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The incidence of mesothelioma has not decreased for the last twenty years in Southeast region of Anatolia. The incidence of metabolic risk factors in an inpatient psychiatric setting. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a cohort of schizophrenic patients followed for one year.

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The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: The incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction in Mostar Clinical Hospital during year The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pressure ulcers. The incidence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired hand infections. The incidence of microalbuminuria and its associated risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in isfahan, iran.

The incidence of microemboli to the brain is less with endarterectomy than with percutaneous revascularization with distal filters or flow reversal. The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: The incidence of mismatch repair gene defects in colorectal liver metastases. The incidence of mongolism in the general population.

The incidence of monozygotic twinning following PGD is not increased. The incidence of monozygotic twinning in assisted reproductive technology: The incidence of multiple lesions in primary syphilis.

The incidence of multiple primary malignant tumors and a report of a case with three primary carcinomata. The incidence of myasthenia gravis: The incidence of myocardial injury following post-operative Goal Directed Therapy. The incidence of natural diphtheria antitoxin in horses; its influence on the results of antigenic stimulus. The incidence of neck and back injuries in endoscopy nurses working in the United States of America. The incidence of necrotizing changes in adults with pneumococcal pneumonia.

The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is increased following probiotic administration to preterm pigs. The incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands. The incidence of neoplasm in women using contraceptives. The incidence of neovascular subtypes in newly diagnosed neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often , a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of.
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  • OPINION STATEMENT: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by variable weakness and fatigability. Often, MG presents with only ocular symptoms such as ptosis and diplopia. Treatment of ocular MG is aimed at relieving the symptoms of ptosis and diplopia, as well as preventing the .
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  • 31 Mar A male patient developed ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) at the age of He was anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR Ab) negative. He received cholinesterase blocker for 5 months and went into a complete clinical remission that lasted untreated for 17 years. He relapsed recently with ocular.

The incidence of nephropathy in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The incidence of nervous habits observed in college students. The incidence of neural tube defects in Norway and the Arkhangelskaja Oblast in Russia and the association with maternal age. The incidence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases in Singapore: The incidence of neurogenic shock after spinal cord injury in patients admitted to a high-volume level I trauma center.

The incidence of neurogenic shock in patients with isolated spinal cord injury in the emergency department. The incidence of neurologic injury in paediatric forearm fractures requiring manipulation. The incidence of nocardiosis at pulmonary and extra - pulmonary sites. The incidence of non-proliferative and precancerous lesions of reduction mammoplasty: The incidence of non-schistosomal forms of hepatic cirrhosis in Egypt; their morphology and pathogenesis.

The incidence of non-union following unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures. The incidence of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy in the Split-Dalmatia County. The incidence of noncontiguous spinal fractures and other traumatic injuries associated with cervical spine fractures: The incidence of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli in the environment of the transplant unit, department of hemato-oncology, university hospital Olomouc. The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in South Florida.

The incidence of nonunion after Lapidus arthrodesis using staple fixation. The incidence of norovirus infections in cancer patients shows less seasonal variability compared to patients with other diseases.

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia and their relationship with rainfall. The incidence of nosocomial toxigenic clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in Tehran tertiary medical centers.

The incidence of obesity and its complications in the Czech Republic.

The incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture in primiparous women: The incidence of occult dysplasia of the contralateral hip in children with unilateral hip dysplasia. The incidence of oral cancer appears to be increasing in the United Kingdom.

The incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients receiving 5 milligrams of zoledronic acid: The incidence of Casino bonus blaster cashiering gastroenterological disease following diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome in the UK: The incidence of palpable dorsalis and pedis and posterior tibial pulsations in soldiers; an analysis of over 1, infantry soldiers.

The incidence of palpable pulsations in convalescent trench foot; an analysis of patients at an Army general hospital. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and outcomes in operative patients according to their body mass indices. The incidence of paradoxical response to orthostatic stress in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Casino siderosis ocular myasthenia gravis incidence of parasitic diseases in the Russian Federation and tasks under service reorganization. The incidence of parental consanguinity in diabetes mellitus.

The incidence of pathologically significant tuberculosis in routine necropsies in private and public general hospitals.

The incidence of pathology cases and their referral. The incidence of pediatric invasive Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcal disease in Chiba prefecture, Japan before and after the introduction of conjugate vaccines. The incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in Chiba prefecture, Japan The incidence of pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in uterine papillary serous and clear cell carcinoma according to the SEER registry.

The incidence of pelvic fractures with traumatic lower limb amputation in modern warfare due to improvised explosive devices. The incidence of pelvic lymph node metastasis by FIGO staging for patients with adequately surgically staged endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid histology.

The incidence of peptic ulcer following sympathectomy for hypertension. A presentation of a case. The incidence of peri-renal abscess in urinary tract infections. The incidence of periodontal defects distal to the maxillary second molar after impacted third molar extraction.

The incidence of perioperative anastomotic complications after sleeve lobectomy is not increased after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Ali Kausar Rushdi, Y. The incidence of peripheral arterial embolism in association with a patent foramen ovale right-to-left shunt. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury in extremity trauma. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury in trauma patients in Iran. The incidence of peritoneal dialysis-related infection in Thailand: The incidence of permanent work disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden The incidence of pertussis hospitalizations among Japanese infants: The incidence of phlebitis with intravenous amiodarone at guideline dose recommendations.

The incidence of phrenic nerve injury during pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation 28 mm cryoballoon. The incidence of physician-diagnosed calciphylaxis: The incidence of physiological radiolucency following Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement and its relationship to outcome.

The incidence of pinworm infection in a military camp in Ontario. The incidence of place of death in Greek patients with cancer in and The incidence of placenta praevia and antepartum haemorrhage according to maternal age and parity. The incidence of plantar fasciitis in the United States military. The incidence Casino siderosis ocular myasthenia gravis plastic ingestion by fishes: The incidence of plateau at VO 2max is affected by a bout of prior-priming exercise. The incidence of pleural and pericardial effusion is not higher in patients receiving dasatinib at low doses.

The incidence of pneumoconiosis in welders feature. The incidence of poliomyelitis and its crippling effects as recorded in family surveys. The incidence of positive serologic reactions in multiple blood donors. The incidence of post operative venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing varicose vein surgery recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics.

The incidence of post-discharge surgical site infection in the injured patient. The incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis in general surgical patients of hospital universiti sains malaysia.

The incidence of post-transplant bronchovascular fistula may be underestimated.

The incidence of posterior tibial plateau fracture: The incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients after urologic surgery. The incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in China: The incidence of postoperative flare reaction and tissue complications in Dupuytren's disease using tension-free immobilization. The incidence of postoperative hyponatremia and associated neurological sequelae in children with intracranial neoplasms.

The incidence of postoperative hypoxaemia during transportation to the recovery area.

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The incidence of post operative venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing varicose vein surgery recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics. The incidence of post-discharge surgical site infection in the injured patient.

The incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis in general surgical patients of hospital universiti sains malaysia. The incidence of post-transplant bronchovascular fistula may be underestimated. The incidence of posterior tibial plateau fracture: The incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients after urologic surgery. The incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in China: The incidence of postoperative flare reaction and tissue complications in Dupuytren's disease using tension-free immobilization.

The incidence of postoperative hyponatremia and associated neurological sequelae in children with intracranial neoplasms. The incidence of postoperative hypoxaemia during transportation to the recovery area. The incidence of postoperative ileus in patients who underwent robotic assisted radical prostatectomy. The incidence of postoperative meningitis in neurosurgery: The incidence of postoperative morbidity following general anaesthesia for caesarean section.

The incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction and the left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after recanalization of chronic coronary occlusions. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy using three anaesthetic techniques. The incidence of postoperative residual curarization in the recovery room after rocuronium administration. The incidence of postoperative respiratory depression in patients undergoing intravenous or epidural analgesia with opioids.

The incidence of postoperative thromboembolic complications following surgical resection of intracranial meningioma. A retrospective study of a large single center patient cohort. The incidence of postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty. The incidence of postprandial nausea and nutritional regression in gynecologic cancer patients following intestinal surgery: The incidence of potential drug-drug interactions in elderly patients with arterial hypertension.

The incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia and associated maternal mortality in Australia from population-linked datasets: The incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Australia: The incidence of preeclampsia in ICSI pregnancies.

The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and smoking: The incidence of premalignant and malignant disease in Reinke's edema. The incidence of premature births.

The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis. The incidence of pressure ulcers after the implementation of a prevention protocol.

The incidence of preterm deliveries decreases in Finland. The incidence of primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Vietnam. The incidence of primary carcinoma of the lung. The incidence of primary fallopian tube cancer in the United States. The incidence of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide: The incidence of primary hip osteoarthritis in active duty US military servicemembers.

