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One food handler used the same gloves and tongs to handle raw beef and then cooked shrimp and another handled ready-to-eat food with bare hands. Also, the person in charge was not knowledgeable about basic food safety. One of our two imminent health hazard closures is also a Dirty Dining repeat offender. There was excessive grease build-up and excessive food debris on the deli slicer blade and cutting boards, and pink mold in the ice machine.

The other imminent health hazard was a food truck. Copyright Scripps Media, Inc. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

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Show Caption Hide Caption. But in tonight's report, Salmonella led inspectors to a three-peat offender. Each time the location's been on, it's been just before Halloween. Also, a food handler put raw bacon on a cutting board so it was touching ready-to-eat cheese. Inspectors also found shrimp, mussels, raw chicken and fish at unsafe temperatures. The cause this time? There were multi-generational roaches in traps and on walls. We are representing people sickened in the Toyo Tire Salmonella outbreakand a lawsuit will be filed soon.

Our law firm has filed a lawsuit against Chicken and Rice Guys for E. At least 15 people were sickened, 9 of them from Boston. To contact Brendan and Ryan about a lawsuit for compensation, call toll free.

Please note that this is not a class action lawsuit and that our national food safety law firm files individual suits on behalf of people sickened in outbreaks. If you have questions about this, please ask Brendan and Ryan during your free consultation. It is possible that people from other states were also sickened in this outbreak.

The suit was filed on behalf of a woman who contracted a Salmonella infection after eating at the Pappadeaux Seafood Kitchen located at North Black Canyon Highway, Phoenix, Arizona We are also representing several other people who were diagnosed with E.

Our young client is one of 13 people from 9 states sickened in the outbreak: Attorneys Brendan Flaherty and Ryan Osterholm filed a lawsuit against Chipotle for a client who was part of an outbreak in October and November of that sickened over Casino siderophores salmonella food poisoning people in Washington and over 10 in Oregon.

  • Salmonella is one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the United States. Salmonellosis, the illness caused by Salmonella infection, is characterized by symptoms of abdominal cramping, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea.
  • If you suspect that you or your child have salmonella or any other type of food poisoning from eating takeaway or restaurant food, you should report this to your local Environmental Health Office. This is so that the business can be investigated by environmental health.
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In September ofseventeen Chipotle restaurants in Minnesota were associated with Salmonella Newport, according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Locations involved to date are the following: Attorneys Ryan Osterholm and Brendan Flaherty filed a lawsuit against Red Lobster on September 7,on behalf of a child who allegedly ate at the restaurant located in Oakdale, Minnesota, and then was diagnosed with a Salmonella Poona infection.

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The firm also has other clients sickened in the nationwide outbreak, which prompted a cucumber recall. Read about the first Red Lobster lawsuit filed for tainted cucumbers. An outbreak of E. At least 15 people were infected in late June and early July, The investigation found evidence that green, whole head cabbage was the source. The Subway in Buena Vista, Colorado was associated with norovirus infections in Chaffee County Public Health was contacted by people claiming illness in November of Inpeople contracted Cyclospora infections after eating at various Olive Garden and Red Lobster locations in Iowa and Nebraska.

How to Treat Salmonella

The salad mix was processed by Taylor Farms de Mexico. Eleven of these tested positive for a genetically indistinguishable strain of Salmonella Enteritidis. Our law firm is representing people sickened in outbreaks linked to restaurants.

Please note that these are individual, not class action, lawsuits. Ask our lawyers about this during your free consultation if Casino siderophores salmonella food poisoning have questions. Our lawyers help people sickened by contaminated food. How Can We Help You? There are three things you will need to prove to win your case: You were diagnosed with food poisoning; You ate food from the restaurant or contracted the illness from another person who ate there; Your illness caused you quantifiable harm.

Getting a Diagnosis of Food Poisoning The first thing you need to do to protect your legal rights is make sure your stool sample has been tested to determine the specific pathogen that made you sick, for example, E. A Lawsuit Can Lead to a Faster Settlement Filing a restaurant lawsuit tells the company that owns the restaurant that you mean business and that you have sufficient evidence to prove your personal injury or wrongful death claim.

If You Sue the Restaurant, Our Lawyers Can Get Access to Relevant Information Once our lawyers file a suit on your behalf, they can take legal steps to obtain relevant corporate and health department documents. You Can Be a Voice for Food Safety You may have an opportunity to be on television news programs or interviewed by newspaper reporters.

If More Than 2 People Got Food Poisoning from the Restaurant, You May be Part of an Outbreak If you and at least one other unrelated person got food poisoning after eating at the same restaurant, you may be part of a food poisoning outbreak linked to that restaurant.

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Without a lawsuit, we cannot force them to share any information. The salmonella bacterium lives in the intestines of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.

Your local health department may let you know if you are part of an outbreak. The following are some of the pathogens that can contaminate food and cause illness or wrongful death: Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. Read about her case. Use the form below to contact our law firm and request a free consultation with a lawyer.

Submitting this form does not create an attorney-client relationship. Outbreaks and Lawsuits Damsy Restaurant E. Cucumbers at Red Lobster Attorneys Ryan Osterholm and Brendan Flaherty filed a lawsuit against Red Lobster on September 7,on behalf of a child who allegedly ate at the restaurant located in Oakdale, Minnesota, and then was diagnosed with a Salmonella Poona infection.

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  1. 8 May Certain bacteria in the group Salmonella cause salmonella food poisoning. These bacteria live in the intestines of humans and animals. Human infection results when food or water that has been contaminated with infected feces is ingested. A gastrointestinal salmonella infection usually affects the small.:
    A total of household heads or proxies ( interventions and non interventions were interviewed and data on number of cases of diarrhea, cholera A comparative study assaying commonly used sanitizers for antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria and a Salmonella Typhimurium strain on fresh produce. Multidrug resistant Shigella and Salmonella species was also an important observation made. However parasitic and viral (rota virus associated diarrhea did not exceed the bacterial causes. Conclusions: New pathogens have emerged as causative organisms of diarrhoa. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to drug. 9 Dec Salmonella vaccine candidates with deletions in adenylate cy- clase (cya) and cAMP receptor protein (crp) genes have received some attention. of CVD -htrA have been well tolerated, with only one case of fever and three cases of diarrhea in 36 subjects following high doses of the vaccines [40].
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    Mitchell, D.K.; Monroe, S.S.; Jiang, X.; Matson, D.O.; Glass, R.I.; Pickering, L.K., Virologic features of an astrovirus diarrhea outbreak in a day care center .. Coynault, C.; Robbe-Saule, V.; Norel, F., Virulence and vaccine potential of Salmonella typhimurium mutants deficient in the expression of the RpoS (Er-S). sialoproteins sialyllactosylceramide sialyloligosaccharide sialyloligosaccharide siderochromes siderophilin siderophore siderophores silenan silicon silicon dialysance dialysance dialysance diarrhea difficulty difficulty dipping dipping disabilities disabilities disability disability disability disability disability disability. At DBT, he headed several divisions including Bioresources, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Environmental Biotechnology, Food Biotechnology, Aquaculture S. cumini have shown antibacterial activities against various pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus subtillus, Salmonella typhimurium, diarioimagen.info, Salmonella entric.
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The International Year of Sanitation provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals.

Community- led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply- led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

Sanitation investments in Ghana. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district The status of being a stranger i. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook. This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration FDA food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees.

The handbook is divided…. Ghana - Water and Sanitation. Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification Sanitation system for Madrid. The Full Sanitation Plan for Madrid is the final action of a series undertaken for several years with the purpose to reach the completion of the sanitation system of the town. With the whole of these actions it could be said that the basic substructure has acquired enough level to deserve de real needs of the town.

Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success. The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid under artificial lighting were investigated.

Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of.

Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment.

In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development. Small scale sanitation technologies. Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures.

Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems.

Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies.

Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas. Full Text Available While sanitation is fundamental for health and wellbeing, cities of all sizes face growing challenges in providing safe, affordable and functional sanitation systems that are also sustainable.

