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Donate now to keep mindat. What is a mineral? Cassiterite This page kindly sponsored by Keith Compton. Photos of Cassiterite Cassiterite Gallery Search Photos of Cassiterite. The primary ore of Tin, this mineral is found in hydrothermal veins and pegmatites associated with granite intrusions.

Because of its durability, it is also frequently found concentrated in alluvial placer deposits, sometimes in large enough quantities to be commercially exploitable, as in Malaysia, for example. May precipitate from volcanic gas, as shown by experiments of Africano et al. Hide all sections Show all sections. This section is currently hidden. Click the show button to view. Nickel-Strunz 10th pending ed.: With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra.

Pleochroic haloes have been observed. Dichroic in yellow, green, red, brown, usually weak, or absent, but strong at times. OSn - search for minerals with similar chemistry. Long prismatic at times, or with acute terminations.

Fibrous, botryoidal crusts or concretionary masses. Granular, coarse to fine. Both contact and penetration twins; often repeated producing complex forms. Stellate fivelings at times. Click on an icon to view. Bernhardi, ; Presl, Cornwall Phillips, ; Tschermak, Haidinger,and others. Originally reported from Penikoja PennikojaSomero, Southwestern Finland Region, Finland Dough tin 'Dough Tin', a Cornish variety of cassiterite, owns its name for the white colouration and texture giving it an appearance of uncooked bread dough.

Wood Tin A variety of Cassiterite showing a radiating structure resembling dried wood. Related to cassiterite the same way agate is related to quartz. Most commonly as a low-temperature hydrothermal deposit in acid volcanic rocks. Alluvial "stream tin", without th Argutite GeO 2 Tet. Plattnerite PbO 2 Tet. Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:. Quartz photos of Cassiterite associated with Quartz on mindat.

Muscovite photos of Cassiterite associated with Muscovite on mindat.

Siderite photos of Cassiterite associated with Siderite on mindat. Pyrite 70 photos of Cassiterite associated with Pyrite on mindat. Fluorite 62 photos of Cassiterite associated with Fluorite on mindat. Tourmaline 59 photos of Cassiterite associated with Tourmaline on mindat. Albite 52 photos of Cassiterite associated with Albite on mindat. Arsenopyrite 50 photos of Cassiterite associated with Arsenopyrite on mindat. Scheelite 48 photos of Cassiterite associated with Scheelite on mindat.

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Topaz 43 photos of Cassiterite associated with Topaz on mindat. No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

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An essential component of rock names highlighted in redan accessory component in rock names highlighted in green. Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Structural rationale for the occurrence of the elbow twins in cassiterite and rutile. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences Quality Minerals at Fair Prices.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

TL - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable. Sorry, your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio. A variety of Cassiterite showing a radiating structure resembling dried wood. Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. Geological Survey Afghanistan Mineral Assessment Team,Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan: Geological Survey Open-File Report — The Filfila NE Algeria topaz-bearing granites and their rare metal minerals: Petrologic and metallogenic implications.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56 2 Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11 2: Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34 3 Canadian Mineralogist, 45, Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge pp.

Pirquitasit - erstmals Kristalle aus Argentinien zu sehen. Mineralien-Welt 24 3in German. Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina ; Galliski, M. Distrito minero El Quemado, Deptos. La Poma y Cachi, provincia de Salta. American Mineralogist 84, Mineralium Deposita, 46, Gold and silver deposits related to Jurassic Patagonian volcanism: Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts.

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Ore Geology Reviews, 58, New South Wales Arrawatta Co. E Brown and W. Topaz, anglesite, and other Australian minerals. Records of the Australian Museum 7 4: Controls of tin-bearing pegmatites and granites in the Precambrian of Broken Hill, Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 8, Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol 4 2 December Crystallization of zircon and REE-phosphates over three million years—a geochemical and U—Pb geochronological study.

Chemical Geology, 3 Chemical Geology — ; Econ Geol Chemical Geology — ; Barnes R. Geological Survey of N. Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura Endeavor lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11,

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  1. Celine Dion once wore it as a necklace for a TV special once. Gold on quartz from Round Mountain mine, Nye County, Nevada, Southwest USA. . The Willamette Meteorite is an iron-nickel meteorite discovered in the U. in the state of Oregon, weighs about pounds and is approximately 10 feet tall by feet wide and feet.:
    This Pin was discovered by Naturalee N'Satiable. Discover (and save) your own Pins on Pinterest. A beautiful Gold nugget with crystallized portions. It is quite tridimensional in a nice yellow color. It is very bright and shiny. It weighs gram and comes from Papua New Guinea. Blue Chalcedony with a cover of tiny sparkling Quartz crystals grown in a cavity of Siderite · Blue CrystalsGems And . form of zinc oxide (ZnO). This is almost certainly a man made specimen. . Creedite Granite camp (Manhatten Mine), Lodi District, Nye Co., Nevada, x x From: The Arkenstone. Find this Pin and more on.
  2. 1 Jan JANUARY THE EARTH'S TREASURES - MINERALS AND JEWELRY VOL 46 ISSUE 01 Limonite vs. Goethite .. Each identifies a period of time during which a new form of technology has given a major boost to the development of hu- man civilization. We often Several great casino's nearby.:
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The same day Linda showed up, Jake showed up and offered to operate the machine for a few hours. He started off aggressively, ripping down the north wall with lots of banging and scraping. I was down in the pit watching. Then I heard yelling and whooping. Linda was sitting on top of the edge of the pit, looking down.

Jake was ripping the crap out of the wall and Linda was cheer- ing like a spectator at a bloody gladiator fight! Soon, the agate started flowing into my buckets. Mining efficiently is a two- man job, so when Jake offered to help, I jumped at it. Together, in just those few hours, we got more agate out of the mine than I had in the last two days.

While ripping at the wall, we exposed a 15 -foot vertical vein reaching up to the very surface. It was 6 inches at the widest point and 2 inches at the narrowest point. All of it was gemmy material with gold, green and white plumes in clear agate.

V Meet face to face with your customers. Must present original ad. Limit one per person. Property of Gem Faire, Inc, can be revoked without notice. SI, Features Include: Rocks, Findings and Jewelry Since m ail bead i n g. The plastic PVC pipes used in the past trapped birds inside, and it takes 1, years for plastic to biodegrade. I need to hit the road. Its all yours Linda. The day was getting late and Linda had to head back home tobe ready to go to work in the morning.

This was my last day of digging. The sun was going down and I had a 15 -foot vein wanting to be free after being imprisoned for millions of years in the hard basalt. It looked like we'd be hav- ing a night dig. After eating dinner, I grabbed my Cole- man lantern and headed down to the pit. The lights on the machine actually did a better job of illuminating the working area than the lantern, so I kept the engine run- ning. Its a good trade: After digging a while, I noticed that a certain section of rock had a red cast to it.

Digging out this section revealed fantastic colors. Unfortunately, I only recovered about two dozen veins out of this section. It got too late that night to do any more digging on that vein, but there was still a good deal left to dig out, so I decided to cover it up until the next spring. In May , 1 went back to retrace my efforts from last fall and try to discover 30 www.

Cabochons with the red, green, gold, druzy pockets and white plumes are always a fantastic combination. Having a three-man team is defi- nitely a plus. Gene has vast mining expe- rience, so I knew this was going to be a very productive day and a great learning experience.

Going back to where I had found the red plumes proved to be too difficult. The ba- salt host rock was impossible to penetrate. Therefore, we started digging on the west side of the pit instead. The well-known green, white and gold plume veins in this area were plenti- ful, and after paying my fuel and excavator rental bills, Id make a small profit! These new claims look very promising and appear to have excellent plumes. Will i am TIollaKvcl School oj. Box , Lapidary Ln. With more accurate methods of identifying minerals these days scientists have seen fit to make some major changes in how minerals are named.

One of the really annoying examples of a name change is limonite-goethite. In my mind, the difference between the two is clear enough and they should be classified separately, even though both are hydrous iron oxide.

The almost milk chocolate-brown iron oxide specimens that lack crystal form and are usually dull and somewhat soft are limonite. Specimens that are a lustrous dark brown to black and have a modest hardness are usually called goethite. Now I find out fve been wrong for about seven decades.

What I used to call limonite is now to be called goethite for the simple reason that there is no such mineral as limonite! Evan Jones collection Here's a fine example of a goethite pseudomorph after pyrite from Crystal Peak, Colorado, private collection Limonite is not the only mineral name to lose its legitimacy.

Take my favorite form of vanadinite, which had always been called endlichite. This name was applied to any vanadinite that was brown or yellow- brown in color and had a fine, resinous lus- ter.

