidemiological model, which is an SIRS model with or without distributed time delay influenced by random perturbations.

We present the stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the associated stochastic SIRS system. The plant has been. Frederick Sound Echo-integrated Trawl Survey, to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Frederick Sounds echo-trawl survey was conducted from to The surveys were conducted throughout most of the southern part This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.

Kirsten student interns at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. These interns swept the entire category, with Madelyne Xiao, a rising intern, winning first place; Maria Hamscher, second place; Ashley Babyak and Dahlia Kronfli tying for third place; and Maham Ahmed receiving an honorable mention. Frederick Sanger, Erwin Chargaff, and the metamorphosis of specificity.

That a transformation of ruling ideas in genetics and biochemistry took place at the dawn of molecular biology, in the late s, is a commonplace; but the nature and components of that transformation are widely misunderstood. Most generally, the change is supposed to be the realization that genes are made not of protein but of nucleic acid--and this change was initiated, of course, by the work of Oswald Avery and his colleagues.

These changes are not mutually exclusive, and both were surely important to the genesis of molecular biology. But logically prior to them, more fundamental, was another transformation in ruling preconceptions, one that has been neglected: This was a metamorphosis in the understanding of biochemical specificity, and while it astonished many biochemists it set free the small groups of those who were beginning to call themselves molecular biologists, enabling them to think of the relationship between genes and proteins in entirely new ways.

Sigurd Wagner of Princeton University. He is recognized for his g. Numerical solution of stochastic SIR model by Bernstein polynomials. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method.

Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation.

Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way.

Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission UPS from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way.

This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did.

Oscillations in SIRS model with distributed delays. The ubiquity of oscillations in epidemics presents a long standing challenge for the formulation of epidemic models. Whether they are external and seasonally driven, or arise from the intrinsic dynamics is an open problem. It is known that fixed time delays destabilize the steady state solution of the standard SIRS model, giving rise to stable oscillations for certain parameters values.

In this contribution, starting from the classical SIRS model, we make a general treatment of the recovery and loss of immunity terms. We present oscillation diagrams amplitude and period in terms of the parameters of the model, showing how oscillations can be destabilized by the shape of the distributions of the two characteristic infectious and immune times.

The formulation is made in terms of delay equations which are both numerically integrated and linearized. Results from simulations are included showing where they support the linear analysis and explaining why not where they do not.

Considerations and comparison with real diseases are presented along. In , the development of a medical brief, effectively detailing the specifications for a purpose-built oncology hospital and including the medical equipment and human resources required, was commenced.

Robust engagement by the relevant stakeholders, many of which hailed from the extant Sir Paul Boffa Hospital, ensured a very relevant proposal. SIR -B experiments in Japan. Among the test sites for the SIR -B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits.

The SIR -B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution. Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections RCS are used to relate the image data number to RCS.

The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations. The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques. The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics.

Corner reflectors m apart can be recognized on the image, while those m apart seem a single target. The SIR -B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses. The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away. To assess the clinical and demographic profile of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS and sepsis, among newly admitted children in different age groups in a hospital in North India.

This prospective study was conducted at a referral care centre in Northern India. All children, age group 0 to SIRS and sepsis and to gain clinical and demographic data. During the study period, a total of patients were screened for SIRS. Out of the latter 30, 19 had septic shock. Mean duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay in the SIRS group were 6. In the group without SIRS , mean duration were 2. In conclusion, the proportion of sepsis contributing to SIRS is high in a tertiary care hospital.

Therefore rapid recognition of SIRS is essential. Goal directed treatment of sepsis is also important so that high mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock are prevented. The Armstrong- Frederick cyclic hardening plasticity model with Cosserat effects. We propose an extension of the cyclic hardening plasticity model formulated by Armstrong and Frederick which includes micropolar effects. Our micropolar extension establishes coercivity of the model which is otherwise not present.

We study then existence of solutions to the quasistatic, rate-independent Armstrong- Frederick model with Cosserat effects which is, however, still of non-monotone, non-associated type.

In order to do this, we need to relax the pointwise definition of the flow rule into a suitable weak energy-type inequality. It is shown that the limit in the Yosida approximation process satisfies this new solution concept. The limit functions have a better regularity than previously known in the literature, where the original Armstrong- Frederick model has been studied. The Stephens City 1: This work is part of a project being lead by the U.

Geological Survey Water Resources Discipline, Virginia District, to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia.

Two letters of Frederick the Great to Wilhelmina of Prussia]. These letters illustrate the special close connection there was between them. The letters also give a view on the difficult question of giving comfort after perinatal death. The sir A gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis.

Sir A orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of Sir A regulation has never been identified. Application of SIR epidemiological model: The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR susceptible-infected-susceptible is presented to describe a reality. From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation.

In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions. A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model. An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis J. The basic reproductive rate R 0 in the coupled system has been worked out.

Using Aron's results cf. Mutu dari karet remah sangat dipengaruhi oleh adanya konsentrasi zat menguap sebagai salah satu parameter penentuan kualitas karet remah yang dihasilkan.

Analisa perbandingan sangat efektif dilakukan dalam menentukan kualitas karet remah bermutu paling baik berdasarkan klasifikasi antara mutu SIR 20 dengan mutu SIR 3WF. Parameter yang digunakan adalah mengetahui konsentrasi zat menguap yang lebih besar atau lebih kecil berdasarkan Standard Indonesian Rubber SIR yang telah ditentukan.

This will lay the groundwork for additional tests to see if the vaccine prevents i. In honor of fiftieth anniversary of "Journal of Clinical Psychology," presents historical look at Frederick Thorne who, as World War II was ending, saw need for new mental health professionals to deal with resulting psychological trauma. Describes Thorne's encouragement of clinical psychologists to make research, training, and personnel….

His role is to ensure the secure operation of in-house computer systems, servers, and network connections. But in his spare time, Smith is also a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician EMT.

May will soon be here, ushering in the season of cookouts, sunny days—and the annual Frederick Running Festival. Organized by Corrigan Sports Enterprises, the two-day event gives athletes of all backgrounds chances for exercise and friendly competition against their fellow community members.

Brian Lein, commanding general, U. An experimental vaccine for mosquito-borne chikungunya is being tested at sites in the Caribbean as part of a phase II clinical trial being managed by the Frederick National Lab.

No vaccine or treatment currently exists for the viral disease, which c. Was the Constitution Pro-Slavery? The Changing View of Frederick Douglass. In this article, the author reflects on Frederick Douglass's different interpretations of the Constitution.

One explanation of the shift in Douglass's thinking on the Constitution had to do with his growing intellectual independence. Douglass had the intellectual space to reflect on the fact that there was more than one way to think about…. A criterion groups comparison. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS -2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of criminal defendants males, 48 females who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial.

In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning primarily the M-FAST at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS.

Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS -2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS -2 in this sample.

Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS -2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification. Sir 2 and calorie restriction in yeast: Activation of Sir 2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction CR has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension.

This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir 2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast.

We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir 2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries. Several specific cases where the Sir 2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted. These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir 2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model.

Bass- SIR model for diffusion of new products. We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass- SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery.

Therefore, diffusion in the Bass- SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones. The role of midwife at the birth management techniques Frederick Leboyer A birth is an event of a great importance not only for a woman but also for a child, who should be taken into consideration as well.

Frederick Leboyer, a French gyneacologist and obstetrician, has made an assertion that birth trauma should be minimized Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer.

Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In , he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London.

His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases. Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between and , he discovered five new elements.

These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules.

For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in , the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown.

We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In consecutive patients, SIRS status SIRS patients were Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis. In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS caused by non-infectious agents.

Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes.

Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS , and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide.

These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. Sir A orthologs affect both motility and virulence. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sir A may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon. We examined the effect of a sir A mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control.

Sir A had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium less than fivefold. However, in various types of motility agar plates, sir A was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding fold.

Mutations in the sir A orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sir A orthologs.

The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed. For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H.

Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured. An Interview with Sir Michael Marmot. Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. This interview was conducted by email in May of this year. This was an important affirmation of democratic values. When thinking about health inequalities people often use the analogue of the ladder to show how the gradient of worsening health outcomes affects all people in society except presumably those at the very top.

Thinking about the ladder leads us to pose the following question: Is making the ladder shorter i. All societies have hier-archies.

It is not conceivable, therefore, to have a society with no ladder. The conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health leads us to think of at least two linked ways to address the relation between position on the ladder and health: The first argues for reducing the slope of the social gradient.

To see this, suppose, just for a moment, that the ladder were defined on the basis of years of education. People who had three years or fewer had life expectancy of 50 years. Sir Victor Horsley is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in , and in he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors.

He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square, London , and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost.

In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis , written in by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery.

Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type.

The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful.

Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry.

Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language.

Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous? The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues like open-mindedness and tolerance may be subjected to sterner tests.

Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies.

I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. One day, Sir , you may tax it. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable — as it turned out, electric light.

Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of Sir William Mitchell This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification.

This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes.

On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary The Pragmatics of Sir Thomas Bodley. Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, — offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence.

These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed. Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied.

The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry.

If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach.

Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden.

The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings.

The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making. In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified.

Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku.

Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria. Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents.

Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses.

The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines.

Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically.

T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis.

Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis. In high school, Brognard was a Werner H.

When in the young King of Sicily had taken Germany by storm, driving north his Welf rival Otto IV of Brunswick and securing the support of the German princes, it had seemed that a new golden age had begun.

The suite includes the latest versions of Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, and Skype for Business, along with cloud-based capabilities. These cloud-based capabilities will help meet the federal mandates that require all Health and Human Services operating divisions to migrate e-mail to the cloud by the end of Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery.

Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others. In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor.

Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated.

Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses. He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well.

Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion.

Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function.

In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex.

When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished.

The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin. Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system.

This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels.

The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers.

The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development.

Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage.

Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds.

The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak.

Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al. Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention.

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition. This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital.

Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis.

It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. The Word and the Sound: Full Text Available Version: The subsequent sections close read key aural passages in the Narrative to amplify how Douglass exposes, manipulates, and subverts the sonic color-line, challenging his white readership to listen differently, even as he remains skeptical of their their ability to do so.

Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response.

Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality.

SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions. We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery.

Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality.

The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure. The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history.

His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated.

It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel.

The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth. The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Keppel's career is important to historians of education because interwar Carnegie initiatives, articulated through the Corporation's Dominions and Colonies Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University, internationalised American educational theories and….

Aportes de Frederick W. Uno de sus principales exponentes fue Frederick W. Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity.

In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. The first case was reported in by Fabricius Hildanus. The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia hernia of the Meckel diverticulum. More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life.

They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma. The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent. The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI. SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood.

Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro.

This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance.

Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns MAMPs , for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr 18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways.

Ascr 18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial , oomycete, fungal and nematode infections.

These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small- molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription complex formation. Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indolecarbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid.

A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction. Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures. Docking was investigated as an in silico method for the further development of the compounds. Detection, purification and characterisation of quorum-sensing signal molecules in plant-associated bacteria. Quorum sensing also called autoinduction is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density.

Autoinduction relies upon the interaction of a small diffusible signal molecule the autoinducer with a transcriptional activator protein to couple gene expression with cell population density.

These signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the environment as a function of cell growth. Once a threshold concentration is reached, these signals serve as co-inducers to regulate the transcription of a set s of target genes.

The detection of AHLs or AHL-like activities has been greatly facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays that allow fast screening of microorganisms for diffusible signal molecules. AHL or diketopiperazine-mediated cell-cell signalling play roles in regulating different bacterial functions, such as antibiotic biosynthesis, production of virulence factors, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial swarming, plasmid conjugal transfer and transition into the stationary phase.

Several bacterial species that interact with plants produce AHL-like compounds. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge about the detection, characterisation and purification of quorum-sensing molecules from plant-associated bacteria. We will also discuss some of the future prospects and biotechnological applications of autoinducers. Bacterial signaling and motility: This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers.

What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field.

Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment.

For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities.

The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment.

A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane.

These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the. Savchenko, Tatyana; Walley, Justin W.

Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives. Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants designated EP producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid AA , aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds.

We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest. EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks.

Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes. Importantly, tomato Solanum lycopersicum leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants.

These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule , in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks. Chemoreceptors are crucial components in the bacterial sensory systems that mediate chemotaxis. Chemotactic responses exhibit exquisite sensitivity, extensive dynamic range and precise adaptation. The mechanisms that mediate these high-performance functions involve not only actions of individual proteins but also interactions among clusters of components, localized in extensive patches of thousands of molecules.

Recently, these patches have been imaged in native cells, important features of chemoreceptor structure and on—off switching have been identified, and new insights have been gained into the structural basis and functional consequences of higher order interactions among sensory components.

These new data suggest multiple levels of molecular interactions, each of which contribute specific functional features and together create a sophisticated signaling device. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology.

We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease AD neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains.

K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains p bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. Molecular cloning and characterization of LrTLR4, analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and Gram-negative bacterial infection.

Toll-like receptors TLRs play key roles in innate immunity from lower to higher vertebrates. Except in some teleosts, function of TLR4 in most fish species including rohu Labeo rohita a commercially important fish species in the South-East Asian countries remained unknown. Together, these findings suggest the important role of TLR4 in LPS sensing and augmentation of innate immunity against Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish.

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Accumulation of H 2 O 2 , detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase.

Calcium measurements carried out in R. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization.

The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that maintains the large internal pressure within the cell while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth.

The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: We have used atomic force microscopy to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of Escherichia coli K12 bacteria. Atomic force microscopy-single molecule force spectroscopy was performed on single sacculi exposed to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves the peptide-glycan bonds. Surprisingly, the measurements revealed individual strands of up to nm in length.