The incidence of prostate cancer and urothelial cancer in the prostate in cystoprostatectomy specimens in a tertiary care Canadian centre. The incidence of prostate cancer in Iran: The incidence of proximal humeral fractures in New York State from through with an emphasis on operative management in patients aged 65 years or older.

The incidence of psychosomatic disease from a private referred gynecologic practice. The incidence of ptosis following extracapsular and phacoemulsification surgery: The incidence of pulmonary consolidations in the mild asthmatic.

The incidence of pulmonary embolism PE after spinal fusions. The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis after knee arthroplasty in Asians remains low: The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis and their predictive risk factors after lower extremity arthroplasty: The incidence of pulmonary embolism during deep vein thrombosis.

The incidence of pulmonary embolism in open versus laparoscopic gastric bypass. The incidence of pulmonary neoplasms discovered by serial computed tomography scanning after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The incidence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria in British Columbia, Canada.

The incidence of pulmonary tuberculous spreads following thoracic surgery and anesthesia. The incidence of pylorospasm and pyloric stenosis among vomiters in Egyptian infants. The incidence of quartz and sericite particles in siliceous residues in silicotic lungs. The incidence of race-day jockey falls in Australia, The incidence of radioepidermitis and the dose-response relationship in parotid gland cancer patients treated with I seed brachytherapy: The incidence of raised procoagulant factors and hyperhomocysteinaemia in Chinese patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

The incidence of reaction following administration of crystalline aqueous penicillin, penicillin in oil and beeswax and procaine penicillin in oil. The incidence of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in relation to the choice of surgical procedure. The incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension following a first episode of pulmonary embolism.

The incidence of renal artery stenosis in the patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting. The incidence of renal cancer in Polish National Cancer Registry: The incidence of reoperation for surgically treated pelvic organ prolapse: The incidence of residual neuromuscular blockade associated with single dose of intermediate-acting neuromuscular blocking drugs. The incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted sympathectomy with and without pleural drainage and its effect on postoperative pain.

The incidence of retained guidewires after central venous catheterization in a tertiary care center. The incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery. The incidence of retinal vein occlusion in the ocular hypertension treatment study. The incidence of rheumatic fever and heart disease in school children in Dublin, Georgia, with some epidemiological and sociological observations.

The incidence of rheumatic heart disease at high altitude. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease in individuals with congenital malformations of the heart. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease in the Rocky Mountain region.

The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the UK: Results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register. The incidence of rickets in Dublin. The incidence of rickets in war-time. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries including cardiac events in South Africa from to The incidence of salmonellosis among dairy herds in the northeastern United States. The incidence of sarcoidosis in the Armed Forces: The incidence of satellite cysts in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

The incidence of scaphoid fracture in a military population. The incidence of scarring on the dorsum of the hand. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: The incidence of secretory otitis media in cases of cleft palate. The incidence of seizures following Deep Brain Stimulating electrode implantation for movement disorders, pain and psychiatric conditions. The incidence of selected congenital malformations during a two-year period in Tehran, Iran.

The incidence of sepsis in industrial wounds. The incidence of serologic evidence of antecedent autoimmune thyroiditis in asymptomatic patients referred to an outpatient rheumatology consultation clinic for a positive antinuclear antibody test.

The incidence of serum allergy in 1, cases of scarlet fever treated with anti-scarlatinal serum. The incidence of setariasis in Colombia. The incidence of sick euthyroid syndrome in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The incidence of siderosis in iron turners and grinders. The incidence of signs of renal injury following prolonged burial under debris in an unselected series of airraid casualties admitted to hospital.

The incidence of site of mandibular fractures. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology: The incidence of skin squamous cell carcinoma in Osijek-Baranja County--an epidemiological study. The incidence of soft tissue sarcoma in Dakshina Kannada: The incidence of species-level paraphyly in animals: The incidence of spinal cord ischaemia following thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic endovascular intervention.

The incidence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The incidence of spontaneous epidural abscess in Olmsted County from through The incidence of spontaneous movements myoclonus in dogs undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. The incidence of spontaneous neoplasia in two populations of captive rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta.

The incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis in North India: The incidence of stammering and speech defects in school children. The incidence of staphylococcal mastitis in the Northwest. The incidence of staphylococci in the nose and on the skin of Africans and Europeans in West Africa. The incidence of stoma and peristomal complications during the first 3 months after ostomy creation.

The incidence of stress symptoms and heart rate variability during sleep and orthostatic test. The incidence of stroke by socioeconomic status, age, sex, and stroke subtype: The incidence of stroke mimics among stroke department admissions in relation to age group. The incidence of stroke risk factors depending on lateralization of damage. The incidence of sub-optimal sedation in the ICU: The incidence of subsequent contralateral distal biceps tendon rupture following unilateral rupture.

The incidence of suicides among physicians and dentists: The incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with essential arterial hypertension--clinical and evolutive correlations.

The incidence of symptomatic acquired lacrimal outflow obstruction among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, an American Ophthalmological Society thesis. The incidence of symptomatic malrotation post gastroschisis repair. The incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism in patients receiving adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer.

The incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events in orthopaedic surgery when using routine thromboprophylaxis. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia in the study of pharmacotherapy for psychotic depression. The incidence of technological stress among baccalaureate nurse educators using technology during course preparation and delivery. The incidence of tertiary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. The incidence of the dangerous group O donor; results of the titration of consecutive sera.

The incidence of the first-ever stroke in a Mediterranean island population: The incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity. The incidence of the patellar clunk syndrome in a recently designed mobile-bearing posteriorly stabilised total knee replacement. The incidence of the pituitary autoantibodies in Addison disease.

The incidence of the pituitary autoantibodies in Graves' disease. The incidence of the thyroid microsomal autoantibodies in Alzheimer disease. The incidence of the various types of pneumococci in infections other than pneumonia. The incidence of thrombo-embolic lesions in myocardial infarction.

The incidence of thrombocytopenia after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with Down syndrome. The incidence of thrombocytopenia in children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The incidence of thromboembolic events in surgically treated ankle fracture. The incidence of thrombosis after implantation of drug-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease in the real world: The incidence of thyroid cancer by fine needle aspiration varies by age and gender. The incidence of thyroid cancer is affected by the characteristics of a healthcare system.

The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in multinodular goiter: The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the nodules. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction following radiotherapy for early stage carcinoma of the larynx.

The incidence of thyroid function abnormalities and natural course of subclinical thyroid disorders, Tehran, I. The incidence of tonsillar cancer in Sweden is increasing. The incidence of tonsillectomy in school children. The incidence of total hip arthroplasty after hip arthroscopy in osteoarthritic patients. The incidence of trachoma in the southern highlands province of Tanganyika.

The incidence of transcatheter aortic valve implantation-related heart block in self-expandable Medtronic CoreValve and balloon-expandable Edwards valves. The incidence of transition zone prostate cancer diagnosed by transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy: The incidence of traumatic brain injury in Tehran, Iran: The incidence of traumatic brain injury in an adult population--how to classify mild cases?

The incidence of treated eye injuries associated with occupational settings. The incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula with onyx. The incidence of trigger digit after carpal tunnel release in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The incidence of trigger finger or de Quervain's tendinitis after carpal tunnel release. The incidence of trismus and long-term impact on health-related quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer.

The incidence of trocar-site hernia in minimally invasive bariatric surgery: The incidence of trochlear dysplasia in anterior cruciate ligament tears. The incidence of tubercle bacilli in Cairo market milk.

The incidence of tuberculosis after a measles outbreak. The incidence of tuberculosis among medical students and the younger graduates in New Zealand. The incidence of tuberculosis and the housing aspect in Stirling Burgh. The incidence of tuberculous infection in male medical students in Melbourne; a preliminary report.

The incidence of tularemia in Slovakia in The incidence of tumor cell contamination of peripheral blood stem cells: The incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossificans. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Republic of Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia in the period The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in both children and young adults in Northern Italy: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among years aged Lithuanian population: The incidence of type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom from to The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Philippines: The incidence of type-1 diabetes in NOD mice is modulated by restricted flora not germ-free conditions.

The incidence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - based on nationwide Danish registry data. The incidence of umbilical herniae in Africans. The incidence of uni- and bilateral impacted maxillary canines and their position in dental arch depending on gender and age.

The incidence of unplanned admissions following ambulatory surgery at Ramathibodi Hospital. The incidence of unplanned returns to the operating room after peripheral arterial bypass surgery and its value as indicator of quality of care.

The incidence of unpleasant dreams after sub-anaesthetic ketamine. The incidence of upper extremity injuries in Canadian endoscopy nurses. The incidence of upper extremity injuries in endoscopy nurses.

The incidence of upper extremity injuries in endoscopy nurses working in the United States. The incidence of urinary incontinence across Asian, black, and white women in the United States. The incidence of urinary tract infections in febrile children during a two-year period in Tehran, Iran.

The incidence of urolithiasis among commercial aviation pilots. The incidence of uterine leiomyoma and other pelvic ultrasonographic findings in 2, consecutive women in a north London hospital. The incidence of valvular heart disease in people over 50 and penicillin prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis.