The crystals were typically hexagonal, but in some cases formed tapering needles of very fine mahogany color. We all knew the hexagonal, hoppered, red crystals as vanadinite. The present of a quantity of ar- senic is what gave vanadinite its endlichite characteristics. As scientists got more accurate in ana- lyzing mineral species, they began creating more accurate names to help clarify an ad- mittedly confusing subject. Maybe we were not quite ac- curate, but at least we knew what such a specimen would look like.

So, the same lovely brown hexagonal lead-chloro- vanadate I used to collect in Mexico and at the Rowley mine in Arizona is now called arsenian -vanadinite. I know what it means and to which vanadium mineral it refers. The new name really does give the collector a better idea of what he or she has. But for us old-timers, the now- discontinued name endlichite is far more acceptable simply because we are too stub- born to change! The name- changing practice now in vogue that really has my head spinning is that of placing a chemical symbol in front of or behind the name of a mineral.

Take the lovely white-to-green mineral apo- phyllite, for example. Side by side, these three different apophyllites sure look the same to me.

The difference is in their chemistry. Does that mean that if you find an apophyllite you really like can you tell the difference? To some collectors it may be important that the specimen they chose is apophyllite KOH and not the apo- phyllite NaF they expected. Will most collectors reject the specimen? Here's a fine example of a goethite pseudomorph after pyrite from Crystal Peak, Colorado, private collection So, putting the correct chemical desig- nation on your label is your choice.

If you put the specimen in your cabinet, there is no problem. But if you enter it in a Federa- tion competition, you may be penalized for failing to add the chemical symbol after the mineral name. Thus, the finer speci- men may lose a point. I just think the minerals, which are the rea- son for competing, should be given pre- mium consideration. The interest collectors have in minerals has certainly changed in the last century.

The science of minerals was always an important factor in the minds of 20th- century collectors. Today, however, the attractiveness of a specimen takes prece- dence over its scientific appeal. The atti- tude toward broken and repaired crystals has also changed. Fifty years ago, the value of a damaged or repaired crystal was cause to shun it, or at least reduced its value con- siderably. Now, some completely repaired crystals can sell for six figures if they are showy or rare enough.

Reassembled specimens have added immensely to the supply of very showy specimens. Still, I think repaired speci- mens, regardless of how well the job is done, do not deserve the same monetary consideration as a perfectly formed speci- men in original, undamaged form. As the science of minerals becomes less important to collectors, however, scientific accuracy is becoming paramount in the language of naming minerals.

Old terms we all understood have disappeared from the literature. Here we have a situation where many collectors are no longer interested in the science of minerals, yet the International Nomenclature Commission members, who are charged with the accuracy of the science of minerals, are doing their best to bring scientific accuracy to mineral nomencla- ture. Amateurs are still using the old terms for ease of understanding. I doubt anyone is going to describe a specimen of apophyl- lite and include the more accurate chemical symbol along with the mineral name.

The story of goethite and limonite is a case in point. In old texts, like James Dwight Danas System of Mineralogy, the bible of the mineral world, I find goethite listed chemically and limonite listed sepa- rately as another distinct mineral. Iron ox- ides are chemically active and very hard to differentiate by sight. We were accustomed to identifying specimens according to the obvious physical properties described above.

Limonite is perhaps the oldest name in use to describe hydrous oxide of iron. This material was eas- ily smelted in open furnaces. The mineral was described as being amorphous lack- ing any crystal form. The term limonite continued to be applied to any amorphous tan to dark-brown massive material. This is the common matrix found beautifully decorated with secondary mineral species that form when the original sulfide ores are weathered.

When an ore deposit is exposed to the forces of nature, the original sulfides break down. Iron-bearing minerals — chalco- pyrite and pyrite, in particular — release iron atoms as they break down, and this iron immediately combines with oxygen and water in the form of the chemical radical OH , hydroxide.

The brownish matrix that forms from the breakdown of iron minerals becomes the These fine crystals of kottigite found a place to develop in a vug lined with goethite from Mina Ojuela, Mapimi, Mexico. Groben collection common lining of open cavities in the weathered ore and plays host to an amaz- ing range of very desirable secondary min- erals that collectors cherish. In the deserts of the world, where weath- ering can penetrate to well over 1, feet, this brownish lining is exceedingly com- mon.

It can contain some quartz, which makes it quite hard, much to the dismay of any collectors trying to recover minerals in and on the brown iron matrix. At other times, this brown lining is so soft you can gouge it with your fingers. The iron hydroxide lines open veins and cavities, in which later mineral-bearing solutions can accumulate. Given time, these solutions begin to produce crystals.

Legrandite, adamite, smithsonite, wulfen- ite, mimetite, and any number of other secondary mineral species have a brown matrix we used to call limonite. Now, it is called goethite.

Be cautious, though, be- cause smithsonite can also form as a brown matrix on which crystals can form. In massive form, goethite, lepidochro- ite and ferooxyhyte are indistinguishable. In fact, what we used to call limonite pseu- domorphs after pyrite have been shown to be mainly goethite, but can also contain traces of one or more other hydrous iron oxides, including these uncommon miner- als.

Goethite is easily identified when it forms crystals. For one thing, it does not have the physical properties of what we used to call limonite.

It is very dark brown to almost black. It has luster, which limo- nite never had. Limonite did not form crystals, but goethite can form bladed crystals or small tabular crystals, and even take on needle or acicular form.

In massive 34 www. Groben collection form, it is botryoidal, reniform, stalactite or fibrous. It was common for collectors in the 20th century to refer to most brown massive forms as limonite, especially when no crystal form was present and the color tended to be brownish yellow, rusty brown, and the like.

Now, it is all goethite. There are several forms of goethite that are well worth collecting and display- ing. It is lightly coated with submicroscopic crystals that defract light, so a rainbow pattern of color shows up all over the specimen surface. Turgite is an ancient name that was ap- plied to what is now goethite whenever the uneven surface showed a flash or play of colors.

So, turgite, as it was called, is more correctly reniform goethite on which hy- drous iron oxide has developed in scaly, submicroscopic crystals. These act as a diffraction grating, splitting light into its component colors, which reflect off the surface of the specimen as you rotate or rock it in your hand. The edition of the System of Mineralogy described turgite as a distinct species. Ironically, neither turgite nor limonite is credited as a mineral today. They are sim- ply described as forms of goethite.

Turgite was common in many mines in Europe. In this country, it was present in the old iron mines around Salisbury, Con- necticut.

In later years, quantities of very colorful, reniform turgite were found in North Carolina, and even today you can see specimens displayed and labeled turgite in the museum on Grandfather Mountain, not far from Spruce Pine, North Carolina. One form of what was called limonite is the goethite pseudomorph after pyrite. I cant think of any pseudomorph species more common than this one. The beauty of these pseudomorphs is they are found as perfectly preserved images of the origi- nal pyrite crystals.

Pyrite is cubic and very often heavily striated. Many goethite pseu- domorphs preserve the exact features of the pyrite cubes, though dodecahedrons of pyrite can also be replaced by goethite. Oddly, I seldom see any goethite-after-py- rite octahedrons.

Sources of these pseudomorphs are countless, but one locality— Pelican Point, Utah Lake, Utah — produced marvelous clusters of fairly lustrous, perfectly shaped pyrite crystals replaced by goethite. For decades, local collectors were able to col- lect in this unrestricted area, and fine groups of specimens were recovered. The area is, according to my information, now closed to collecting.

Two areas in which you can still find ex- cellent bladed goethite specimens are Flo- rissant and Crystal Peak Teller County , Colorado. This region is famous for its amazonite- smoky quartz combinations, which also can have minor associations of goethite and fluorite.

Not surprisingly, goethite pseudomorphs after pyrite are sometimes found in the Pikes Peak region, as well. Generally, the goethite occurs as small, bladed clusters, but at times a pocket rich in bladed sprays of goethite with smoky quartz has been found. Lovely specimens of radiating blades can form what might be called flowery arrangements. The smoky quartz crystals associated with the goethite can also have minor goethite inclusions.

While the change of limonite to goethite has been made, you can continue to hear the term limonite applied to some speci- mens. There is no harm in using the term.

Simply understand that it is no longer sci- entifically accurate. Meteorite jewelry, books, collecting kits, unique gift items. Shells, Slabs, Rooks and more. BUY direct from Wie manufacturer. A Maya mirror consisting of inlay pieces of polished, specular hematite. The highly reflective, natural crystal faces on this hematite make an excellent mirror.

Such mirrors had great spiritual sig- nificance in the Maya culture. In a time when science did not exist to explain the optical phenomenon of reflection, hema- tite mirrors seemed to possess supernatu- ral powers. For the Maya elite, mirrors served as personal ornaments, symbols of wealth, and even fire -starting devices.