This finding combined with high resolution AFM images recorded on hydrated sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the planar model for the peptidoglycan structure in Gram-negative bacteria. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell-cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches. Bacteria produce signals of diverse structural classes. Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor DSF family are cisunsaturated fatty acids.

The paradigm is cismethyldodecenoic acid from Xanthomonas campestris pv. Although DSF synthesis was thought to be restricted to the xanthomonads, it is now known that structurally related molecules are produced by the unrelated bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Furthermore, signaling involving these DSF family members contributes to bacterial virulence, formation of biofilms and antibiotic tolerance in these important human pathogens. Here we review the recent advances in understanding DSF signaling and its regulatory role in different bacteria.

In addition, we address the role of DSF family signals in interspecies signaling that modulates the behavior of other microorganisms. Finally, we consider a number of recently reported approaches for the control of bacterial virulence through the modulation of DSF signaling. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell—cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches.

Bacterial and fungal pattern recognition receptors in homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals.

In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors PRRs initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades.

Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns. Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules. Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge.

In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies. Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling.

Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate infection. Rho GTPases are important nodes within eukaryotic signaling networks and thus constitute a common target of pathogen-mediated manipulation.

A diverse array of microbial mechanisms exists to interfere with Rho GTPase signaling. While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere with the host, we have recently described pathogen adhesion as a novel extracellular stimulus that hijacks host GTPase signaling.

The ensuing coalescence of phosphatidic acid ligands in the host membrane leads to downstream activation of RhoA and actin rearrangements. Herein, we discuss mechanistic models of lipid-mediated Rho activation and the implications from the infected host's and the pathogen's perspective. Oxidized fatty acids as inter-kingdom signaling molecules.

Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication.

This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to "listen" and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions.

The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi. This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health.

Insights into plant immunity signalling: The interaction between a bacterial pathogen and its potential plant host develops from a complex combination of bacterial and plant elements, which determines either the establishment of resistance or the development of disease.

The use of virulence assays based on competitive index in mixed infections constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of bacterial virulence factors. In this work, we describe how the use of competitive index assays also constitutes an alternative approach for the analysis of plant immunity, to determine the contribution of different elements to bacterial recognition or immunity signaling.

Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists. Opportunistic infections OIs during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway.

It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory anti-inflammatory drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target. The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses.

Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment. Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance.

Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants. Carbon monoxide CO , a gaseous molecule , has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure.

Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Label-free critical micelle concentration determination of bacterial quorum sensing molecules. A practical label-free method for the rapid determination of small- molecule critical micelle concentration CMC using a fixed-angle light-scattering technique is described. In our study, this technique is utilized to investigate the aqueous CMC of previously uncharacterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signaling molecules QSSM belonging to the n-acylhomoserine lactone and 2-alkylquinolone classes.

Several were found to form micelles within a physiologically relevant concentration range and potential roles of these micelles as QSSM transporters are discussed. The influence of temperature and the presence of biological membranes or serum proteins on QSSM CMC are also investigated and evidence is obtained to suggest the QSSMs studied are capable of both membrane and serum protein interaction.

This demonstrates that the fixed-angle light-scattering technique outlined can be used simply and rapidly to determine small- molecule CMC under a variety of conditions. Potato signal molecules that activate pectate lyase synthesis in Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI A new type of plant-derived signal molecules that activate extracellular pectate lyase activity in phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI was revealed.

They were smaller than 1 kDa, thermoresistant, nonproteinaceous, hydrophilic, and slightly negatively charged molecules. Using gene expression analysis and bacterial biosensor assay the mode of activity of revealed compounds was studied. The possibility of their action through quorum sensing- and KdgR-mediated pathways was analyzed. Caveolae, a subset of membrane lipid rafts, are flask-like invaginations of the plasma membrane that contain caveolin proteins, which serve as organizing centers for cellular signal transduction.

Caveolins -1, -2, and -3 have cytoplasmic N and C termini, palmitolylation sites, and a scaffolding domain that facilitates interaction and organization of signaling molecules so as to help provide coordinated and efficient signal transduction.

Such signaling components include upstream entities e. Diseases associated with aberrant signaling may result in altered localization or expression of signaling proteins in caveolae. Caveolin-knockout mice have numerous abnormalities, some of which may reflect the impact of total body knockout throughout the life span. With greater than , orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States each year requiring a bone graft, the development of novel graft materials is necessary.

It was discovered that certain low crystallinity ceramics partially dissociate into simple signaling molecules i. Review of the literature has uncovered a variety of simple signaling molecules i. Inductive simple signaling molecules , which we have termed inducerons, represent a paradigm shift in the field of regenerative engineering where they can be utilized in place of recombinant protein growth factors. We have demonstrated the application of single- molecule imaging and ultrafast spectroscopy to probe protein conformational dynamics in solution and in lipid bilayers.

Dynamic protein-protein interactions involve significant conformational motions that initiate chain reactions leading to specific cellular responses. We have carried out a single molecule study of dynamic protein-protein interactions in a GTPase intracellular signaling protein Cdc42 in complex with a downstream effector protein, WASP.

Conducting a single- molecule fluorescence anisotropy study of calmodulin CaM , a regulatory protein for calcium-dependent cell signaling , we were able to probe CaM conformational dynamics at a wide time scale.

In this study, CaM contains a site-specifically inserted tetra-cysteine motif that reacted with FlAsH, a biarsenic fluorescein derivative that can be rotationally locked to the host protein. The study provided direct characterization of the nanosecond motions of CaM tethered to a biologically compatible surface under physiological buffer solution.

The unique technical approaches are applicable of studying single- molecule dynamics of protein conformational motions and protein-protein interactions at a wide time range without the signal convolution of probe-dye molecule motions.

Formyl peptide receptors FPRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists.

N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors.

The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis.

Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least , predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system.

For a long time, hydrogen sulfide H2S has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule , which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants. Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses.

The cross-adaptation signaling is commonly triggered by moderate environmental stress or exogenous application of signal molecules or their donors, which in turn induces cross-adaptation by enhancing antioxidant system activity, accumulating osmolytes, synthesizing heat shock proteins, as well as maintaining ion and nutrient balance. In this review, based on the current knowledge on H2S and cross-adaptation in plant biology, H2S homeostasis in plant cells under normal growth conditions; H2S signaling triggered by abiotic stress; and H2S-induced cross-adaptation to heavy metal, salt, drought, cold, heat, and flooding stress were summarized, and concluded that H2S might be a candidate signal molecule in plant cross-adaptation.

In addition, future research direction also has been proposed. GTPases in bacterial cell polarity and signalling. In bacteria, large G domain GTPases have well-established functions in translation, protein translocation, tRNA modification and ribosome assembly. Recent data have revealed that small Ras-like GTPases as well as large G domain GTPases in bacteria function in the regulation of cell polarity, signal transduction and possibly also in cell division.

Moreover, large dynamin-like GTPases in bacteria may function in cell division. Thus, the function of GTPases in bacteria may be as pervasive as in eukaryotes. Interactive endogenous small molecule gaseous signaling: Dioxygen O2 is an exogenously supplied gas with a number of properties that make it valuable as a biological source of energy and as a result much of life has become dependent on this molecule.

Nitric oxide NO , carbon dioxide CO and hydrogen sulfide H2S are small molecules that are sometimes in a gaseous state and that can be either exogenously or endogenously supplied. The chemistry of these four molecules allows them to share some common biological targets and signal transduction pathways as well as providing for unique aspects to the biochemistry of each one.

Dioxygen can be teratogenic either in excess hyperoxia or in deficiency hypoxia. Although there is a great deal known about the chemistry and physiology of dioxygen, the mechanisms by which it induces toxic endpoints, such as teratogenesis, are unknown.

This review examines some fundamental concepts of these four signaling molecules and considers some of the molecular targets and pathways by which they interact.

The information regarding the teratogenicity of either excess or deficiency of the four gases is summarized. Interaction information is generally unavailable for teratogenicity endpoints with the four gases and also a mechanistic understanding of the toxicodynamics of the compounds is lacking.

Although it could be theoretically predicted that certain interactions would be additive, for example carbon monoxide and hypoxia, based on the physiological role of these molecules , the data is unavailable.

Consequently, these small gaseous signaling molecules have been demonstrated to interact with respect to signaling pathways, but whether this indicates a similar result for teratogenesis remains unevaluated. Bacterial Tweets and Podcasts signaling eavesdropping microbialfightclub.

Once thought to live independently, bacteria are now known to be highly social organisms. Their behavior ranges from cooperatively forming complex multispecies communities to fiercely competing for resources.

Work over the past fifty years has shown that bacteria communicate through diverse mechanisms including exchanging diffusible molecules , exporting molecules in membrane vesicles, and interacting through direct cell-cell contact.

These methods allow bacteria to sense and respond to other cells around them and coordinate group behavior. In this review, share the discoveries and lessons learned in the field of bacterial communication in the hope of providing insights to parasitologists and other researchers working on related questions.

More than a signal: Quorum sensing in bacteria serves as an example of the adaptation of single-celled organisms to engage in cooperative group behaviors. This phenomenon is much more widespread than originally thought, with many different species 'speaking' through various secreted small molecules.

Despite some variation in signaling molecules , the principles of quorum sensing are conserved across a wide range of organisms. Small molecules , secreted into the environment, are detected by neighbors who respond by altering gene expression and, as a consequence, behavior.

However, it is not known whether these systems evolved specifically for this purpose, or even if their role is exclusive to information trafficking. Rather, clues exist that many quorum sensing molecules function as more than just signals. Here, we discuss non- signaling roles for quorum sensing molecules in such important processes as nutrient scavenging, ultrastructure modification and competition.

Protein-protein interactions are at the core of cell signaling pathways as well as many bacterial and viral infection processes. As such, they define critical targets for drug development against diseases such as cancer, arthritis, obesity, AIDS and many others.

Until now, the clinical inhibition of protein-protein interactions and signaling has been accomplished with the use of antibodies or soluble versions of receptor molecules. Small molecule replacements of these therapeutic agents have been extremely difficult to develop; either the necessary potency has been hard to achieve or the expected biological effect has not been obtained.

In this presentation, we show that a rigorous thermodynamic approach that combines differential scanning calorimetry DSC and isothermal titration calorimetry ITC provides a unique platform for the identification and optimization of small molecular weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

Recent advances in the development of cell entry inhibitors of HIV-1 using this approach will be discussed. Role of chrysin on expression of insulin signaling molecules. Currently available drugs are unsuccessful for the treatment of tye-2 diabetes due to their adverseside-effects.

Hence, a search for novel drugs, especially ofplant origin, continues. Chrysin 5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts that hasbeen used in traditional medicine around the world to treat numerous ailments. The present study was aimed to identify the protective role of chrysin on the expression of insulin- signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rats.

At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation LPO and free radical generation, as well as the levels of insulin signaling molecules and tissue glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Serum insulin, lipid profile, LPO and free radical generation were found to be increased in diabetic control rats. The treatment with chrysin normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, LPO and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins.

Our present findings indicate that chrysin improves glycemic control through activation of insulin signal transduction in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic male rats. The bacterial peptidoglycan-sensing molecule Pglyrp2 modulates brain development and behavior. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood.

Here, we show that bacterial peptidoglycan PGN derived from the commensal gut microbiota can be translocated into the brain and sensed by specific pattern-recognition receptors PRRs of the innate immune system. Using expression-profiling techniques, we demonstrate that two families of PRRs that specifically detect PGN that is, PGN-recognition proteins and NOD-like receptors , and the PGN transporter PepT1 are highly expressed in the developing brain during specific windows of postnatal development in both males and females.

Moreover, we show that the expression of several PGN-sensing molecules and PepT1 in the developing striatum is sensitive to manipulations of the gut microbiota that is, germ-free conditions and antibiotic treatment. Finally, we used the PGN-recognition protein 2 Pglyrp2 knockout mice to examine the potential influence of PGN-sensing molecules on brain development and behavior.

We demonstrate that the absence of Pglyrp2 leads to alterations in the expression of the autism risk gene c-Met, and sex-dependent changes in social behavior, similar to mice with manipulated microbiota. These findings suggest that the central activation of PRRs by microbial products could be one of the signaling pathways mediating the communication between the gut microbiota and the developing brain.

Reactive oxygen species ROS are a group of molecules produced in the cell through metabolism of oxygen. The well-established roles they have in the phagosome and genomic instability has led to the characterisation of these molecules as non-specific agents of destruction. Interestingly, there is a growing body of literature suggesting a less sinister role for this Jekyll and Hyde molecule.

The newly discovered biological functions attributed to ROS include proliferation, migration, anoikis, survival and autophagy. Furthermore, recent advances in detection and quantification of ROS-family members have revealed that the diverse functions of ROS can be determined by the subcellular source, location and duration of these molecules within the cell.

It is now evident that at lower physiological levels, H2O2 can act as a classical intracellular signalling molecule regulating kinase-driven pathways. In light of this confounding paradox, we will examine the factors and circumstances that determine whether H2O2 acts in a pro-survival or deleterious manner. HAMP domain conformers that propagate opposite signals in bacterial chemoreceptors. We identify two HAMP conformations distinguished by a four- to two-helix packing transition at the C-termini that send opposing signals in bacterial chemoreceptors.

Crystal structures of signal -locked mutants establish the observed structure-to-function relationships. Pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin-labeled soluble receptors active in cells verify that the crystallographically defined HAMP conformers are maintained in the receptors and influence the structure and activity of downstream domains accordingly.

Another HR2 variant displays an inverted response with respect to ligand and demonstrates the fine energetic balance between "on" and "off" conformers. Our findings directly correlate in vivo signaling with HAMP structure, stability, and dynamics to establish a comprehensive model for HAMP-mediated signal relay that consolidates existing views on how conformational signals propagate in receptors.