Factors such as limited political will, inadequate technical, financial and institutional capacities and failure to integrate safe sanitation systems into broader urban development have led to a persistence of unsustainable systems and missed opportunities to tackle overlapping and interacting urban challenges. This paper reviews challenges associated with providing sanitation systems in urban areas and explores ways to promote sustainable sanitation in cities.

It focuses on opportunities to stimulate sustainable sanitation approaches from a resource recovery perspective, generating added value to society while protecting human and ecosystem health. We show how, if integrated within urban development, sustainable sanitation has great potential to catalyse action and contribute to multiple sustainable development goals.

Sanitation in informal settlements. The paper illustrates and compares the failures of technocratic design which turned into unused and dangerous Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success.

This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the population that has gained access to sanitation since Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples p values 0.

This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population.

The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: Since , the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the.

Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. A total of studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma User perceptions and acceptance.

Full Text Available and the communication of good sanitation , hygiene and related practices. Safe sanitation , which includes ventilated improved pit VIP toilets, ecological sanitation such as urine diversion toilets , pour-flush and flush toilets, is about offering people dignity Without it, people mostly children suffer from incidence of disease and death, women and children remain at risk of attacks, school days and work days are lost to the economy, and the environment is increasingly polluted with human waste Van Produce Sanitation System Evaluation.

Microbiologists from CFD performed Sanitation planning in developing countries. Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater.

This study shows that. This study shows that res. Lack of sanitation and poor hygiene behavior cause a tremendous disease burden among the poor. This paper evaluates the impact of the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project in Indonesia, where about 11 percent of children have diarrhea in any two-week period and more than 33, children die each year from diarrhea. The evaluation utilizes a randomized controlled trial but is un Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.

Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use.

The following fingermark detection methods were applied: Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality.

The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers , however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder.

Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks.

The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers , benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

El Salvador - Water and Sanitation. Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate.

A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes.

A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light.

The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index CRI of at least about Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets.

The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation -and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation , so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part To aid in the maintenance of healthy flocks, the following procedures should Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography.

All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices.

Research has shown that sanitizers and how Spectroradiometry for LED characterization. Radiospectroscopy is the absolute measurement of electromagnetic radiation within a specific wavelength range. For characterization of LED components, light sources and lamps we are interested in absolute measurement of the spectral power distribution, SPD, in the visible and near infrared region From these, both total radiant and luminous flux is determined and through electrical power measurement also the efficiency is determined.

Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation. Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for….

This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate.

Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C 1. These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets.

In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments. Full Text Available Problem statement: Sanitation is a critical step to insure safety of fresh-cut produce. The inadequacies of chlorine, currently used as a sanitizer , have stimulated interest in finding safer, more effective sanitizers , however little is known on the impact of these novel sanitizers on sensory and nutrimental quality of the treated products.

The effect of four sanitizers: All sanitizers except carvacrol maintained microbiological and overall quality of jalapeno peppers during 27 days. ASC and mg L-1 maintained the best microbiological and sensorial properties at the end of the storage period. Carvacrol, active ingredient of oregano essential oil, maintained shelf life for only 17 days.

Total phenols and antioxidant capacity decreased in a lesser degree. None of the treatments except ACS mg L-1, induced higher losses of vitamin C, total phenols or antioxidant capacity compared to control.

Our results showed that all sanitizers were capable of controlling microbial growth without inducing major loss of antioxidant capacity and photochemical. Carvacrol was the only sanitizer that reduced sensory acceptability of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers, however carvacrol treated samples retained the highest levels of photochemical and antioxidant capacity.

ASC was the most effective sanitizer even though it was used at concentrations lower that those currently approved by the FDA. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant P total bacterial count from 3.

Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production. Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu.

Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy.

This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area.

It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school.

At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community.

In this regard, Public Private Dialogue PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved. An Integrated Approach towards Sanitation. Full Text Available There are at least 2. Improved sanitation is defined by WHO as connection to a Public sewer, connection to a septic system, a pour-flush latrine, a simple or ventilated pit latrine.

Most of this 2. But technically even access to improved sanitation does not solve the problem, a spit latrines which serve about 2. Also, septic systems and sewerage treatment plant often discharge in to the overloading and eutrophication. The need to close the loop on nutrients indicates that a paradigm shift towards sustainable sanitation is necessary environment with little or no sanitization or nutrient removal, polluting the ground water table streams, lake sand coastal zones, helping to perpetuate the cycle of human disease and upsetting fragile aquatic ecosystems by nutrient.

The health risks associated with the current state of sanitation in the world require immediate action. Thus in present scenario huge amount of water and piping coverage is required and inspite of all these things the operational and maintenance cost are also high. This traditional British flush sanitation system has created havoc. Ample amount of NPK which is readily available in absorbable form by plants is wasted down the drain.

Due to ever expansion of urban areas are getting far away which is increasing the cost of conveyance of sewage. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge. In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scal. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation.

Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater black water and th. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC. Interior 1 false Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation , and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some….

The following are prohibited: Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: Access to improved sanitation is a key preventive measure against sanitary-related gastro-enteric diseases such as diarrhoea. We assessed the access to sanitation facilities and users' satisfaction in 50 randomly selected slums of Kampala through a cross-sectional survey conducted in A total of household respondents were interviewed.

More than half of the respondents Determinants for satisfaction with the facilities used included the nature and type of toilet facilities used, their cleanliness, and the number of families sharing them. The study findings showed that slum dwellers had high access to sanitation facilities. However, most of them were shared and majority of the respondents were not satisfied with their facilities, primarily due to cleanliness and over demand.

Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras. There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions access to latrines, improved sanitation , improved water and the plastic biosand filter on the levels of total coliforms and E.

The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home.

In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks. The effects of improved sanitation on diarrheal prevalence, incidence, and duration in children under five in the SNNPR State, Ethiopia: Informed consent from households will be obtained from the mother or caregiver in written form.

To our knowledge, this is the second study to assess the effects of improved latrines on child diarrheal reduction through the application of Community- Led Total Sanitation. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure SSOP that addresses Each processor should have and implement a written sanitation Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention low and absolute , attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of surveys were collected.

Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers , indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers , they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes.

A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in clusters from Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories.

The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation.

The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.

There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of.

Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non- sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs.

Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam A comparative study assaying commonly used sanitizers for antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria and a Salmonella Typhimurium strain on fresh produce.

With increased concerns over failures in vegetable and fruit sanitation , evaluating the efficacy of widely approved chemicals is ever more important. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sanitation treatments are equally effective against indicator bacteria and human enteric pathogens on cucumber and parsley.

We provide here an experimental overview on the efficacy of common sanitation methods, which are based on peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, and the quaternary ammonium compound didecyldimethylammonium chloride. The sanitizers were tested for their activity against natural populations of total aerobic microorganisms, enterococci, and coliforms, and against the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC which was added artificially.

Results revealed that compared with washing parsley and cucumbers with water, treatments with all three sanitizers were not effective, resulting in a maximal reduction of only 0. These sanitizers were also not effective in removal of natural bacteria from parsley maximal reduction was 0. Sanitation of cucumber was more successful; peracetic acid showed the most effective result, with a reduction of 2.

Still, removal of natural bacteria from cucumbers proved more efficient than the removal of Salmonella Typhimurium. This may create a debate about the necessity of the sanitation and its contribution to safety, because sanitation of some contaminated vegetables may result in an increased likelihood of foods that, although they are given good hygienic ratings due to low microbial counts, harbor pathogens.

User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa. Duncker, South Africa Briefing Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon. The companies present in the quarters discharge their wastewater in the drains. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature. The paper describes how four conceptual sanitation solutions for dry toilets solving problems with smell, cleaning and flies can be made in collaboration between a design engineer and a biologist using biomimetic design Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries.

Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systematic LEDs for greenhouse lighting. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and. Except as provided in paragraph b of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part Health, sanitation , and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled LED 's vervangen balletje.

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Met de hier beschreven LED -roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te. Trash and organic waste matter Additionally, the aqueous solution may contain Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS.

A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS was implemented in Denmark in The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to to The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment.

In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context.

The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation. Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being.