The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Taiwan during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, The incidence of various types of childhood leukemia in Armenia The incidence of vasoplegia in adult patients with right-sided congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac surgery and the correlation with serum vasopressin concentrations.

The incidence of veno-occlusive disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has diminished and the outcome improved over the last decade. The incidence of venous thromboembolism VTE --after hip arthroscopy. The incidence of venous thromboembolism after oncologic head and neck reconstruction. The incidence of venous thromboembolism among patients with primary lung cancer. The incidence of venous thromboembolism and its effect on survival among patients with primary bladder cancer.

The incidence of venous thromboembolism and practice of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. The incidence of venous thromboembolism before and after total knee arthroplasty using row multidetector computed tomography. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: The incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing surgery for acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

The incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with overt hyperthyroidism: The incidence of venous thromboembolism in postoperative plastic and reconstructive surgery patients with chronic spinal cord injury.

The incidence of venous thromboembolism: The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia using the PneuX System with or without elective endotracheal tube exchange: The incidence of vestibular disorders among the patients suffering from otosclerosis. The incidence of visual impairment due to retinopathy of prematurity ROP and concomitant disabilities in the Netherlands: The incidence of vitamin D deficiency amongst patients with a femoral neck fracture: The incidence of vitamin, mineral, herbal, and other supplement use in facial cosmetic patients.

The incidence of wound complications related to negative pressure wound therapy power outage and interruption of treatment in orthopaedic trauma patients.

The incidence of "silent" free air and aspiration pneumonia detected by CT after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. The incidence rate and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia in a working-age population. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan. The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: The incidence rate of colectomy for medically refractory ulcerative colitis has declined in parallel with increasing anti-TNF use: The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran during The incidence rate of inflammatory bowel disease in an urban area of iran: The incidence rate of pituitary adenomas in western Sweden for the period The incidence rate of premature rupture of membranes and its influence on fetal-neonatal health: The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of syphilis among sailors.

The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of thyroid microcarcinoma during surgery benign disease.

The incidence rates and risk factor of mild injury for two weeks--using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey The incidence risk, clustering, and clinical presentation of La Crosse virus infections in the eastern United States, The incidence, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of occipito-posterior presentation of the vertex. The incidence, causes, and prognostic significance of new-onset thrombocytopenia in intensive care units: The incidence, character and course of liver disease in chronic alcoholics as determined by needle biopsy.

The incidence, clustering and characteristics of Burkitt lymphoma in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The incidence, correlation with tumor-infiltrating inflammation, and prognosis of phosphorylated STAT3 expression in human gliomas. The incidence, diagnosis, and management of pulmonary vein stenosis as a complication of atrial fibrillation ablation. The incidence, diagnostic clinical manifestations and severity of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children: The incidence, hospital expenditure, and, 30 day and 1 year mortality rates of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Taiwan.

The incidence, incubation period, and symptomatology of homologous serum jaundice. The incidence, indications and outcome for the non-operative management of breast cancer. The incidence, location and extent of otosclerotic lesions. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients. The incidence, management, and outcome of penetrating bladder injuries in civilians resultant from armed conflict in Baghdad The incidence, natural history, biology, and treatment of transformed lymphomas.

The incidence, pathology of trauma and victim profiles of homicidal deaths in Pretoria, South Africa The incidence, pattern and management outcomes of early pregnancy losses at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. The incidence, pattern and outcome of stray bullet injuries. The incidence, pattern, and prognostic value of left ventricular myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement in patients with atrial fibrillation.

The incidence, prevalence and burden of OM in unselected children aged years followed by weekly otoscopy through the "common cold" season. The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from to The incidence, prevalence, and survival of gastroparesis in olmsted county, Minnesota, gastroenterology ; The incidence, risk factors and characteristics of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients in China.

The incidence, risk factors and prognostic implications of venous thromboembolism in patients with gastric cancer. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients with pyogenic liver abscesses.

The incidence, treatment and prognosis of cervical carcinoma in young women: The incidence, treatment and prognosis of tuberculous laryngitis in pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence, type and bacteriology of Salmonella infection in the Army in India.

The incidence, volume, absorption, and timing of supratentorial pneumocephalus during posterior fossa neurosurgery conducted in the sitting position.

The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, The incidences of malignant gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in males and females: The incidences of resistance to cephalosporins and fluorinated 4-quinolones in similar strains isolated in Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The incident in chelyabinsk. The incident is a clear violation. The incident neutral point in retinoscopy. The incident of maladjustment among mental defectives in military environment. The incidental Meckel's diverticulum in trauma: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: The incidental asymptomatic pancreatic lesion: The incidental cystic pancreas mass: The incidental finding in the family practice.

The incidental finding of a patent foramen ovale during cardiac surgery: The incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve surgery, on computed tomography.

The incidental finding of a retained gunshot pellet. The incidental findings of age-related macular degeneration during diabetic retinopathy screening.

Follow-up of consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses. The incidental monoclonal protein: The incidental pancreatic cyst. The incidental pancreatic cyst on abdominal computerized tomography imaging: The incidental pulmonary nodule: The incidental renal mass.

The incidental response to uniform natural selection. The incidental skeletal lesion: The incidental small pulmonary nodule and the Fleischner criteria 5 years later: The incidental solitary pulmonary nodule: The incision angle of mediolateral episiotomy before delivery and after repair.

Considerations during implant placement: The inclination of mandibular incisors revisited. The inclusion of 'then-test' questions in post-test questionnaires alters post-test responses: The inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in a sensitive screening strategy for systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension: The inclusion of a business management module within the master of pharmacy degree: The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: The inclusion of activities of daily living in flexor tendon rehabilitation: The inclusion of adult vehicle occupants in matched cohort studies of child restraint effectiveness: The inclusion of atmospheric particles into the bark suber of ash trees.

The inclusion of both physiological and acquired needs in a behavioristic system. The inclusion of child pornography in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for pedophilia: The inclusion of cognition in vascular risk factor clinical practice guidelines. The inclusion of disability as a condition for termination of parental rights. The inclusion of downy mildews in a multi-locus-dataset and its reanalysis reveals a high degree of paraphyly in Phytophthora.

The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology. The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

The inclusion of health in environmental impact studies: The inclusion of historical control data may reduce the power of a confirmatory study. The inclusion of new techniques of chromosome analysis has improved the cytogenetic profile of Turner syndrome. The inclusion of positive aspects of caring in the Caregiver Strain Index: The inclusion of siblings in social skills training groups for boys with Asperger syndrome.

The inclusion of stroke in risk stratification for primary prevention of vascular events: The inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education: The inclusion of the lower canines. The inclusion of the oral health team in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy: The inclusion of the subject safety in the school curriculum;checking the validity of the hypothesis in schools in three provinces.

The inclusion of women and minorities in smoking cessation clinical trials: The inclusion technique reduces ischemia after stentless aortic root replacement. The inclusivity of exclusion: The incognita of the known: The incoherence of China's national health development strategies. The incoherence of determining death by neurological criteria: The incoherent feedforward loop can provide fold-change detection in gene regulation. The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians.

The income and production effects of biotech crops globally The income and wealth packages of older women in cross-national perspective. The income body weight gradients in the developing economy of China. The income distributive implications of recent private health insurance policy reforms in Australia. The income divide in health care: The income elasticity of health care spending in developing and developed countries.

The income generation game. The income gradient in children's health: The income-climate trap of health development: The incommensurability of psychoanalysis and history. The incommensurate modulation of the bi-sr-ca-cu-o superconductor. The incommensurately modulated crystal structure of beta-Pb2BiVO6: The incompatibility mechanism based on the interaction of multiple-components for Flos Genkwa and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae.

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Laboratory results including anti-AChR Ab and thyroid function tests were in the normal range. Repetitive nerve stimulation RNS in the nasalis and abductor digiti minimi muscles showed no decrement.

Orbital CT was normal, while chest CT excluded thymus pathology. In 5 months he developed a complete remission, stopped the medication on his own, and did not seek medical help over 17 years. He sought medical advice and was found again to have diplopia in all directions, a left eyelid fatigable ptosis, and extraocular muscle weakness in fluctuating pattern.

It affected mostly the adduction of both eyes, abduction and elevation on the right, and abduction on the left. His general examination and neurological status were again normal except for the ocular motor disturbances. RNS was unremarkable in the nasalis, trapezoid, and abductor digiti minimi muscles. However the follow-up study at 2 months volitional jitter in the orbicularis oculi muscle, concentric needle, 20 fibers was definitely abnormal with 2 blocking fibers, 7 fibers with increased jitter, and abnormal mean MCD per study.

SFEMG of the extensor digitorum muscle volitional, concentric needle was normal. Orbital and chest CT was unremarkable. A repeated anti-AChR Ab testing returned positive. The patient is now treated with prednisolone and his myasthenia is controlled with complete clinical remission.

