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  • Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Salmonella enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2, serotypes. Salmonella species.
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  • Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellated, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the genus Salmonella. A number of its serovars are serious human pathogens. Contents. [hide]. 1 Epidemiology; 2 Pathogenesis; 3 Small non-coding RNA; 4 Nomenclature.
  • Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and.

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  1. Typhoid fever occurs when Salmonella bacteria enter the lymphatic system and cause a systemic form of salmonellosis. Endotoxins first act on the vascular and nervous apparatus, resulting in increased permeability and decreased tone of the vessels, upset thermal regulation, vomiting, and.:
    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica, the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. Many of the pathogenic serovars of the S. enterica species are in this subspecies, including that responsible for typhoid. Salmonella bongori (homotypické synonymá Salmonella enterica subsp. bongori a Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori); Salmonella enterica (heterotypické synonymum Salmonella choleraesuis); Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae ( homotypické synonymá Salmonella arizonae a Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. In , Luria moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and he discovered that a culture of E. coli was able to significantly reduce the . Slot machine – A slot machine, informally fruit machine, puggy, the slots, poker machine or simply slot, is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin.
  2. Composting organisms require four equally important ingredients to work effectively: Carbon — for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat, if included at suggested levels. High carbon materials tend to be brown and dry. Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon.:
    Sep 19, such as E. coli, into which synthetic biologists often place their design circuits. Sequencing also Siderophores are low-molecular-weight compounds with a high binding affinity for insoluble iron-III; text from Presidential Com mission for. Enterobactin (also known as Enterochelin) is a high affinity siderophore that acquires iron for microbial systems. It is primarily found in Gram-negative bacteria , such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Enterobactin is the strongest siderophore known, binding to the ferric ion (Fe) with the affinity (K = 10 M).
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Most infections were reported in the Netherlands , over infections with this subspecies have been confirmed, as well as four mortalities. A case of widespread infection was detected mid in seven EU countries.

Over people had been infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley S. Stanley that usually appears in the regions of Southeast Asia. In Germany, food poisoning infections must be reported. In March , around people were diagnosed with salmonellosis after eating tainted food at a governor's reception in Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Over 1, people attended the ball on March 1 and fell ill as a consequence of ingesting Salmonella -tainted sandwiches. About people were sickened by Salmonella -tainted chocolate cake produced by a major bakery chain in Singapore in December Both salmonellosis and the Salmonella genus of microorganisms derive their names from a modern Latin coining after Daniel E.

Salmon — , an American veterinary surgeon. He had help from Theobald Smith , and together they found the bacterium in pigs. Salmonella enterica was possibly the cause of the cocliztli epidemic in New Spain. The "Four-inch regulation" or "Four-inch law" is a colloquial name for a regulation issued by the U. The regulation was introduced, according to the FDA, "because of the public health impact of turtle-associated salmonellosis". Cases had been reported of young children placing small turtles in their mouths, which led to the size-based restriction.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Salmonellosis Electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium red invading cultured human cells Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms Diarrhea , fever , abdominal cramps , vomiting [1] Complications Reactive arthritis , irritable bowel syndrome [2] Usual onset 0. Typhoid fever and Paratyphoid fever. Salmonellosis in the United States. Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 7 May Advances in microbial food safety: Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 30 April Archived from the original on 20 April Archived from the original on 17 April Gary Adams; Adreas J.

Journal of food protection. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 12 April European Food Safety Authority. Food and Drug Administration FDA estimates that , illnesses each year are caused by consuming eggs contaminated with Salmonella.

Among them is a final rule, issued by the FDA, to reduce the contamination in eggs. About , Americans are infected each year with Salmonella enteritidis from eggs, the result of an infected hen passing along the bacterium.

Humphrey; Filip Van Immerseel July Eggs can be contaminated on the outer shell surface and internally. Internal contamination can be the result of penetration through the eggshell or by direct contamination of egg contents before oviposition, originating from infection of the reproductive organs.

International Journal of Food Microbiology. Salmonella enteritidis can contaminate the contents of clean, intact shell eggs as a result of infections of the reproductive tissue of laying hens. The principal site of infection appears to be the upper oviduct. In egg contents, the most important contamination sites are the outside of the vitelline membrane or the albumen surrounding it.

In fresh eggs, only a few salmonellae are present. As albumen is an iron-restricted environment, growth only occurs with storage-related changes to vitelline membrane permeability, which allows salmonellae to invade yolk contents. Journal of Food Science. Normally, the oviduct of the hen is sterile and therefore the shell and internal contents of the egg are also free of microorganisms 10, Mary quit her job, but returned later under a false name.

She was detained and quarantined after another typhoid outbreak. She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine. During the course of treatment of a typhoid outbreak in a local village in , English country doctor William Budd realised the "poisons" involved in infectious diseases multiplied in the intestines of the sick, were present in their excretions, and could be transmitted to the healthy through their consumption of contaminated water.