And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world. Activities in water supply and sanitation. The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific ESCAP held a regional workshop in Thailand in to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive.

In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels.

In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

Full Text Available AbstrakSanitasi yang buruk dapat menjadi media transmisi agen penyakit berbasis lingkungan. Salah satu program puskesmas yang menelaah penyakit berbasis lingkungan adalah klinik sanitasi. Bukittinggi sudah menjalankan klinik sanitasi sejak tahun Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran pelaksanaan program klinik sanitasi puskesmas di Kota Bukittinggi.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif. Sampel diambil seluruhnya total sampling, yaitu tujuh puskesmas di Bukittinggi dari September sampai Oktober Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner, dari tujuh puskesmas, seluruh petugas telah memiliki pendidikan yang baik, dua petugas telah mendapatkan pelatihan klinik sanitasi, satu puskesmas memiliki ruangan khusus klinik sanitasi, enam puskesmas memiliki poster dan leaflet, tiga puskesmas memiliki dana khusus, dan enam puskesmas memiliki seluruh buku pedoman.

Berdasarkan data sekunder, jumlah penyakit berbasis lingkungan bervariasi dan fluktuatif dan jumlah klien yang datang masih sedikit dan jauh dari harapan. Penelitian ini menilai empat kegiatan klinik sanitasi, yaitu kunjungan ke rumah warga, kerjasama lintas program, kerjasama lintas sektor, dan evaluasi.

Jumlah kunjungan ke rumah warga masih kurang dari harapan, kerjasama lintas program klinik sanitasi sudah berjalan di seluruh puskesmas, kerjasama lintas sektor sudah berjalan hampir di seluruh puskesmas, dan evaluasi sudah berjalan dengan jangka waktu yang bervariasi. This program has been running in Bukittinggi since Child mortality inequalities and linkage with sanitation facilities in Bangladesh.

Principal component analysis PCA was applied to assets and other household data, collected as part of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey BDHS in , to rank individuals according to a household socioeconomic index and to investigate whether this predicts access to the sanitation system or outcomes.

PCA was used for determining wealth indices for 11, women in 10, households in Bangladesh. The index was based on the presence or absence of items from a list of 13 specific household assets and three housing characteristics.

Ownership of assets and housing features contributed almost equally to the variance in the first component. In this study, ownership of latrines was examined as an example of sanitation -intervention access, and rates of mortality of neonates, infant, and children aged less than five years under-five mortality as examples of health outcomes.

The analysis demonstrated significant gradients in both access and outcome measures across the wealth quintiles. The findings call for more attention to approaches for reducing health inequalities. These could include reforms in the health sector to provide more equitable allocation of resources, improvement in the quality of health services offered to the poor, and redesigning interventions and their delivery to ensure that they are more pro-poor.

Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning. Building capacity for water, sanitation , and hygiene programming: Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation , and hygiene WaSH policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor.

We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community- led total sanitation CLTS management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September to May Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training.

We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills.

The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work.

Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes.

Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. School environment and sanitation in rural India. Full Text Available Context: A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices.

To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools.

A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study.

Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation. Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation , new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies.

An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation , renewable energy.

Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned.

TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms.

It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

Large area LED package. Solid state lighting using LED -dies is a rapidly growing market. LED -dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. The handling with such small LED -dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment.

Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED -dies which is necessary for wire bonding.

It has been shown that hundred functional LED -dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED -dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements.

Bhojpuri Media at a Crossroads. Full Text Available This article offers perspectives on those who control the Bhojpuri media industry in Mumbai, India, and delimit what is to be shown. Bhojpuri is a dialect of Hindi spoken in parts of the north Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The influx of migrants from these regions to different parts of India has led to a resurgence of interest in the Bhojpuri media, and has drawn fly-by-night operators to the industry. The article examines the issues that plague the industry, and explores the ways in which the industry is struggling to carve a sanitized , yet distinctive identity.

Bhojpuri; media industry; ribald; sanitized ; migrants. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums. Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment.

Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal MDG 7; ensuring environmental sustainability.

This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting.

Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. Modeling LED street lighting. LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street.

The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position pole height and arm length , luminary angle fixture tilt , and the angular intensity profile radiation pattern of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G. Describes an activity comparing incandescent bulbs and LEDs powered by dc and ac voltage sources to illustrate properties of matter and the interactions of energy and matter.

Includes both instructor information and student activity sheet. Circuit LED Board design and software development will be discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming. An Evaluation of Census Content. Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals MDGs , new international development agenda covering water, sanitation and hygiene WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress.

This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability.

In total , censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post indicators of WASH targets.

The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post monitoring.

Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals MDGs, new international development agenda covering water, sanitation and hygiene WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions.

In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms FC entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution.

In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority.

Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes LEDs a source that releases long wavelengths of light to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot.

The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch.

The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser.

This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth. The field of semiconducting polymers has its root in the discovery of the semiconducting properties of polyacetylene1. Other review articles capture how more than two decades of developments in the physical and chemical understanding of these novel materials has led to new device applications as active and passive electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from diodes and transistors to polymer LEDs , photodiodes, lasers, and solar cells6— Much interest in plastic devices derives from the opportunities to use clever control of polymer structure combined with relatively economical polymer synthesis and processing techniques to obtain simultaneous control over electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical features5.

Symptoms of Salmonella infection, or Salmonellosis, range widely, and are sometimes absent altogether. The most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Typical Symptoms of Salmonella infection: Appear 6 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food and last for 3 to 7 days without treatment.

Symptoms of typhoid fever appear between 8 and 14 days after eating contaminated food and last anywhere from 3 to 60 days. They include a fever of F, weakness, lethargy, abdominal pain, coughing, nosebleeds, delirium, and enlarged organs.

Typhoid fever is a serious illness that can result in death. Complications of Salmonella poisoning are more likely to occur among young children and people age 65 or older. Reactive arthritis is thought to occur in 2 to 15 percent of Salmonella patients. Symptoms include inflammation of the joints, eyes, or reproductive or urinary organs.

On average, symptoms appear 18 days after infection. A focal infection occurs when Salmonella bacteria takes root in body tissue and causes illnesses such as arthritis or endocartitis. It is caused by typhoidal Salmonella only. Salmonella infections generally last 3 to 7 days, and often do not require treatment. People with severe dehydration may need rehydration through an IV.

Antibiotics are recommended for those at risk of invasive disease, including infants under three months old. Typhoid fever is treated with a day course of antibiotics. Unfortunately, treatment of Salmonella has become more difficult as it has become more resistant to antibiotics. Finding the right antibiotic for a case of Salmonella is crucial to treating this bacterial infection.

The site provides extensive information about sources of Salmonella outbreaks.

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One strategy to overcome this prob- lem involves the use of in vivo-inducible promoters Figure Addition- ally, problems associated with unstable expression of heterologous antigens may be encountered, par- ticularly when the vaccine carriers are used in vivo. To address the instability of heterologous antigen- encoding plasmids within the bacterial cells, sys- tems have been developed to allow the heterolo- gous antigen-encoding DNA to be incorporated in the chromosome of the bacterial carrier [77,78].

However, using this approach, antigen will be ex- pressed from only a single copy of the foreign gene, compared to multiple copies of the gene present in vaccine carriers harboring a multicopy expres- sion plasmid. This may result in low expression of the antigen and, as a result, poor immuno- genicity.

Thus, approaches to solve the instability and segregational loss of the multicopy antigen- encoding plasmids are being sought, including P1: Antigen Engineering balanced-lethal [79—82], post-segregational killing [83], and operator-repressor titration systems [84].

Since both antibody and cellular im- mune responses may be elicited against antigens that are expressed on the surfaces of carrier strains, studies have focused on directing antigens that are normally expressed in the cytoplasm onto the cell surface. Typically this is achieved by inserting pep- tides derived from the protein of interest into per- missive sites in the periplasmic binding protein, MalE [85], or outer membrane proteins such as OmpA [86] or LamB [85] Figure Addition- ally, the secretion of proteins from Salmonella Fig- ure The secretion of heterol- ogous antigens from Salmonella vaccine strains has been achieved, for example, using the type III se- cretion system of Salmonella [88] or the E.