We present a patient with ocular myasthenia who developed a true remission after a relatively short exposure to cholinesterase blockers only. The remission lasted about 17 years and is among the longest reported in literature. The natural course of untreated MG is less clear and is mostly derived from the earlier studies, predating the use of thymectomy and immunosuppression [ 1 — 3 ]. They are an important phenomenon, as the assessment of medication effect or thymectomy in early MG must take into account the possibility of spontaneous remission compounding the results [ 6 ].

The criteria for remission are not settled. Some authors accept as a true remission a one-year disease-free period while others suggested that the ability of the patient to return to his everyday activities is sufficient to accept remission [ 3 , 7 ]. This might explain the discrepancies in the reported duration in historical cohorts. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors is purely symptomatic and does not suppress the underlying autoimmune pathology [ 10 ].

In fact, such agents may aggravate the immune conflict via their effect on the acetylcholinesterase expression [ 11 ]. Complex immunogenetical mechanisms may produce frank myopathy under anticholinesterase treatment [ 12 ].

Anti-AChE therapy alone is not expected to result in remission; the latter may be expected only with thymectomy or immunosuppression. Few well documented cases of long-lasting spontaneous remissions are found in literature. Oosterhuis reports two untreated patients with ocular myasthenia with a 6-year long remission [ 2 ].

Three cases of ocular myasthenia in childhood with spontaneous remission lasting from 4 to 14 years are better documented [ 13 ]. Prepubertal children with ocular myasthenia are more prone to spontaneous remission than adults [ 14 ]. Recently we find the report of an 8-year-old boy presenting with generalized MG who recovered within 1 month without any immunomodulation.

His spontaneous remission lasted 6 years and was ended by a relapse with bulbar symptoms [ 15 ]. Such phenomena pose some interesting questions regarding the pathophysiology of MG.

In experimental autoimmune MG repeated inoculations with AChE receptor are necessary to produce chronic progressive MG and spontaneous remissions occur in different percent of animals according to the number of inoculations, amount of immunogen, and other factors [ 16 , 17 ]. As discussed in detail elsewhere [ 18 ] transient anxiety may play a role in the fluctuating course of MG via its effect on the cholinesterase activity.

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When potentials elicited by nerve stimulation are recorded with an SFEMG electrode, the latency from stimulus to response varies. This variation is the neuro-muscular jitter, most of which is produced by fluctuations in the time for end plate potentials at the NMJ to reach the AP threshold. Treatment is chiefly medical and aims at improving muscle weakness thereby alleviating symptoms of diplopia and ptosis , achieving disease remission, minimizing drug-induced side effects, and slowing or preventing progression to generalized MG.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can serve to increase the duration of action of the neurotransmitter. These provide symptomatic improvement,[ 12 ] without modifying the long-term immunologic disease activity. Pyridostigmine bromide is the prototype — its onset of action ranges from 30 to 45 min after ingestion and lasts for up to 6 h.

An increased incidence of hypotension and bradycardia has been reported when co-administered with beta-blockers or opiates. While it is the first-line drug to improve symptoms and is generally well-tolerated, only about half of patients with ocular disease show an adequate response to pyridostigmine, with ptosis responding better than diplopia.

ACh receptor inhibitors, in general, produce side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. Corticosteroids are the most widely used immune modulating agents in patients with MG. They chiefly act through their anti-inflammatory properties, additionally causing a reduction in cytokine expression, lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation, and also increase muscle AChR synthesis.

Treatment, usually, starts at a dose of 20 mg per day of orally administered prednisolone. This may be maintained for weeks and then tapered slowly over months. Common side effects of corticosteroid therapy include acne, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, and steroid-induced myopathy. The risk of opportunistic infections is omnipresent, and tuberculosis needs to be ruled out before initiating therapy. Azathioprine can be used both as monotherapy for example, in steroid-resistant patients as well as in conjunction with oral corticosteroids.

The latter modality has been shown in randomized control trials to have a steroid-sparing effect and is associated with fewer failures and longer remissions.

The full effect is seen after 2—3 years of continuous administration. In view of potential hepatotoxicity and bone marrow toxicity, blood counts and liver function tests should be done bi-weekly for the first 2 months after initiating treatment and monthly thereafter.

Cyclosporine A inhibits calcineurin, which decreases the antigen-stimulated interleukin-2 production in T-cells. Improvement in muscle strength and a reduction in AChR-Abs titers have been reported with cyclosporine. Less serious side effects include hirsutism, gingival hyperplasia, gastrointestinal disturbance, flu-like syndrome, myalgia, and hypertension.

Renal failure can be fatal. Mycophenolate mofetil MMF selectively inhibits T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation by blocking purine synthesis exclusively in lymphocytes. It is a relatively new drug in the treatment of MG and has been used both as a steroid-sparing agent as well as monotherapy. Mycophenolate mofetil is administered orally in a dose between and mg twice a day. Clinical response is, usually, observed only 2 months after initiation of treatment.

Treatment with MMF may reduce the rate of generalization of ocular disease. A dose of 1. Rarely, opportunistic infections, myelosuppression, or hepatotoxicity may occur. Plasmapheresis has a role in the short-term management of acute and severe muscular weakness. The patient's plasma is separated from whole blood and replaced with saline, albumin, or plasma protein fraction, thereby reducing serum AChR-Ab levels. The role of plasmapheresis is limited to management of myasthenic exacerbations or crises.

It can be used preoperatively to prepare patients for thymectomy or other surgical procedures. Some patients develop exacerbations of weakness when steroid therapy is initiated; plasmapheresis may be of value in these patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin IVIg accelerates the catabolism of IgG in addition to suppressing antibody production and inhibiting complement activation and Fc receptor function. Its role is limited to the perioperative management of patients and treatment of myasthenic crisis.

Thymectomy has for long been known to have a benefit in patients with MG. Supportive measures include the use of prisms or occlusion therapy for those with persistent diplopia and crutch glasses for severe ptosis. Strabismus or lid surgery may be offered to selected patients who have stable findings for a period of at least 6 months.

MG in children can be classified based on the age at onset and disease pathogenesis — transient neonatal myasthenia, congenital myasthenia, and juvenile autoimmune myasthenia. Infants may show ocular and systemic features; most recover spontaneously and usually need only supportive care. Congenital myasthenia syndromes refer to a subset of children with myasthenia where the disease is caused by structural or functional, presynaptic or postsynaptic abnormalities.

These may result in inadequate release of ACh or AChR dysfunction, such as slow channel or prolonged open channel syndrome. Since the primary pathology is not immune mediated, immunosuppressive drugs have little or no effect in these cases. AChE agents may be useful in some forms. The treatment in these cases is mainly supportive.

The rates of generalization of ocular to systemic myasthenia are lower than in adults. Other concerns in the pediatric age group include variations in serological testing, technical difficulty in performing tests such as SFEMG and amblyopia evaluation — which are, unfortunately, often overlooked in these patients.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Ophthalmol v. Received Jun 9; Accepted Sep This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Myasthenia gravis MG is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. Acetylcholine, autoimmune, neuro-muscular junction, ocular myasthenia gravis.

Epidemiology and Demographics Myasthenia may affect any age group and shows no geographic predilection. Pathophysiology The NMJ is the site of chemical communication between a nerve fiber and a muscle where motor nerve impulses are transmitted to the muscle cell. Clinical Features Myasthenia gravis is characterized by a variable weakness of skeletal muscles, which improves on resting.

Eyelid Manifestations Variable ptosis is one of the most common manifestations of MG. Ice test The Ice test is a simple, but effective clinical test that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of MG. A year-old male who presented with ptosis of the right eye with a history of variability in the amount of ptosis. Before the ice test a and immediately after the ice test b.

Note the improvement in ptosis, thus helping in diagnosing ocular Neostigmine test Neostigmine is a longer acting AChE being increasingly used as an alternative to edrophonium for diagnostic testing.

Single-fiber electromyography Single-fiber electromyography is the most sensitive diagnostic test for detecting abnormal neuro-muscular transmission. Treatment of myasthenia gravis Treatment is chiefly medical and aims at improving muscle weakness thereby alleviating symptoms of diplopia and ptosis , achieving disease remission, minimizing drug-induced side effects, and slowing or preventing progression to generalized MG. Acetycholinesterase inhibitors Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can serve to increase the duration of action of the neurotransmitter.

Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are the most widely used immune modulating agents in patients with MG. Pediatric Myasthenia MG in children can be classified based on the age at onset and disease pathogenesis — transient neonatal myasthenia, congenital myasthenia, and juvenile autoimmune myasthenia.

Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Past, present, and future. The miracle at St Alfege's: J R Soc Med.

Clinical and pathologic predictors of outcome in thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis. A study from India. Relationship of structure and function to disease. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. A critical review of clinical and pathophysiological aspects. Medical treatment options for ocular myasthenia gravis. The course of myasthenia gravis and therapies affecting outcome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Observations of the natural history of myasthenia gravis and the effect of thymectomy.