In , Karl Joseph Eberth described a bacillus that he suspected was the cause of typhoid. Today, the bacillus that causes typhoid fever goes by the scientific name Salmonella enterica enterica , serovar Typhi. Wright further developed his vaccine at a newly opened research department at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London from , where he established a method for measuring protective substances opsonin in human blood. Citing the example of the Second Boer War , during which many soldiers died from easily preventable diseases, Wright convinced the British Army that 10 million vaccine doses should be produced for the troops being sent to the Western Front , thereby saving up to half a million lives during World War I.

For the first time, their casualties due to combat exceeded those from disease. In , Frederick F. Russell , a U. Army physician, adopted Wright's typhoid vaccine for use with the US Army , and two years later, his vaccination program became the first in which an entire army was immunized. It eliminated typhoid as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the U. Most developed countries saw declining rates of typhoid fever throughout the first half of the 20th century due to vaccinations and advances in public sanitation and hygiene.

In , the chlorination of public drinking water was a significant step in the US in the control of typhoid fever. The first permanent disinfection of drinking water in the U. Credit for the decision to build the chlorination system has been given to John L. Today, the incidence of typhoid fever in developed countries is around five cases per million people per year.

A notable outbreak occurred in Aberdeen , Scotland , in This was due to contaminated tinned meat sold at the city's branch of the William Low chain of stores. In —05 an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo resulted in more than 42, cases and deaths.

The disease has been referred to by various names, often associated with symptoms, such as gastric fever, enteric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever, and pythogenic fever.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Typhus. Deaths from typhoid fever. CDC health information for international travel Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 28 March Archived PDF from the original on April 2, Archived from the original on 2 April Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases 9th ed. Infect Dis Clin N Am. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 20 August Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: Indian J Med Res. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 10 April Bhutta, Zulfiqar A, ed. Cochrane Database Syst Rev The University of Chicago Press. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Archived from the original on November 2, Bull World Health Organ. Travel Med Infect Dis.

American Public Health Association , pg An evidence-based pilot implementation project in Nepal and Pakistan". Int J Infect Dis. Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: The New York Times. The Most Dangerous Woman in America".

On the investigation of pathogenic organisms , Mitteilungen aus dem Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte , 1: Archived at the Wayback Machine. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph. In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties, the faculty of arts. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees and final degrees, the doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph.

No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements, besides these degrees, there was the licentiate.

According to Keith Allan Noble, the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around , the doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teachers credential in the 17th century.

Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, starting in , in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a contribution to scientific knowledge.

A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine, upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences, which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy. Indiana University — Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.

The campus is operated in cooperation with Purdue University, but is administered by Indiana University, in addition to its two core campuses, Indiana University comprises seven smaller campuses and two extensions spread throughout Indiana. Ryan and is the highest award bestowed by the University. It honors individuals for singular or noteworthy contributions, including service to the university and achievement in arts, letters, science, the first recipient was Thomas T.

Solley, former director of the IU Art Museum. Indiana University Presidents Medal for Excellence, a reproduction in silver of the symbolic jewel of office worn by the president at ceremonial occasions, is rich in meaning. The first recipients were member of the Beaux Arts Trio on September 20,, Thomas Hart Benton Mural Medallion recognizes individuals who are shining examples of the values of IU and the universal academic community.

President Ryan was the first to award this honor and it was first awarded to the president of Nanjing University on July 21, Indiana University has a number of ways to recognize the accomplishments of faculty, the recipient is also the IU nominee for the national Campus Compact Thomas Ehrlich Award for Service Learning. The Mace, a symbol of authority dating back to medieval times and it later would be used in processions of city mayors and other dignitaries, and became an emblem of order and authority during academic ceremonies.

The staff of IUs Mace is 30 inches long and made of polished ebony encircled with four brass, gold-plated collars, atop the staff is a globe of plated brass with four flat sides. Slot machine — A slot machine, informally fruit machine, puggy, the slots, poker machine or simply slot, is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed.

Many modern machines are equipped with a legacy lever in addition to the button. Slot machines include a currency detector that validates the money inserted to play, the machine pays off according to patterns of symbols visible on the front of the machine when it stops.

Modern computer technology has resulted in variations on the slot machine concept, Slot machines are the most popular gambling method in casinos and constitute about 70 percent of the average US casinos income. The slot machine term derives from the slots on the machine for inserting and retrieving coins, fruit machine comes from the traditional fruit images on the spinning reels, such as lemons and cherries. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker and this machine proved extremely popular and soon many bars in the city had one or more of the machines.

Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand. To make the better for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deck, the ten of spades and the jack of hearts.

The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a players chance of winning, the bell gave the machine its name. Three bells in a row produced the biggest payoff, ten nickels, Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry.

Even when the use of these devices was banned in his home state after a few years. The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers, thus in , manufacturer Herbert Mills from Chicago produced a slot machine called the Operator Bell.

By lots of bell machines were installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels, early machines, including an Liberty Bell, are now part of the Nevada State Museums Fey Collection. Other early machines, such as the trade stimulator, gave out winnings in the form of fruit-flavoured chewing gums with pictures of the flavours as symbols on the reels, the popular cherry and melon symbols derive from this machine.

In these cases, a mint vending machine was declared to be a device because by chance the machine would occasionally give the next user a number of tokens exchangeable for more candy. Despite the fact that the result of the next use would be displayed on the machine, the courts ruled that he appealed to the players propensity to gamble. Escherichia coli — Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.