Thus it ap- pears that cell-surface expression is not a prereq- uisite for induction of both cellular and humoral immunity against heterologous antigens, although it is possible that some naturally secreted anti- gens may require cell-surface expression in order to fold correctly and to adopt a conformation that is immunogenic.

The immunogenicity of antigens expressed from vaccine carriers may also be improved by fusion to proven carrier antigens, such as TetC. For example, expression in Salmonella of the Schistosoma mansoni [90] or Schistosoma haematobium [91] 28 kDa glu- tathione S-transferases as fusions to TetC enhanced their immunogenicity.

It is thought that TetC pro- motes the immune response against fused antigens by providing additional T-cell helper epitopes. In other studies, Streptococcus sobrinus antigens [92] or the E. LT-B and CT-B, the cholera toxin B subunit, are well-known non- toxic adjuvants containing structural features that provide adjuvant and immunogenic stimulation in the intestinal mucosa. Similarly, it may also be pos- sible to modulate the immune response generated against heterologous antigens expressed by carriers by the co-expression or fusion to cytokines.

The value of such technical approaches to im- prove vaccines remains to be proved in clinical tri- als. To date a limited number of recombinant live vector vaccines have been evaluated in clinical tri- als.

The lack of immunogenicity of recombinant vaccines based on the licensed Salmonella vaccine strain Ty21a is likely due to high attenuation by multiple mutations in the strain. Disappointingly, recombinant vaccines based on more immunogenic strains such as CVD and CVDhtrA are also relatively ineffective, demonstrating the technical challenge in achieving the correct balance between antigen expression and immunogenicity, in addi- tion to the correct level of attenuation of the carrier strain.

Conclusions Live attenuated mutants of bacteria continue to be used widely as vaccines against a range of diseases. However, the genetic basis of attenuation of some of these vaccines is not known, and some are not considered to be safe for use in immunocompro- mised hosts. Rationally attenuated mutants, cre- ated by deleting one or more genes required for the growth of bacteria in vivo, have been exten- sively investigated over the past two decades.

These mutants fall broadly into two groups: Most of the pi- oneering work with these mutants has been car- ried out in S.

Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines to devise rationally attenuated mutants of other pathogens. It is clear from studies in S. In spite of the intensive research to develop ra- tionally attenuated vaccines, and the large body of information on the testing of these mutants in an- imal models of disease, none of these rationally at- tenuated mutants is currently licensed for use in humans.

In spite of these challenges, live attenuated bac- terial vaccines offer a number of important advan- tages over killed or subunit vaccines. They are often single-dose vaccines, and many can be given non- invasively. More importantly, live vaccines have the potential to induce a wide range of immune responses ranging from the induction of mucosal antibody to the stimulation of cytotoxic T-cells. In addition, live vaccines can be used to deliver het- erologous antigens, allowing multivalent vaccines to be devised.

Collectively, these advantages high- light the reasons for continuing to develop live vac- cines against a range of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. Elsevier Saunders, Oxford, , pp. Isolation and characterization of Gal E mutant Ty 21a of Salmonella typhi: J Infect Dis ; A galE via Vi antigen-negative mutant of Salmonella typhi Ty2 retains virulence in humans.

Infect Immun ; Atten- uated typhoid vaccine Salmonella typhi Ty21a: Vaccine ;17 Suppl 2: Meta- analysis of the published literature. Past and present trends. J Infect Dis ;, S13— Mutation rate to non-pigmentation in Pasturella pestis.

Adv Biotech- nol Processes ; The use of live vaccination for vac- cination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR. Bull World Health Organ ; Immu- nization with viable Brucella organisms. Results of a safety test in humans. Bull World Health Organ ; Aerosol infection of man with Pas- teurella tularensis. Aerogenic immunization of the monkey and the guinea pig with live tularemia vaccine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med ; Host-parasite relationship in monkeys vaccinated intracutaneously or aerogeni- cally.

Aerogenic immuniza- tion of man with live tularemia vaccine. Aerosol-, but not intradermal-immunization with the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis protects mice against subsequent aerosol challenge with a highly virulent type A strain of the pathogen by an alphabeta T cell- and interferon gamma-dependent mechanism.

Intranasal vac- cination induces protective immunity against in- tranasal infection with virulent Francisella tularensis biovar A. Clin Microbiol Rev ; Aromatic-dependent Salmonella typhimurium are non-virulent and effec- tive as live vaccines. Auxotrophic Salmonella typhi as live vac- cine. Neis- seria gonorrhoeae strain MS11 harbouring a mutation in gene aroA is attenuated and immunogenic. Molecular analysis of the aroA gene of Pasteurella multocida and vaccine potential of a constructed aroA mutant.

Characteri- zation of aromatic- and purine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium: Infect Im- mun ; Construction and characterization of vaccine strains of Salmonella harboring mutations in two different aro genes. J In- fect Dis ; Clin- ical acceptability and immunogenicity of CVD Salmonella typhi vaccine strain. Evalua- tion in volunteers of a candidate live oral attenuated Salmonella typhi vector vaccine. J Clin Invest ; Safety of live oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strains with dele- tions in htrA and aroC aroD and immune response in humans.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; A Yersinia pestis guaBA mutant is attenuated in virulence and provides protection against plague in a mouse model of infection.

Microb Pathog ;48 5: The growth of purine mutants of Bacillus anthracis in the body of the mouse. J Gen Microbiol ; Dele- tion of purE attenuates Brucella melitensis infection in mice. A Fran- cisella tularensis subspecies novicida purF mutant, but not a purA mutant, induces protective immunity to tularemia in mice. Characteriza- tion of rationally attenuated Francisella tularensis vac- cine strains that harbor deletions in the guaA and guaB genes.

Effect of different purine auxotrophic mutations on mouse-virulence of a Vi-positive strain of Salmonella dublin and of two strains of Salmonella typhimurium.

Except as provided in paragraph b of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part Health, sanitation , and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled LED 's vervangen balletje.

Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED -roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te beoef.

Met de hier beschreven LED -roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te. Trash and organic waste matter Additionally, the aqueous solution may contain Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS.

A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS was implemented in Denmark in The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to to The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment.

In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context.

The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation. Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being. And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world. Activities in water supply and sanitation. The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific ESCAP held a regional workshop in Thailand in to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive.

In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels.

In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

Full Text Available AbstrakSanitasi yang buruk dapat menjadi media transmisi agen penyakit berbasis lingkungan. Salah satu program puskesmas yang menelaah penyakit berbasis lingkungan adalah klinik sanitasi. Bukittinggi sudah menjalankan klinik sanitasi sejak tahun Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran pelaksanaan program klinik sanitasi puskesmas di Kota Bukittinggi.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif. Sampel diambil seluruhnya total sampling, yaitu tujuh puskesmas di Bukittinggi dari September sampai Oktober Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner, dari tujuh puskesmas, seluruh petugas telah memiliki pendidikan yang baik, dua petugas telah mendapatkan pelatihan klinik sanitasi, satu puskesmas memiliki ruangan khusus klinik sanitasi, enam puskesmas memiliki poster dan leaflet, tiga puskesmas memiliki dana khusus, dan enam puskesmas memiliki seluruh buku pedoman.

Berdasarkan data sekunder, jumlah penyakit berbasis lingkungan bervariasi dan fluktuatif dan jumlah klien yang datang masih sedikit dan jauh dari harapan.

Penelitian ini menilai empat kegiatan klinik sanitasi, yaitu kunjungan ke rumah warga, kerjasama lintas program, kerjasama lintas sektor, dan evaluasi. Jumlah kunjungan ke rumah warga masih kurang dari harapan, kerjasama lintas program klinik sanitasi sudah berjalan di seluruh puskesmas, kerjasama lintas sektor sudah berjalan hampir di seluruh puskesmas, dan evaluasi sudah berjalan dengan jangka waktu yang bervariasi.