Moreover, we have developed a rational means to manipulate HAMP structure and function that may prove useful in the engineering of bacterial taxis responses.

The Wnt signal transduction pathway is dysregulated in many highly prevalent diseases, including cancer. Unfortunately, drug discovery efforts have been hampered by the paucity of targets and drug-like lead molecules amenable to drug discovery.

We interrogated the mechanism and structure-activity relationships to understand drivers of potency and to assist target identification efforts. We found inhibition of Wnt signaling by Niclosamide appears unique among the structurally-related anthelmintic agents tested and found the potency and functional response was dependent on small changes in the chemical structure of Niclosamide.

Bacterial factors exploit eukaryotic Rho GTPase signaling cascades to promote invasion and proliferation within their host. Actin cytoskeleton is a main target of many bacterial pathogens. Among the multiple regulation steps of the actin cytoskeleton, bacterial factors interact preferentially with RhoGTPases.

Pathogens secrete either toxins which diffuse in the surrounding environment, or directly inject virulence factors into target cells. Injected bacterial virulence factors preferentially manipulate the RhoGTPase signaling cascade by mimicry of eukaryotic regulatory proteins leading to local actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, which mediates bacterial entry into host cells or in contrast escape to phagocytosis and immune defense.

Invasive bacteria can also manipulate RhoGTPase signaling through recognition and stimulation of cell surface receptor s.

Changes in RhoGTPase activation state is sensed by the innate immunity pathways and allows the host cell to adapt an appropriate defense response. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening HTS.

The screening resulted in positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0. This lead molecule had an IC50 of A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations.

In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking.

Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage.

Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage.

A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasing necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering.

Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasingly necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering. Silicon technology compatible photonic molecules for compact optical signal processing.

We demonstrate the use of the doublet splitting for We also demonstrate that very compact optical modulators operating 2.

Spectrally resolved coherent transient signal for ultracold rubidium molecules. We present spectrally resolved pump-probe experiments on the photoassociation of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped ultrashort laser pulses. The pump pulse causes a free-bound transition leading to a coherent transient signal of rubidium molecules in the first excited state.

In order to achieve a high frequency resolution the bandwidth of the pump pulse is reduced to a few wavenumbers. The frequency dependence of the transient signal close to the D1 atomic resonance is investigated for characteristic pump-probe delay times. The observed spectra, which show a pronounced dip for pump-probe coincidence, are interpreted using quantum dynamical calculations.

Composition for detection of cell density signal molecule. Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule CDS , which is secreted by fibroblastic cells in culture, preferably tendon cells, and which provides a means by which the cells self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. Observation of an electrical signal from a single molecule. We have attached a folded protein molecule to the tip of a carbon nanotube using electrophoresis.

We have then measured the electrons produced when the protein catalyzes a series of reactions. As an initial example of the reactions, we have used the catalysis by glucose-oxidase of glucose. We can show that the characteristic dynamic signals from the molecule scale with the glucose concentration. The molecule on the carbon nanotube tip is stable with respect to time under controlled conditions. The signals also indicate the glucose diffusion as its concentration is locally depleted at the nanotube by the catalysis.

We use a second carbon nanotube with a laccase molecule on its tip to complete the circuit with an oxygen reaction. In a previous stage of this process, the other end of the nanotube is attached with a low-impedance electrical connection to a Ti thin film and the measuring circuitry. This work is an early step toward investigating the feasibility of an implantable glucose monitor to help treat diabetes. Both piston-like and rotational motions are present in bacterial chemoreceptor signaling.

Bacterial chemotaxis signaling is triggered by binding of chemo-effectors to the membrane-bound chemoreceptor dimers. Though much is known about the structure of the chemoreceptors, details of the receptor dynamics and their effects on signaling are still unclear. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations and principle component analysis, we study the dynamics of the periplasmic domain of aspartate chemoreceptor Tar dimer and its conformational changes when binding to different ligands attractant, antagonist, and two attractant molecules.

We found two dominant components modes in the receptor dynamics: These two modes are highly correlated. The anti-symmetric effects of the relative rotation mode also explained the negative cooperativity between the two binding pockets. Our results suggest a mechanism of coupled rotation and piston-like motion for bacterial chemoreceptor signaling.

Effects of terbium III on signaling molecules in horseradish. Rare earth elements, especially terbium Tb , are high-valence heavy metal elements that accumulate in the environment, and they show toxic effects on plants. Signaling molecules regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. How rare earth elements affect signaling molecules remains largely unknown. These changes in the contents of phytohormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin triggered excessive production of intracellular H2O2.

Decreased gene expressions of insulin signal molecules in canine hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism HAC is a common endocrine disorder in dogs, in which excess glucocorticoid causes insulin resistance. Disturbance of insulin action may be caused by multiple factors, including transcriptional modulation of insulin signal molecules which lie downstream of insulin binding to insulin receptors.

In this study, gene expressions of insulin signal molecules were examined using neutrophils of the HAC dogs the untreated dogs and the dogs which had been treated with trilostane.

Collectively, gene expressions of insulin signal molecules are suppressed in the HAC dogs, which may partially contribute to the induction of insulin resistance. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls. Then we used selected reaction monitoring SRM to confirm a set of candidates.

In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions. Many proteins, largely derived from Bacteroides species, were over-represented, while under-represented proteins were mostly from Firmicutes and some Prevotella members.

Most overabundant proteins could be confirmed using SRM. They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients.

Moreover, although the abundance of most protein groups reflected that of related bacterial populations, we found a specific independent regulation of bacteria-derived cell envelope proteins. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis. Bacterial protein signals are associated with Crohn's disease. No Crohn's disease CD molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD.

This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis. For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling promotes the evolution of resistance to parasitic bacteriophages. The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes.

Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses bacteriophages and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing QS signal molecules. We found that a QS- signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment. This was unlikely driven by demographic effects mutation supply and encounter rates , as nonsignaling strains reached higher population densities in the absence of phages in our selective environment.

Instead, the evolved nonsignaling strains suffered relatively higher growth reduction in the absence of the phage, which could have constrained the phage resistance evolution. Complementation experiments with synthetic signal molecules showed that the Pseudomonas quinolone signal PQS improved the growth of nonsignaling bacteria in the presence of a phage, while the activation of las and rhl quorum sensing systems had no effect.

Together, these results suggest that QS- signaling can promote the evolution of phage resistance and that the loss of QS- signaling could be costly in the presence of phages. Phage-bacteria interactions could therefore indirectly shape the evolution of intraspecies social interactions and PQS-mediated virulence in P.

Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions. Quorum sensing signal molecules were found to be affected by the packaging conditions e. Additionally, no significant AI-2 activity was observed in the tested cell-free meat extracts CFME , regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations. Elucidation of signaling molecules involved in ergosterol perception in tobacco.

Ergosterol, a principal compound of the fungal plasma membrane, is regarded as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. In the present study, the role of salicylic acid SA , jasmonic acid JA and spermine signaling pathways after ergosterol elicitation were evaluated. Xanthi in response to ergosterol elicitation. To understand the sequence of the signaling cascade, several representative steps involved in the synthesis of crucial signaling molecules were targeted using specific inhibitors.

SA signaling pathway, together with calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and nitric oxide, was demonstrated to play an important role in the induction of defense-related genes following ergosterol treatment.

The results suggested that nitric oxide participates in defense-related gene activation following ergosterol treatment but does not directly participate in activation of reactive oxygen species production. A possible candidate for this SA-independent pathway is the spermine pathway, as elevated spermine levels were detected following ergosterol treatment. TRAF molecules in cell signaling and in human diseases. The tumor necrosis factor receptor TNF-R -associated factor TRAF family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily.

The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling.

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Published by Elsevier Inc. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules , the N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs and the 4-quinolones 4Qs.

PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness. Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: The term quorum sensing QS is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals.

QS has not only been described between cells of the same species intraspecies , but also between species interspecies and between bacteria and higher organisms inter-kingdom. The fact that QS-based communication appears to be widespread among microbes is strange, considering that explaining both cooperation and communication are two of the greatest problems in evolutionary biology.

From an evolutionary perspective, intraspecies signalling can be explained using models such as kin selection, but when communication is described between species, it is more difficult to explain. It is probable that in many cases this involves QS molecules being used as 'cues' by other species as a guide to future action or as manipulating molecules whereby one species will 'coerce' a response from another.

In these cases, the usage of QS molecules cannot be described as signalling. This review seeks to integrate the evolutionary literature on animal signalling with the microbiological literature on QS, and asks whether QS within bacteria is true signalling or whether these molecules are also used as cues or for the coercion of other cells.

An Essential Signalling Molecule. Carbon monoxide CO , like nitric oxide NO , is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases.

This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules CO-RMs.

Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis. While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli.

Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro.

Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro. This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E.

Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance. Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns MAMPs , for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones.

Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr 18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr 18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial , oomycete, fungal and nematode infections.

These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small- molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. Small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription complex formation.

Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indolecarbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction.

Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures. Docking was investigated as an in silico method for the further development of the compounds.

Detection, purification and characterisation of quorum-sensing signal molecules in plant-associated bacteria. Quorum sensing also called autoinduction is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density.

Autoinduction relies upon the interaction of a small diffusible signal molecule the autoinducer with a transcriptional activator protein to couple gene expression with cell population density.

These signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the environment as a function of cell growth. Once a threshold concentration is reached, these signals serve as co-inducers to regulate the transcription of a set s of target genes.

The detection of AHLs or AHL-like activities has been greatly facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays that allow fast screening of microorganisms for diffusible signal molecules. AHL or diketopiperazine-mediated cell-cell signalling play roles in regulating different bacterial functions, such as antibiotic biosynthesis, production of virulence factors, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial swarming, plasmid conjugal transfer and transition into the stationary phase.

Several bacterial species that interact with plants produce AHL-like compounds. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge about the detection, characterisation and purification of quorum-sensing molecules from plant-associated bacteria.

We will also discuss some of the future prospects and biotechnological applications of autoinducers. Bacterial signaling and motility: This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field.

Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment.

For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities.

The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment. A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane.

These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the. Savchenko, Tatyana; Walley, Justin W. Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives.

Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants designated EP producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid AA , aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest.

EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks. Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes.

Importantly, tomato Solanum lycopersicum leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants. These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule , in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks. Chemoreceptors are crucial components in the bacterial sensory systems that mediate chemotaxis. Chemotactic responses exhibit exquisite sensitivity, extensive dynamic range and precise adaptation.

The mechanisms that mediate these high-performance functions involve not only actions of individual proteins but also interactions among clusters of components, localized in extensive patches of thousands of molecules. Recently, these patches have been imaged in native cells, important features of chemoreceptor structure and on—off switching have been identified, and new insights have been gained into the structural basis and functional consequences of higher order interactions among sensory components.

These new data suggest multiple levels of molecular interactions, each of which contribute specific functional features and together create a sophisticated signaling device. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology. We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease AD neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains.

K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains p bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. Molecular cloning and characterization of LrTLR4, analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and Gram-negative bacterial infection. Toll-like receptors TLRs play key roles in innate immunity from lower to higher vertebrates.

Except in some teleosts, function of TLR4 in most fish species including rohu Labeo rohita a commercially important fish species in the South-East Asian countries remained unknown. Together, these findings suggest the important role of TLR4 in LPS sensing and augmentation of innate immunity against Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish. Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions.

In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Accumulation of H 2 O 2 , detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase.

Calcium measurements carried out in R. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization. The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction.

The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that maintains the large internal pressure within the cell while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth.

The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: We have used atomic force microscopy to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of Escherichia coli K12 bacteria.

Atomic force microscopy-single molecule force spectroscopy was performed on single sacculi exposed to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves the peptide-glycan bonds. Surprisingly, the measurements revealed individual strands of up to nm in length. This finding combined with high resolution AFM images recorded on hydrated sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the planar model for the peptidoglycan structure in Gram-negative bacteria.

Many pathogenic bacteria use cell-cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches. Bacteria produce signals of diverse structural classes. Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor DSF family are cisunsaturated fatty acids. The paradigm is cismethyldodecenoic acid from Xanthomonas campestris pv. Although DSF synthesis was thought to be restricted to the xanthomonads, it is now known that structurally related molecules are produced by the unrelated bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Furthermore, signaling involving these DSF family members contributes to bacterial virulence, formation of biofilms and antibiotic tolerance in these important human pathogens. Here we review the recent advances in understanding DSF signaling and its regulatory role in different bacteria.

In addition, we address the role of DSF family signals in interspecies signaling that modulates the behavior of other microorganisms. Finally, we consider a number of recently reported approaches for the control of bacterial virulence through the modulation of DSF signaling.

Many pathogenic bacteria use cell—cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches. Bacterial and fungal pattern recognition receptors in homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals. In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors PRRs initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades.

Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns.

Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules. Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge.

In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies. Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling. Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate infection. Rho GTPases are important nodes within eukaryotic signaling networks and thus constitute a common target of pathogen-mediated manipulation.

A diverse array of microbial mechanisms exists to interfere with Rho GTPase signaling. While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere with the host, we have recently described pathogen adhesion as a novel extracellular stimulus that hijacks host GTPase signaling.

The ensuing coalescence of phosphatidic acid ligands in the host membrane leads to downstream activation of RhoA and actin rearrangements. Herein, we discuss mechanistic models of lipid-mediated Rho activation and the implications from the infected host's and the pathogen's perspective.

Oxidized fatty acids as inter-kingdom signaling molecules. Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication.

This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to "listen" and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi.

This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health. Insights into plant immunity signalling: The interaction between a bacterial pathogen and its potential plant host develops from a complex combination of bacterial and plant elements, which determines either the establishment of resistance or the development of disease.