The harmless strains are part of the flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2. A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E.

During the staining process, E. Strains that possess flagella are motile, the flagella have a peritrichous arrangement. Optimum growth of E. It can, however, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation or anaerobic respiration, the ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates.

The bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages, the B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. The C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA, the D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division.

The doubling rate of E. At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA. Microbiological culture — A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions.

Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested and it is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium. Furthermore, the culture is more generally used informally to refer to selectively growing a specific kind of microorganism in the lab.

Microbial cultures are foundational and basic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. It is often essential to isolate a pure culture of microorganisms, a pure culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types.

A pure culture may originate from a cell or single organism. For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture, the medium of agarose gel is used, agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. A cheap substitute for agar is guar gum, which can be used for the isolation, there are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use.

One method of culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, such as Luria Broth. This allows a scientist to grow up large amounts of bacteria for a variety of downstream applications, liquid cultures are ideal for preparation of an antimicrobial assay in which the experimenter inoculates liquid broth with bacteria and lets it grow overnight.

Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the activity of a specific drug or protein. As an alternative, the microbiologist may decide to use static liquid cultures and these cultures are not shaken and they provide the microbes with an oxygen gradient.

Microbiological cultures can be grown in petri dishes of differing sizes that have a layer of agar-based growth medium.

Once the growth medium in the dish is inoculated with the desired bacteria. After the desired level of growth is achieved, agar plates can be stored upside down in a refrigerator for a period of time to keep bacteria for future experiments. There are a variety of additives that can be added to agar before it is poured into a plate, some types of bacteria can only grow in the presence of certain additives. This can also be used when creating engineered strains of a bacteria that contain an antibiotic-resistance gene, when the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow.

This allows the researcher to select only the colonies that were successfully transformed, stab cultures are similar to agar plates, but are formed by solid agar in a test tube. Agar — Agar or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, equivalent to vegan gelatin, obtained from algae. Agar is derived from the polysaccharide agarose, which forms the structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae.

These algae are known as agarophytes and belong to the Rhodophyta phylum, Agar is actually the resulting mixture of two components, the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.

Throughout history into modern times, agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia. The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the walls of some species of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium. For commercial purposes, it is derived primarily from Gelidium amansii, in chemical terms, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose. Agar was first subjected to analysis in by the French chemist Anselme Payen. Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used heavily as a medium for growing various microbes.

Agar was first described for use in microbiology in by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying. With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased and this production centered on Japan which produced most of the worlds agar until World War II.

However, with the outbreak of World War II many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research, around the time of World War II, approximately 2, tons of agar were produced annually. By the mids, production worldwide had increased dramatically to approximately 10, tons each year, since then, production of agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations.

The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae from which the jelly is produced and it is also known as Kanten, Japanese isinglass, Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss. Agarose is a polymer, made up of repeating units of agarobiose. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes, phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm.

Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere, phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe and they are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria.

Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different virions, genomes, phages are classified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses according to morphology and nucleic acid.

Nineteen families are recognized by the ICTV that infect bacteria. Of these, only two families have RNA genomes, and only five families are enveloped, of the viral families with DNA genomes, only two have single-stranded genomes.

Eight of the families with DNA genomes have circular genomes while nine have linear genomes. Nine families infect bacteria only, nine infect archaea only, in , British bacteriologist Frederick Twort, superintendent of the Brown Institution of London, discovered a small agent that infected and killed bacteria.

He believed the agent must be one of the following, a stage in the cycle of the bacteria. It was DHerelle who conducted research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy. Phages were discovered to be agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. They had widespread use, including treatment of soldiers in the Red Army, however, they were abandoned for general use in the West for several reasons, Medical trials were carried out, but a basic lack of understanding of phages made these invalid.

Antibiotics were discovered and marketed widely and they were easier to make, store and to prescribe. Poisson distribution — The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as distance, area or volume.

For instance, an individual keeping track of the amount of mail they receive each day may notice that they receive a number of 4 letters per day. Other examples that may follow a Poisson, the number of calls received by a call center per hour or the number of decay events per second from a radioactive source. The Poisson distribution is popular for modelling the number of times an event occurs in an interval of time or space. K is the number of times an event occurs in an interval, the rate at which events occur is constant.

The rate cannot be higher in some intervals and lower in other intervals, two events cannot occur at exactly the same instant.

The probability of an event in an interval is proportional to the length of the interval. If these conditions are true, then K is a Poisson random variable, an event can occur 0,1,2, … times in an interval.

This equation is the probability function for a Poisson distribution. Ugarte and colleagues report that the number of goals in a World Cup soccer match is approximately 2. Because the average event rate is 2. Mean — In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context. An analogous formula applies to the case of a probability distribution. Not every probability distribution has a mean, see the Cauchy distribution for an example. Moreover, for some distributions the mean is infinite, for example, the arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1, x2.

For a finite population, the mean of a property is equal to the arithmetic mean of the given property while considering every member of the population. For example, the mean height is equal to the sum of the heights of every individual divided by the total number of individuals.