In Maya symbolism, they represented fire, water, and the sun. But most importantly, mirrors produced mysterious light reflections that, in the eyes of the Maya, were divinatory images that aided communication with spirits, offered glimpses into the under- world, revealed the future, and provided guidance in decision-making. Light reflections can be specular or diffused. In diffused reflections, incident light is re- flected as multiple rays that travel in dif- ferent directions.

Mirror images are there- fore specular reflections that replicate the original incident light, and creating them demands extremely smooth, highly reflec- tive surfaces. Specular surfaces are rare in the natural world. The most common of these are the surface of a still body of water and the fac- es of certain mineral crystals. In mirrors, the reflective surfaces must be extraordinarily smooth. When surface irregularities on a reflective surface are smaller than the wavelengths of light, vir- tually all incident light is reflected.

Ideally, mirror surfaces should also be colorless, black, or a neutral, metallic silver that will reflect all light wavelengths equally. The Maya, and the Olmec people who preceded them, fashioned mirrors from pyrite and the iron minerals ilmenite, magnetite, and especially hematite.

Hematite, or iron oxide Fe20s , is the most abundant iron mineral and the pri- mary ore of iron. It has a Mohs hardness of 5. Hematite crys- tallizes in the hexagonal system as tabular crystals, and occurs in earthy, massive and botryoidal forms. Particulate hematite is red; crystalline hematite is a metallic steel- gray or black.

Its micaceous structure of aligned, flat microcrystals creates a natu- rally reflective surface that is similar to the crystal faces of the mica-group minerals. Due to its hardness and structure, specular hematite takes a superb polish. It reflects light wavelengths equally, and is a relatively abundant and widely distributed mineral.

The Olmec were making mirrors of specular hematite as early as BCE. Although these had great spiritual signifi- cance, they were also functional.

Polished, concave hematite mirrors could point-fo- cus sunlight to start fires. Olmec mirror-making skills had been passed down to the emerging Maya cul- ture by BCE. Early Maya mirrors were single pieces of hematite rarely larger than an inch or two.

These evolved into larger, mosaic mirrors made of numerous small, inlay pieces of polished hematite. Maya mirrors were almost priceless be- cause of the huge amount of time, effort, and skill that was invested in each. Some consisted of mosaics of many small, highly reflective faces of natural hematite crystals.

Most, however, were pieces of hematite that required lengthy and laborious polishing to produce a reflective surface. Archaeologists suggest that fine quartz-sand grit, then an even finer hematite grit were used. The Maya also made mirrors from py- rite, but its inherent chemical instability caused their once -reflective surfaces to oxidize into crumbly iron hydroxides over centuries of burial, heat and humidity.

But as a chemically stable iron oxide, hema- tite has been able to preserve a fascinating glimpse — literally and figuratively — into the Maya past.

Steve Voynick is a sci- ence writer, mineral col- lector, former hardrock miner, and the author of books like Colorado Rockhounding and New Mexico Rockhounding. I came to this high-desert town to search for turquoise, to J experience a hunt on one of the last gem-grade turquoise mines open to the pub- lic in the United States.

A friends interest in turquoise jewelry had ignited in me a cu- riosity about the semiprecious gemstone. While I am normally a gold prospector, using my metal detector to find gold in quartz, I became more and more interested in turquoise as I researched it on the Web.

An upcoming trip to Las Vegas would take me through To- nopah. From investigating, I knew that the nearby Royston Min- ing District was famous for turquoise and that the Otteson family offered a tour and a dig at their Royal Royston claim in of To- nopah. Besides, what price adventure? Tonopah is centrally located between Reno, Nevada, and Las Vegas, a days drive from either city. I began my turquoise odys- sey in Reno, principally because I was moving things from Sacra- mento to Las Vegas, my soon-to-be new hometown.

The date was Oct. To get into the spirit of things, I first visited the W. The museum is in the Mackay School of Mines Building, a classical-looking structure in Flemish-bond brick. I had read there was an outstanding display of Nevada turquoise inside, and I was not disappointed. A large display cabinet houses the Luella Margrave turquoise collection. It has samples from around the world, including more than 30 specimens from different Nevada mines and localities.

The collection of mostly rounded and polished stones includes a Blue Gem mine specimen that weighs carats! The grouping also shows stones that are often mistaken for turquoise, such as howlite, chrysocolla, wardite, imperialite and variscite. Its gold and silver specimens are first-class, and the history of the Comstock strike is well presented. Any rock- hound should tour the museums displays of minerals, fossils, mining artifacts, and ores. During my Internet research on Nevada turquoise, I kept coming across references to a Frank Morrissey, an inveterate amateur turquoise collector who visited nearly every turquoise mine in Nevada.

Group members are issued yellow bags to hold the specimens they collect on the overburden bank at the Royal Royston claim. Although the document exists as a pdf file online, I purchased the printed work for its foldout map and, to a degree, as a souvenir. After some impulse buying — Geology of Nevada , a boxed NBMG rock and mineral collection, and a turquoise picture post- card — I fueled my truck and headed east on Interstate 80 to Fernley, Nevada. Its necessary to go east to hook up with U.

Highway 95 South, which takes you all the way to Tonopah. As I negotiated the light traffic and rural intersections, I kept looking at the post- card I had bought, slightly bent and yel- lowed on the back, perhaps from years of waiting to be sold. It var- ies greatly in color from the highly prized shades of blue, green, and blue green to al- most white or grey.

Geological Survey wrote something similar on the Web: Water and an arid climate are key fac- tors. As water moves through layers of the chemically correct soil and rock, it causes small amounts of copper to be dis- solved.

Evaporation must then occur for aluminum and phosphorus to combine with the copper. The result of this reac- tion is to deposit turquoise in veins. Too much water in the soil initially would drive out the copper, making it too di- lute to react. The process would also be doomed in a wetter climate, since evapo- ration must occur. The differences in color and the shades within a color, reflect the different concentrations of each chemical.

Chemicals that are pres- ent in lesser amounts, such as iron, also af- fect color, as does the host rock, or matrix, of the stone.

Joe Dan Lowry and Joe P. Lowry, writ- ing in Turquoise Unearthed: But as I drove on and as the country emptied, I thought less about chemicals and more about the people who first occupied these lonely lands and how they worked turquoise into their lives.

This washed 3-pound, cabinet-size rhyolite rock shows a gem-grade turquoise seam. Turquoise mining and processing in Nevada goes back at least years. Re- search Geologist Joseph V. Fifty miles or so northeast of Tonopah, Schmidtlein found turquoise chips, crude stone tools, and a narrow, to 15 -foot shaft. He sub- sequently claimed the property, calling it the Indian Blue mine. From their center of power in what is now New Mexico, Anasazi traded tur- quoise for almost everything, including California seashells, copper bells, obsid- ian, and even macaws from Mexico.

But what about this mine near Tonopah? That is Western Shoshone country. Mine-scarred hills and tailing piles greeted me as I drove into Tonopah. The city is built on top of countless abandoned tunnels and mine workings; a town alive on the remnants of the past. My destination was the historic and pe- riod-restored Mizpah Hotel, whose management has an arrangement with the Ottesons that benefits everyone.

Tour participants get a discount on their dig fee if they stay overnight in the hotel. All dig attendees, no matter where they stay in town, meet their guide leader at 10 a. The park is right in back of the hotel. Challenging trails lead to myr- iad mining features: Low-grade green turquoise in rhyolite can be found at the Royal Royston claim. For the less physically inclined, the Visitor Cen- ter offers easy access and plenty of parking. It was here that I first saw turquoise rough, and I found that sight compelling.

Previously, I had always seen turquoise set in jewelry or as polished stones. The rough, by comparison, had a raw and natu- ral look that I liked very much.

Royston District turquoise was represented, includ- ing an example of the rare and controversial white turquoise, which many argue is not turquoise at all.

I will not settle that argu- ment here, but the NBMG did write that turquoise colors could range to almost- white and gray. In the Mizpah, a small group of us filled out paperwork, were issued yellow nylon bags for our finds, and were introduced to the personable Dean Otteson.

He seemed genuinely interested in sharing his life and his love of turquoise. Turquoise mining is a family affair; no fewer than 13 Ottesons have active claims in the Royston Mining District. We would caravan to the claim, he said, so the six of us went off to our vehicles and were soon racing out of town. And I do mean racing. After a short stint on U.

After 20 miles, we broke westward over an unpaved, but well-graded, road toward the Royston Hills. Rain had fallen in pre- vious days, but our caravan — a low-slung sedan, a full-size camper pickup towing an ATV, and my pickup— managed to battle through the occasional wallow.