The use of virulence assays based on competitive index in mixed infections constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of bacterial virulence factors. In this work, we describe how the use of competitive index assays also constitutes an alternative approach for the analysis of plant immunity, to determine the contribution of different elements to bacterial recognition or immunity signaling.

Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists. Opportunistic infections OIs during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway.

It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory anti-inflammatory drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target.

The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses. Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment.

Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance.

Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants. Carbon monoxide CO , a gaseous molecule , has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress.

CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Label-free critical micelle concentration determination of bacterial quorum sensing molecules. A practical label-free method for the rapid determination of small- molecule critical micelle concentration CMC using a fixed-angle light-scattering technique is described.

In our study, this technique is utilized to investigate the aqueous CMC of previously uncharacterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signaling molecules QSSM belonging to the n-acylhomoserine lactone and 2-alkylquinolone classes. Several were found to form micelles within a physiologically relevant concentration range and potential roles of these micelles as QSSM transporters are discussed. The influence of temperature and the presence of biological membranes or serum proteins on QSSM CMC are also investigated and evidence is obtained to suggest the QSSMs studied are capable of both membrane and serum protein interaction.

This demonstrates that the fixed-angle light-scattering technique outlined can be used simply and rapidly to determine small- molecule CMC under a variety of conditions. Potato signal molecules that activate pectate lyase synthesis in Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI A new type of plant-derived signal molecules that activate extracellular pectate lyase activity in phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI was revealed.

They were smaller than 1 kDa, thermoresistant, nonproteinaceous, hydrophilic, and slightly negatively charged molecules. Using gene expression analysis and bacterial biosensor assay the mode of activity of revealed compounds was studied. The possibility of their action through quorum sensing- and KdgR-mediated pathways was analyzed. Caveolae, a subset of membrane lipid rafts, are flask-like invaginations of the plasma membrane that contain caveolin proteins, which serve as organizing centers for cellular signal transduction.

Caveolins -1, -2, and -3 have cytoplasmic N and C termini, palmitolylation sites, and a scaffolding domain that facilitates interaction and organization of signaling molecules so as to help provide coordinated and efficient signal transduction. Such signaling components include upstream entities e. Diseases associated with aberrant signaling may result in altered localization or expression of signaling proteins in caveolae. Caveolin-knockout mice have numerous abnormalities, some of which may reflect the impact of total body knockout throughout the life span.

With greater than , orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States each year requiring a bone graft, the development of novel graft materials is necessary. It was discovered that certain low crystallinity ceramics partially dissociate into simple signaling molecules i. Review of the literature has uncovered a variety of simple signaling molecules i.

Inductive simple signaling molecules , which we have termed inducerons, represent a paradigm shift in the field of regenerative engineering where they can be utilized in place of recombinant protein growth factors. We have demonstrated the application of single- molecule imaging and ultrafast spectroscopy to probe protein conformational dynamics in solution and in lipid bilayers.

Dynamic protein-protein interactions involve significant conformational motions that initiate chain reactions leading to specific cellular responses. We have carried out a single molecule study of dynamic protein-protein interactions in a GTPase intracellular signaling protein Cdc42 in complex with a downstream effector protein, WASP. Conducting a single- molecule fluorescence anisotropy study of calmodulin CaM , a regulatory protein for calcium-dependent cell signaling , we were able to probe CaM conformational dynamics at a wide time scale.

In this study, CaM contains a site-specifically inserted tetra-cysteine motif that reacted with FlAsH, a biarsenic fluorescein derivative that can be rotationally locked to the host protein. The study provided direct characterization of the nanosecond motions of CaM tethered to a biologically compatible surface under physiological buffer solution.

The unique technical approaches are applicable of studying single- molecule dynamics of protein conformational motions and protein-protein interactions at a wide time range without the signal convolution of probe-dye molecule motions. Formyl peptide receptors FPRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists.

N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system.

They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria.

This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least , predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system.

For a long time, hydrogen sulfide H2S has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule , which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants. Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses.

The cross-adaptation signaling is commonly triggered by moderate environmental stress or exogenous application of signal molecules or their donors, which in turn induces cross-adaptation by enhancing antioxidant system activity, accumulating osmolytes, synthesizing heat shock proteins, as well as maintaining ion and nutrient balance. In this review, based on the current knowledge on H2S and cross-adaptation in plant biology, H2S homeostasis in plant cells under normal growth conditions; H2S signaling triggered by abiotic stress; and H2S-induced cross-adaptation to heavy metal, salt, drought, cold, heat, and flooding stress were summarized, and concluded that H2S might be a candidate signal molecule in plant cross-adaptation.

In addition, future research direction also has been proposed. GTPases in bacterial cell polarity and signalling. In bacteria, large G domain GTPases have well-established functions in translation, protein translocation, tRNA modification and ribosome assembly.

Recent data have revealed that small Ras-like GTPases as well as large G domain GTPases in bacteria function in the regulation of cell polarity, signal transduction and possibly also in cell division. Moreover, large dynamin-like GTPases in bacteria may function in cell division. Thus, the function of GTPases in bacteria may be as pervasive as in eukaryotes. Interactive endogenous small molecule gaseous signaling: Dioxygen O2 is an exogenously supplied gas with a number of properties that make it valuable as a biological source of energy and as a result much of life has become dependent on this molecule.

Nitric oxide NO , carbon dioxide CO and hydrogen sulfide H2S are small molecules that are sometimes in a gaseous state and that can be either exogenously or endogenously supplied. The chemistry of these four molecules allows them to share some common biological targets and signal transduction pathways as well as providing for unique aspects to the biochemistry of each one.

Dioxygen can be teratogenic either in excess hyperoxia or in deficiency hypoxia. Although there is a great deal known about the chemistry and physiology of dioxygen, the mechanisms by which it induces toxic endpoints, such as teratogenesis, are unknown. This review examines some fundamental concepts of these four signaling molecules and considers some of the molecular targets and pathways by which they interact.

The information regarding the teratogenicity of either excess or deficiency of the four gases is summarized. Interaction information is generally unavailable for teratogenicity endpoints with the four gases and also a mechanistic understanding of the toxicodynamics of the compounds is lacking.

Although it could be theoretically predicted that certain interactions would be additive, for example carbon monoxide and hypoxia, based on the physiological role of these molecules , the data is unavailable. Consequently, these small gaseous signaling molecules have been demonstrated to interact with respect to signaling pathways, but whether this indicates a similar result for teratogenesis remains unevaluated. Bacterial Tweets and Podcasts signaling eavesdropping microbialfightclub.

Once thought to live independently, bacteria are now known to be highly social organisms. Their behavior ranges from cooperatively forming complex multispecies communities to fiercely competing for resources. Work over the past fifty years has shown that bacteria communicate through diverse mechanisms including exchanging diffusible molecules , exporting molecules in membrane vesicles, and interacting through direct cell-cell contact.

These methods allow bacteria to sense and respond to other cells around them and coordinate group behavior. In this review, share the discoveries and lessons learned in the field of bacterial communication in the hope of providing insights to parasitologists and other researchers working on related questions. More than a signal: Quorum sensing in bacteria serves as an example of the adaptation of single-celled organisms to engage in cooperative group behaviors.

This phenomenon is much more widespread than originally thought, with many different species 'speaking' through various secreted small molecules. Despite some variation in signaling molecules , the principles of quorum sensing are conserved across a wide range of organisms.

Small molecules , secreted into the environment, are detected by neighbors who respond by altering gene expression and, as a consequence, behavior. However, it is not known whether these systems evolved specifically for this purpose, or even if their role is exclusive to information trafficking.

Rather, clues exist that many quorum sensing molecules function as more than just signals. Here, we discuss non- signaling roles for quorum sensing molecules in such important processes as nutrient scavenging, ultrastructure modification and competition. Protein-protein interactions are at the core of cell signaling pathways as well as many bacterial and viral infection processes.

As such, they define critical targets for drug development against diseases such as cancer, arthritis, obesity, AIDS and many others. Limits are set in sunflowers because sunflower and ragweed are botanically related. The legal obligation of reporting and control — introduced in Switzerland a couple of years ago — allowed the development of specific distribution maps and enhanced the quality of control measures.

Facts and figures from the Canton of Geneva prove that the ragweed invasion has been stopped, but the species is not eradicated. The results of Geneva represent the results of good ragweed control in the whole country. Beside agriculture, traffic infrastructure, building sites, gravel pits and urban park and garden areas are sensible to ragweed invasion.

The responsibility of individuals helps to improve control efficiency even if financial funds are small. A sustainable control success depends on the efficiency to hamper seed production.

The reduction of pollen quantity in the air in a long term is part of the earnings for the control effort. Actually, the publicity of common ragweed is fed by specialist information and its distribution in the media. It would be an interesting task to develop in our fast moving era an awareness level comparable to that of the stinging nettle. Full Text Available From a medical perspective, introduction and spread of ragweed in Germany are a disaster.

The pollen of the species trigger allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis that often lead to allergies against food items like celery or spices. In some cases this can lead to allergic asthma that at first appears during the ragweed pollen season in September and October, but can later prevail during the whole year.

In addition, touching the plant can result in contact dermatitis. From a medical point of view, halting the spread of ragweed is important and necessary. Full Text Available Identifying the sensitive habitats with high invasibility is critical for management of biological invasion. Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linn. The experiment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats.

The results suggested that the presence of native species had strong negative effects on the performance of the invader species. The presence of native species occupied the niche space and left few empty niches for the colonization of the invaders.

The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities with high diversity, was effective strategies to control the invasion of exotic species. Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.

Full Text Available Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells moDCs.

Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins. Analysis of high allergenicity airborne pollen dispersion: The appearance of ragweed pollen in the air became more frequent in northerly countries. Attention of allergologists and aerobiologists in these countries is focused on the phenomenon that Ambrosia plants found relatively sporadic but the amount of pollen is high in particular days.

Over the latter decade, a matter of particular concern has been Ambrosia pollen, whose appearance in the air is determined by the plants dispersing it and meteorological processes that alter pollen release, dissemination, transport or deposition on surfaces.

Pollen data used in this study were collected in three pollen-trapping sites in Lithuania. The data corresponding to years of pollen monitoring were documented graphically and evaluated statistically. Analysis of the pollen data suggests that although the number of ragweed plants identified has not increased over the latter decade, the total pollen count has been on the increase during the recent period.

The highest atmospheric pollen load is established on the last days of August and first days of September. We have established a regularity exhibiting an increase in ragweed pollen count conditioned by south-eastern winds in Lithuania. Full Text Available The effect on Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed of combining cutting and herbicide application was studied in pot experiments in Germany and Denmark in Matrigon, mesotrione in Germany and Denmark: Callisto and glyphosate in Germany: Roundup Bio were applied at 4 doses at three different timings: The plants were harvested 5 weeks after the last herbicide application.

At both sites clopyralid and mesotrione had a low efficacy on common ragweed when applied on developed plants with only minor differences in efficacy at the three timings.

Application after cutting improved the efficacy of clopyralid at both sites and of mesotrione in Denmark. In Germany glyphosate had a higher efficacy on noncut plants in comparison to the cut plants, in Denmark it was vice versa. The highest dose of glyphosate provided higher control levels on developed plants than clopyralid and mesotrione at both sites.

In Denmark the highest effects were obtained shortly after cutting with the maximum dose of each herbicide and declined with time between cutting and herbicide application. In summary the results demonstrated that herbicides can be applied shortly after cutting without loss of efficacy. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe. Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century.

It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance.

To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented.

A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations - driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens.

The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, year long historical simulations - are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen.

Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing.

We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed. We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction.

As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced. Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations.

We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed 's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude. We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2.

The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region. The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia common or short ragweed is increasing its range in Europe.

In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms were recorded in Leicester UK and Leiden NL on 4 and 5 September The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport.

Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses m originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.

Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. Short ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region.

Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection.

The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group pectate lyase: Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management.

However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive.

Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia , a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed.

Simulations starting in accurately reproduced ragweed 's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data.

The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range.

Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways.

We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes transport and release with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion.

Expansion and aerobiology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern.

Aerobiological sampling was based on the analysis of pollen records at five aerobiological stations in Slovakia. Highest airborne pollen counts were recorded in Nitra, Trnava and Bratislava Monitoring Stations situated in the areas most infested by A. Besides the most infested areas, high airborne pollen counts were also recorded in territories where the plant species was less abundant. During the study period, the intensity of [i] Ambrosia. Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe.

Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma D'Amato et al. To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model RegCM version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model CLM version 4. In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions.

A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used.

Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe.

The model can explain The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained.

From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen. Plants remember past weather: After extreme dry wet summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease increase substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance.

The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa.

Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The year data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia ragweed , Poaceae grasses and Populus poplar , as well as daily values of four climate variables temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation.

Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia , but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements.

However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity especially water sensitivity of the herbaceous taxa Ambrosia and Poaceae can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production. Glyphosate resistance in common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides over the last 40 years. Due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant GR crop technology, especially, corn, cotton, and soybean, several weed species in agronomic situations have developed resistance to this herbicide.

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted during and at Stoneville, MS to determine control of ragweed parthenium with several preemergence PRE and postemergence POST herbicides registered for use in corn, cotton, peanut, rice, and soybean. Change in Ragweed Pollen Season, Environmental Protection Agency — This figure shows how the length of ragweed pollen season changed at 11 locations in the central United States and Canada between and Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma D'Amato et al.

RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from ORCHIDEE French Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species Fabien et al.

We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain simulation for future condition is been considering. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately. A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then.

Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country. Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region.

Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations. Allelic richness-r ranged from 5. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region.

Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Waxy Starches for Food Innovation. Full Text Available Few natural waxy starches are offered to the industry demand.