The sample mean may differ from the mean, especially for small samples. The law of large numbers dictates that the larger the size of the sample, outside of probability and statistics, a wide range of other notions of mean are often used in geometry and analysis, examples are given below.

The geometric mean is an average that is useful for sets of numbers that are interpreted according to their product. The harmonic mean is an average which is useful for sets of numbers which are defined in relation to some unit, for example speed. The mean of a set of observations is the average of the values, however, for skewed distributions. For example, mean income is typically skewed upwards by a number of people with very large incomes. By contrast, the income is the level at which half the population is below.

The mode income is the most likely income, and favors the larger number of people with lower incomes, the mean of a probability distribution is the long-run arithmetic average value of a random variable having that distribution. In this context, it is known as the expected value. Variance — The variance has a central role in statistics. It is used in statistics, statistical inference, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit.

This makes it a central quantity in numerous such as physics, biology, chemistry, cryptography, economics. On computational floating point arithmetic, this equation should not be used, if a continuous distribution does not have an expected value, as is the case for the Cauchy distribution, it does not have a variance either. Many other distributions for which the value does exist also do not have a finite variance because the integral in the variance definition diverges.

The role of the distribution in the central limit theorem is in part responsible for the prevalence of the variance in probability. Probability distribution — For instance, if the random variable X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss, then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0. In more technical terms, the probability distribution is a description of a phenomenon in terms of the probabilities of events.

Examples of random phenomena can include the results of an experiment or survey, a probability distribution is defined in terms of an underlying sample space, which is the set of all possible outcomes of the random phenomenon being observed. The sample space may be the set of numbers or a higher-dimensional vector space, or it may be a list of non-numerical values, for example.

Probability distributions are divided into two classes. A discrete probability distribution can be encoded by a discrete list of the probabilities of the outcomes, on the other hand, a continuous probability distribution is typically described by probability density functions.

The normal distribution represents a commonly encountered continuous probability distribution, more complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures. A probability distribution whose sample space is the set of numbers is called univariate.

Important and commonly encountered univariate probability distributions include the distribution, the hypergeometric distribution. The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution, to define probability distributions for the simplest cases, one needs to distinguish between discrete and continuous random variables.

For example, the probability that an object weighs exactly g is zero. Continuous probability distributions can be described in several ways, the cumulative distribution function is the antiderivative of the probability density function provided that the latter function exists. As probability theory is used in diverse applications, terminology is not uniform. The following terms are used for probability distribution functions, Distribution. Probability distribution, is a table that displays the probabilities of outcomes in a sample.

Could be called a frequency distribution table, where all occurrences of outcomes sum to 1. Distribution function, is a form of frequency distribution table. Probability distribution function, is a form of probability distribution table. Random — Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order, individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events is predictable.

For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, the fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness.

In statistics, a variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events, Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the applications of randomness.

Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties, Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science.

By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators, Random selection is a method of selecting items from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population.

For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable and that is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen then we can say the selection process is random.

In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate, many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this later evolved into games of chance.

Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness, the Chinese of years ago were perhaps the earliest people to formalize odds and chance.

The Greek philosophers discussed randomness at length, but only in non-quantitative forms and it was only in the 16th century that Italian mathematicians began to formalize the odds associated with various games of chance. The invention of the calculus had a impact on the formal study of randomness. The early part of the 20th century saw a growth in the formal analysis of randomness.

In the mid- to lateth century, ideas of information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness. Incubator microbiology — In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures.

The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other such as the carbon dioxide. Incubators are essential for a lot of work in cell biology, microbiology. Louis Pasteur used the opening underneath his staircase as an incubator. Incubators are also used in the industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to both temperature and humidity.

The most commonly used both for bacteria such as the frequently used E. For other organisms used in experiments, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one container to create a multi-well plate. While glass Petri dishes may be reused after sterilization, plastic Petri dishes are often disposed of after experiments where cultures might contaminate each other, Petri dishes are often used to make agar plates for microbiology studies.

Once the agar cools and solidifies, the dish is ready to be inoculated with a microbe-laden sample, virus or phage cultures require a two-stage inoculation, after the agar preparation, bacteria are grown in the dish to provide hosts for the viral inoculum.

Petri dishes are used for eukaryotic cell culture in a liquid medium or on solid agar. Their transparency and flat profile also mean they are used as temporary receptacles for viewing samples, especially liquids. Replica plating — The technique involves pressing a velveteen-covered disk, and then imprinting secondary plates with cells in colonies removed from the original plate by the material.

Generally, large numbers of colonies are replica plated due to the difficulty in streaking each out individually onto a separate plate, the purpose of replica plating is to be able to compare the master plate and any secondary plates, typically to screen for a desired phenotype.

For example, when a colony that was present on the plate, fails to appear on a secondary plate. Common screenable phenotypes include auxotrophy and antibiotic resistance, replica plating is especially useful for negative selection. However, it is correct to refer to negative screening instead of using the term selection. For example, if one wanted to select colonies that were sensitive to ampicillin, the sensitive colonies on the secondary plate would die but the colonies could still be deduced from the primary plate since the two have the same spatial patterns from ampicillin resistant colonies.