I tried not to think about damaging the load of paint- ings and possessions in my truck, which I was taking to Las Vegas. They would have to take care of themselves — this was a time for turquoise! This washed hand sample is typical of the size of stones found at the Royal Royston claim. After five or six miles on this unpaved track through desert scrub, we came to our first stop a few hundred yards from our final destination.

He said the old tunnel was safe to go into and that a mine room opened to the sky. Regrettably, in my haste to search, I forgot about these old workings and did not tour them before I left.

After this stop, we followed Dean to his Royal Royston claim. He motioned to a bank of overburden only steps away from where we parked. It was in these spoils that we could search. As it dug through less promising earth, its bucket would swing back and place overburden behind the machine. That rock was then pushed away from the excavator so we could look through it. Armed mostly with hand rakes, we pawed at the material, turning over dusty rocks and rubble.

I regretted not bringing a spray bottle. Dean said the overburden was a jumble of kaolin shale and rhyolite. This state - Dean Otteson says that a skillful cutter could make good use of even thin veins of turquoise. Fractures and fissures were invaded by mineral-bearing solutions, and the gemstone was deposited as seams and veinlets. Dean told us to simply look for color. One big rock with a hint of blue caught his attention.

Our group had only rock picks and hammers, nothing heavy enough to break open the piece. I said I had a hand sledge in my truck and went to get it. Upon my return, however, the group had dispersed, each of them hunt- ing on their own. I looked over the rock, trying to read it. Not wanting to destroy something by blindly flailing away, I remembered Dean had said to hit the rock on the right.

A 3 -inch piece broke away, display- ing good color. I hit the rock again and it cleaved open, exploding into a sky blue color that matched any turquoise cabo- chon I had ever seen. A half-inch-thick vein of gem-grade turquoise revealed it- 40 www. Handicap accessible with restrooms. Close parking is metered and scarce when students are in session. Adequate parking for most RVs and trailers. Visitor Center and mineral display room is handicap accessible and has restrooms.

Free admission to the visitor center, store, and mineral displays. For the most part, the grounds are not easy for the physically challenged. Main Street in Tonopah. Handicap accessible with restaurant, bar and lodging. The claim site is un- paved, with uneven ground, and without facilities. People are escorted in, but can leave by themselves. Bring water, snacks, goggles, gloves, a spray bottle, and a rock hammer.

See their Web site for additional items. Perhaps take a rented vehicle if you are concerned about your car. I was so excited that I wanted to put the rock into my bag immediately and run off with it, but I hesitated. Our group had found the rock togeth- er.

I therefore considered it a community rock, and wistfully placed it next to my tool bucket. Later, we would all have to fig- ure out who got to keep it. And while the group had scattered, my prospecting expe- rience taught me never to leave a produc- tive area until it was exhausted.

I was soon rewarded for staying close with samples that showed wonderfully what I had read about while getting ready for the dig: These new pieces showed fracture lines and veins more clearly than the first rock, but with much less turquoise.

He disagreed, saying that it depended on the skill of the rock cutter; that if done properly, a good show could result even from these thin veins. I later read about ribbon turquoise and how a narrow line of color through country rock could produce a beautiful cab o chon.

Dean was clearly an expert. Dean asked me how splitting the first rock had turned out. He gave a big smile when I brought it over. I told him I would have to figure out who would get to keep it.

He regarded me with a puzzled look, as if to say not to worry about it. Fortu- nately, a member of our group overheard our conversation. One of our company found a round, dense green stone that looked quite gem- my. The others in our group were equally happy with their finds, mostly hand sample -size rocks showing green and blue.

Having found enough rough to keep me happy, I and several others walked down to where the excavator was being used to chase the main vein. It all looked very blue. Almost canyon-like, a high rock wall loomed over a deep hole that the excavator was burrow- ing into. The mine had been producing for some time, judging by the depth of the pit. We spent about three hours on the claim.

It felt special to walk around a working mine like this on such a beautiful fall day. Dean encouraged all of us to join a rock or mineral society in our hometowns so we could work our turquoise and find out more about rocks and gems in general.

For those without access to saws, Dean offered to cut smaller pieces back at the Mizpah. Feeling recharged by the experience, I drove back to the main road at my own pace, enjoying the countryside. Perhaps I, too, could start a Nevada turquoise collection.

Per- haps my turquoise odyssey was not ending, but only beginning. For information contact show chairman Bill LaRue wildbill gmail. Order Toll Free email: Box Wellington, OH Website: Like such other gem- stone rocks as jade or lapis lazuli, it usually has other minerals interspersed within it. Charoite is massive, meaning it does not produce individual crystals. It is easily recognizable by its distinctive color that ranges lavender or lilac to deep purple. It is often mixed with orange tinaksite, green-gray microcline feldspar, and greenish-black aegirine-augite, in- tertwined in fibrous patterns.

Some say charoite is named for its type locality near the Chara River. In brief, it formed from contact metamorphism when a mountain mass intruded into and altered a body of limestone. Charoite is a rare mineral. The only source is Murunskii Massif, in the Eastern Siberian region of Russia, where the mining season is limited to a few months of the year.

Very early collection number. The back of the termination is damaged. This has a very early collection number. Collectors edge label says Pyrrhotite. So I do not know which if not both are present. Sparkly, dark, olive-green, olivenite crystals to 6 mm fill numerous small vugs on ALL sides and are nicely complimented by the lighter malachite on this EXCELLENT, rarely available specimen in this quality, size and richness. Easily years old.

A sharply crystallized example of this rare sulfate species, formerly known as Schonite, from a classic locality long abandoned. Minor halite is associated underneath and around the backside. It is, overall, a very attractive miniature. Mineralien-Welt 24 3 , in German.

Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina ; Galliski, M. Distrito minero El Quemado, Deptos. La Poma y Cachi, provincia de Salta. American Mineralogist 84, Mineralium Deposita, 46, Gold and silver deposits related to Jurassic Patagonian volcanism: Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts.

Ore Geology Reviews, 58, New South Wales Arrawatta Co. E Brown and W. Topaz, anglesite, and other Australian minerals. Records of the Australian Museum 7 4: Controls of tin-bearing pegmatites and granites in the Precambrian of Broken Hill, Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 8, Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol 4 2 December Crystallization of zircon and REE-phosphates over three million years—a geochemical and U—Pb geochronological study.

Chemical Geology, 3 , Chemical Geology — ; Econ Geol Chemical Geology — ; Barnes R. Geological Survey of N. Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura Endeavor lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, Cobar Metallogenic Map 1: Council of the Shire of Shoalhaven. Non-metallic and tin deposits of the Broken Hill district.

Final Report on Exploration Programme by R. Queensland Geological Survey Bulletin No. On the topaz trail. Economic Geology Special Publication 16, pg. Tasmanian Geological Survey; Ross, A. TAsmanian Company Report Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania.

R Bottrill, unpub data; Bottrill, R. Records of the Australian Museum pp Australian Gemmologist, 22, The geology of the Rossarden - Storeys Creek district. Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. A calcian ralstonite-like mineral from the Cleveland Mine, Tasmania, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 54 , Econ Geol Petrologic and geochemical significance of a Devonian replacement zone in the Cambrian Rosebery massive sulfide deposit, western Tasmania.

The Canadian Mineralogist, 35 5 , Blissett, AH, Zeehan. Tasmania Dept of Mines Geol. Tin deposits of Victoria No. Initial six monthly report for period ending 31st March, Gold Fields Exploration Pty Ltd.

Phosphate minerals in granitic pegmatites from the Mount Wills District, north-eastern Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 2 , Geological Survey of Victoria, Report Geological Survey of Victoria Bulletin No.

Department of Mines, Victoria, 2 pp. Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria, No. Geological Survey of Victoria, Bulletin No.

Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia. Pegmatites of Western Australia. Pegmatite minerals from the Barabara mine, Coolgardie, Western Australia. Grguric; Pegmaites of Western Australia; Perth Gemstones of Western Australia.

Pegmatites of Western Australia Division , September Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Mineralium Deposita, 44 7 , Geology, geochemistry and mineralogy of the lignite-hosted Ambassador palaeochannel uranium and multi-element deposit, Gunbarrel Basin, Western Australia.

Mineralium Deposita, 46 7 , Guidebook to the Pegmatites of Western Australia. Hooley's Columbite Lode Numbana. Regolith Expression of Australian Ore Systems. Mineralium Deposita 35, Exkursion E4 am Joannea Mineralogie 2, Aufschluss, 7 3 , Mineralien-Welt 10 3 , Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz.

Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies at the Chicote tungsten deposit, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 83 1 , Min Rec 8: Geology of the Colquiri tin mine, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 42 1 , Economic Geology, 65, 6, Banco Minero de Bolivia, pp. Minera San Cristobal S. Banco Minero de Bolivia. Minera San Cristobal, S. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia.

Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25 4 , Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp Field trip observations, Alfredo Petrov. Mineralium Deposita, 36 7 , Fluid inclusion studies of the polymetallic hydrothermal ore deposits in Bolivia. Mineralium Deposita, 23 1 , Fritz Berndt, unpublished analyses; Min Rec 8: Tin deposits of Carguaicollo, Bolivia.

Santa Cruz ; Spencer, L. Economic Geology, 23, 3, Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil.

Lithos, 66 1 , Geochemical characteristics of cryolite-tin-bearing granites from the Pitinga mine, northwestern Brazil—a review. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40 1 , Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30 4 , Canadian Mineralogist 47, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 66 1 , Jeannine and Jacques Cassedanne: Revista Geonomos, 2 2 p Abrahao Moura et al.

Wilson, W E Famous Mimeral localities: Mineralogical Record, 14 4: American Mineralogist 89, Persiano - Acta Cryst. Comparative study of two pegmatitic fields from Minas Gerais, Brazil, using rubidium and cesium content of the micas and feldspars. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 29 1 , Ayala, Javier Ellena, and Marcelo B. A find of crystallized Rose Quartz in Minas Gerais. European Journal of Mineralogy: American Mineralogist, 91, Gem pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Gems and Gemology, 20 2 , Mineralogical Record 9 1 , The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, Ore Geology Reviews 33, Mineralium Deposita 43, Mineralium Deposita 43, ; Beurlen, H.

Chrysoberyl-sillimanite association from the Roncadeira pegmatite, Borborema Province, Brazil: Journal of GEOsciences, 58 2 , Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. Mineralium Deposita 32,

one

Sorry, your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio. A variety of Cassiterite showing a radiating structure resembling dried wood. Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. Geological Survey Afghanistan Mineral Assessment Team, , Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan: Geological Survey Open-File Report — The Filfila NE Algeria topaz-bearing granites and their rare metal minerals: Petrologic and metallogenic implications.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56 2 , Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11 2: Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34 3 , Canadian Mineralogist, 45, Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina.

In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge pp. Pirquitasit - erstmals Kristalle aus Argentinien zu sehen. Mineralien-Welt 24 3 , in German.

Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina ; Galliski, M. Distrito minero El Quemado, Deptos. La Poma y Cachi, provincia de Salta. American Mineralogist 84, Mineralium Deposita, 46, Gold and silver deposits related to Jurassic Patagonian volcanism: Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts.

Ore Geology Reviews, 58, New South Wales Arrawatta Co. E Brown and W. Topaz, anglesite, and other Australian minerals. Records of the Australian Museum 7 4: Controls of tin-bearing pegmatites and granites in the Precambrian of Broken Hill, Australia.

Australian Journal of Mineralogy 8, Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol 4 2 December Crystallization of zircon and REE-phosphates over three million years—a geochemical and U—Pb geochronological study. Chemical Geology, 3 , Chemical Geology — ; Econ Geol Chemical Geology — ; Barnes R. Geological Survey of N. Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura Endeavor lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, Cobar Metallogenic Map 1: Council of the Shire of Shoalhaven.

Non-metallic and tin deposits of the Broken Hill district. Final Report on Exploration Programme by R. Queensland Geological Survey Bulletin No. On the topaz trail. Economic Geology Special Publication 16, pg. Tasmanian Geological Survey; Ross, A. TAsmanian Company Report Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania.

R Bottrill, unpub data; Bottrill, R. Records of the Australian Museum pp Australian Gemmologist, 22, The geology of the Rossarden - Storeys Creek district. Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. A calcian ralstonite-like mineral from the Cleveland Mine, Tasmania, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 54 , Econ Geol Petrologic and geochemical significance of a Devonian replacement zone in the Cambrian Rosebery massive sulfide deposit, western Tasmania. The Canadian Mineralogist, 35 5 , Blissett, AH, Zeehan.

Tasmania Dept of Mines Geol. Tin deposits of Victoria No. Initial six monthly report for period ending 31st March, Gold Fields Exploration Pty Ltd. Phosphate minerals in granitic pegmatites from the Mount Wills District, north-eastern Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 2 , Geological Survey of Victoria, Report Geological Survey of Victoria Bulletin No.

Department of Mines, Victoria, 2 pp. Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria, No.

Geological Survey of Victoria, Bulletin No. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia. Pegmatites of Western Australia. Pegmatite minerals from the Barabara mine, Coolgardie, Western Australia.

Grguric; Pegmaites of Western Australia; Perth Gemstones of Western Australia. Pegmatites of Western Australia Division , September Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Mineralium Deposita, 44 7 , Geology, geochemistry and mineralogy of the lignite-hosted Ambassador palaeochannel uranium and multi-element deposit, Gunbarrel Basin, Western Australia.

Mineralium Deposita, 46 7 , Guidebook to the Pegmatites of Western Australia. Hooley's Columbite Lode Numbana. Regolith Expression of Australian Ore Systems. Mineralium Deposita 35, Exkursion E4 am Joannea Mineralogie 2, Aufschluss, 7 3 , Mineralien-Welt 10 3 , Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz.

Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies at the Chicote tungsten deposit, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 83 1 , Min Rec 8: Geology of the Colquiri tin mine, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 42 1 , Economic Geology, 65, 6, Banco Minero de Bolivia, pp. Minera San Cristobal S. Banco Minero de Bolivia. Minera San Cristobal, S. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia.

Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25 4 , Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp Field trip observations, Alfredo Petrov. Mineralium Deposita, 36 7 , Fluid inclusion studies of the polymetallic hydrothermal ore deposits in Bolivia.

Mineralium Deposita, 23 1 , Fritz Berndt, unpublished analyses; Min Rec 8: Tin deposits of Carguaicollo, Bolivia. Santa Cruz ; Spencer, L. Economic Geology, 23, 3, Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.

Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil. Lithos, 66 1 , Geochemical characteristics of cryolite-tin-bearing granites from the Pitinga mine, northwestern Brazil—a review. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40 1 , Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30 4 , Canadian Mineralogist 47, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 66 1 , Jeannine and Jacques Cassedanne: Revista Geonomos, 2 2 p Abrahao Moura et al.

Wilson, W E Famous Mimeral localities: Mineralogical Record, 14 4: American Mineralogist 89, Persiano - Acta Cryst. One of our company found a round, dense green stone that looked quite gem- my. The others in our group were equally happy with their finds, mostly hand sample -size rocks showing green and blue. Having found enough rough to keep me happy, I and several others walked down to where the excavator was being used to chase the main vein.

It all looked very blue. Almost canyon-like, a high rock wall loomed over a deep hole that the excavator was burrow- ing into. The mine had been producing for some time, judging by the depth of the pit. We spent about three hours on the claim. It felt special to walk around a working mine like this on such a beautiful fall day. Dean encouraged all of us to join a rock or mineral society in our hometowns so we could work our turquoise and find out more about rocks and gems in general.

For those without access to saws, Dean offered to cut smaller pieces back at the Mizpah. Feeling recharged by the experience, I drove back to the main road at my own pace, enjoying the countryside. Perhaps I, too, could start a Nevada turquoise collection.

Per- haps my turquoise odyssey was not ending, but only beginning. For information contact show chairman Bill LaRue wildbill gmail. Order Toll Free email: Box Wellington, OH Website: Like such other gem- stone rocks as jade or lapis lazuli, it usually has other minerals interspersed within it.

Charoite is massive, meaning it does not produce individual crystals. It is easily recognizable by its distinctive color that ranges lavender or lilac to deep purple. It is often mixed with orange tinaksite, green-gray microcline feldspar, and greenish-black aegirine-augite, in- tertwined in fibrous patterns.

Some say charoite is named for its type locality near the Chara River. In brief, it formed from contact metamorphism when a mountain mass intruded into and altered a body of limestone. Charoite is a rare mineral. The only source is Murunskii Massif, in the Eastern Siberian region of Russia, where the mining season is limited to a few months of the year. It has no real uses beyond jewelry and ornamental products, but its color and silky luster are highly appealing.

Although its fibrous nature makes it hard to work, it takes a fine polish. A hardness of Mohs makes it appropriate for jewelry, carvings and spheres. Flat- lapped slabs or in larger cabochons take the best advantage of its vibrant, swirling patterns. For instance, the stone in a brides engagement ring did not naturally form that way, round and sparkling with perfectly uniform and even facets.