Amylose contents of starches isolated from Dioscorea trifida L. DSC onset gelatinization temperatures varied from The highest crystallinity was found for the starches exhibiting the highest amylose content. Gel clarity was variable from This natural waxy yam resource is a promising ingredient for food industry.

Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida Diptera: Cecidomyiidae , a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia Myrtales: The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia Cav.

Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. Populations of the introduced Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges.

A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed A. All metals inhibited T. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth.

Seedling mortality was lowest in A. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. The findings also revealed that L. Economic analysis of preventing introduction of ragweed in Denmark. Ragweed is an Invasive Alien Species natively growing in North America which is at risk of being introduced in Denmark thru import of bird seeds.

The plant produces a high amount of pollen which causes allergy and asthma and is considered a very potent allergy source. It is estimated that Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant.

The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia August-September recorded during a year period were obtained from monitoring sites. The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation SD were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data.

The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant.

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea Coleoptera: Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens Lour Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure. Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method.

The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity. Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity.

Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8 D03 derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1 LCM9 derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources.

Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5.

The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive. The extraction of exotic plant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. It can prevent the extraction of ragweed from inactivation,which could be easily caused by external condition such as illumination and temperature.

The microcapsule technique can improve the property of extraction. The results showed that the morphology of microcapsules was regular and integrated observed under scanning electron microscope SEM.

Moreover,the core material was coated with shell material observed by the infrared spectrum analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR. The association efficiency and loading capacity of the microcapsules determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer were The medium diameter was And the results of thermogravimetric analysis TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of the microcapsules was superior to the core material. Consequently,the microcapsules with the extraction can avoid the unstable defect of the natural extraction.

In addition,the activity was also lengthened by this technique. Full Text Available Since the beginning of common ragweed registration in North Rhine-Westphalia in there have been ragweed records, among them 31 populations with more than individuals. Common ragweed is not yet established in North Rhine-Westphalia but seems to do very well on sandy soils in the Lowland.

North Rhine-Westphalia is tackling common ragweed in an early stage of invasion and will continue the strategy of rapid response to achieve a total eradication. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work ragweed plants from three Regions Canada, France, Italy were grown in both controlled constant and standard environmental conditions seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light.

Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1.

Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms.

It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

Ragweed in France is a rather recent pollen which causes strong allergies on the populations concerned. This pollen, mainly located in the area Rhone-Alpes, extend more and more on totality of France. Indeed, the pollinic data highlight the presence of ragweed on all the territory with very low, as for Brittany, to several hundreds grains in the area of Rhone-Alpes. So four towns of this area have followed closely the extend of this pollen during the year through five pollen-traps 2 for the town of Lyon.

The trap of Lyon I Gerland made it possible to follow temporal the extend of ragweed from to and the increase of the number of grains as that of the number of days with a significant allergic risk. The study shows also the differences in quantity of pollens, the differences between the daily allergic risks of the five sites, as well as the differences, between the cities, of the number of days when the allergic risk is significant.

It is necessary that pollen of ragweed can be followed closely because of its strong allergenic capacity, in the area of Rhone-Alpes, where the plant prevails mainly, but also on the totality of the own territory, this to supervise its evolution and the speed of proliferation of the plant.

Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa. Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range.

We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range.

Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle. The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.

Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado.

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Laurel wilt has since spr The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle xyleborus glabratus eichoff coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.

Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae Fraedrich et al. Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motshulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford are especially problematic.

Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles.

Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests.

Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes. Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library RRL methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes. However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocol Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests.

Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful.

Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language.

Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

Was Sir William Crookes epistemically virtuous? The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry.

Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues like open-mindedness and tolerance may be subjected to sterner tests.

Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies.

I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. One day, Sir , you may tax it. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today?

A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable — as it turned out, electric light.

Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of Sir William Mitchell This was a difficult period for CERN.

Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes. On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary The Pragmatics of Sir Thomas Bodley.

Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, — offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence. These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed.

Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied. The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions.

The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach.

Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings.

The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making. In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified.

Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku. Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold.

Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria. Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents.

Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses.

The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex.

This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically.

T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections.

Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis.

Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis. In high school, Brognard was a Werner H. When in the young King of Sicily had taken Germany by storm, driving north his Welf rival Otto IV of Brunswick and securing the support of the German princes, it had seemed that a new golden age had begun. The suite includes the latest versions of Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, and Skype for Business, along with cloud-based capabilities.

These cloud-based capabilities will help meet the federal mandates that require all Health and Human Services operating divisions to migrate e-mail to the cloud by the end of Ballance began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery.

Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others.

In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered.

Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated. Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses.

He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes.

His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace.

Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion.

Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex.

When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels.

The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers. The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter.

A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives.

This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage.

Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds.

The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak.

Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al. Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated.

Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition.

This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital. Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition.

The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis. It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages.

The Word and the Sound: Full Text Available Version: The subsequent sections close read key aural passages in the Narrative to amplify how Douglass exposes, manipulates, and subverts the sonic color-line, challenging his white readership to listen differently, even as he remains skeptical of their their ability to do so.

Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response.

Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count.

In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality. SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions.

We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery.

Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients.

Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure.

The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated.

It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume.

Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel. The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth.

The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Keppel's career is important to historians of education because interwar Carnegie initiatives, articulated through the Corporation's Dominions and Colonies Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University, internationalised American educational theories and…. Aportes de Frederick W.

Uno de sus principales exponentes fue Frederick W. Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity. In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST.

The first case was reported in by Fabricius Hildanus. The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia hernia of the Meckel diverticulum. More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma.

The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent. The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI.

SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response.

Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening.

We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness. We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases.

SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method.

For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability.

Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy.

Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten.

Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead.

The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson.

Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated.

Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain.

Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions.

Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling.

By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues.

The White Hall 7. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian. Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds.

The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales. Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks.

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Here, crucial biochemical reactions occur and most of the cellular adenosine triphosphate ATP is produced. In addition, mitochondria act as signalling platforms and communicate with the rest of the cell by modulating calcium fluxes, by producing free radicals, and by releasing bioactive proteins. It is emerging that mitochondrial metabolites can also act as second messengers and can elicit profound epi genetic changes. This review describes the many signalling functions of mitochondrial metabolites under normal and stress conditions, focusing on metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

We provide a new framework for understanding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in cellular pathophysiology. Polypetide signaling molecules in plant development. Intercellular communication mediated by small signaling molecules is a key mechanism for coordinating plant growth and development.

In the past few years, polypeptide signals have been shown to play prominent roles in processes as diverse as shoot and root meristem maintenance, vascular differentiat Biological signaling by small inorganic molecules. Small redox active molecules such as reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and hydrogen sulfide have emerged as important biological mediators that are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Advancement in understanding of cellular mechanisms that tightly regulate both generation and reactivity of these molecules is central to improved management of various disease states including cancer and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Imbalance in the production of redox active molecules can lead to damage of critical cellular components such as cell membranes, proteins and DNA and thus may trigger the onset of disease. These small inorganic molecules react independently as well as in a concerted manner to mediate physiological responses. This review provides a general overview of the redox biology of these key molecules , their diverse chemistry relevant to physiological processes and their interrelated nature in cellular signaling.

Single- Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling. Single- molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment. In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo. A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane.

These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses. To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand.

This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes.

Methods and limitations of single- molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Single- molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling , one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide. Hydrogen sulfide H2S has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase DAO along with 3MST. These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions. The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear.

Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances. Small- molecule dissection of brassinosteroid signaling. The growth-promoting hormones, the brassinosteroids BRs , are perceived at the plant cell surface by receptor kinases that transduce the signal to the nucleus by an intracellular cascade of phosphorylation-mediated protein-protein interactions.

BR signaling is also regulated by the plant endocytic machinery because the increased endosomal localization of the BR receptor enhances the BR responses. Chemical genetics is a powerful approach to identify new components in redundant signaling networks and to characterize highly dynamic processes, such as endocytosis. Here, we describe a screen in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for small molecules that affect hypocotyl elongation under continuous light conditions, indicative for an effect on BR responses.

Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules. Hydrogen sulfide H2S is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing.

Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action.

Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease. Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration i. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection.

Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction.

Main nodulation signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction were examined. Flavonoids exuded by Arachis hypogaea L. Thin layer chromatography analysis from genistein-induced bacterial cultures of three peanut bradyrhizobia resulted in an identical Nod factor pattern, suggesting low variability in genes involved in the synthesis of these molecules.

Structural study of Nod factor by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that it shares a variety of substituents with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. NGR and Bradyrhizobium spp. Nodulation assays in legumes nodulated by these rhizobia demonstrated differences between them and the three peanut bradyrhizobia.

The three isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium sp. Their fixation gene nifD and the common nodulation genes nodD and nodA were also analyzed. Identification of cell density signal molecule. Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule CDS between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function.

It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon. Also disclosed are methods of production and use. Function and evolution of ubiquitous bacterial signaling adapter phosphopeptide recognition domain FHA. Forkhead-associated domain FHA is a phosphopeptide recognition domain embedded in some regulatory proteins.

With similar fold type to important eukaryotic signaling molecules such as Smad2 and IRF3, the role of bacterial FHA domain is intensively pursued. Reported bacterial FHA domain roles include: To provide basis for the studies of other bacterial FHA domain containing proteins, the status of bacterial FHA functionality and evolution were summarized.

Published by Elsevier Inc. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules , the N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs and the 4-quinolones 4Qs.

PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness. Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: The term quorum sensing QS is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals.

QS has not only been described between cells of the same species intraspecies , but also between species interspecies and between bacteria and higher organisms inter-kingdom. The fact that QS-based communication appears to be widespread among microbes is strange, considering that explaining both cooperation and communication are two of the greatest problems in evolutionary biology.

From an evolutionary perspective, intraspecies signalling can be explained using models such as kin selection, but when communication is described between species, it is more difficult to explain. It is probable that in many cases this involves QS molecules being used as 'cues' by other species as a guide to future action or as manipulating molecules whereby one species will 'coerce' a response from another. In these cases, the usage of QS molecules cannot be described as signalling.

This review seeks to integrate the evolutionary literature on animal signalling with the microbiological literature on QS, and asks whether QS within bacteria is true signalling or whether these molecules are also used as cues or for the coercion of other cells. An Essential Signalling Molecule. Carbon monoxide CO , like nitric oxide NO , is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury.

Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs.

There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases.

This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules CO-RMs.

Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits bacterial ribosome biogenesis. While small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial ribosome have been instrumental in understanding protein translation, no such probes exist to study ribosome biogenesis. We screened a diverse chemical collection that included previously approved drugs for compounds that induced cold sensitive growth inhibition in the model bacterium Escherichia coli.

Among the most cold sensitive was lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant drug. Importantly, this was not the result of translation inhibition, as lamotrigine was incapable of perturbing protein synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Spontaneous suppressor mutations blocking lamotrigine activity mapped solely to the poorly characterized domain II of translation initiation factor IF2 and prevented the binding of lamotrigine to IF2 in vitro.

This work establishes lamotrigine as a widely available chemical probe of bacterial ribosome biogenesis and suggests a role for E. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance.

Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns MAMPs , for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes.

Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr 18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways.

Ascr 18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial , oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes.

Using small- molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture.

Small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription complex formation. Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indolecarbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction. Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures.

Docking was investigated as an in silico method for the further development of the compounds. Detection, purification and characterisation of quorum-sensing signal molecules in plant-associated bacteria. Quorum sensing also called autoinduction is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density.

Autoinduction relies upon the interaction of a small diffusible signal molecule the autoinducer with a transcriptional activator protein to couple gene expression with cell population density. These signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the environment as a function of cell growth. Once a threshold concentration is reached, these signals serve as co-inducers to regulate the transcription of a set s of target genes.

The detection of AHLs or AHL-like activities has been greatly facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays that allow fast screening of microorganisms for diffusible signal molecules. AHL or diketopiperazine-mediated cell-cell signalling play roles in regulating different bacterial functions, such as antibiotic biosynthesis, production of virulence factors, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial swarming, plasmid conjugal transfer and transition into the stationary phase.

Several bacterial species that interact with plants produce AHL-like compounds. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge about the detection, characterisation and purification of quorum-sensing molecules from plant-associated bacteria. We will also discuss some of the future prospects and biotechnological applications of autoinducers.

Bacterial signaling and motility: This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field.

Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment.

For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community.

We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment.

A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane.

These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the. Savchenko, Tatyana; Walley, Justin W. Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives.

Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants designated EP producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid AA , aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest.

EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks. Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes.

Importantly, tomato Solanum lycopersicum leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants. These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule , in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks.

Chemoreceptors are crucial components in the bacterial sensory systems that mediate chemotaxis. Chemotactic responses exhibit exquisite sensitivity, extensive dynamic range and precise adaptation. The mechanisms that mediate these high-performance functions involve not only actions of individual proteins but also interactions among clusters of components, localized in extensive patches of thousands of molecules.

Recently, these patches have been imaged in native cells, important features of chemoreceptor structure and on—off switching have been identified, and new insights have been gained into the structural basis and functional consequences of higher order interactions among sensory components. These new data suggest multiple levels of molecular interactions, each of which contribute specific functional features and together create a sophisticated signaling device.

Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology. We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease AD neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains.

K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains p bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. Molecular cloning and characterization of LrTLR4, analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and Gram-negative bacterial infection. Toll-like receptors TLRs play key roles in innate immunity from lower to higher vertebrates.

Except in some teleosts, function of TLR4 in most fish species including rohu Labeo rohita a commercially important fish species in the South-East Asian countries remained unknown. Together, these findings suggest the important role of TLR4 in LPS sensing and augmentation of innate immunity against Gram-negative bacterial infection in fish.