This program has been running in Bukittinggi since Child mortality inequalities and linkage with sanitation facilities in Bangladesh. Principal component analysis PCA was applied to assets and other household data, collected as part of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey BDHS in , to rank individuals according to a household socioeconomic index and to investigate whether this predicts access to the sanitation system or outcomes. PCA was used for determining wealth indices for 11, women in 10, households in Bangladesh.

The index was based on the presence or absence of items from a list of 13 specific household assets and three housing characteristics. Ownership of assets and housing features contributed almost equally to the variance in the first component. In this study, ownership of latrines was examined as an example of sanitation -intervention access, and rates of mortality of neonates, infant, and children aged less than five years under-five mortality as examples of health outcomes.

The analysis demonstrated significant gradients in both access and outcome measures across the wealth quintiles. The findings call for more attention to approaches for reducing health inequalities.

These could include reforms in the health sector to provide more equitable allocation of resources, improvement in the quality of health services offered to the poor, and redesigning interventions and their delivery to ensure that they are more pro-poor.

Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning. Building capacity for water, sanitation , and hygiene programming: Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation , and hygiene WaSH policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor.

We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community- led total sanitation CLTS management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September to May Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework.

The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work.

Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.. School environment and sanitation in rural India. Full Text Available Context: A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices.

To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study.

Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation.

Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation , new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation , renewable energy.

Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting.

Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms.

It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

Large area LED package. Solid state lighting using LED -dies is a rapidly growing market. LED -dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies.

The handling with such small LED -dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED -dies which is necessary for wire bonding.

It has been shown that hundred functional LED -dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED -dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements.

Bhojpuri Media at a Crossroads. Full Text Available This article offers perspectives on those who control the Bhojpuri media industry in Mumbai, India, and delimit what is to be shown. Bhojpuri is a dialect of Hindi spoken in parts of the north Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The influx of migrants from these regions to different parts of India has led to a resurgence of interest in the Bhojpuri media, and has drawn fly-by-night operators to the industry.

The article examines the issues that plague the industry, and explores the ways in which the industry is struggling to carve a sanitized , yet distinctive identity. Bhojpuri; media industry; ribald; sanitized ; migrants. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums. Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment.

Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation.

New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal MDG 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting.

Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. Modeling LED street lighting. LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street.

The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position pole height and arm length , luminary angle fixture tilt , and the angular intensity profile radiation pattern of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G. Describes an activity comparing incandescent bulbs and LEDs powered by dc and ac voltage sources to illustrate properties of matter and the interactions of energy and matter.

Includes both instructor information and student activity sheet. Circuit LED Board design and software development will be discussed.

The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming. An Evaluation of Census Content.

Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals MDGs , new international development agenda covering water, sanitation and hygiene WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability.

In total , censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content.

This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post monitoring. Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals MDGs, new international development agenda covering water, sanitation and hygiene WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress.

Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China. Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms FC entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution.

In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations.

The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes LEDs a source that releases long wavelengths of light to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs.

Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot.

The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser.

This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth. The field of semiconducting polymers has its root in the discovery of the semiconducting properties of polyacetylene1. Other review articles capture how more than two decades of developments in the physical and chemical understanding of these novel materials has led to new device applications as active and passive electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from diodes and transistors to polymer LEDs , photodiodes, lasers, and solar cells6— Much interest in plastic devices derives from the opportunities to use clever control of polymer structure combined with relatively economical polymer synthesis and processing techniques to obtain simultaneous control over electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical features5.

This article focuses on the advances leading to polymer LEDs 12— This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology.

In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi.

Sanitation in the time of cholera. Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions.

Indeed every year million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1. The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between and A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in is included. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific ex.

Alternative sanitizers to chlorine for use on fresh-cut "Galia" Cucumis melo var. Chlorine is commonly used to reduce microbial load in fresh-cut vegetables. However, the production of chlorinated organic compounds, such as trihalomethanes, which are potential carcinogens, has created the need to investigate the efficiency of nontraditional sanitizers and alternative techniques.

The effects of 4 novel sanitizers were tested in fresh-cut "Galia" melon: Pieces of melon were packed in polypropylene trays under passive modified atmosphere 3 to 4 kPa of O 2 and 10 to 11 kPa of CO 2 and stored up to 10 d at 5 degrees C.

Microbial growth, firmness, respiration rate, gas composition, sensory evaluation, color, total soluble solids TSS , and tritable acidity TA were evaluated at days 0, 7, and The sensorial parameters were kept above the upper limit of marketability and they did not impart an "off flavor. Nevertheless, other concentrations, in particular for ClO 2, could be tested to study an extended shelf life in melon pieces. Sanitation technology demonstration will play an important role in assisting stakeholders in decision- making processes with regards to sanitation options and general design issues related to sustainable human settlements.

The Centre will present sanitation technology providers and users an open process to understanding comparable and accessible sanitation technologies with assistance of the personnel on site. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene WSH services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose.

Findings All hospitals percent had a safe water source and most All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals.

Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste.

Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.

Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. Dutch Elm Disease Control: Intensive Sanitation and Survey Economics.

Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season.

The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more Inspection shall not be inaugurated if Hygiene, sanitation , and water: Full Text Available In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation , Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation , and water for all.

Thermal management for LED applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs , thermal characterization and testing of LEDs , and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs thermal interface materials for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs , and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies.

Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu. This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala Uganda and Kisumu Kenya from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants i. Design of Knight LED system. This design introduces a used car on the design of LED decorative light strip.

Through the microcontroller to implement the wireless remote control receiver and the LED lights of different modes of switching, different brightness control. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes.

The microflora was dominated by Neisseriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria during production. Foam sanitization caused a change The effects of fog sanitization with peroxyacetic acid hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid in combination on general hygiene aerobic plate count and on Listeria monocytogenes were assessed in a slicing area at a salmon smokehouse and compared with the effects of foam sanitization Bacteria were very sensitive to fog sanitization , and yeasts accounted for almost half of the surviving flora Influence of different sanitizers on food contaminant bacteria: Full Text Available The efficiency of four Sanitizers - peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium, and organic acids - was tested in this work using different bacteria recognized as a problem to meat industry, Salmonella sp.

The effects of sanitizer concentration 0. Tests in an industrial plant were also carried out considering previously obtained results. In a general way, peracetic acid presented higher efficiencies using low concentration 0.

The tests performed in industrial scale showed that peracetic acid presented a good performance in concentration and contact time lower than that suggested by the suppliers. The use of chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium led to reasonable results at the indicated conditions, and organic acids were ineffective under concentration and contact time higher than those indicated by the suppliers in relation to Staphylococcus aureus.

The results, in general, show that the choice for the most adequate sanitizer depends on the microorganism contaminant, the time available for sanitizer application, and also on the process cost. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage.

To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. You must assign one or more employees to supervise overall sanitation. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation.

Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation , is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model Qualitative data were also collected in June to complement the findings of the quantitative data from a purposively selected group of women and men Privatization of Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya: Subsequent international conferences related to freshwater Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection.

The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil.

These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in , the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban This study examined the state of sanitation facilities and hygiene behaviour in Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender.

However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations. National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of years, have broad spectrum microbicidal Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities.

This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed.

The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor. Professor at the Post-. Tuesday, March 01, , Venue: Biotechnological Approaches for Metabolite Production: Wednesday, March 02, , Venue: Juniper Hall 6 Tuesday, 1 March , Venue: Products from plants Chairperson Co-chairperson Keynote 1: Dr Murray B Isman Global advances in the development and use of botanical insecticides Ali, Amulya Kumar Panda, and Saima Wajid Anti-diabetic effects of gymnemic acids and gymnemagenin under in vitro and in vivo conditions: A comparative study Mir, Javed Ahamad, Saima Amin Systematic development of a polyherbal combination for the glycemic control in diabetes Products from Microbes Chairperson Co-chairperson Dr Francisca Vicente Microbial natural products as sources for agricultural applications 2: Dr Dinabandhu Sahoo Bio prospecting of plant and microbial resources of North East India for sustainable development 3: Prabu Microbial consortia based biopesticides for sustainable nematode management in horticultural crops Sophiya Devi Lamabam, SR Joshi and Robert Thangjam Exploration of endophytic fungal diversity of ethnomedicinal plant Potentilla fulgens and their usage in silver nanoparticles biosynthesis Vimla Prakash Beyond chemicals: Biotechnological green crop protectants 4: Liess Kristen An eco-metabolomic approach for natural crop protection 5: Dr Michael Jones The application of gene silencing technology to control crop pests Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe and Anil Kush Gene transfer and expression system studies of key santalol pathway genes in sandalwood cell culture system 5: A Biotechnological Perspective Day 2: Wednesday, 2 March , Venue: Mukherjee, Director, Jadavpur University, Kolkata: Dr Suresh Walia Phytochemical Biopesticides: Some Recent Developments Deshmukh Why pharmaceutical industry should work on fungal endophytes?