The sensitive colonies could then be picked off from the primary plate, frequently the last plate will be non-selective. If one sees growth on the plate but not the second one. If the non-selective plate shows no growth, one cannot say whether viable cells were transferred at all and this is particularly useful if there are questions about the age or viability of the cells on the original plate.

The development of replica plating required two steps, the first step was to define the problem, a method of identifiably duplicating colonies.

The second step was to devise a means to implement the first step. Replica plating was first described by Esther Lederberg and Joshua Lederberg in , however, Joshua Lederberg notes that the first step of defining the problem had been done by others before them. Several attempts were made to solve the second step.

Metabolism — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical. Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells.

The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require.

A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history. Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids.

These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins. Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism.

Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle.

Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy.

Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.

Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached.

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. Mutation rate — In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time. Mutation rates are given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations. The rate of substitutions can be subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

The mutation rate of an organism is a characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism. The upper and lower limits to which mutation rates can evolve is the subject of ongoing investigation, different genetic variants within a species are referred to as alleles, and so a new mutation is said to create a new allele. In population genetics, each allele is characterized by a selection coefficient, the selection coefficient can either be negative, corresponding to an expected decrease, positive, corresponding to an expected increase, or zero, corresponding to no expected change.

An organisms mutation rates can be measured by a number of techniques, many sites in an organisms genome may not admit mutations with large fitness effects.


Vaccinations have proven to be a great way at controlling outbreaks in high incidence areas. Just as important, it is also very cost-effective. Because the price is low, poverty-stricken communities are more willing to take advantage of the vaccinations.

Since the s there have been two typhoid fever vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. The ViPS vaccine is given via injection, while the Ty21a is taken through capsules. The two different vaccines have been proven as a safe and effective treatment for epidemic disease control in multiple regions.

A version combined with hepatitis A is also available. The rediscovery of oral rehydration therapy in the s provided a simple way to prevent many of the deaths of diarrheal diseases in general. Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin. Typhoid fever, when properly treated, is not fatal in most cases. Antibiotics , such as ampicillin , chloramphenicol , trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , amoxicillin , and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in microbiology.

Without treatment, some patients develop sustained fever, bradycardia, hepatosplenomegaly, abdominal symptoms and, occasionally, pneumonia. The highest case fatality rates are reported in children under 4 years.

Surgery is usually indicated in cases of intestinal perforation. Most surgeons prefer simple closure of the perforation with drainage of the peritoneum. Small-bowel resection is indicated for patients with multiple perforations. If antibiotic treatment fails to eradicate the hepatobiliary carriage, the gallbladder should be resected.

Cholecystectomy is not always successful in eradicating the carrier state because of persisting hepatic infection. As resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin is now common, these agents have not been used as first—line treatment of typhoid fever for almost 20 years.

Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Many centres are shifting from using ciprofloxacin as the first line for treating suspected typhoid originating in South America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, or Vietnam.

For these people, the recommended first-line treatment is ceftriaxone. Also, azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone. A separate problem exists with laboratory testing for reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: In , typhoid fever caused an estimated Typhi is human-restricted, these chronic carriers become the crucial reservoir, which can persist for decades for further spread of the disease, further complicating the identification and treatment of the disease.

In industrialized nations, water sanitation and food handling improvements have reduced the number of cases. These areas have a lack of access to clean water, proper sanitation systems, and proper health care facilities. For these areas, such access to basic public health needs is not in the near future.

In BC, a plague , which some believe to have been typhoid fever, killed one-third of the population of Athens , including their leader Pericles. Following this disaster, the balance of power shifted from Athens to Sparta , ending the Golden Age of Pericles that had marked Athenian dominance in the Greek ancient world. The ancient historian Thucydides also contracted the disease, but he survived to write about the plague. His writings are the primary source on this outbreak, and modern academics and medical scientists consider typhoid fever the most likely cause.

In , a study detected DNA sequences similar to those of the bacterium responsible for typhoid fever in dental pulp extracted from a burial pit dated to the time of the outbreak. The cause of the plague has long been disputed and other scientists have disputed the findings, citing serious methodologic flaws in the dental pulp-derived DNA study. A pair of epidemics struck the Mexican highlands in and , causing an estimated 7 to 17 million deaths. Some historians believe that the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia , died out from typhoid.

Typhoid fever killed more than settlers in the New World between and A long held belief is that 9th US President William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia but recent studies suggest he likely died from typhoid. This disease may also have been a contributing factor in the death of 12th US President Zachary Taylor due to the unsanitary conditions in Washington DC in the mid 19th century.

During the American Civil War , 81, Union soldiers died of typhoid or dysentery , far more than died of battle wounds. The worst year was , when the typhoid death rate was per , people. During the Spanish—American War , American troops were exposed to typhoid fever in stateside training camps and overseas, largely due to inadequate sanitation systems.

Major Walter Reed , Edward O. Shakespeare, and Victor C. Vaughan were appointed August 18, , with Reed being designated the President of the Board. The Typhoid Board determined that during the war, more soldiers died from this disease than from yellow fever or from battle wounds. The Board promoted sanitary measures including latrine policy, disinfection, camp relocation, and water sterilization, but by far the most successful antityphoid method was vaccination, which became compulsory in June for all federal troops.