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Accumulation of H 2 O 2 , detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase.

Calcium measurements carried out in R. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization. The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that maintains the large internal pressure within the cell while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth.

The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: We have used atomic force microscopy to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of Escherichia coli K12 bacteria. Atomic force microscopy-single molecule force spectroscopy was performed on single sacculi exposed to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves the peptide-glycan bonds.

Surprisingly, the measurements revealed individual strands of up to nm in length. This finding combined with high resolution AFM images recorded on hydrated sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the planar model for the peptidoglycan structure in Gram-negative bacteria. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell-cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches.

Bacteria produce signals of diverse structural classes. Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor DSF family are cisunsaturated fatty acids. The paradigm is cismethyldodecenoic acid from Xanthomonas campestris pv. Although DSF synthesis was thought to be restricted to the xanthomonads, it is now known that structurally related molecules are produced by the unrelated bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, signaling involving these DSF family members contributes to bacterial virulence, formation of biofilms and antibiotic tolerance in these important human pathogens.

Here we review the recent advances in understanding DSF signaling and its regulatory role in different bacteria. In addition, we address the role of DSF family signals in interspecies signaling that modulates the behavior of other microorganisms.

Finally, we consider a number of recently reported approaches for the control of bacterial virulence through the modulation of DSF signaling. Many pathogenic bacteria use cell—cell signaling systems involving the synthesis and perception of diffusible signal molecules to control virulence as a response to cell density or confinement to niches. Bacterial and fungal pattern recognition receptors in homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals.

In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors PRRs initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades. Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns.

Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules.

Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies.

Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling. Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate infection. Rho GTPases are important nodes within eukaryotic signaling networks and thus constitute a common target of pathogen-mediated manipulation.

A diverse array of microbial mechanisms exists to interfere with Rho GTPase signaling. While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere with the host, we have recently described pathogen adhesion as a novel extracellular stimulus that hijacks host GTPase signaling. The ensuing coalescence of phosphatidic acid ligands in the host membrane leads to downstream activation of RhoA and actin rearrangements.

Herein, we discuss mechanistic models of lipid-mediated Rho activation and the implications from the infected host's and the pathogen's perspective. Oxidized fatty acids as inter-kingdom signaling molecules. Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types.

These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to "listen" and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi.

This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health. Insights into plant immunity signalling: The interaction between a bacterial pathogen and its potential plant host develops from a complex combination of bacterial and plant elements, which determines either the establishment of resistance or the development of disease. The use of virulence assays based on competitive index in mixed infections constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of bacterial virulence factors.

In this work, we describe how the use of competitive index assays also constitutes an alternative approach for the analysis of plant immunity, to determine the contribution of different elements to bacterial recognition or immunity signaling.

Bacterial infections in cynomolgus monkeys given small molecule immunomodulatory antagonists. Opportunistic infections OIs during the course of non-clinical toxicity studies can serve as a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. In monkeys, severity may be magnified since the possibility for fecal-oral and cage-to-cage transmission of bacteria exists, reserve capacity is low, and clinical signs of infection are not easily detected until the infectious process is well underway.

It gives an overview on the impact of bacterial infections in monkeys on the development and regulatory assessment of three closely-related representative small molecule immunomodulatory anti-inflammatory drug candidates all inhibiting the same drug target.

The infections, which sometimes progressed to bacteremia and death, originally manifested in the skin, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and less frequently as soft tissue abscesses. Infections were sporadic and not observed in all studies despite coverage of equivalent or higher systemic exposures or longer durations of treatment.

Appropriate diagnosis and characterization of the infection was critical to discrimination of these findings as a secondary pharmacologic effect rather than a direct drug-related target organ effect, and also guided clinical protocol design and regulatory acceptance. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants. Carbon monoxide CO , a gaseous molecule , has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions.

This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system.

Label-free critical micelle concentration determination of bacterial quorum sensing molecules. A practical label-free method for the rapid determination of small- molecule critical micelle concentration CMC using a fixed-angle light-scattering technique is described. In our study, this technique is utilized to investigate the aqueous CMC of previously uncharacterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signaling molecules QSSM belonging to the n-acylhomoserine lactone and 2-alkylquinolone classes.

Several were found to form micelles within a physiologically relevant concentration range and potential roles of these micelles as QSSM transporters are discussed.

The influence of temperature and the presence of biological membranes or serum proteins on QSSM CMC are also investigated and evidence is obtained to suggest the QSSMs studied are capable of both membrane and serum protein interaction. This demonstrates that the fixed-angle light-scattering technique outlined can be used simply and rapidly to determine small- molecule CMC under a variety of conditions.

Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. The findings also revealed that L. Economic analysis of preventing introduction of ragweed in Denmark.

Ragweed is an Invasive Alien Species natively growing in North America which is at risk of being introduced in Denmark thru import of bird seeds. The plant produces a high amount of pollen which causes allergy and asthma and is considered a very potent allergy source. It is estimated that Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant.

The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia August-September recorded during a year period were obtained from monitoring sites.

The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation SD were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data.

The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses.

Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea Coleoptera: Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens Lour Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure.

Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method. The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity. Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed.

Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity. Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8 D03 derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1 LCM9 derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources.

Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred.

This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species.

New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive.

The extraction of exotic plant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. It can prevent the extraction of ragweed from inactivation,which could be easily caused by external condition such as illumination and temperature.

The microcapsule technique can improve the property of extraction. The results showed that the morphology of microcapsules was regular and integrated observed under scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover,the core material was coated with shell material observed by the infrared spectrum analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR. The association efficiency and loading capacity of the microcapsules determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer were The medium diameter was And the results of thermogravimetric analysis TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of the microcapsules was superior to the core material.

Consequently,the microcapsules with the extraction can avoid the unstable defect of the natural extraction. In addition,the activity was also lengthened by this technique. Full Text Available Since the beginning of common ragweed registration in North Rhine-Westphalia in there have been ragweed records, among them 31 populations with more than individuals. Common ragweed is not yet established in North Rhine-Westphalia but seems to do very well on sandy soils in the Lowland. North Rhine-Westphalia is tackling common ragweed in an early stage of invasion and will continue the strategy of rapid response to achieve a total eradication.

Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering? However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work ragweed plants from three Regions Canada, France, Italy were grown in both controlled constant and standard environmental conditions seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light.

Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants.

This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

Ragweed in France is a rather recent pollen which causes strong allergies on the populations concerned. This pollen, mainly located in the area Rhone-Alpes, extend more and more on totality of France. Indeed, the pollinic data highlight the presence of ragweed on all the territory with very low, as for Brittany, to several hundreds grains in the area of Rhone-Alpes.

So four towns of this area have followed closely the extend of this pollen during the year through five pollen-traps 2 for the town of Lyon. The trap of Lyon I Gerland made it possible to follow temporal the extend of ragweed from to and the increase of the number of grains as that of the number of days with a significant allergic risk. The study shows also the differences in quantity of pollens, the differences between the daily allergic risks of the five sites, as well as the differences, between the cities, of the number of days when the allergic risk is significant.

It is necessary that pollen of ragweed can be followed closely because of its strong allergenic capacity, in the area of Rhone-Alpes, where the plant prevails mainly, but also on the totality of the own territory, this to supervise its evolution and the speed of proliferation of the plant. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America.

We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O.

Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range.

Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle.

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado. Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia.

Laurel wilt has since spr The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle xyleborus glabratus eichoff coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.

Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae Fraedrich et al. Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus.

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America.

The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motshulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees.

Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection.

Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio.

The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes.

Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library RRL methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes. However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocol Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests. Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles.

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Scolytinae, Platypodinae plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t La producci6n in vitro de semilla representa una altemativa a esta problematic a, pero este proceso debe a su vez ser optimizado.

El presente trabajo evalu6 el efecto de 2 gelifi- cantes sobre el crecimiento in vitro y en invema- dero de plantas de D. Se en- contr6 que, en general, el crecimiento in vitro y en invemadero de las plantas se ve favorecido en ambas especies por el uso del Phytagel a 1.

Ademas, el subcultivo de plantas de D. The ex-periment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats.

The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities. In children allergic to ragweed pollen, nasal inflammation is not influenced by monosensitization or polysensitization. In patients polysensitized to pollen allergens, the priming effect, by which the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to an allergen is increased by the previous exposure to another allergen, is a known phenomenon. This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of nasal inflammation, assessed by nasal cytology, in children with allergic rhinitis AR from ragweed pollen according to being monosensitized or polysensitized.

The study included 47 children. Of them, 24 suffered from AR caused by sensitization to grass pollen and ragweed pollen group A and 23 were sensitized only to ragweed pollen group B. In all patients, the severity of AR was assessed according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines, and comorbidities were also evaluated.

In group A, No significant difference was detected in the number of the considered comorbidities between the two groups. Vegetative organs was mainly through strengthening the roots of water absorption and transporting function, increasing the water storage function of leaf and stem, reducing the water absorption of stem and leaf for plants to promote water absorption and to enhance the assimilation of leaves to achieve a variety of complex environmental conditions in the rapid growth and development in order to achieve an ecological invasion.

This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers acres and contains acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document.

This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. T-cell repertoire in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics before and after ragweed challenge. T cells play a pivotal role in initiating and orchestrating allergic responses in asthma. The goal of this work was to learn whether ragweed challenge in the lungs alters the T-cell repertoire expressed in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics.

Analyses of cell numbers, differentials, and T-cell. Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species.

Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism.

Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi host and air moisture , resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia.

The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April. Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains.

The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre.

Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides. A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas eg railways, urban areas. In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products.

Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland. The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa.

Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values.

Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days.

The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations.

It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland. Furthermore, we used two different meteorological data sets the global GDAS data set and from the WRF mesoscale model; the meteorological parameters were: U and V wind components, temperature and relative humidity into HYSPLIT to evaluate the influence of meteorological input on calculated trajectories for high concentration ragweed episodes.

The HYSPLIT simulations with two different meteorological inputs indicated that footprint studies on ragweed benefit from a higher resolution meteorological data sets. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U. Concern exists that X. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States U.

Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X.

In , female X. Invasive Asian Fusarium — Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry.

Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea Coleoptera: Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline. Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles Scolytidae and Platypodidae in host trees and act as a food source for the insects.

The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success.

Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed. Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide.

Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states.

For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA.

Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments.

The lower dependency that bark beetles have. Full Text Available The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was determined on lymphoid cells, and their corresponding selectivity indexes SIs were calculated.

Peruvin was the most active compound on F32 strain of P. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains. Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts.

The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance.

Overall, approach 2 resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site.

The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic pest of U. It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Since its introduction into the USA in , the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states.

Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt Integrating kaolin clay for ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: Scolytinae management in ornamental tree nurseries. Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Curculionidae are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries.

Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. Scolytinae in ornamental tree nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus Blandford and Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky Coleoptera: Scolytinae are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries.

Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro Vertical distribution and daily flight periodicity of ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt affected avocado orchards. Recently, ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado Persea americana Mill.

The objective of this study was to provide insights into the intera Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two hosts with laurel wilt: The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles. Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood.

Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles.

The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts.

Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs.

We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. Relative attraction and susceptibility to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff Coleoptera: Scolytinae , is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt.

Laurel wilt is a newly-described vascular disease of U. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease. The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi. Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees Persea borbonia , sassafras Sassafras albidum , and other plants within the Lauraceae family.

The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola , is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus , which Is Litchi chinensis a potential host for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus?

Redbay ambrosia beetle RAB , Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent Raffaelea lauricola responsible for laurel wilt disease. To date, all known hosts of RAB are trees within the family Lauraceae. However, our previous research indicated that female R Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population.

In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O.

These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied.

The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions.

The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems.

The former result from its hybrid nature, i. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research.

The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can or should do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, using tandem affinity purification TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir 2 protein and interacts directly with Ku.

Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir 2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Our results suggest that Sir 2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria. Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In addition to the previous criteria, the conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin PCT and C-reactive protein CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis.

The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses.

The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines.

Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections.

Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis.

Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis. In high school, Brognard was a Werner H. When in the young King of Sicily had taken Germany by storm, driving north his Welf rival Otto IV of Brunswick and securing the support of the German princes, it had seemed that a new golden age had begun. The suite includes the latest versions of Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, and Skype for Business, along with cloud-based capabilities. These cloud-based capabilities will help meet the federal mandates that require all Health and Human Services operating divisions to migrate e-mail to the cloud by the end of Ballance began his medical career at St.

Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in , receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery.

Victor Horsley and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others.

In June of , Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated.

Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection , standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses. He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor ; 18 years later, the patient remained well.

Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately cases, which are detailed in his book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes. His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone , remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on. Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion.

Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir 2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir 2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir 2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function.

In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains.

Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin. Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods.

The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers. The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter.

A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development.

Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage.

Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds.

However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds. The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak.

Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses. A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al. Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention.

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition. This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital.

Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis.

It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. The Word and the Sound: Full Text Available Version: The subsequent sections close read key aural passages in the Narrative to amplify how Douglass exposes, manipulates, and subverts the sonic color-line, challenging his white readership to listen differently, even as he remains skeptical of their their ability to do so.

Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria.

Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality.

SIRS patients were 2. Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions.

We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery.

Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality.

The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure. The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state.

High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems. Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.

Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer. Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse.

This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper.

Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading. If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs.

In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated. It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume.

Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel. The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth.

The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Keppel's career is important to historians of education because interwar Carnegie initiatives, articulated through the Corporation's Dominions and Colonies Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University, internationalised American educational theories and…. Aportes de Frederick W.

Uno de sus principales exponentes fue Frederick W. Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity. In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. The first case was reported in by Fabricius Hildanus.