Pierluigi Caboni Potent nematicidal activity of methanol extracts from Ailanthus altissima and Melia azedarach. Wednesday, March 02, Dr Pulok K. Natesh superannuated in as Senior Adviser Scientist-H. He taught at the University of Delhi for over nine years before moving to the Government of India in He continued his association with academics as a guest faculty at the University of Delhi South Campus for a further period of nine years.

Through his leadership a number of new and novel programmes were successfully launched in the areas of bioresources, human resource development, innovation and entrepreneurship. Just to mention a few: Centres of Excellence and Innovation in Biotechnology, the Digitized inventories of bioresources of India, Quantitative estimates of the plant resources of the Western and Eastern Ghats, four Rural Bioresource Complexes, and five Gene banks for conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants.

Dr Natesh also provided a new direction, leadership and impetus to international collaboration in DBT. He was instrumental in building other robust collaborations in biotechnology with Canada, Finland, Germany, Denmark, and the UK. Dr Natesh also initiated and led the campaign to bring back overseas Indian bioscientists back to India through the Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship programme. Over scientists have returned to India through this programme. Under this programme, scientists at NII actively interact with under-graduate students in colleges across Delhi University.

Dr Natesh has traveled widely and has led several biotech delegations abroad. He also serves on the advisory boards of several institutions, agencies and Ministries. A new plant species, Aponogeton nateshii, has been named in his honour She has been with TERI since For almost three decades, she has been actively involved in tree tissue culture and has developed the technique of in-vitro nodulation for the leguminous tree and has been instrumental in setting up of the modern tissue culture laboratory at the institute.

Dr Dhawan plays an active role in policy development both at the state and national levels and is a task force member for a number of committees of the Department of Biotechnology including those reviewing applications for accreditation of tissue culture laboratories; projects for rural development and climate change and the selection panels of DBT, CSIR, DRDO, etc.

Dr Dhawan is also associated with Michigan State University and since has been offering a distancelearning program on food laws in India. She has a number of awards to her credit including: Dr Dhawan has more than 60 publications including six books to her credit and holds both a Ph.

Currently his main areas of research development of clean technology specially Bioremediation of oil spill sites, Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery, Prevention of paraffin deposition in oil well tubing and flow lines. He is a recipient of many awards viz. He has 8 patents and published 73 research papers in high rated international journals. He is a member of Member, Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact in with food, of the Food Authority of India.

She holds a degree and PhD in Biological Sciences University of the Basque Country Spain and has developed her career in public institutions both in Spain and abroad mainly in the research area of plant physiology, nutrition and water relations both at biochemical and molecular level. We focus our activity on the development and commercialization of advanced and sustainable technologies and products to increase crop yield. We search, envision and develop innovative solutions to global needs of agriculture and environment.

The success of our business model relies on a deep understanding of the agri-food sector needs, thanks to a close collaboration with the industry. Entomology , University of California, Davis, M. Zoology , University of British Columbia, B.

Natural insecticides; Insect toxicology and behavior; Plantnatural products. Discovery and development of botanical insecticides and repellents. Foci of basic research: USA now Kittrich Corp. She has spent over 30 years working on plant-parasitic nematodes, with emphasis in their epidemiology, control and host interactions and with the ultimate goal of understand the fundamental importance of plant-parasitic nematodes in modern agriculture.

In recent times research of Dra Andres focuses on the developing new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage by the optimization and biotechnological production of botanical and fungal biopesticides, which is being carried out into biopesticide group of ICA-CSIC. Their intense activity in this field has allowed them to achieve an international patent She has published more than 50 original research articles in the fields of phytopathology, she is also author or coauthor of several review articles, book chapters, etc and has directed four PhD Thesis.

She is experienced in identifying and managing the economic resources for developing new scientific and technological projects.

She has coordinated and managed national and international research groups. She is a member of various scientific societies and has published many articles and patents in specialized journals and books. Her teaching experience was gained by giving practical and theoretical classes in different masters and university programs.

Dinabandhu Sahoo obtained his M. Subsequently, he undertook two trips to Arctic during and He has visited all the seven continents and five oceans within a record time of 18 months during He participated in many National and International Conferences. In he received the highest award from National Environmental Science Academy, India for his outstanding contribution in the field of Marine Science The award was conferred by Mr.

He had guided 9 Post Doc. She leads a research group focused primarily on the research and development of botanical and fungal biopesticides The Biopesticide group-CSIC.

She has published more than original research articles in the fields of applied phytochemistry. She is also author or coauthor of several review articles, book chapters, etc and has directed seven PhD Thesis. She has spent over 25 years working on the optimization and biotechnological production of biopesticides in national and international projects, resulting in numerous scientific publications, dissertations and patents.

Acquisition and management of research projects. Supervision of a research team of postdocs, PhDs, graduate students and technicians. Thrips resistance in arabidopsis and tomato; Development of an- eco metabolomic approach to study host plant resistance; The role of phenolics in resistance to fungi; Development of in-vivo and in-vitro resistance tests for insects thrips, aphids, leafminer and fungi Phytophtora infestans, P.

Chemical laboratory work and experiments in climate rooms. Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in nectar production and their implications for plant reproduction through pollination. Molecular laboratory work and experiments in climate rooms and a nature reserve.

Field work on ruderal and farm sites. Training of farmers, extension and quarantine officers in phytosantiary measures and pest management. Management of a plant health clinic providing diagnosis and advice on crop pest and disease problems. Implementation of integrated pest management projects in vegetables. Lecturer in crop protection at the Agricultural College.

Advice in plant quarantine matters and liaison with national ministries as well as international universities and organisations.

Implementation of courses with special emphasis on women in agriculture. Compilation of a teaching book on common crop pests and diseases in the Pacific region and their control. Curriculum development of an Agriculture Certificate course. Molecular laboratory work and experiments in climate rooms, greenhouse, ruderal and farm sites.

MSc research project of four month duration on the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in malaria mosquitoes. Wright of Imperial College London. MSc in Crop Production, Bonn University, Germany MSc research project of one year duration on the use of meristem cultures for the production of virus-free plants. My role was on agricultural policy. His research works highlights on traditional medicine inspired drug discovery from Indian traditional medicine.

He has made several innovative and outstanding contributions both in education and research in the area of ethnopharmacology and evidence based validation of herbs used in AYUSH, India. His research publications have cumulative Impact Factor of ; h-Index- 45, iindex - ; which has been cited for over times. His research career has been outstanding, including globally acclaimed contributions on validation of traditional medicine, their formulation and standardization, which are useful bio-prospecting tools for the traditional medicine based drug discovery programme.

He is also associated as advisor to different organizations and administrative bodies of government of India and abroad. For further detail please visit www. Dr Walia has worked extensively on naturally derived agrochemicals such as neem, karanj, mahua, turmeric, Tagetes, Eupatorium; microbials such as Trichoderma and developed technology for their extraction, purification and use in pest control.

His other research contributions included development of technical know-how for the production of Anethum sowa based insecticide synergists technology transferred to Livie Biopesticides Ltd. UK ; azadirachtin and reduced azadirachtin based neem biopesticides knowhow assigned to NRDC and transferred to several companies.

He has also developed technical know-how for production of nutraceuticals such as anthocyanin concentrates from jamun and black carrot, lycopene, concentrate from tomato, capsanthin and capsaicinoid concentrate from chilli, phycocyanin concentrate from Spirulina; natural sweetener steviosides from Stevia; and nutraceutical enriched functional foods and beverages.