The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever, but by no means the most destructive, was Mary Mallon , also known as Typhoid Mary. In , she became the first carrier in the United States to be identified and traced. She was a cook in New York who was closely associated with 53 cases and three deaths. Mary quit her job, but returned later under a false name.

She was detained and quarantined after another typhoid outbreak. She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine. During the course of treatment of a typhoid outbreak in a local village in , English country doctor William Budd realised the "poisons" involved in infectious diseases multiplied in the intestines of the sick, were present in their excretions, and could be transmitted to the healthy through their consumption of contaminated water.

In , Karl Joseph Eberth described a bacillus that he suspected was the cause of typhoid. Today, the bacillus that causes typhoid fever goes by the scientific name Salmonella enterica enterica , serovar Typhi.

Wright further developed his vaccine at a newly opened research department at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London from , where he established a method for measuring protective substances opsonin in human blood. Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonella, such as Salmonella Typhimurium ST have recently been labelled as emerging diseases in Africa.

Key host immune deficiencies associated with HIV, malaria and malnutrition have contributed to a wide spread of this disease and the need to use expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Salmonella enterica Salmonella Typhimurium colonies on a Hektoen enteric agar plate Scientific classification Kingdom: Medical Microbiology 6th ed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from to ".

Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Retrieved 31 July The American Journal of Nursing. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser, there are two key processes, mesophilic and thermophilic digestion which is dependent on temperature. The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, Biogas can be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to parts air. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work and it is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could cause an explosion.

Anaerobic digestion — Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as anaerobic activity. This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in , the digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria, acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids.

These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with ammonia, hydrogen. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments. Anaerobic digestion is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste, as part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere.

Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with energy crops, such as maize. Anaerobic digestion is used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and this biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane.

The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer, many microorganisms affect anaerobic digestion, including acetic acid-forming bacteria and methane-forming archaea.

These organisms promote a number of processes in converting the biomass to biogas. Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical containment, anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than oxygen gas. These acceptors can be the material itself or may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material.

When the oxygen source in a system is derived from the organic material itself, the intermediate end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the end products of methane, carbon dioxide. In an anaerobic system, the majority of the energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane.

Santa Cruz, Chile — There is no exact data about the founding of the city, although there is an official date when the city became a municipality in the year , the same year that Pichilemu did. From its beginnings, the town was a center of handcrafted artifacts and agricultural development, with wheat, tomatoes, the city of Santa Cruz was among those affected by the Chile earthquake. The population grew by The most famous tourist attractions of the city are located in the Plaza de Armas, other noteworthy attractions include the Museum of Colchagua, the Casino of Colchagua, and the Wine Train vineyard tour.

As a commune, Santa Cruz is an administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council. Juan Carlos Latorre as part of the 35th electoral district.

Oxidation — Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes. Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed, in general, the chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced.

It can be explained in terms, Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in state by a molecule, atom. As an example, during the combustion of wood, oxygen from the air is reduced, the reaction can occur relatively slowly, as in the case of rust, or more quickly, as in the case of fire. Redox is a portmanteau of reduction and oxidation, the word oxidation originally implied reaction with oxygen to form an oxide, since dioxygen was historically the first recognized oxidizing agent.

Later, the term was expanded to encompass oxygen-like substances that accomplished parallel chemical reactions, ultimately, the meaning was generalized to include all processes involving loss of electrons.

The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as an oxide to extract the metal. In other words, ore was reduced to metal, antoine Lavoisier showed that this loss of weight was due to the loss of oxygen as a gas. Later, scientists realized that the atom gains electrons in this process. The meaning of reduction then became generalized to all processes involving gain of electrons.

Even though reduction seems counter-intuitive when speaking of the gain of electrons, it help to think of reduction as the loss of oxygen. Since electrons are charged, it is also helpful to think of this as reduction in electrical charge. The electrochemist John Bockris has used the words electronation and deelectronation to describe reduction and oxidation processes respectively when they occur at electrodes and these words are analogous to protonation and deprotonation, but they have not been widely adopted by chemists.

The term hydrogenation could be used instead of reduction, since hydrogen is the agent in a large number of reactions. But, unlike oxidation, which has been generalized beyond its root element, the word redox was first used in The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, the oxidation alone and the reduction alone are each called a half-reaction, because two half-reactions always occur together to form a whole reaction.

Evaporation — Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance.

The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase, steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, on average, a fraction of the molecules in a glass of water have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid.

The water in the glass will be cooled by the evaporation until an equilibrium is reached where the air supplies the amount of heat removed by the evaporating water, in an enclosed environment the water would evaporate until the air is saturated. With sufficient temperature, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly, when the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide.

Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with energy to escape. Evaporation is an part of the water cycle. The sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, in hydrology, evaporation and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor, when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low.

Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid decreases.

This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling and this is why evaporating sweat cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proceed quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure.

For example, laundry on a line will dry more rapidly on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, on a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the liquid state and the vapor state.

Instead, there is a Knudsen layer, where the phase is undetermined, because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen.