Why are eye muscles frequently involved in myasthenia gravis? Myasthenic abduction mystagmus in a patient with hyperthyroidism. Rapid eye movements in myasthenia gravis. Ice pack test for myasthenia gravis. Pupillary dysfunction in myasthenia gravis. Yamazaki A, Ishikawa S. Abnormal pupillary responses in myasthenia gravis.

Manson N, Stern G. Defects of near vision in myasthenia gravis. The effect of temperature change upon transmitter release, facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation. The use of the ice pack test in myasthenia gravis. The ice test versus the rest test in myasthenia gravis. The ice pack test in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia. Extraocular muscle responses to orbital cooling ice test for ocular myasthenia gravis diagnosis.

Barton JJ, Fouladvand M. Ocular aspects of myasthenia gravis. Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis in the s. The laboratory diagnosis of mild myasthenia gravis. Treatment of myasthenia gravis based on its immunopathogenesis.

Katzberg HD, Bril V. A comparison of electrodiagnostic tests in ocular myasthenia gravis. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. Ozdemir C, Young RR. The results to be expected from electrical testing in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.

He relapsed recently with ocular symptoms only. The patient is controlled with steroids. He had one of the longest spontaneous remissions reported in the natural history of MG, particularly unusual for an adult with the disease.

The natural history of myasthenia gravis MG in untreated patients is mostly derived from historical cohorts [ 1 , 2 ]. Spontaneous remissions without treatment are common in the first year after onset, but they rarely last long [ 3 ]. They are more common in juvenile MG [ 4 ]. We observed a patient with ocular MG who became disease-free after a brief period of anticholinesterase treatment and relapsed after 17 years.

A male patient presented in March with double vision in all directions and drooping of the left eyelid. These started 3 months earlier, tended to increase towards the evening, and fluctuated over consecutive days. The diplopia impeded seriously his work as a heavy excavator driver. General examination was normal. Neurological examination disclosed fatiguable ptosis of both upper lids, diplopia in all directions, and weakness of the extraocular muscles.

The latter varied in distribution over consecutive examinations but mostly involved the adduction in both eyes and did not follow cranial nerve s pattern. The rest of the neurological status was normal; in particular facial muscles fatigability or weakness and problems with chewing, swallowing, or speech were not reported or noticed. The ice pack test was positive. Laboratory results including anti-AChR Ab and thyroid function tests were in the normal range.

Repetitive nerve stimulation RNS in the nasalis and abductor digiti minimi muscles showed no decrement. Orbital CT was normal, while chest CT excluded thymus pathology. In 5 months he developed a complete remission, stopped the medication on his own, and did not seek medical help over 17 years. He sought medical advice and was found again to have diplopia in all directions, a left eyelid fatigable ptosis, and extraocular muscle weakness in fluctuating pattern.

It affected mostly the adduction of both eyes, abduction and elevation on the right, and abduction on the left. His general examination and neurological status were again normal except for the ocular motor disturbances. RNS was unremarkable in the nasalis, trapezoid, and abductor digiti minimi muscles.

However the follow-up study at 2 months volitional jitter in the orbicularis oculi muscle, concentric needle, 20 fibers was definitely abnormal with 2 blocking fibers, 7 fibers with increased jitter, and abnormal mean MCD per study. SFEMG of the extensor digitorum muscle volitional, concentric needle was normal. Orbital and chest CT was unremarkable. A repeated anti-AChR Ab testing returned positive. The patient is now treated with prednisolone and his myasthenia is controlled with complete clinical remission.

We present a patient with ocular myasthenia who developed a true remission after a relatively short exposure to cholinesterase blockers only. The remission lasted about 17 years and is among the longest reported in literature. The natural course of untreated MG is less clear and is mostly derived from the earlier studies, predating the use of thymectomy and immunosuppression [ 1 — 3 ].

They are an important phenomenon, as the assessment of medication effect or thymectomy in early MG must take into account the possibility of spontaneous remission compounding the results [ 6 ].

The criteria for remission are not settled. Some authors accept as a true remission a one-year disease-free period while others suggested that the ability of the patient to return to his everyday activities is sufficient to accept remission [ 3 , 7 ].

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The NMJ is the site of chemical communication between a nerve fiber and a muscle where motor nerve impulses are transmitted to the muscle cell. An action potential initiates neuro-muscular transmission and results in the release of ACh molecules at the NMJ, which then diffuse across the synapse, bind to receptors on the striated muscle and depolarize the postsynaptic membrane, resulting in muscle contraction.

AChR-Abs decrease the number of available AChRs by receptor blockade, complement-mediated membrane damage, and accelerated degradation of the receptors.

Extraocular muscles EOMs are more commonly affected as twitch fibers in EOMs develop tension faster and have a higher frequency of synaptic firing than limb muscles. This makes them more susceptible to fatigue. Furthermore, tonic muscle fibers are necessary to sustain the gaze in any direction.

This type of fiber has fewer ACh receptors, which makes them more susceptible to receptor loss or damage. Furthermore, EOMs represent a distinct muscle allotype with differential expression of numerous genes, including those associated with the immune response. Myasthenia gravis is characterized by a variable weakness of skeletal muscles, which improves on resting. Weakness is exacerbated by repetitive contraction. Variable ptosis is one of the most common manifestations of MG.

Ptosis occurs primarily due to the involvement of the levator palpebrae superioris LPS complex. It may be unilateral or bilateral— in bilateral cases, it is often asymmetrical. Cogan's lid twitch is however, not specific to ocular MG.

Other eyelid manifestations of OMG include unilateral eyelid retraction and orbicularis weakness. Lid retraction may be seen with contralateral ptosis as a manifestation of Hering's law due to increased innervation to the ptotic eyelid , or maybe a sign of co-existent thyroid eye disease, or maybe due to post-tetanic facilitation of the LPS after prolonged upgaze.

Orbicularis tone can be evaluated by attempting to open the eyes against forced eyelid closure, which is easily achieved in patients with OMG. Diplopia is very common in cases with OMG since even slight weakness of the EOMs causes symptomatic diplopia and since the EOMs do not adapt to variable weakness like limb muscles.

The most commonly affected EOM is the medial rectus followed by the superior rectus. In most patients with OMG pupillary examination is, usually, normal, and this serves as a useful tool to distinguish OMG from conditions such as pupil involving third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome and botulism.

Pupillary abnormalities have been described in OMG[ 15 ] and pupillographic studies have confirmed reduced velocities of pupillary constriction. This test measures the improvement in manifestations of OMG after a period of rest. The patient is asked to sleep or rest with his or her eyes closed for a period of about 30 min. The diagnosis of myasthenia can be confirmed by observing resolution of ptosis or ophthalmoparesis immediately after a min period of sleep.

Reappearance of the myasthenic signs over the next 30 s to 5 min adds further confirmation. The Ice test is a simple, but effective clinical test that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of MG. An icepack is placed over the patient's closed eyelids for a period of 2 min for ptosis to 5 min for ophthalmoparesis [ Fig. Although there are no strict guidelines regarding the interpretation of this test,[ 1 ] it is, usually, considered positive when the upper eyelid elevates by at least 2 mm following ice application.

Edrophonium is a rapidly acting and quickly hydrolyzed AChE drug. This results in an increase in synaptic ACh, providing maximum saturation of the limited available receptor population in myasthenia. Onset of action begins within s after injection, and the effects resolve within min. The dose of edrophonium chloride is 0. Ptosis and ocular motility deficits should be measured and documented photographically before administration.

Initially, mg IV test dose is given and if there is no idiosyncratic reaction, mg is injected after 2 min. If eyelid position, ocular alignment, or motility do not improve within 1-min, the remaining mg is injected, preferably in mg increments, waiting s between increments. Edrophonium can cause various side effects due to the increased muscarinic activity—these include lacrimation, salivation, sweating, and abdominal cramping.

Serious side effects include bradycardia, bronchospasm hypotension, and syncope; atropine should be readily available during testing and the testing should only be carried out with continuous blood pressure, pulse, and electrocardiographic monitoring. The test is relatively contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma and cardiac diseases. Neostigmine is a longer acting AChE being increasingly used as an alternative to edrophonium for diagnostic testing.

The peak effect is achieved at about 30 min after an intramuscular injection, although the response may be seen within 15 min. The duration of effect may last for several hours. The usual dose in adults is 1. The advantages of Neostigmine over edrophonium include it is a longer duration of action, which makes it more suited to detailed and prolonged examination of ocular motility, diplopia testing, etc.

However, a normal titer does not exclude the disease. The presence of an elevated AChR-Ab titer helps to distinguish acquired MG from a congenital myasthenic syndrome since the latter is persistently seronegative. AChRAb testing also provides a baseline for future comparisons and response to immunomodulatory treatment. The nerve to be studied is electrically stimulated times at 2 or 3 Hz slow rate with a supramaximal stimulus and the compound muscle action potential CMAP is recorded with surface electrodes.