A lapidary artist in- vested great skill, time and effort into evaluating a rough diamond, determining how it might be cut to best advantage, then cutting, grinding and polishing it with a faceting machine.

For instance, with the lapidary art of wire wrapping, you can make a great piece of jew- elry with a common, unpolished stone, a pair of needlenose pliers, and a bit of wire. Gemstone trees take similar materials and techniques. They include tumbling, cabbing, carving, flat lapping, intar- sia, faceting, wire wrapping, gemstone trees, knapping, and beading. Stones like agate and jasper are easily available and inexpensive, and might even be self-collected at spots near you.

These lapidary techniques produce unique works of art that shine and spar- kle, and that are sure to provide satisfaction and fun! They were referring to a major vein of gold, a type of lode deposit. A lode deposit forms when hydrothermal hot- water solutions fill a fracture in a body of hard rock and deposit some type of metal. The resulting ore — rock containing enough metal to make mining profit- able — is mined and smelted to separate the metal.

Pieces of gold that erode out of exposed lode deposits are trans- ported downward by water and other environmental forces until they can go no farther. They collect in a low place, such as a river bottom or on bedrock, as a placer deposit. It marks the place in which continental plates collided, crushing and folding rocks.

Water trickled down the cracks and came into contact with magma, which superheated it. The hot water dis- solved metals, forming a rich solution. The solution was forced back up the fissures, dropping its metal load as it cooled. The result was one of the richest gold deposits in the country —Lynn Varon California mother lode ore Gold Mine You have 25 pick strokes to mine as much gold as possible.

Each dirt and gold tile takes one stroke to break through; rock tiles require two strokes. Dig only through tiles whose sides touch. Diagonal moves are not allowed. Dig multiple tunnels, if you wish. Box Fountain Hills, AZ for details visit: High Quality Geodes Direct from the Mine!

Denver Gem and Mineral Show Sept. Tucson Gem Shows Kirtu Crtsmi. The even distribution of the surface druse is an important consideration when choosing druzy gemstones for lapidary work. Story by Helen Serras-Herman 46 www. Druzy quartz surfaces, just like agates, are commonly dyed in a multitude of bright colors.

Lapidaries, designers, and metal smiths need to be aware of the hardness, durabil- ity and longevity of these stones, as does the final jewelry client or collector, who should know how to clean and take care of these stones. According to the FTC guidelines, it is the sellers responsibility at all levels of commerce to clearly disclose to the buyer at the time of the sale whether the stone is natural or not, excepting normal fashion- ing cutting and polishing.

The reflection of light off these tiny crystals creates a shimmering effect that is sometimes likened to the sparkling of sugar or snow. Druse can occur on rock surfaces or within veins or vugs. Rather than being ground smooth, druzy gems retain their rough surface of myriad crys- tal points. Druzy gemstones first appeared on the market about 20 years ago. They were first cut as simple rounds, ovals and freeforms, and later as fantasy cuts leaves, stars, crosses, snowflakes or cloud shapes.

The meteoritic rise in the popularity of druzy gemstones among designers is owed to the appeal of the combination of a natural mineral surface and a wearable gem. Druse occurs in a wide variety of min- erals: Keith Horst cabs dinite Marocco , liebethenite Congo , malachite Arizona, Congo , psilomelane New Mexico, Arizona , blue hemimor- phite China , chrysocolla with druzy quartz druzy gem silica from Arizona.

The matrix on which the crystals form varies from hard agate to softer, and more fragile, rhyolite, sandstone or limestone. Almost all non-quartz druzy gems are of natural color. Quartz druse commonly lines the inside surfaces of agate geodes.

These spherical rocks have very plain-looking outer skins, but when they are cracked or sliced open, they reveal attractive mineralization: Druzy quartz from geodes comes in natural colors of white, brown, rust, tan or even orange, and black. Geodes are rarely completely filled with mineralization. For the mineral col- lector, the more complex and varied the mineralization and the larger the crystals inside the geodes, the more pleasing and desirable the specimen.

For cutting into druzy gemstones, however, pieces with more uniform druzy quartz surfaces are preferred. The even distribution of druse against the matrix background is also an important criterion for all types of druzy gemstones.

Druzy quartz surfaces are commonly dyed a multitude of bright colors. During the last decade, technology has been devel- oped to coat druzy quartzes with titanium or precious metals gold, silver, platinum.

This metal coating is permanent, and often produces spectacular iridescent colors that Mother Nature would envy. The cabs are often cut with a highly polished outer layer, leaving the druse area in the middle. Titanium drusies are coated by two methods: The technology Schiller Gems uses is capable of effectively and evenly coating up to mm by mm of sur- face area.

Schiller offers a large variety of coated druzy quartzes in assorted colors or with bicolor surfaces, shaped as crosses or five -ray stars. Cabs courtesy Keith Horst 48 www. Knowing whether drusies are coated or not is very important for their care. Even though the treatments are permanent, the coating can be scratched off or chipped off if the stone is dropped, and stones should not be buff-polished or re-polished.

An ul- trasonic machine works great for cleaning natural stones, but should not be used with coated ones. It is best to follow the precau- tions and care advice given by the sellers. Over the years, I have enjoying cutting many druzy gemstones, and have applied my signature engraved lines to their sur- faces. When neon-blue chrysocolla penetrates clear quartz or chalcedony, it produces the rarest, most desirable, and most valuable form of all quartzes, known in the trade as gem silica.

The adjustable water feed system sets this cabbing unit apart from the rest. Eliminate contamination, control your own water flow and start designing award-winning jewelry pieces today. The most valuable gem silica comes from the famous Inspiration and Ray copper mines, near Globe, Arizona. Smithsonite is a zinc carbonate ZnCCh that is often confused with hemimorphite.

It is typically found in botryoidal masses, which are often cut as attractive freeform cabs, in a variety of colors, with more pre- dominant colors being grayish-blue, pink and yellow. It is only 4. All three gems have a similar look and may be confused or misidentified by casual identification. Another black druzy material is psilomelane, a rich-black metallic mineral, covered with quartz crystals.

Both types consist of clear quartz druse through which the black back- ground is visible. Psilomelane is beau- tiful to look at, but terribly dirty to cut, as the black dust stains everything. Black psilomelane from Arizona also forms with white botryoidal quartz, making a stun- ning black-and-white combination. White druzy quartz on agate from Brazil is often dyed black, and is the most com- mon type of black druzy gem. Natural black calcite inside geodes from Keokuk, Iowa, has also been used as a black druzy gemstone.

In , I purchased a few pieces of black druzy synthetic sapphires, created by Chatham. It was an anomaly rather than a regular product. Since sapphire has a high refrac- tive index, the druzy surfaces are highly reflective.

Chatham is a leading source of quality lab-grown gems, founded 75 years ago by Carroll Chatham. He was the first to grow emerald crystals, and his son Tom Chatham continues to create a variety of lab-grown gems. Lazurite is the predominant one and the main cause for its blue color. Lapis may also show a shade of violet. Lapis, as it is commonly known, may include calcite veins, pyrite crystals, and smaller amounts of diopside, mica, hauyinte and hornblende.

There is a fine line between enough of these minerals to make an attractive gem and too much. Too much calcite makes it softer and lowers the grade; too much pyrite makes it dull and detracts from the blue body color.

There are only a few well-known min- ing areas in the world that produce fine lapis, and they are all ancient deposits. The Russian lapis that is often used in carv- ings comes from the Lake Baikal area of Siberia, south of Irkutsk. Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan — the finest in the world — comes from the ancient his- toric mines of Sar-e-Sang in the Badakh- shan province, located in the West Hindu Kush Mountains.

These mines have been in operation for over 6, years. Light-colored material may be dyed to a deeper blue, or the white veins only may be dyed. La- pis should be handled with care and kept away from heat and chemicals in case the stones, carvings or beads are dyed.

Manmade crushed lapis for inlays, simi- lar in color to material from Afghanistan, is mixed with pigments, and is available from Natural Expressions Inc. Magnesite, a soft and porous material that can be treated to simulate turquoise, is also on the scene as a simulant for lapis.

When magnesite is dyed blue and metallic inclusions that simulate pyrite are added, it truly looks like natural lapis. Magnesite from China is also dyed in shades of yellow and orange to imitate Cherry Creek jasper also known as Red Creek jasper , a multicolor material from mainland China. Azurite forms dark-blue prismatic crys- tals, but is more commonly found in massive, nodule or stalactite form.

It is very soft, only 3. Kuehl dgshowgrounds gmail. Tom Brown 1 9 or ttbb64 hotmail. Who knows which of these boulders will yield the next bonanza find? I dove into researching rockhounding localities and was, as one could expect, overwhelmed by the choices. Where should I go first?