It is just that the process is slower and thus significantly less visible. If evaporation takes place in an area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density. Bacteria — Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods, Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology, There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of bodies and bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process.

In March , data reported by researchers in October , was published and it was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to metres below the sea floor under 2. According to one of the researchers, You can find microbes everywhere—theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora.

However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy. The most common fatal diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year.

In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. Once regarded as constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and these evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.

The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, for about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.

Microorganism — A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa.

This group also contains some fungi, algae, and some such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages, some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. In July , scientists identified a set of genes from the last universal ancestor of all life, including microorganisms. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space.

Microorganisms likely far outweigh all other living things combined, the mass of prokaryote microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0. Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earths oceans, in August , scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living m below the ice of Antarctica. According to one researcher, You can find microbes everywhere — theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers.

As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a part of the nitrogen cycle. Microorganisms are also exploited in biotechnology, both in food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants, Robert Hooke coined the term cell after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people to observe microorganisms in , later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation.

In Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms cause diseases, single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3—4 billion years ago. Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, so, for most of the history of life on Earth, the only forms of life were microorganisms. Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is million years old, microorganisms tend to have a relatively fast rate of evolution.

Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction. This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the development of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, superbugs, the possible existence of microorganisms was discussed for many centuries before their discovery in the 17th century.

Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria, unlike other types of bacteria, thermophiles can survive at much hotter temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. As a prerequisite for their survival, thermophiles contain enzymes that can function at high temperatures, some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology, and in washing agents.

Bacteria within the Alicyclobacillus genus are acidophilic thermophiles, which can cause contamination in fruit juice drinks. Some extreme thermophiles require a high temperature for growth. Their membranes and proteins are stable at these extremely high temperatures.

Thus, many important biotechnological processes use thermophilic enzymes because of their ability to withstand intense heat, many of the hyperthermophiles Archea require elemental sulfur for growth.

Some are anaerobes that use the sulfur instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor during cellular respiration, some are lithotrophs that oxidize sulfur to sulfuric acid as an energy source, thus requiring the microorganism to be adapted to very low pH.

These organisms are inhabitants of hot, sulfur-rich environments usually associated with volcanism, such as hot springs, geysers, in these places, especially in Yellowstone National Park, zonation of microorganisms according to their temperature optima occurs. Often, these organisms are colored, due to the presence of photosynthetic pigments, thermophiles can be discriminated from mesophiles from genomic features. Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea, when these organisms are exposed to the DNA damaging agents UV irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C, species-specific cellular aggregation is induced.

Van Wolferen et al. Actinobacteria — The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic and they are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems.

In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, some soil actinobacteria live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plants saccharides.

Beyond the great interest in Actinobacteria for their role, much is yet to be learned about them. Although currently understood primarily as soil bacteria, they might be abundant in fresh waters. Actinobacteria is one of the dominant bacterial phyla and contains one of the largest of bacterial genera, Streptomyces and other actinobacteria are major contributors to biological buffering of soils. They are also the source of many antibiotics, most Actinobacteria of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order Actinomycetales.

While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of antibiotics, of those Actinobacteria not in the Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched.

Classification of Gardnerella is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a Gram-positive and Gram-negative organism, actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines, etc. Bark botany — Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs, Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term.

It overlays the wood and consists of the bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, the outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm.

The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome, Bark has been used to make cloth, canoes, and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making.

A number of plants are grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations. What is commonly called bark includes a number of different tissues, Cork is an external, secondary tissue that is impermeable to water and gases, and is also called the phellem. The cork is produced by the cork cambium which is a layer of active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm.

The cork cambium, which is called the phellogen, is normally only one cell layer thick. The phelloderm, which is not always present in all barks, is a layer of cells formed by, together, the phellem, phellogen and phelloderm constitute the periderm. Cork cell walls contain suberin, a substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem.

The cambium tissues, i. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma, the cortex is the primary tissue of stems and roots. In stems the cortex is between the layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem. From the outside to the inside of a woody stem. The bark includes through, and is composed of periderm and phloem, as the stem ages and grows, changes occur that transform the surface of the stem into the bark.

The epidermis is a layer of cells that cover the plant body, including the stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, in old stems the epidermal layer, cortex, and primary phloem become separated from the inner tissues by thicker formations of cork. Due to the cork layer these cells die because they do not receive water. This dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around tree trunks, often a secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non woody plants, which is composed of cork, the cork cambium, and the phelloderm.

Fungi — A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants, a characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria and some protists, is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs, they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the air or water.

Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems and this fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes and oomycetes. The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, in the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the size of their structures.

Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform a role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling. Since the s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests.

Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans, losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.

The fungus kingdom encompasses a diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies. However, little is known of the biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.

The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace, a group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e. Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies.

The fungi are now considered a kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago. Fungi have membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes and they have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Molds — A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts, molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food.

The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism, the hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, the dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae.

The mode of formation and shape of spores is traditionally used to classify molds. Many of these spores are colored, making the much more obvious to the human eye at this stage in its life-cycle.