In MG, as the number of individual muscle fiber action potentials reduce, the CMAP also reduces in both amplitude and area with a resulting decremental response. Single-fiber electromyography is the most sensitive diagnostic test for detecting abnormal neuro-muscular transmission. When potentials elicited by nerve stimulation are recorded with an SFEMG electrode, the latency from stimulus to response varies.

This variation is the neuro-muscular jitter, most of which is produced by fluctuations in the time for end plate potentials at the NMJ to reach the AP threshold. Treatment is chiefly medical and aims at improving muscle weakness thereby alleviating symptoms of diplopia and ptosis , achieving disease remission, minimizing drug-induced side effects, and slowing or preventing progression to generalized MG.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can serve to increase the duration of action of the neurotransmitter. These provide symptomatic improvement,[ 12 ] without modifying the long-term immunologic disease activity. Pyridostigmine bromide is the prototype — its onset of action ranges from 30 to 45 min after ingestion and lasts for up to 6 h.

An increased incidence of hypotension and bradycardia has been reported when co-administered with beta-blockers or opiates. While it is the first-line drug to improve symptoms and is generally well-tolerated, only about half of patients with ocular disease show an adequate response to pyridostigmine, with ptosis responding better than diplopia. ACh receptor inhibitors, in general, produce side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping.

Corticosteroids are the most widely used immune modulating agents in patients with MG. They chiefly act through their anti-inflammatory properties, additionally causing a reduction in cytokine expression, lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation, and also increase muscle AChR synthesis. Treatment, usually, starts at a dose of 20 mg per day of orally administered prednisolone.

This may be maintained for weeks and then tapered slowly over months. Common side effects of corticosteroid therapy include acne, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, and steroid-induced myopathy. The risk of opportunistic infections is omnipresent, and tuberculosis needs to be ruled out before initiating therapy. Azathioprine can be used both as monotherapy for example, in steroid-resistant patients as well as in conjunction with oral corticosteroids.

The latter modality has been shown in randomized control trials to have a steroid-sparing effect and is associated with fewer failures and longer remissions.

The full effect is seen after 2—3 years of continuous administration. In view of potential hepatotoxicity and bone marrow toxicity, blood counts and liver function tests should be done bi-weekly for the first 2 months after initiating treatment and monthly thereafter. Cyclosporine A inhibits calcineurin, which decreases the antigen-stimulated interleukin-2 production in T-cells. Improvement in muscle strength and a reduction in AChR-Abs titers have been reported with cyclosporine.

Less serious side effects include hirsutism, gingival hyperplasia, gastrointestinal disturbance, flu-like syndrome, myalgia, and hypertension. Renal failure can be fatal. A repeated anti-AChR Ab testing returned positive. The patient is now treated with prednisolone and his myasthenia is controlled with complete clinical remission. We present a patient with ocular myasthenia who developed a true remission after a relatively short exposure to cholinesterase blockers only.

The remission lasted about 17 years and is among the longest reported in literature. The natural course of untreated MG is less clear and is mostly derived from the earlier studies, predating the use of thymectomy and immunosuppression [ 1 — 3 ].

They are an important phenomenon, as the assessment of medication effect or thymectomy in early MG must take into account the possibility of spontaneous remission compounding the results [ 6 ]. The criteria for remission are not settled. Some authors accept as a true remission a one-year disease-free period while others suggested that the ability of the patient to return to his everyday activities is sufficient to accept remission [ 3 , 7 ]. This might explain the discrepancies in the reported duration in historical cohorts.

Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors is purely symptomatic and does not suppress the underlying autoimmune pathology [ 10 ].

In fact, such agents may aggravate the immune conflict via their effect on the acetylcholinesterase expression [ 11 ]. Complex immunogenetical mechanisms may produce frank myopathy under anticholinesterase treatment [ 12 ].

Anti-AChE therapy alone is not expected to result in remission; the latter may be expected only with thymectomy or immunosuppression.

Few well documented cases of long-lasting spontaneous remissions are found in literature. Oosterhuis reports two untreated patients with ocular myasthenia with a 6-year long remission [ 2 ]. Three cases of ocular myasthenia in childhood with spontaneous remission lasting from 4 to 14 years are better documented [ 13 ]. Prepubertal children with ocular myasthenia are more prone to spontaneous remission than adults [ 14 ]. Recently we find the report of an 8-year-old boy presenting with generalized MG who recovered within 1 month without any immunomodulation.

His spontaneous remission lasted 6 years and was ended by a relapse with bulbar symptoms [ 15 ]. Such phenomena pose some interesting questions regarding the pathophysiology of MG. In experimental autoimmune MG repeated inoculations with AChE receptor are necessary to produce chronic progressive MG and spontaneous remissions occur in different percent of animals according to the number of inoculations, amount of immunogen, and other factors [ 16 , 17 ].

As discussed in detail elsewhere [ 18 ] transient anxiety may play a role in the fluctuating course of MG via its effect on the cholinesterase activity.

The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: The incidence rate of colectomy for medically refractory ulcerative colitis has declined in parallel with increasing anti-TNF use: The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran during The incidence rate of inflammatory bowel disease in an urban area of iran: The incidence rate of pituitary adenomas in western Sweden for the period The incidence rate of premature rupture of membranes and its influence on fetal-neonatal health: The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of syphilis among sailors.

The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: The incidence rate of thyroid microcarcinoma during surgery benign disease. The incidence rates and risk factor of mild injury for two weeks--using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey The incidence risk, clustering, and clinical presentation of La Crosse virus infections in the eastern United States, The incidence, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of occipito-posterior presentation of the vertex.

The incidence, causes, and prognostic significance of new-onset thrombocytopenia in intensive care units: The incidence, character and course of liver disease in chronic alcoholics as determined by needle biopsy. The incidence, clustering and characteristics of Burkitt lymphoma in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The incidence, correlation with tumor-infiltrating inflammation, and prognosis of phosphorylated STAT3 expression in human gliomas. The incidence, diagnosis, and management of pulmonary vein stenosis as a complication of atrial fibrillation ablation.

The incidence, diagnostic clinical manifestations and severity of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children: The incidence, hospital expenditure, and, 30 day and 1 year mortality rates of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Taiwan. The incidence, incubation period, and symptomatology of homologous serum jaundice.

The incidence, indications and outcome for the non-operative management of breast cancer. The incidence, location and extent of otosclerotic lesions. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients. The incidence, management, and outcome of penetrating bladder injuries in civilians resultant from armed conflict in Baghdad The incidence, natural history, biology, and treatment of transformed lymphomas.

The incidence, pathology of trauma and victim profiles of homicidal deaths in Pretoria, South Africa The incidence, pattern and management outcomes of early pregnancy losses at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. The incidence, pattern and outcome of stray bullet injuries. The incidence, pattern, and prognostic value of left ventricular myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement in patients with atrial fibrillation. The incidence, prevalence and burden of OM in unselected children aged years followed by weekly otoscopy through the "common cold" season.

The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from to The incidence, prevalence, and survival of gastroparesis in olmsted county, Minnesota, gastroenterology ; The incidence, risk factors and characteristics of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients in China.

The incidence, risk factors and prognostic implications of venous thromboembolism in patients with gastric cancer. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients with pyogenic liver abscesses.

The incidence, treatment and prognosis of cervical carcinoma in young women: The incidence, treatment and prognosis of tuberculous laryngitis in pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence, type and bacteriology of Salmonella infection in the Army in India. The incidence, volume, absorption, and timing of supratentorial pneumocephalus during posterior fossa neurosurgery conducted in the sitting position.

The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, The incidences of malignant gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in males and females: The incidences of resistance to cephalosporins and fluorinated 4-quinolones in similar strains isolated in Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The incident in chelyabinsk. The incident is a clear violation. The incident neutral point in retinoscopy. The incident of maladjustment among mental defectives in military environment. The incidental Meckel's diverticulum in trauma: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: The incidental asymptomatic pancreatic lesion: The incidental cystic pancreas mass: The incidental finding in the family practice.

The incidental finding of a patent foramen ovale during cardiac surgery: The incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve surgery, on computed tomography. The incidental finding of a retained gunshot pellet.

The incidental findings of age-related macular degeneration during diabetic retinopathy screening. Follow-up of consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses. The incidental monoclonal protein: The incidental pancreatic cyst. The incidental pancreatic cyst on abdominal computerized tomography imaging: The incidental pulmonary nodule: The incidental renal mass.

The incidental response to uniform natural selection. The incidental skeletal lesion: The incidental small pulmonary nodule and the Fleischner criteria 5 years later: The incidental solitary pulmonary nodule: The incision angle of mediolateral episiotomy before delivery and after repair. Considerations during implant placement: The inclination of mandibular incisors revisited. The inclusion of 'then-test' questions in post-test questionnaires alters post-test responses: The inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in a sensitive screening strategy for systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension: The inclusion of a business management module within the master of pharmacy degree: The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: The inclusion of activities of daily living in flexor tendon rehabilitation: The inclusion of adult vehicle occupants in matched cohort studies of child restraint effectiveness: The inclusion of atmospheric particles into the bark suber of ash trees.