Since I still had to get used to the higher altitudes and drink- ing more water, I logically decided to start someplace local and easily accessible. It would serve as a good physical warm-up for more grueling adventures in the future i. A trip she suggested that would meet the above criterion was a hike up Table Mountain, just outside the town of Golden.

This small thomsonite vug-matrix specimen displays both radial fan cross-section and whole euhedral spherical forms. The spherical crystal is 5 mm across. We met at a small parking area next to the trailhead on the July 4th weekend.

It took us a minute to spot the trails start, since there was a lot of overgrowth and the trail is quite narrow. According to our sources, it is a three-quarter-mile hike to the southeastern quarry where the min- eralization is. The first third or so of the trail was a little bit of a climb and started to test my lungs early. We were also walk- ing alongside a slope where a careless foot could send one barreling toward state Route 58! The second third of the trail seemed less strenuous, but was also a little rockier.

With both of us keeping our eyes down on the trail rattlesnakes can be found in the area , Roxana came to a hard stop in front of me. In peering around her to see what was up, I could see the body of a slow-slith- ering snake. I was not able to see its head or tail in the overgrown trail edges. Thank- fully, Roxana was able to readily identify it as a nonvenomous bull snake.

Bull snakes do, sometimes, eat rattlesnakes. The last third of the way, the trail was steep and open. We passed lots of hik- ers and cyclists. One passer-by was curi- ous about the tools we were carrying. After a couple of water breaks, we made it to the quarry area.

Taking a quick look around, we did not notice any obvious mineralization. We re- called that, according to our sources, there are two quarries on North Table Moun- tain: Roxana pulled out her GPS and dis- covered that we had accidentally hiked to the north quarry. With my limited smart- phone signal, I managed to find the proper coordinates for the southeast quarry.

Once Roxana got our new waypoint, we started backtracking. The trek was nearly a mile long, but at least it was downhill! When we got close, we discovered that the trail leading to the waypoint was heav- ily overgrown. In addition, the trail was easy to miss because it curved sharply back in the opposite direction. We pro- ceeded to a, thankfully, much shorter hike up.

It did not take long to note that we were in the correct vicinity, as I picked up a small, glistening white crystal on the trail. Almost immediately after the find, we saw boulders off to the side, all with inch-scale vugs of white crys- tals. Several dozen paces later, the massive piles of loose, vug-bearing boulders right at the base of a cliff wall alerted us that we had finally arrived.

These mountains serve as a natural bar- rier that isolates the town of Golden from the rest of metropolitan Denver. The first reports on this locality were made in Interest was first spurred by a miner- alogical error: Once the identification was made right, interest in the mountain de- clined for a few years, until Arthur Lakes provided choice specimens to the U. It did not take long for word to spread, and Table Mountain became a premier spot for zeolite min- erals — 14 in all have been reported!

The place has provided around years of good collecting. The town of Golden, and the Colorado School of Mines' "rock M" top right , can be seen from the quarry site.

At one point, around , the future of rockhounding at Table Mountain was in danger. The land was acquired by Jef- ferson County, which considered making it off limits to the activity However, a re- sounding voice from the local rockhound- ing community was influence enough to keep the area open, with a few provisions.

A collecting group that is larger than eight people or a collector who plans to sell specimens commercially must obtain a permit. Otherwise, no special permission or arrangements are needed. Geologically speaking, the Table Moun- tains are composed of four distinct basal- tic lava flows.

Given that Colorado was not near a plate boundary then, the basalts are of a continental flood origin, originating from an intracontinental mantle plume. Much of the volcanic activity took place 64 million years ago in the early Paleocene. Radiometric dating indicates that all four flows erupted within a fairly short interval of time — just less than a million years.

The upper flows are classified as latite basalts, whose composition is similar that of monzonite, but with slightly less quartz. Coarser crystals phenocrysts of hornblende are common. The gaseous nature of the basalts re- sulted in voids, or vesicles, being left in the rock. Hydrothermal fluids later filled the openings with zeolites and other minerals, including calcite. Although the original eruptive fissures are now erod- ed away, a separate igneous dike plug, named the Ralston Dike located just two miles northwest , is thought to represent the focal point of the eruptions.

The vol- canic activity creating the Tables is also thought to be the most geologically re- cent in Colorado. At the quarry, there is approximately a 50 -yard stretch of boulders to survey. We set down any unnecessary gear and started to explore the eastern end of the quarry. I found a couple noticeable matrix pieces with transparent, rhombohedral, milli- meter-scale crystals lying on the ground. As the formula suggests, chabazite has a more complex geochemistry than analcime and is classified further into four mineral spe- cies based on the dominant cation: I put the chabazite specimens with my bucket, to avoid carrying them up piles and not risk having them break.

Roxana started investigating at the top of a nearby pile closer to the cliff base, and I went on over to show her my chabazite finds. She then presented me with some loose and matrix pieces of cream-colored crystals that show a fan, or radial, pattern. Extremely colorful thomsonite is found there. Specimens here can also form thin, fragile branches.

After snapping some pictures, I traversed the piles to the west, while Roxana stayed put. Loose matrix pieces became harder to be had, and I The least-found zeolite on our trip, chabazite, is easily recognized by its rhombohedral crystals, which typically occur in colorless and light tan to cream hues.

I approached the other end of the quarry and proceeded toward the cliff base. I had a hypothesis that there might be specimens closer to the base, in harder- to -access crevices. I found a couple narrow openings and slithered my way in, hoping that I would not find any slithering reptiles occupying the same space! It did not take long at all to realize that my hypothesis would not be proved.

It seems that most of the better zeolite crystals are found in the central and eastern portions of the quarry. I climbed down toward the trail and headed back to our starting point, where I could hear Roxanas hammers at work. I asked if she had found any more collect- ible specimens, but she had not recovered much else since I was first there. Despite her strength, the large, unforgiving basalt boulders would not yield themselves to her efforts. Deciding it was time for lunch, we col- lected our finds for the morning and head- ed back toward our vehicles.

The morning was definitely an ideal time for this kind of hike, as I could definitely feel the increas- ing heat of the noon sun over us. A little over a month later, I decided to re-visit the site. Only this time, I decided to bring in some heavier artillery in the form of a gad pry bar and a pound sledgehammer!

After my first visit, I had read on another rockhounds blog that he was rewarded, after working on a single big boulder with a sledge for a few hours, by finding a nice seam of crystals.

Natu- rally, I wanted to see if I would have the same luck. I arrived early on a Sunday morning and found my way back up to the quarry. Thankfully, no snakes were sighted and no backtracking was needed! I surveyed just the large boulders, looking for ones with a good number of external crystalline vugs. I spotted a seemingly promising one near where Roxana and I had started on our first visit, and I started the long and tiring process of splitting it open.

Three hours, and several breaks later, the choice boulder creaked open with a sweet, progressive splitting sound. However, the newly revealed insides were not as sweet as I had hoped. Like the outside, there were a few small, scattered vugs of crystals that were not worth chipping down to more manageable sizes.

After just one boulder, I could feel the increasing heat. With my water getting low, I decided to call it a hike. I know the very durable basalt boul- ders hide plenty of sparkly treasures to be found. Cross and walk alongside the road 80 m westward to the start of the trail heading northwest, up-elevation. I go from my home in Illinois to Arizona each winter and spend a lot of time rockhounding.

After slicing these rocks into slabs for display pieces and so forth, I often end up with some small pieces or bits that are still too pretty to just throw away. Many of the leftover slabbed pieces contain brightly colored, swirling patterns. I bought an old, inch rock saw from a friend a couple of years ago, and promptly did what any self-respecting rockhound with a new toy — I mean tool — would do: Some of these experi- ments resulted in surprisingly pretty, but small, specimens.

I ran into this dictum when I was building home-built aircraft with my buddy, Kenny. When designing and build- ing something, the simplest solid design is usually the best and safest. A person can get fancy and drill holes for attachment loops or, again, do some fancy wire-wrapping for the necklace at- tachment. I discovered glue-on bails. These glue-on bails are actually a very good solution to the attachment problem. While building airplanes, I was surprised to find that a lot of parts on many planes including jetliner control surfaces are actually glued together.

The next time you are traveling at 30, feet and miles per hour in turbulence, try not to think about that! Actually, if you use the right glue and technique, your pendant and your glue-on bail should never part company. I tried two-part epoxy and actually had pendant failures with this miracle glue.

My wife, the computer expert, ordered the bails for me from Amazon. You can also get these bails at hobby stores, like Hobby Lobby, with possibly even better quality. The most-used size will usually be the 27 mm by 8 mm size 8 mm eyelet. Smaller sizes will fit only very small-diameter neck- laces.