Technical know-how for these products has been transferred to industry. Sarkar Memorial Endowment Award Dr Walia has 10 patents, guided 13 Ph. He did his Ph. He has over 28 years of experience in new drug discovery, medicinal chemistry, organic synthesis, chemical biology and glycobiology. He has worked in England, Canada and USA and has over research publications and 40 patents to his credit.

He is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India. Have extensive experience in pesticide research , product development , registration, patenting, marketing and working with farming community. Have designed the pest management modules for rice, sugarcane and vegetables and successfully demonstrated and validated. As an adjunct faculty for TERI-University since , she is guiding students for the doctorate, in the area of bioprospecting. Handled many International and national projects as PI.

Served as Editor of Phytochemistry Reviews. Research on soil analysis and environmental pollution at the Department of Chemical Sciences under the supervision of Prof.

The research project included the development of new analytical methods for the determination of pesticides carried out at the University of Cagliari under the supervision of Prof. Cabras and the study of the toxicology aspects carried out at the University of California at Berkeley under the supervision of Prof. The research activity is focused on drug metabolism and molecular toxicology.

The research activity is focused on food analysis, pesticide and drug metabolism, metabolomics. Cytotoxic tirucallane triterpenoids from Melia azedarach fruits. She joined Department of Science and Technology in as a Scientist-D and has been working towards nurturing Young Scientists and Technologists towards issues of social relevance apart from implementing various location specific programmes of the Department.

Among its activities, the following stand out: Increasing agricultural productivity has been largely facilitated by the use of agrochemicals.

Agrochemicals, defined as the chemicals used in agriculture like pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals, play an important role in intensive agriculture, offering a low cost method for increasing output per hectare of land.

Unfortunately, most of the agrochemicals are synthetic chemical substances and their intensive use entails detrimental effects in the soil, environment and even human health. In this scenario, the agri sector, driven by the social and environmental interest, is increasingly demanding alternative products that help boosting crop productivity while reducing the need for an intensive use of agrochemicals.

Natural products market including biostimulants and biopesticides is in a positive and promising growing phase worldwide. Biostimulants act on plant physiology through different pathways than nutrients to improve crop vigour, yield, quality and post-harvest shelf life.

These products, considered safer than chemical products, offer a natural alternative to agrochemicals for crop productivity enhancement but, due to their more recent presence in the market, there are still market, regulatory and technical hurdles that these products need to overcome. More recently, insecticides based on commodity plant essential oils have seen some success, particular in the USA, whereas plant extracts rich in alkaloids and acetogenins have been introduced into China and India, respectively.

In this paper I will review some recently introduced botanical insecticides from these and other countries. I will focus in part on insecticides based on plant essential oils, showing how major and minor constituents can act synergistically. Advantages of using botanicals and impediments to their commercial development will also be discussed, as will opportunities for their use in organic food production, urban pest management, animal health and vector control.

Endophytes fungi reside inside healthy plant tissues without causing any detectable disease symptoms to the host. These fungi produce biologically active natural products that may be involved in the host-endophyte relationship.

Therefore, these microorganisms represent a biotechnological source of bioactive metabolites. As part of our ongoing study of the endophyte biodiversity of the Canarian Laurel Forest, we have obtained a Guignardia sp isolate from Persea indica, one of the dominant Lauraceae tree species one of the dominant Lauraceae tree species reported as a potential source of insect-control agents.

The endophytic isolate Guignardia sp. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three metabolites inducing high nematicidal effects were obtained. Several in vivo tests of the organic extract from Guignardia sp isolate YCC4 on tomato plants showed strong effects on suppression of J2 infection capacity and reduced the reproduction index of the nematode population. This study demonstrates that secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi are promising sources of new nematicide products.

Based upon our record of identifying drug-like molecules from microorganisms, we offer opportunities to discover neglected and novel scaffolds not available in synthetic libraries.

MEDINA provides the expertise and tools for maximizing the likelihood of success of screenings carried out on the collections. MEDINA offers to the scientific community and industrial partners in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, cosmetics and agrochemical sectors, a unique platform for natural product discovery derived from a highly diverse microbiological arsenal.

Biostimulants are a new category of agricultural chemicals derived from natural sources and applied as seed treatments or foliar applications to improve crop productivity. These natural products can be brought to the market more quickly and with lower regulatory costs than synthetic chemistries.

These new products offer a sustainable, environmentally-friendly means of enhancing crop productivity in broad acre and specialty crops worldwide. The region is one of the mega biodiversity hotspot regions of the world, endowed with rare and endemic flora and fauna. The region also falls in the bio-geographic trijunction and a center of genetic diversity for many domestic crops and medicinal plants.

Being one of the most important hotspot in the world, the region is an active center of evolution of many gene pools. The region being a part of the biodiversity hotspots has enormous potential for exploration and bioprospecting of the untapped indigenous microflora, which could be exploited for various applications such as agricultural and therapeutic importance.

This region is well known for diverse culture and home for more than ethnic people of India. They exist closely with the environment and provided the modern civilization with many herbal medicines, though a large number of medicinal plants, and their folk uses remained endemic to certain tribes of the region The major share of uses is in the form of traditional healing practices and local applications.

In addition there has also been exploitation of few of the resources in an alarmingly high rate and in an unsustainable manner in the past, which include the popularly known plants like Taxus, Chirayata, Homalomena, Agar, Parkia etc. Therefore, it is the right time to scientifically validate the use of some of the unique bioresources of North East India for further uses in economic development through sustainable utilization. These microorganisms represent a biotechnological source of bioactive metabolites.

As part of our ongoing study of the endophyte potential for the development of biotechnological biopesticides , we carried out the screening of endophytes from medicinal plants belonging to the genera Laurus, Mentha, Artemisia and Thymus present in India and Spain. Our study included the endophyte biodiversity isolation and identification of these plants species, the antagonism-based primary selection of isolates for microfermentation and the secondary selection based on their micro-extract activity on selected targets including insect pests, fungal pathogens and root-knot nematodes.

From a total of 11 plant species more than fungal strains were isolated and were selected for microfermentation. In this presentation we will discuss the relative percentage occurrence for each order and the colonization frequency for each fungal species, the antagonistic effects of these isolates against fungal pathogens Fusarium sp. The bio-guided chemical study of a selected strain Aa22 will be presented.

This work has been supported by grant ACI Microbial Endophytes, Marcel Deker Inc. This is especially important due to the rapid spread of agricultural pests worldwide. At the same time international law regulations restrict the use of synthetic pesticides. Therefore, we developed the eco-metabolomic approach to identify candidate compounds related to host plant resistance using NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

We classify resistant and susceptible plants using in-vivo bioassays. Subsequently, we compare their metabolomic profiles by multivariate statistics to identify metabolites involved in host plant resistance. The negative effect of the candidate compounds is validated with in-vitro bioassays. As a proof of principle we used western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis a key pest worldwide.

We applied the approach in different host systems including Senecio as a wild plant, chrysanthemum as an ornamental and tomato and carrot as vegetables. In all systems the metabolomic profiles of resistant and susceptible plants were significantly different leading to a range of different metabolites involved in thrips resistance.

The majority of these compounds were phenylpropanoids and flavanoids. Interestingly, these did not only show a negative effect on thrips, but as anti-oxidants, were also linked to positive human health effects such as prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

As such these compounds do not only contribute to pest control but also to human health improvement. Therefore, our approach is of great relevance for application and implementation in sustainable crop protection programmes. Currently we are busy developing genetic and chemical markers of secondary metabolites to be incorporated in host plant resistance breeding. Besides we investigate the incorporation of secondary plant metabolites into seed treatments and the enhancement of plant secondary metabolite concentrations through the use of elicitors such a phytohormones, UV-light and bacteria.

Two groups of plant pests which contribute to substantial reductions in crop yields are plant parasitic nematodes and aphids — both remove plant cell contents via a mouth stylet, and so are amenable to host-induced gene silencing.