The inclusion of both physiological and acquired needs in a behavioristic system. The inclusion of child pornography in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for pedophilia: The inclusion of cognition in vascular risk factor clinical practice guidelines. The inclusion of disability as a condition for termination of parental rights. The inclusion of downy mildews in a multi-locus-dataset and its reanalysis reveals a high degree of paraphyly in Phytophthora. The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology.

The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

The inclusion of health in environmental impact studies: The inclusion of historical control data may reduce the power of a confirmatory study. The inclusion of new techniques of chromosome analysis has improved the cytogenetic profile of Turner syndrome. The inclusion of positive aspects of caring in the Caregiver Strain Index: The inclusion of siblings in social skills training groups for boys with Asperger syndrome. The inclusion of stroke in risk stratification for primary prevention of vascular events: The inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education: The inclusion of the lower canines.

The inclusion of the oral health team in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy: The inclusion of the subject safety in the school curriculum;checking the validity of the hypothesis in schools in three provinces.

The inclusion of women and minorities in smoking cessation clinical trials: The inclusion technique reduces ischemia after stentless aortic root replacement. The inclusivity of exclusion: The incognita of the known: The incoherence of China's national health development strategies.

The incoherence of determining death by neurological criteria: The incoherent feedforward loop can provide fold-change detection in gene regulation. The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians. The income and production effects of biotech crops globally The income and wealth packages of older women in cross-national perspective.

The income body weight gradients in the developing economy of China. The income distributive implications of recent private health insurance policy reforms in Australia. The income divide in health care: The income elasticity of health care spending in developing and developed countries. The income generation game. The income gradient in children's health: The income-climate trap of health development: The incommensurability of psychoanalysis and history.

The incommensurate modulation of the bi-sr-ca-cu-o superconductor. The incommensurately modulated crystal structure of beta-Pb2BiVO6: The incompatibility mechanism based on the interaction of multiple-components for Flos Genkwa and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae. The incompetence of competency assessments in neurology. The incomplete agglutinin related to the L- Lewis system.

The incomplete antibody; a quantitative aspect. The incomplete circle of the National Disaster Medical System: The incomplete fissure sign. The incomplete inactivation of Fgf8 in the limb ectoderm affects the morphogenesis of the anterior autopod through BMP-mediated cell death.

The incomplete infrastructure for interhospital patient transfer. The incomplete picture of incomplete spinal cord injury. The incomplete sentences test as a method of studying personality. The incomprehensible injury--interpretations of patients' narratives concerning experiences with an acute and dramatic spinal cord injury.

The inconclusive evidence on CT screening for lung cancer. The inconclusive results of the studies on glycoprotein IIIa platelet receptor gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease: The incongruency advantage for environmental sounds presented in natural auditory scenes.

The incongruent gelatinase genotype and phenotype in Enterococcus faecalis are due to shutting off the ability to respond to the gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone GBAP quorum-sensing signal. The incongruous achiever in adolescence. The inconsistent nature of symptomatic pancreatico-jejunostomy anastomotic strictures.

The inconstancy of telecommunications. The incontinence impact questionnaire-7 IIQ-7 can be applicable to Chinese males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms. The incontinence impact questionnaire: The incontinence-associated dermatitis and its severity instrument: The inconvenience of convenience cohorts: The inconvenience of ear traction through the earring hole in parotidectomy.

The inconvenient truth of elevated left atrial pressure and AF recurrence despite catheter ablation. The incorporated aortomitral homograft: The incorporation effects of methanolic extracts of some plant seeds on the stability of phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

The incorporation in toto of octadecanoic acid formed from ingested octadecaneC 14 into the lipids of the sebaceous glands of the rat. The incorporation of 32 PO 4 into organic compounds in sieve tube sap. The incorporation of 5-fluorouracil into RNA affects the ribonucleolytic activity of the exosome subunit Rrp6. The incorporation of 70s bioactive glass to the osteogenic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells in 3D bioreactors. The incorporation of GALA peptide into a protein cage for an acid-inducible molecular switch.

The incorporation of P32 into the nucleoproteins and phosphoproteins of developing Arbacia embryos. The incorporation of a zone of calcified cartilage improves the interfacial shear strength between in vitro-formed cartilage and the underlying substrate.

The incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents. The incorporation of agenda by international health organizations. The incorporation of allogeneic and autogenous bone graft in healing of lateral column lengthening of the calcaneus.

The incorporation of calix[6]arene and cyclodextrin derivatives into sol-gels for the preparation of stationary phases for gas chromatography. The incorporation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate into a glass ionomer cement. The incorporation of chlorhexidine in a two-step self-etching adhesive preserves dentin bond in vitro. The incorporation of daunorubicin in cancer cells through the use of titanium dioxide whiskers. The incorporation of epigenetics in artificial gene regulatory networks.

The incorporation of evidence about local nonconformity into parish population reconstruction. The incorporation of extracellular matrix proteins in protein polymer hydrogels to improve encapsulated beta-cell function.

The incorporation of family physicians in the assessment of diabetic retinopathy by non-mydriatic fundus camera. The incorporation of growth factor and chondroitinase ABC into an electrospun scaffold to promote axon regrowth following spinal cord injury. The incorporation of high fidelity simulation training into hemodialysis nursing education: The incorporation of income and leisure in health state valuations when the measure is silent: The incorporation of indigo molecules in sepiolite tunnels.

The incorporation of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose into solid dispersion systems. The incorporation of marine n-3 PUFA into platelets and adipose tissue in pre- and postmenopausal women: The incorporation of mono- and bi-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes in organic photovoltaic cells.

The incorporation of neuroendoscopy in neurosurgical training programs. The incorporation of new themes and knowledge at public health studies: The incorporation of platelet-rich plasma into calcium phosphate cement enhances bone regeneration in osteoporosis. The incorporation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles into porcine small intestinal submucosa biomaterials.

The incorporation of predictive genomic testing into genetic counseling programs. The incorporation of radioactive carbon dioxide and acetate into liver proteins in vitro. The incorporation of selenium and alterations of macro- and trace element levels in individual blood cells following supplementation with sodium selenite and vitamin E: A nuclear microprobe application. The incorporation of strontium and zinc into a calcium-silicon ceramic for bone tissue engineering.

The incorporation of the novel histone variant H2AL2 confers unusual structural and functional properties of the nucleosome. The incorporation of the views of the public, professionals and managers in the healthcare planning process in Catalonia, Spain. The incorporation of variability and uncertainty evaluations in WWTP design by means of stochastic dynamic modeling: The incorporation of 14 C-glycerol into different species of diglycerides and triglycerides in rat liver slices.

The increase in O-linked N-acetylglucosamine protein modification stimulates chondrogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The increase in allergy and extended challenges. The increase in balloon size to over 15 mm does not affect the development of pancreatitis after endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation for bile duct stone removal. The increase in body weight induced by lack of methyl CpG binding protein-2 is associated with altered leptin signalling in the hypothalamus.

The increase in cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 after short-term dexamethasone is controlled by an Akt-pforkhead box other factor-1 signaling axis. The increase in cyclic-AMP levels elicited by vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP in mouse cerebral cortical slices is potentiated by ergot alkaloids.

The increase in denial. The increase in diphtheria incidence in The increase in dural sac area is maintained at 2 years after X-stop implantation for the treatment of spinal stenosis with no significant alteration in lumbar spine range of movement.

The increase in exhaled NO following allergen challenge is not associated with airway acidification. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after acute coffee intake is not associated with endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant components. The increase in hypoxia tolerance of normal men accompanying the polycythemia induced by transfusion of erythrocytes. The increase in incidence of cancer of the tongue in the Nordic countries continues into the twenty-first century.

The increase in intra-macrophage thiols induced by new pro-GSH molecules directs the Th1 skewing in ovalbumin immunized mice. The increase in lives saved, injuries prevented, an cost savings if seat belt use rose to at least 90 percent in all States.

The increase in longitudinally measured sleepiness across adolescence is related to the maturational decline in low-frequency EEG power. The increase in mannose receptor recycling favors arginase induction and Trypanosoma cruzi survival in macrophages.

The increase in marital status differences in mortality up to the oldest age in seven European countries, The increase in maternal expression of axin1 and axin2 contribute to the zebrafish mutant ichabod ventralized phenotype. The increase in metallothionein and ectopic decidual immunoreactivity with respect to the progression of labor at term and the lack of analogical changes in placental abruption.

The increase in p-phenylenediamine allergy in Denmark is not explained by an increase in contact allergy to para group chemicals. The increase in plasma PAI-1 associated with insulin resistance may be mediated by the presence of hepatic steatosis. The increase in prescriptions of bisphosphonates and the incidence proportion of osteonecrosis of the jaw after risk communication activities in Japan: The increase in seroprevalence of bluetongue virus BTV serotype 8 infections and associated risk factors in Dutch dairy herds, in The increase in seroprevalence to Toxocara canis in asthmatic children is related to cross-reaction with Ascaris suum antigens.