The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia hernia of the Meckel diverticulum. More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma. The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated.

These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent. The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI.

SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood.

Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness.

We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method.

For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h.

If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics.

The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives.

It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy.

Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten.

Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined.

SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation.

It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson.

Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis? In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained.

Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model. Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner.

These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles.

We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. The White Hall 7. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va.

All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian. Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds. The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales.

Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination.

Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B.

It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established.

The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR.

Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan.

We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia.

Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2. To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors.

We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day. Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality.

Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS. There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery.

In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery.

cleaning industry

In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir 2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished.

The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir 2 and silent chromatin.

Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading.

The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels.

The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers. The primary objective of the SIR -B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter.

A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR -B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives.

This report is an overview of the SIR -B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products including auxiliary data , calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples. SIR epidemics with multiple seeds percolate without outbreaks. We study a susceptible-infected-removed SIR model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph.

Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds.

The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak. Knowledge and recognition of SIRS and sepsis among pediatric nurses.

A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis Dellinger et al. Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated.

Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition.

This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a bed urban pediatric hospital.

Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. The mean score was Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum.

Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis. It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages. The Word and the Sound: Full Text Available Version: The subsequent sections close read key aural passages in the Narrative to amplify how Douglass exposes, manipulates, and subverts the sonic color-line, challenging his white readership to listen differently, even as he remains skeptical of their their ability to do so.

Performance of the SIR -B digital image processing subsystem. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count.

In consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with day mortality. SIRS patients were 2.

Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions. We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to day mortality. The clinical value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is common after major surgery. Prospective study of consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients.

Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure. The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems.

Sir protein-independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir - mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir 2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer.

Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse.

This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades.

While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper. Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading.

If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and peer review, they would seriously hamper progress. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs.

In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors mosquitoes which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated. It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point if it exists is globally stable with a respect "weak delay".

Some known results are generalized. Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume.

Reflection on the "New Dynamics" of Distance Education: An Interview with Sir John Daniel. The output signal-to-interference SIR of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth.

The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained. Keppel's career is important to historians of education because interwar Carnegie initiatives, articulated through the Corporation's Dominions and Colonies Fund and Teachers College, Columbia University, internationalised American educational theories and….

Aportes de Frederick W. Uno de sus principales exponentes fue Frederick W. Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity. In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: This function emphasizes her spirituality.

It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. The first case was reported in by Fabricius Hildanus. The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia hernia of the Meckel diverticulum.

More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma.

The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent.

The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury TBI. SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients.

Of the patients identified, 50 These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients.

Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS , but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department ED patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening.

We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness. We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering.

We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals mCIs. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model. Veteran Malang Indonesia. In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived.

It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability.

Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.

Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics. The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine.

But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives.

It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written. Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B.

After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade.

The sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Sir William Turner. His classic paper of on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten.

Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion.

A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented. SIR -B cartography and stereo topographic mapping. The SIR -B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined.

SIR -B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters.

This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.

Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of Laboratory Diagnosis of Sepsis?

In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS.

In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained.

Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model. Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner.

These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed.

This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations.

We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero. The probability density function pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation.

We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir 2 d Sir 2 expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body.

We report that d Sir 2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body d Sir 2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between d Sir 2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide dILP -dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body d Sir 2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids FFA and dILPs from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs].

In summary, we show that fat body d Sir 2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. The White Hall 7. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian.

Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds.

The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales.

Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination. Remote sensing of rice fields and sea pollution by SIR -B. Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B SIR -B.

It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR -B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR -B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR -B data.

The possibility of classifying crops from SIR -B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR. Sir protein—independent repair of dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS in hospitalized children: In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia.

Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards.

Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

Involvement of Daphnia pulicaria Sir 2 in regulating stress response and lifespan. The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response HSR genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. We cloned Daphnia Sir 2 open reading frame ORF to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir 2 was conserved in Daphnia.

Sir 2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir 2. To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors. We prospectively studied patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day.

Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS , but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction.

Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS , but has no effect on mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS. There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery.

In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e. Postoperative metabolic and circulatory responses in patients that express SIRS after major digestive surgery. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition.

This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively. Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD. Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C.

Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris.

He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings. Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin.

The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people.

Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history.

This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine. This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark.

This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan green crescent feature at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans semicircular features can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image.

The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters feet below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3, meters 10, feet above sea level.

Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence. This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics.

As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. Insights into the life and work of Sir Charles Sherrington. Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost.

However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits.

Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge.

His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology.

He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour. Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone SIR -ZEE was born about the year as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities.

Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker.

This speech, delivered on November 28, , is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons.

He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in Old concepts, new molecules and current approaches applied to the bacterial nucleotide signalling field.

Signalling nucleotides are key molecules that help bacteria to rapidly coordinate cellular pathways and adapt to changes in their environment. During the past 10 years, the nucleotide signalling field has seen much excitement, as several new signalling nucleotides have been discovered in both eukaryotic and bacterial cells. The fields have since advanced quickly, aided by the development of important tools such as the synthesis of modified nucleotides, which, combined with sensitive mass spectrometry methods, allowed for the rapid identification of specific receptor proteins along with other novel genome-wide screening methods.

In this review, we describe the principle concepts of nucleotide signalling networks and summarize the recent work that led to the discovery of the novel signalling nucleotides. We also highlight current approaches applied to the research in the field as well as resources and methodological advances aiding in a rapid identification of nucleotide-specific receptor proteins.

Diffusible signal factor DSF quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens. Background Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF diffusible signal factor not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling , but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication.

These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens.

Results In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal cismethyldodecenoic acid and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness.

The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B.

We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.

Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.

Degradation of bacterial quorum sensing signaling molecules by the microscopic yeast Trichosporon loubieri isolated from tropical wetland waters. Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules , which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner.

Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast. By using a minimal growth medium containing Noxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated.

Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of Noxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast. In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication.

Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer S hydroxytridecanone, termed CAI-1, influences chemotaxis in C.

CAI-1 is detected by the C. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial -produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction. Tuberculosis, which is caused by intracellular mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb , remains one of the most serious global public health concerns. The mechanisms by which innate immunity regulates the inflammatory responses and affects mycobacterial infection remain unclear.

Rhizosphere ecology of lumichrome and riboflavin, two bacterial signal molecules eliciting developmental changes in plants. Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Reported studies have revealed major developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations 5 nM in plants, which include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots.

But higher lumichrome concentration 50 nM depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. While the mechanisms remain unknown, it is possible that lumichrome released by rhizobia induced the biosynthesis of classical phytohormones that caused the observed developmental changes in plants. We also showed in earlier studies that applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells 0. Greater extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and indole acetic acid by N2-fixing rhizobia over non-fixing bacteria is perceived to be an indication of their role as symbiotic signals.

This is evidenced by the increased concentration of lumichrome and riboflavin in the xylem sap of cowpea and soybean plants inoculated with infective rhizobia. In fact, greater xylem concentration of lumichrome in soybean and its correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves was found to result in dramatic developmental changes than in cowpea. Furthermore, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia are also known to function as i ecological cues for sensing environmental stress, ii growth factors for microbes, plants, and humans, iii.

Paper strip whole cell biosensors: Herein, we report the development of a novel, inexpensive, and portable filter-paper-based strip biosensor for the detection of bacterial quorum sensing signaling molecules , N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs.

AHLs are generally employed by Gram-negative bacteria for their cell-cell communication to control expression of specialized genes, such as those involved in biofilm formation and production of virulence factors, in a population-density-dependent manner.

First, a bacterial cell-based sensing system employing components of AHL-mediated QS regulatory system as recognition elements and beta-galactosidase as the reporter protein was designed and developed. The bacterial -sensing cells were then liquid-dried on strips of filter paper.

The paper strip biosensor was able to detect low AHL concentrations down to 1 x 10 -8 M. Furthermore, it was successfully applied to the detection of AHLs in physiological samples, such as saliva. The filter-paper-based sensing strips could provide reproducible results upon storage at 4 degrees C for at least 3 months. In conclusion, a filter-paper-based strip biosensor was developed that allows for visual, fast, and convenient detection of AHLs in a dose-dependent manner in a test sample.

In addition, it does not require expensive equipment or trained personnel and allows ease of transportation and storage.

Therefore, we envision that this biosensor will serve as a simple and economical portable field kit for on-site monitoring of AHL in a variety of clinical and environmental samples. Molecular characterization of peach PR genes and their induction kinetics in response to bacterial infection and signaling molecules.

The role of stomata in defense against Xcp was also investigated by measuring stomatal apertures in both 'Venture' and 'BabyGold 5' leaves after 1 and 3 HPI. While most stomata closed in both cultivars within 1 HPI, stomata reopened again at 3 HPI with a higher percentage recorded for 'BabyGold 5', suggesting a potential role of stomata in the susceptibility of this cultivar.

Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate.

Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development.

These approaches are grouped into: Preliminary study on an innovative, simple mast cell-based electrochemical method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacterial quorum signaling molecules N-acyl-homoserine-lactones.

This paper reports the a novel and simple mast cell-based electrochemical method for detecting of bacterial quorum signaling molecules , N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs , which can be utilized to preliminarily evaluate the toxicity of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS was utilized to record the cell impedance signal as-influenced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule , Noxododecanoyl homoserine lactone 3OCHSL.

The results indicated that cellular activities such as cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular calcium, and degranulation were markedly influenced by the AHLs. Importantly, the exposure of 3OCHSL to mast cells induced a marked decrease in the electrochemical impedance signal in a dose-dependent manner.

These results were confirmed via conventional cell assay and transmission electron microscope TEM analysis. Altogether, the proposed method appears to be an innovative and effective approach to the quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules ; to this effect, it also may serve as a primary evaluation of the cytotoxicity of food-borne pathogens.

Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule. We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory super-resolution optical imaging , will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group.

There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection.

Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system TTSS. We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors e.

A structure activity-relationship study of the bacterial signal molecule HHQ reveals swarming motility inhibition in Bacillus atrophaeus. The sharp rise in antimicrobial resistance has been matched by a decline in the identification and clinical introduction of new classes of drugs to target microbial infections.

Thus new approaches are being sought to counter the pending threat of a post-antibiotic era. In that context, the use of non-growth limiting small molecules , that target virulence behaviour in pathogens, has emerged as a solution with real clinical potential. We have previously shown that two signal molecules HHQ and PQS from the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have modulatory activity towards other microorganisms.

This current study involves the synthesis and evaluation of analogues of HHQ towards swarming and biofilm virulence behaviour in Bacillus atrophaeus, a soil bacterium and co-inhibitor with P.

Compounds with altered C6-C8 positions on the anthranilate-derived ring of HHQ, display a surprising degree of biological specificity, with certain candidates displaying complete motility inhibition. In contrast, anti-biofilm activity of the parent molecule was completely lost upon alteration at any position indicating a remarkable degree of specificity and delineation of phenotype.

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles based electrochemical sensor for the measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules N-acyl-homoserine-lactones.

We have developed a novel and economical electrochemical sensor to measure Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules AHLs using magnetic nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted polymer MIP technology. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers MMIPs capable of selectively absorbing AHLs were successfully synthesized by surface polymerization.

The particles were deposited onto a magnetic carbon paste electrode MGCE surface, and characterized by electrochemical measurements. This Fe3O4 SiO2-MIP-based electrochemical sensor is a valuable new tool that allows quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules. It has potential applications in the fields of clinical diagnosis or food analysis with real-time detection capability, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and good stability.

Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration. Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels vascular endothelial growth factor , nerves brain-derived neurotrophic factor , or fibroblasts fibroblast growth factor may induce reparative dentin formation.

Mainly the formation of atubular dentin osteodentin has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration. Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far.

Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically. Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules , the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules , and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary.

Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin.

By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation.

The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp. However, better characterization and standardization of the.

Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases. Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases SHMTs.

SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures.

These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged.

This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. Analysis of Pseudomonas quinolone signal and other bacterial signalling molecules using capillaries coated with highly charged polyelectrolyte monolayers and boron doped diamond electrode.

Coated capillary electrophoresis equipped with a boron doped diamond BDD electrode was developed for analysis of chemically synthesised 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone HHQ , 2-heptylhydroxyquinolone PQS , and 2-methyl analogues.

Detection was then extended to biological samples. PQS and its biological precursor, HHQ, are two key regulators of bacterial cooperative behaviour known as quorum sensing in the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The fused silica capillary was coated with a thin layer of poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride to reverse the electroosmosis, allowing fast migration of PQS and HHQ with improved selectivity. A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation. Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion.

Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms. Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species.

However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study Chen, et al. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation. Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication. Bacterial cells sense their population density and respond accordingly by producing various signal molecules to the surrounding environments thereby trigger a plethora of gene expression.

This regulatory pathway is termed quorum sensing QS. Moreover, bacterial QSSMs were shown to interfere with host cell signaling and modulate host immune responses. QSSMs not only regulate the expression of bacterial virulence factors but themselves act in the modulation of host biology that can be potential therapeutic targets. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life.

More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated.

Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential.

Bacterial toxins and small molecules elucidate endosomal trafficking. Bacterial toxins and small molecules are useful tools for studying eukaryotic cell biology. In a recent issue of PNAS, Gillespie and colleagues describe a novel small molecule inhibitor of bacterial toxins and virus trafficking through the endocytic pathway, 4-bromobenzaldehyde N- 2,6-dimethylphenyl semicarbazone EGA , that prevents transport from early to late endosomes.