Molds are considered to be microbes and do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. In the past, most molds were classified within the Deuteromycota, molds cause biodegradation of natural materials, which can be unwanted when it becomes food spoilage or damage to property. They also play important roles in biotechnology and food science in the production of foods, beverages, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals.

There are thousands of species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles. They all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments, like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy.

Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips and these enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae.

In this way molds play a role in causing decomposition of organic material. Many molds also synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, molds can also grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus a major source of food losses and illness. Many strategies for food preservation are to prevent or slow growth as well as growth of other microbes. Molds reproduce by producing large numbers of spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate.

Mold spores can be asexual or sexual, many species can produce both types, other mold spores have slimy sheaths and are more suited to water dispersal. Mold spores are spherical or ovoid single cells, but can be multicellular.

Yeast — Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. Yeasts, with their growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi and it is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms.

Researchers have used it to information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens, yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The budding yeasts are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota, the word yeast comes from Old English gist, gyst, and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning boil, foam, or bubble.

Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms, archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4, year-old bakeries and breweries.

In , Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi, but in Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi. Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, by the late 18th century, two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S.

The industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the press in In , Baron Max de Springer developed a process to create granulated yeast. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy, carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose.

Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose, alcohols, Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but also have aerobic methods of energy production. Lignin — Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae.

Lignins are particularly important in the formation of walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity. The Carboniferous Period is in part defined by the evolution of lignin, the composition of lignin varies from species to species. An example of composition from a sample is As a biopolymer, lignin is unusual because of its heterogeneity and its most commonly noted function is the support through strengthening of wood in vascular plants.

Global commercial production of lignin is around 1. Lignin fills the spaces in the wall between cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin components, especially in vascular and support tissues, xylem tracheids, vessel elements. It is covalently linked to hemicellulose and therefore cross-links different plant polysaccharides, conferring mechanical strength to the cell wall and it is particularly abundant in compression wood but scarce in tension wood, which are types of reaction wood.

Lignin plays a part in conducting water in plant stems. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls are highly hydrophilic and thus permeable to water, the crosslinking of polysaccharides by lignin is an obstacle for water absorption to the cell wall. Thus, lignin makes it possible for the vascular tissue to conduct water efficiently. Lignin is present in all plants, but not in bryophytes. However, it is present in red algae, which seems to suggest that the ancestor of plants.

This would suggest that its function was structural, it plays this role in the red alga Calliarthron. Another possibility is that the lignins in red algae and in plants are result of convergent evolution, lignin plays a significant role in the carbon cycle, sequestering atmospheric carbon into the living tissues of woody perennial vegetation.

Lignin is one of the most slowly decomposing components of dead vegetation, the resulting soil humus, in general, holds nutrients onto its surface, and hence increases its cation exchange capacity and moisture retention, hence it increases the productivity of soil.

Protozoa — In 21st-century systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility, the group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the protophyta, which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis.

The terms protozoa and protozoans are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists, such as the ciliates, amoebae and flagellates. The term Protozoa was introduced in for a taxonomic class, in several classification systems proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators since , Protozoa is ranked as a kingdom. The seven-kingdom scheme proposed by Ruggiero et al. This kingdom does not form a clade, but an evolutionary grade or paraphyletic group, from which the fungi, for this reason, the terms protists, Protista or Protoctista are sometimes preferred for the high-level classification of eukaryotic microbes.

In , members of the Society of Protozoologists voted to change the name of organization to the International Society of Protistologists. The word protozoa was coined in by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek equivalent of the German Urthiere, meaning primitive, Goldfuss erected Protozoa as a class containing what he believed to be the simplest animals. Originally, the group included not only microbes, but also some lower animals, such as rotifers, corals, sponges, jellyfish, bryozoa.

In , in light of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodore Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, von Siebold redefined Protozoa to include only such unicellular forms, to the exclusion of all metazoa. At the same time, he raised the group to the level of a phylum containing two broad classes of microbes, Infusoria, and Rhizopoda.

As a phylum under Animalia, the Protozoa were firmly rooted in the old two-kingdom classification of life, criticism of this system began in the latter half of the 19th century, with the realization that many organisms met the criteria for inclusion among both plants and animals. For example, the algae Euglena and Dinobryon have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, as an alternative, he proposed a new kingdom called Primigenum, consisting of both the protozoa and unicellular algae, which he combined together under the name Protoctista.

In Hoggss conception, the animal and plant kingdoms were likened to two great pyramids blending at their bases in the Kingdom Primigenum, six years later, Ernst Haeckel also proposed a third kingdom of life, which he named Protista. Despite these proposals, Protozoa emerged as the taxonomic placement for heterotrophic microbes such as amoebae and ciliates. A variety of systems were proposed, and Kingdoms Protista and Protoctista became well established in biology texts. While many taxonomists have abandoned Protozoa as a group, Thomas Cavalier-Smith has retained it as a kingdom in the various classifications he has proposed.

As of , Cavalier-Smiths Protozoa excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, dinoflagellates, Protozoa, as traditionally defined, are mainly microscopic organisms, ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers. Rotifers — The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.

They were first described by Rev. John Harris in , most rotifers are around 0.