The increase in serum visfatin after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese women is modulated by weight loss, waist circumference, and presence or absence of diabetes before surgery. The increase in sexually transmitted infections in the XXI century: The increase in solariums in Australia, The increase in spend.

The increase in suicide as a cause of death in men aged 40 to 59 years in Japan: The increase in surface EMG could be a misleading measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength. The increase in the expression and hypomethylation of MUC4 gene with the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

The increase in the proportion of nervous animals bred for catatonia: The increase in the speed of the pulse wave is not associated with elevated central blood pressure in hypertensive patients with kidney disease. The increase in the user rate of child seats is clearly an important factor in the decreases in the rates of death and serious injury. The increase in thyroid cancer incidence during the last four decades is accompanied by a high frequency of BRAF mutations and a sharp increase in RAS mutations.

The increase in thyroid cancer incidence is not only due to papillary microcarcinomas: The increase in tissue factor-bearing leukocytes after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. The increase in tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cells is associated with partial inactivation of chymase and increase in protease inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma. The increase in tuberculosis proportionate mortality among nonwhite young adults. The increase in white-aboriginal mixed bloods. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

The increase of VEGF secretion from endothelial progenitor cells post ultrasonic VEGF gene delivery enhances the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The increase of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the plasma of chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

The increase of bacteriophage in vivo during experimental infections with Shigella paradysenteriae Flexner in mice. The increase of bioavailability and anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin loaded into phospholipid nanoparticles. The increase of blood flow in the fetal middle cerebral artery correlates with the onset of labor at term. The increase of bragg diffraction intensity due to acoustic resonance and its application for demultiplexing and multiplexing in laser communication.

The increase of cancer in New Zealand. The increase of carbon dyoxidi production at hypoxia in health subjects. The increase of childhood chronic conditions in the United States. The increase of diabetes mortality burden among Brazilian adults. The increase of effectiveness of a clinical lecture. The increase of endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood: The increase of immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by feeding with selenium enriched-diet.

The increase of imported malaria acquired in Haiti among US travelers in The increase of metopic synostosis: The increase of microRNA during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells.

The increase of micronuclei frequencies of peripheral blood lymphocyte in plywood workers exposed accumulatively to formaldehyde. The increase of non-cancerous thyroid tissue in children and adolescents operated for papillary thyroid cancer: The increase of phytochrome-mediated anthocyanin synthesis in the mustard seedling Sinapis alba L.

The increase of plasma galectin-9 in a patient with insulin allergy: The increase of plasmid DNA copy number is a possible mechanism of the amplification of bacteria anti-lysozyme activity under the effect of chloramphenicol. The increase of serum Bcl-2 concentration in moderate head injury outcome: The increase of serum chemerin concentration is mainly associated with the increase of body mass index in obese, non-diabetic subjects.

The increase of sexually transmitted infections calls for simultaneous preventive intervention for more effectively containing HIV epidemics in China.

The increase of slaughter weight in gilts as a strategy to optimize the production of Spanish high quality dry-cured ham. The increase of the average and maximum span of life by the allogenic thymic cells transplantation in the animals' anterior chamber of eye. The increase of the spin-transfer torque threshold current density in coupled vortex domain walls.

The increase of treatment options at the end of life: The increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children. The increase of variability in animal behavior due to autocorrelations. The increase of vasomotor tone avoids the ability of the dynamic preload indicators to estimate fluid responsiveness.

The increase rates of syphilis in Turkey in the beginning of the third millennium. The increase should have been preceded by an ethical analysis. The increased CAR-dependent metabolism of thyroid hormones in mice with high cancer susceptibility.

The increased activity of liver lysosomal lipase in nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease contributes to the development of hepatic insulin resistance. The increased availability of self-tests for medical analyses.

The increased but non-predominant expression of Th and Th1-specific cytokines in Hashimoto's thyroiditis but not in Graves' disease. The increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: The increased concentration of health plan markets can benefit consumers through lower hospital prices. The increased construct validity and clinical utility of assessing relationship quality using separate positive and negative dimensions.

The increased cost of complications in children with status asthmaticus. The increased cost of medical services for people diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma: The increased cost of nursing service in hospitals and how to meet it.

The increased costs of donation after cardiac death liver transplantation: The increased density of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-immunoreactive microglia in the sensorimotor cortex of aged TgCRND8 mice is associated predominantly with smaller dense-core amyloid plaques. The increased detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia when using a second biopsy at colposcopy.

The increased distensibility of the wall of cerebral arterial network may play a role in the pathogenic mechanism of migraine headache.

The increased effectiveness of HIV preventive intervention among men who have sex with men and of follow-up care for people living with HIV after 'task-shifting' to community-based organizations: The increased expression of CD11c and CD molecules in the neutrophils of the peripheral blood treated with a formula of bacterial ribosomes and proteoglycans of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The increased expression of IL in inflammatory bowel disease promotes intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocyte inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity.

The increased expression of TREM-1 on monocytes is associated with infectious and noninfectious inflammatory processes. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

The increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in subventricular zone neural progenitor cells and enhanced neurogenesis in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. The increased expression of periostin during early stages of prostate cancer and advanced stages of cancer stroma. The increased expression of receptor activator of nuclear-kappaB ligand RANKL of multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells is inhibited by the bisphosphonate ibandronate.

The increased financial burden of further proposed orthopaedic resident work-hour reductions. The increased gastroprotective effect of pioglitazone in cholestatic rats: The increased hypoprothrombinemic effect of a small dose of dicumarol in congestive heart failure. The increased impact factor and real impact of Oral Oncology. The increased in vitro osteoclastogenesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is due to increased percentage of precursors and decreased apoptosis - the In Vitro Osteoclast Differentiation in Arthritis IODA study.

The increased incidence of anesthetic adverse events in late afternoon surgeries. The increased incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture--an emerging trend in Finland. The increased intramuscular fat promoted by dietary lysine restriction in lean but not in fatty pig genotypes improves pork sensory attributes.

The increased killing of biofilms in vitro by combining topical silver dressings with topical negative pressure in chronic wounds. The increased mortality associated with a weekend emergency admission is due to increased illness severity and altered case-mix.

The increased mortality from witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the home. The increased mucosal mRNA expressions of complement C3 and interleukin in inflammatory bowel disease. The increased need for liaison psychiatry in surgical patients due to the high prevalence of undiagnosed anxiety and depression.

The increased of alanine aminotransferase in rotavirus diarrhea. The increased pathogenicity of Bacillus lactis aerogenes in urinary tract infections. The increased poliomyelitis incidence in the higher age-groups and its causes. The increased prevalence of cervical spondylosis in patients with adult thoracolumbar spinal deformity.

The increased prevalence of neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 in equine abortions. The increased protein-bound blood iodine in patients with hyperthyroidism. The increased range of cervical flexed motion detected by radiographs in Hirayama disease.

The increased risk for autoimmune diseases in patients with eating disorders. The increased risk of adverse outcomes in bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap breast reconstruction compared to unilateral reconstruction: The increased risk of colon cancer due to cigarette smoking may be greater in women than men.

The increased risk of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus neck abscesses in young children.

The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation. The increased risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus in peritoneal dialysis-treated kidney allograft recipients. The increased risk of venous thromboembolism by advancing age cannot be attributed to the higher incidence of cancer in the elderly: The increased risks of death and extra lengths of hospital and ICU stay from hospital-acquired bloodstream infections: The increased role of non-albicans species in candidaemia: The increased susceptibility of protein-deficient dogs to benzene poisoning.

The increased total cost associated with post-operative drains in total hip and knee arthroplasty. The increased trafficking of the calcium channel subunit alpha2delta-1 to presynaptic terminals in neuropathic pain is inhibited by the alpha2delta ligand pregabalin. The increased trend in mothers' hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders in the first year after birth between and in New South Wales, Australia. The increased type-1 and type-2 chemokine levels in children with acute RSV infection alter the development of adaptive immune responses.

The increased use of antidepressants has contributed to the worldwide reduction in suicide rates. The increased use of computed tomography scanning for diagnosing superficial soft tissue infections: The increased use of powers under the Mental Health Act.

Frequently asked questions

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Migraine with aura, not intractable, without status migrainosus. Vol 13 Issue 3 Table of Contents. It is also useful in detecting subclinical myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma. Migraine without aura with refractory migraine. He had no other ocular symptoms. Type 1 Excludes Eisenmenger's syndrome I

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Which of the following statements regarding the thymus is correct in myasthenia gravis? Ocular hypertension , unspecified eye. Severe anaemia is common in developing countries and can present with these symptoms when there is subacute blood loss. Task 3 Which of the following is not a sign of respiratory muscle dysfunction? All these findings are suggestive of myasthenia gravis with predominant involvement of respiratory muscles [ 1 ].