In targeting both nematode and aphid pests the approach we have adopted involves RNA seq and comparative genomics to identify candidate target genes, feeding dsRNA of candidate genes to the pests to screen for those which affect some aspect of viability or reproduction, then to generate transgenic plants expressing dsRNA to the priority pest target genes. The target genes identified can also serve as candidates for development of new chemical control agents, or for ectopic delivery of dsRNA without the need to develop transgenic plants.

Nature is considered as a compendium for templates of new chemical entities NCEs. The medicinal plants mentioned in the ancient texts of different systems of medicines may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the health care. The development of natural products requires the confluence of modern techniques and integrated approaches related to their research in various fields of science through International coordination and cooperation.

Drugs from medicinal plants are widely respected for their unique chemical and biological features, and are gaining global acceptance because they offer natural ways to treat diseases and promote healthcare. Natural products are the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads.

Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species this can offer a promising approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development.

Globalization of traditional medicine TM is necessary for health care with assessment of its safety, efficacy, therapeutic and clinical evidences. Evidence based validation of the ethno pharmacological claims on traditional medicine is the need of the hour for its globalization and promotion.

Several aspects to confluence the strategies for promotion of natural products especially on the Indian context will be discussed. This can be achieved by the scientific exploitation of the established facts from our ancient systems through proper validation of the claims based on pharmacological and phytochemical assessments.

Conventional synthetic pesticides are highly toxic, display long environmental half-lives and are known to adversely affect non-target organisms and the environment. The increasing incidence of resistance in insect pests has further aggravated the problem. Such pressures have accelerated the search for natural pest control chemicals that are ecologically sound and relatively safe to humans. Phytochemical biopesticides are one category of such minimum risk pesticides that fit well into integrated pest management IPM strategies.

Some well known plants and botanicals like pyrethrins, nicotine, rotenone, rocaglamides, annonins, veratrum, azadirachtins etc. Phytochemical biopesticides are in general moderately active and are short-lived in the environment. Natural stabilizers and insecticide synergists have been employed to prolong their shelf life and improve activity. Some essential oil bearing plants, natural waxes, polyols and policosanols have also been investigated for their pest control and plant growth stimulant activity.

Nanotechnological interventions and chemical modification of lead molecules azadirachtin, karanjin, dilapiole, methyl ketones, monoterpenes has yielded compounds with enhanced pest control properties. Some of the products and technologies have been transferred to industry through NRDC for commercialization. In this presentation, chemistry and potential of some of the environmentally benign phytochemical biopesticides developed at IARI will be discussed.

A number of life-saving drugs in current use in other therapeutic areas are also natural products derived or inspired e. Besides being remarkably rich source of drugs, many privileged natural products e.

Among the primary sources for the natural products include medicinal plants, fungi, bacteria and marine species. However, much of the Indian biodiversity terrestrial and marine remain unexplored with greater opportunities for biotechnological interventions directed biosynthesis and pathway engineering and new drug discovery. This presentation will discuss some of these natural products from medicinal plants and microbes. Such increase in the popularity of herbal products is also associated with the problems of adulteration, safety and efficacy issues.

Review of literature of over last decade reveals that HPLC and hyphenated techniques are the most widely used techniques for the quality contol of medicinal plants. Different HPLC methods have been developed for quality control evaluation process of herbal medicines. The level of methods varies from simple qualitative comparison of HPLC chromatograms with the available standards of marker compounds to the complex quantitative generation and interpretation of data obtained by advanced hyphenated HPLC methods.

These techniques not only gives a better fingerprint picture but smartly spells out each and every components in either the raw materials or in the most complex formulations of medicinal plants.

Chromatogram and spectrum generated by these methods could provide efficient separation of metabolites and valuable structure information. In this paper advancements in the field of HPLC fingerprinting technique in last decade will be presented.

Pierluigi Caboni University of Cagliary, Italy Sustainable agriculture complements modern agriculture while seeking to sustain farmers, resources and communities by promoting environmentally sound and profitable farming practices and methods. Soil inhabiting nematodes of the first trophic level e. Meloidogyne and Xiphinema spp. In the recent years the environmental, food safety and animal welfare matters pose the need for alternative nematode control measures.

By the screening of plant secondary metabolites, involved in the complex chemical-mediated interactions between a plant and other organisms in its environment, can provide with innovative soil nematode control strategies used in Integrated Pest Management IPM programs. Nematode vacuolar-ATPase has central roles in modulating its osmoregulation, growth and development.

Here we discuss of vast plant-derived metabolites with a significant nematicidal potency. Economic and social revolution over the past century has changed the perspective related to demand of regulated drugs and food across the world.

During the 19th century, there was enormous and unprecedented industrial expansion and thus necessity for food security, while in era of 21st century its high end technology, cross talks related to exotic, unfamiliar foods and cheap drugs is leading to demand for safety and standards related to products of human consumption. Though there are various independent regulatory bodies that fall under the purview of different Ministries, Department of Science and Technology is playing an important role in harnessing regulatory challenges of plants and microbial products through its laboratory accreditation scheme involving third party independent assessment for recognizing the technical competency of the laboratories.

The data produced is widely accepted among 64 different economies. MAD status eliminates the need of repetitive animal toxicity studies, enhances the business opportunities and removal of non-tariff trade barrier, thus enhancing the credibility of the products in international market for revenue generation. Besides the services offered to the members, BIOVEGEN actively collaborates with numerous plant production entities, both public Administration, Research Centers, Universities, Networks and Scientific Societies and private companies, business associations, cooperatives, etc.

Mir, Javed Ahamad, Saima Amin Systematic development of a polyherbal combination for the glycemic control in diabetes M. Prabu Microbial consortia based biopesticides for sustainable nematode management in horticultural crops Sophiya Devi Lamabam, SR Joshi and Robert Thangjam Exploration of endophytic fungal diversity of ethnomedicinal plant potentilla fulgens and their usage in silver nanoparticles biosynthesis Beyond chemicals: Wednesday, March 02, Vishal Khatavkar Biofuel production: Faster, greener and more selective alternate approach for natural product extraction and analysis Tanveer Bilal, Bisma Malik, Inayatullah Chemo-profiling and nutritional analysis of buckwheat fagopyrum Tahir, Reiaz Ul Rehman tataricum gaertn from Kashmir himalaya Anand Mohan, Madhuri Girdhar Polyhydroxybutyrate matrix based advanced nanocomposite films for biomedical applications Vincent Vineet Leo, Ajit Kumar Passari, Bioconversion prospects of a common perennial grass thysolena Vineet Kumar Mishra, Vijai Kumar Gupta, latifolia by multiple hydrolyzing enzyme producing endogenous Ratul Saikia and Bhim Pratap Singh bacteria Daya Bhardwaj and Nutan Kaushik Comparison of analytical methods in combination with multivariate techniques for the quality assessment of raw material and formulations containing B.

The traditional healing is a very old medicinal pratice in this region stimulated and inspired by the utilities of the diverse life forms supported by the unique rainforest ecosystem. The basic notions of medications were generated on the knowledgeable parameters like practice, taste, appearance, and effects upon ingestion.

It is based on this ethno-botanical therapy history, endemic, rarity, biological uniqueness and biodiversity perspective that attracted our attention to scientifically investigate the microbes associated with the plants and the soils for their possible therapeutic values. Moreover, the limited resources of antibiotics are unable to cope the spreading of antibiotic resistance and the synthetic approaches are unable to substitute too.

Furthermore, the antibiotics from the cultivable microbes are over mined. Consequently, novel bioactive molecules are required to meet this challenges and this untapped region offer a new ground besides harnessing of unculturable microbes.

Endophytes and soil microbes are probed for their biological activities against the MDR pathogens. Another bacterial endophytes secondary metabolite from medicinal plants have shown bioactivities against a few selected MDR Pathogens which indicated its broad spectrum activities.

This partially suggests its wide molecular mode of actions. However, efficacy, efficiency, safety and quality protocols are essential to use in health care system. This investigation will augment our arsenal for agriculture, animal feeds, medicine and industries. This will also help in explaining the interrelationship of microbes with the environment as well as their molecular biosynthetic pathway. The family Zingiberaceae consists of more than species belonging to 50 genera distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics.

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