You may also want to try glue-on ear- ring clips to make up matching sets. Glues can be great if you take the time to do the job right. Even if your rock seems porous enough to accept the glue, rough it up a bit with fine-grit sandpaper where the glue will go. Also, make sure it is as flat as possible in that area.

Then, thoroughly wipe all sanding dust off both pieces. Apply a small amount of glue to both pieces and press them together. I leave I bought an old, 1 0-inch rock saw and started cutting up rocks to see what the "innards" looked like.

This solid geode, cut in half, and then cut into a slice, will make an interesting pendant. I know that people with talent might carefully cut and shape these pieces to an exact outline, round out and polish the tops, and make nice cabochons of them, but how many belt buckles can one per- son use?

Others, with even more talent, might shape and polish them, and then artfully wrap them with silver or gold wire to make beautiful jewelry.

When I was just a kid, I was told that you needed some spe- cial talent to successfully make it in life. So I asked my folks what special talents they thought I had. Use a 2-inch by 2-inch block to make a new cut parallel to a previous one. Keep it simple, but do it right, or you could watch a beautiful pendant fall off and break in two as it hits the floor! This can be any piece you have left over that is pretty enough.

If it is too small, or too thin, for a normal cabochon, it can be ideal for this. If it is too big, find the section with the most interesting patterned on it and break the chip down to the proper size using pliers or tile nippers.

If your leftover cut piece is too thick and heavy, take it back to the saw to get the ideal thickness.

Usually, your should cut it parallel to the front side, al- though there are times you might want to taper the thickness for a special effect. Here is a handy trick to use if your rock saw has no guide to help you cut your slabs at a uniform thickness: After you have cut the rock once and gotten a nice surface for your pendant, use a 2 -inch by 2 -inch piece of wood to hold your piece perpendicular to the saw deck.

Then you can hand-feed the rock into the saw so that both sides are parallel. Sometimes, more thickness gives a nice, solid feeling to the piece, but it could be too heavy. Cut- ting them too thin can lead to the catas- trophe of breaking along a stress line or make them fragile in use. Necklace pen- dants will probably be dropped at some time, and very thin pieces have a habit of breaking.

Again, experiment, and use your judgment. Many of them are half-geodes, already broken by nature. This can be very striking. Many pleasingly col- ored rocks of the proper size can simply be cut to the right thickness, and the flat side becomes the back of your pendant. You have to determine where to place the glue-on bail to allow the pendant to hang to the best effect.

Often, this will re- quire cutting a short, flat spot across the top of the piece. I often find that, out in the desert, my mouth gets too dry for this. I found a simpler method. My old dog, Jake, slobbers like a leaky fire hydrant, so I take him with me and wipe the rock across his muzzle when necessary.

I forgot to tell him I had tried Jake first. Some people really are sooooo touchy! Now, if you have the equipment, the very best finish you can give your rock pendant is to polish it. Polishing on the various polishing machines takes many steps, but you will get better and 58 www. Remember, some of us have a distinct problem in this area. I really think it is a four-letter word!

Luckily, I have also discovered an easier way to come up with almost as good a fin- ish on most rocks. I simply spray them with clear lacquer from a spray can. Make sure you lay the pendant flat, so that the lacquer does not run to one side or the other of the piece. Again, available at Walmart. This gives a deeper-looking finish, and lets you apply additional coats only three minutes apart.

Spray your glaze onto the pendant under a bright light so that you can see when all areas have run together and dried smooth- ly. Often, the rock will be porous enough to absorb a few coats before leaving the glossy finish.

Always experiment on a few sacrificial stones to learn the technique before going to your good stuff. The finish probably cannot be quite as good as a re- ally professional rock-polish job, but cer- tainly comes very close. The good news, though, is that it can be brought back to its proper luster simply by apply- ing another coat of lacquer. Lacquering works especially well on items that would tarnish with age, like native copper in matrix. I always spray the front side of the pen- dant first and let that dry overnight.

Then I glue the bail onto the back of the stone so that I am not gluing onto a layer of lacquer, but to the stone itself. After the glue dries, I spray the back of the pendant to seal it. You can cover the bail with a piece of tape to keep overspray off it. This lacquering process works espe- cially well on pendants that have a rough or uneven front surface, which you can- not properly polish anyway.

It is also good for items that would tarnish with age, like native copper in matrix. This is the way to keep many metals from becoming dull with exposure to air.

If you wish to put a little more effort into your pendants, you can trim them on the saw into definite shapes. You can make rounded shapes, such as teardrops, ovals and circles, but they are definitely more work.

You have to nip off the excess rock and then finish smoothing the edges with a sanding drum. If you want to make your pendant into a definite shape, cut a hole of that shape and size out of a piece of cardboard. Mark the template shape on the slab with a pen- cil, go to your saw, and cut it out.

Most have come out as pretty darn nice. I suppose then our new motto should be: Azurite is habitually found with mala- chite, which is often a pseudomorph re- placement of azurite. The two minerals make a stunning visual arrangement when cut together as a gemstone.

A combination of azurite-malachite is offered as compressed blocks created by Colbaugh Processing Inc. Small natural nodules of azurite and malachite are compressed with resin into blocks. These blocks are also infused with bronze, which creates a pattern of golden webbing within the material. Plastic resin imitation blocks are also available on the market; they are an inex- pensive option for lapidary materials.

It usually comes in opaque, massive form with bands — often concentric — in multiple shades of green. It also forms botryoidal surfaces, and rare stalagmitic formations. Cutting the stalagmites perpendicular to the for- mation creates stunning radiating stalag- mite disks. The dyed magnesite from China is also available in green with golden webbing, imitating the appearance of green and cream-colored bands in malachite.

Maw sit sit is another gem material imitated by this green -dyed magnesite. Maw sit sit NaCrSkOe is a rare material from a village called Maw-sit-sit in up- per Myanmar Burma , the same location where the famous jadeite mines are.

Maw sit sit is a metamorphic rock composed of at least six different minerals, among them kosmochlor, chromite and chrome rich jadeite, which gives it the bright, almost fluorescent-green color, often with black inclusions. Due to its low content of pyroxene and its different chemical structure, maw sit sit was not considered a type of jade Jade and Maw Sit Sit of Burma, by S. Famed gemologist Edward Gubelin identified maw sit sit in It is opaque, unlike jadeite, which can be highly trans- lucent.

Specimens vary in depth of color, and consequently in hardness. In recent years, maw sit sit has become very scarce and expensive. One of the most valuable botryoidal gem silicas comes from the Ray copper near Globe, Arizona. A very small percentage of bones become, and an even smaller percentage are of gem quality.

The original cell structure has been replaced by minerals, most commonly silica. Agatized dinosaur bone shows pronounced hon- eycomb cell structure or polka dots. Red colors in dinosaur bone are rare and highly prized.

Since it is an agate, it has a hardness of Mohs 7, and it takes a high polish. This material is offered by Natural Expres- sions Inc. The Renishaw Raman analysis showed that the white grains are calcite, and that hematite is present in the red layers and celestine in the black areas.

It was also noted that synthetic pigments and a par- affin-type wax have been used to stabilize the material. In spite of the fact that Rainbow Cal- silica is manufactured, it is a very popu- lar lapidary material. It is sold in blocks and slabs and as finished cabs and beads. I purchased a small amount of it over a decade ago, and the material sold out quickly.

Rainbow Calsilica imitates a type of natural material that is found in or near copper mines in Arizona. The natural stone consists of quartz with blue veins of chrysocolla and red veins of jasper run- ning through it. I guess the Vivianite is the darker veins but I do not see any crystals of Vivianite. Crystals have damage and are highly fluorescent as is small areas throughout the large specimen. Very early collection number.

The back of the termination is damaged. This has a very early collection number. Collectors edge label says Pyrrhotite. So I do not know which if not both are present. Sparkly, dark, olive-green, olivenite crystals to 6 mm fill numerous small vugs on ALL sides and are nicely complimented by the lighter malachite on this EXCELLENT, rarely available specimen in this quality, size and richness.

Easily years old. A sharply crystallized example of this rare sulfate species, formerly known as Schonite, from a classic locality long abandoned.

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Siderite See More. Gems And Gem Stones Opals Jewlery Men's Jewelry Pineapple Rocks Nature Amazing Awesome The Fukang meteorite is a kilogram meteorite. Fluorite on Siderite(Yaoganxian Hard for Man, Easy for Nature - Muonionalusta meteorite - equivalent height of six men jutted out from the. THE EARTH’S TREASURES • MINERALS AND JEWELRY Nye County, Nevada The history is visible in formations both on and off the beaten track. polished meteorite.