Mitochondria are one of most characterized metabolic hubs of the cell. Here, crucial biochemical reactions occur and most of the cellular adenosine triphosphate ATP is produced. In addition, mitochondria act as signalling platforms and communicate with the rest of the cell by modulating calcium fluxes, by producing free radicals, and by releasing bioactive proteins. It is emerging that mitochondrial metabolites can also act as second messengers and can elicit profound epi genetic changes. This review describes the many signalling functions of mitochondrial metabolites under normal and stress conditions, focusing on metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

We provide a new framework for understanding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in cellular pathophysiology. Polypetide signaling molecules in plant development. Intercellular communication mediated by small signaling molecules is a key mechanism for coordinating plant growth and development.

In the past few years, polypeptide signals have been shown to play prominent roles in processes as diverse as shoot and root meristem maintenance, vascular differentiat Biological signaling by small inorganic molecules. Small redox active molecules such as reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and hydrogen sulfide have emerged as important biological mediators that are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Advancement in understanding of cellular mechanisms that tightly regulate both generation and reactivity of these molecules is central to improved management of various disease states including cancer and cardiovascular dysfunction. Imbalance in the production of redox active molecules can lead to damage of critical cellular components such as cell membranes, proteins and DNA and thus may trigger the onset of disease.

These small inorganic molecules react independently as well as in a concerted manner to mediate physiological responses. This review provides a general overview of the redox biology of these key molecules , their diverse chemistry relevant to physiological processes and their interrelated nature in cellular signaling. Single- Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling. Single- molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment.

In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo. A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane. These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses.

To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand.

This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes. Methods and limitations of single- molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Single- molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling , one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide. Hydrogen sulfide H2S has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase DAO along with 3MST.

These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions.

The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear. Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances. Small- molecule dissection of brassinosteroid signaling.

The growth-promoting hormones, the brassinosteroids BRs , are perceived at the plant cell surface by receptor kinases that transduce the signal to the nucleus by an intracellular cascade of phosphorylation-mediated protein-protein interactions.

BR signaling is also regulated by the plant endocytic machinery because the increased endosomal localization of the BR receptor enhances the BR responses. Chemical genetics is a powerful approach to identify new components in redundant signaling networks and to characterize highly dynamic processes, such as endocytosis.

Here, we describe a screen in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings for small molecules that affect hypocotyl elongation under continuous light conditions, indicative for an effect on BR responses. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules. Hydrogen sulfide H2S is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing.

Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action. Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease. Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration i.

Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection.

Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers.

Signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction. Main nodulation signal molecules in the peanut-bradyrhizobia interaction were examined. Flavonoids exuded by Arachis hypogaea L. Thin layer chromatography analysis from genistein-induced bacterial cultures of three peanut bradyrhizobia resulted in an identical Nod factor pattern, suggesting low variability in genes involved in the synthesis of these molecules.

Structural study of Nod factor by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that it shares a variety of substituents with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. NGR and Bradyrhizobium spp. Nodulation assays in legumes nodulated by these rhizobia demonstrated differences between them and the three peanut bradyrhizobia.

The three isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium sp. Their fixation gene nifD and the common nodulation genes nodD and nodA were also analyzed. Identification of cell density signal molecule. Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule CDS between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function.

It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon.

Also disclosed are methods of production and use. Function and evolution of ubiquitous bacterial signaling adapter phosphopeptide recognition domain FHA. Forkhead-associated domain FHA is a phosphopeptide recognition domain embedded in some regulatory proteins. With similar fold type to important eukaryotic signaling molecules such as Smad2 and IRF3, the role of bacterial FHA domain is intensively pursued.

Reported bacterial FHA domain roles include: To provide basis for the studies of other bacterial FHA domain containing proteins, the status of bacterial FHA functionality and evolution were summarized. Published by Elsevier Inc. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules , the N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs and the 4-quinolones 4Qs.

PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness. Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P.

Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: The term quorum sensing QS is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes transport and release with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents.

Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion.

Expansion and aerobiology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern. Aerobiological sampling was based on the analysis of pollen records at five aerobiological stations in Slovakia.

Highest airborne pollen counts were recorded in Nitra, Trnava and Bratislava Monitoring Stations situated in the areas most infested by A. Besides the most infested areas, high airborne pollen counts were also recorded in territories where the plant species was less abundant. During the study period, the intensity of [i] Ambrosia. Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma D'Amato et al.

To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model RegCM version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model CLM version 4. In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions.

A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used.

Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe.

The model can explain The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained.

From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen. Plants remember past weather: After extreme dry wet summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease increase substantially.

Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used.

The year data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia ragweed , Poaceae grasses and Populus poplar , as well as daily values of four climate variables temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation. Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia , but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae.

Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements.

However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods.

Higher climate sensitivity especially water sensitivity of the herbaceous taxa Ambrosia and Poaceae can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production. Glyphosate resistance in common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides over the last 40 years. Due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant GR crop technology, especially, corn, cotton, and soybean, several weed species in agronomic situations have developed resistance to this herbicide.

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted during and at Stoneville, MS to determine control of ragweed parthenium with several preemergence PRE and postemergence POST herbicides registered for use in corn, cotton, peanut, rice, and soybean. Change in Ragweed Pollen Season, Environmental Protection Agency — This figure shows how the length of ragweed pollen season changed at 11 locations in the central United States and Canada between and Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma D'Amato et al.

RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from ORCHIDEE French Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species Fabien et al. We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain simulation for future condition is been considering. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately.

A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then. Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country.

Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region. Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations.

Allelic richness-r ranged from 5. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region. Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock.

Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Waxy Starches for Food Innovation. Full Text Available Few natural waxy starches are offered to the industry demand. Amylose contents of starches isolated from Dioscorea trifida L. DSC onset gelatinization temperatures varied from The highest crystallinity was found for the starches exhibiting the highest amylose content.

Gel clarity was variable from This natural waxy yam resource is a promising ingredient for food industry. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida Diptera: Cecidomyiidae , a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia Myrtales: The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia Cav.

Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. Populations of the introduced Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed A.

All metals inhibited T. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth.

Seedling mortality was lowest in A. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. The findings also revealed that L. Economic analysis of preventing introduction of ragweed in Denmark. Ragweed is an Invasive Alien Species natively growing in North America which is at risk of being introduced in Denmark thru import of bird seeds. The plant produces a high amount of pollen which causes allergy and asthma and is considered a very potent allergy source.

It is estimated that Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia August-September recorded during a year period were obtained from monitoring sites.

The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation SD were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data.

The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts.

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea Coleoptera: Cloning, expression, and characterization of pollen allergens from Humulus scandens Lour Merr and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

The allergen genes were selectively amplified in the weed pollen cDNA pool by using a special PCR profile, with the primers designed by a modeling procedure. Following truncated gene cloning and confirmation of the pollen source, unknown 3'cDNA ends were identified by using the 3'-RACE method.

The gene function conferred by the full-length coding region was evaluated by a homologue search in the GenBank database. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli pET RosettaBlue cells were subsequently characterized by N-terminal end sequencing, IgE binding, and crossreactivity.

Three full-length cDNAs were obtained in each weed. Five recombinant proteins were abundantly expressed in nonfusion forms and were confirmed by using the N-terminal end sequence identity. Sera from patients who were allergic to A artemisiifolia reacted not only with rAmb a 8 D03 derived from A artemisiifolia, but also with recombinant protein rHum s 1 LCM9 derived from H scandens, which confirmed the allergenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant proteins from the 2 sources.

Comparison of the degenerate primers used for truncated gene cloning with the full-length cDNA demonstrated that alternative nucleotide degeneracy occurred. This study demonstrates a useful method for cloning homologous allergen genes across different species, particularly for little-studied species. New Sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Full Text Available A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5.

The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive. The extraction of exotic plant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

It can prevent the extraction of ragweed from inactivation,which could be easily caused by external condition such as illumination and temperature. The microcapsule technique can improve the property of extraction. The results showed that the morphology of microcapsules was regular and integrated observed under scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover,the core material was coated with shell material observed by the infrared spectrum analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR.

The association efficiency and loading capacity of the microcapsules determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer were The medium diameter was And the results of thermogravimetric analysis TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of the microcapsules was superior to the core material. Consequently,the microcapsules with the extraction can avoid the unstable defect of the natural extraction. In addition,the activity was also lengthened by this technique.

Full Text Available Since the beginning of common ragweed registration in North Rhine-Westphalia in there have been ragweed records, among them 31 populations with more than individuals. Common ragweed is not yet established in North Rhine-Westphalia but seems to do very well on sandy soils in the Lowland. North Rhine-Westphalia is tackling common ragweed in an early stage of invasion and will continue the strategy of rapid response to achieve a total eradication. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work ragweed plants from three Regions Canada, France, Italy were grown in both controlled constant and standard environmental conditions seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light.

Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants.

This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms.

It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content. Ragweed in France is a rather recent pollen which causes strong allergies on the populations concerned.

This pollen, mainly located in the area Rhone-Alpes, extend more and more on totality of France. Indeed, the pollinic data highlight the presence of ragweed on all the territory with very low, as for Brittany, to several hundreds grains in the area of Rhone-Alpes. So four towns of this area have followed closely the extend of this pollen during the year through five pollen-traps 2 for the town of Lyon.

The trap of Lyon I Gerland made it possible to follow temporal the extend of ragweed from to and the increase of the number of grains as that of the number of days with a significant allergic risk.

The study shows also the differences in quantity of pollens, the differences between the daily allergic risks of the five sites, as well as the differences, between the cities, of the number of days when the allergic risk is significant. It is necessary that pollen of ragweed can be followed closely because of its strong allergenic capacity, in the area of Rhone-Alpes, where the plant prevails mainly, but also on the totality of the own territory, this to supervise its evolution and the speed of proliferation of the plant.

Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa. Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate.

If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently.

Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range.

Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle.

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado.

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in near Savannah, Georgia. Laurel wilt has since spr The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle xyleborus glabratus eichoff coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T. Together, they cause a vascular wilt disease that is highly destructive to some species in the Lauraceae Fraedrich et al.

Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the Chemical ecology of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motshulsky and Xylosandrus germanus Blandford are especially problematic.

Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles.

Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks.

Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

Characterizing restriction enzyme-associated loci in historic ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia voucher specimens using custom-designed RNA probes. Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library RRL methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes.

However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocol Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests. Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles.

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Scolytinae, Platypodinae plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood.

Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t La producci6n in vitro de semilla representa una altemativa a esta problematic a, pero este proceso debe a su vez ser optimizado. El presente trabajo evalu6 el efecto de 2 gelifi- cantes sobre el crecimiento in vitro y en invema- dero de plantas de D.

Se en- contr6 que, en general, el crecimiento in vitro y en invemadero de las plantas se ve favorecido en ambas especies por el uso del Phytagel a 1. Ademas, el subcultivo de plantas de D.

The ex-periment took ragweek as a model invader to reveal the community invisibility of different habitats. The results revealed that planting native species in bare soils, and maintaining the native communities. In children allergic to ragweed pollen, nasal inflammation is not influenced by monosensitization or polysensitization.

In patients polysensitized to pollen allergens, the priming effect, by which the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to an allergen is increased by the previous exposure to another allergen, is a known phenomenon.

This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of nasal inflammation, assessed by nasal cytology, in children with allergic rhinitis AR from ragweed pollen according to being monosensitized or polysensitized.

The study included 47 children. Of them, 24 suffered from AR caused by sensitization to grass pollen and ragweed pollen group A and 23 were sensitized only to ragweed pollen group B. In all patients, the severity of AR was assessed according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines, and comorbidities were also evaluated. In group A, No significant difference was detected in the number of the considered comorbidities between the two groups.

Vegetative organs was mainly through strengthening the roots of water absorption and transporting function, increasing the water storage function of leaf and stem, reducing the water absorption of stem and leaf for plants to promote water absorption and to enhance the assimilation of leaves to achieve a variety of complex environmental conditions in the rapid growth and development in order to achieve an ecological invasion. This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico.

The designated site covers acres and contains acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile.

A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile.

Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

T-cell repertoire in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics before and after ragweed challenge. T cells play a pivotal role in initiating and orchestrating allergic responses in asthma. The goal of this work was to learn whether ragweed challenge in the lungs alters the T-cell repertoire expressed in the blood and lungs of atopic asthmatics. Analyses of cell numbers, differentials, and T-cell. Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels.

We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species.

Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism.

Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi host and air moisture , resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia.

The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. The weeding of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and sanitary risks. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a potentially allergenic annual herbaceous plant coming from North America and widespread in Italy, where it can be easily seen since May-April. Its pollination is mainly windborne and each plant is able to produce billions of pollen grains.

The pollen peaks are in the hottest days in the absence of rain and wind. In susceptible individuals, the great amount of pollen produced by this species may cause rhinitis and severe asthma attacks. Some allergic subjects can manifest disorders already at a concentration of a few granules per cubic metre. Chemical control is often practiced on a large scale and uses herbicides. A major risk is the result of the unprofessional use of chemicals by the population, especially in residential or very busy areas eg railways, urban areas.

In this paper we propose preventive measures of chemical hazards that may be resulting from the excessive use of plant protection products. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland. The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources.

The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa.

Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values.

Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher.

High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days.

The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources.

Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland. Furthermore, we used two different meteorological data sets the global GDAS data set and from the WRF mesoscale model; the meteorological parameters were: U and V wind components, temperature and relative humidity into HYSPLIT to evaluate the influence of meteorological input on calculated trajectories for high concentration ragweed episodes. The HYSPLIT simulations with two different meteorological inputs indicated that footprint studies on ragweed benefit from a higher resolution meteorological data sets.

Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle. The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U. Concern exists that X. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States U.

Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae.

This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. In , female X. Invasive Asian Fusarium — Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry. Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea Coleoptera: Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles Scolytidae and Platypodidae in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live.

In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success. Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed.

Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide.

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