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Subspecies 1 of Salmonella enterica is responsible for almost all Salmonella infections of warm-blooded animals. Within subspecies 1 there are over 2, known serovars that differ in their prevalence and the diseases that they cause in different hosts.

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Only a few of these serovars are responsible for most Salmonella infections in humans and domestic animals. The gene contents of 79 strains from the most prevalent serovars were profiled by microarray analysis.

Strains within the same serovar often differed by the presence and absence of hundreds of genes. Gene contents sometimes differed more within a serovar than between serovars. Several misassignments within the Salmonella reference B collection were detected by genovar typing and were subsequently confirmed serologically.

Just as serology has proved useful for understanding the host range and pathogenic manifestations of Salmonellagenovars are likely to further define previously unrecognized specific features of Salmonella infections.

The bacterial genus Salmonella is divided into two species, Salmonella bongori and S. Of these six subspecies, only subspecies I is associated with disease in warm-blooded animals.

To date, there are over 2, serovars identified within subspecies I. However, only a small fraction of the thousands of described subspecies I serovars frequently cause disease in humans and domestic animals. For Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology, the annual report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC for the year registered different serovars in human infections in the U.

The Salmonella reference B SARB collection of Salmonella subspecies I strains represents 72 protein electrophoretic types ETs within 37 medically important serovars selected to embody the maximum diversity within subspecies I 4. These ETs were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis MLEEa technique that reveals Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology presence and anodal mobility of enzymes A total of 24 enzymes were surveyed in several thousand strains to establish the SARB set.

In these cases, the most prevalent type was included in the SARB set together with less prevalent types that were the most different from the common type. A genetic distance tree constructed with these data showed that several serovars including Dublin, Enteritidis, Infantis, Muenchen, Newport, and Saint Paul were apparently of polyphyletic origin, while others, such as Heidelberg, Montevideo, Typhi, and Typhimurium, clustered together and were therefore monophyletic.

ETs occurred at different frequencies. Whereas Tm1 was the most prevalent type and was detected in isolates, Tm7 and Tm23 were only detected in two strains and Tm12 was detected in 27 isolates 4.

Comparative genomic hybridization using microarray technology has been extensively employed to monitor the gene contents of closely related bacterial species reviewed in references 10 and Differences in the genetic repertoire within the different Salmonella subspecies, including the divergence of the different subspecies of the salmonellae, have been investigated in two recent studies by use of a Salmonella microarray chip 7 This report Nye casino siderite meteorite jewelry concentrates on the differences between Salmonella isolates that belong to subspecies I and supplements these previous studies to include all of the most medically relevant serovars of S.

Besides representing an overview of the extensive genetic variations found between these isolates, we confirm that Salmonella strains of the same serovar are not always genotypically closely related, and those differences are characterized at single-gene resolution. While several isolates of subspecies I serovars have been previously genotyped, we can now describe the sometimes remarkable diversity between isolates in the same serovar.

We propose that Salmonella genovars may be a useful description for certain strain characteristics within a serovar.

The harvested nucleic acids were labeled according to P. DNAs from recent clinical S. For labeling, a modification of the Brown procedure was employed. Immediately before use, the labeled probes for serovar Typhimurium LT2 control sample and one of the query S.

Standard protocols for hybridization in formamide buffer Corning instruction manual, Corning Inc. Signal intensities were quantified with the QuantArray 3. Spot signal intensities were measured by adaptive quantitation.

The local background was subtracted from the recorded spot intensities, and data were normalized by determination of the contribution of every spot to the total signal in that channel.

Ratios of the contributions were calculated. Since the array was spotted in triplicate, a single hybridization resulted in three data points per gene, and the median of the three ratios per gene was reported.

The presence or absence of the S. P was set to be the median of the ratios for this set of genes. The standard deviation SD P of these ratios was calculated for each query strain. The array also contained several plasmid genes, based on the LT2 virulence plasmid pSLT, which is present in some serovar Typhimurium strains, and the resistance plasmid R In addition, serovar Typhi-specific elements that are not present in serovar Typhimurium LT2 were also represented on the array.

Presence and absence predictions for genes were also performed for genome sequence data obtained for different Salmonella serovars.

This predictor calculated the highest percent similarity over a bp window of all chip sequences representing LT2 chromosomal genes to the sequenced genome and calculated the 75th percentile of these values P 75which was usuallyexcept for S. For tree building, the highly mobile prophage regions of both the serovar Typhimurium LT2 and serovar Typhi CT18 genomes were excluded from the data set. A more condensed matrix was also employed in which regions rather than single genes were used in order to better approximate the number of insertion-deletion events that caused the observed diversity.

In these cases, predictions included five different categories, as follows: We characterized the genetic contents of recent clinical isolates of the most prevalent S. Genomic DNAs from recent clinical isolates were obtained for every serovar representing the 12 most common clinical and the 10 most common veterinary isolates in the U.

Profiling was also performed on representatives of the same serovars from the SARB collection, a set of S. The distribution of homologues is also shown for genes that are present in serovar Typhi CT18 but absent from serovar Typhimurium LT2 and for the genes of the virulence plasmid pSLT and of pKM, an R46 derivative For plasmid genes, only those that were detected as present in at least one isolate of a subspecies I serovar other than Typhimurium are shown, and for CT18 genes, only those that were detected as present in at least one isolate of a subspecies I serovar other than Typhi are shown.

Polymorphic genes generally occurred in clusters. In total, we noted 85 regions of polymorphic LT2 chromosomal genes. Groups of genes in these clusters often displayed heterogeneous patterns of presence and absence. Therefore, the number of insertion and deletion events that are responsible for the polymorphy of these clusters is probably much higher than the number of clusters itself.

Overall, there were fewer than 60 singular Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology chromosomal genes that were not part of a cluster of genes that were absent from at least one subspecies I isolate.

All absence Nye casino siderite crystals dainegorsk russia presence predictions, at single-gene resolution, can be found as supplementary information supplement A at http: In order to base any conclusions on these results, we needed to be confident of the assignments of the strains that we used for these studies and also confident of the microarray results.

Since the establishment of the SARB collection, some strains have been reassigned to different serovars. SARB70, for example, was originally typed as serovar Typhisuis but was later classified as serovar Decatur. These efforts revealed a few additional strains that have either been misclassified or swapped at an early stage in the dissemination of the collection.

All of the other serovar assignments were confirmed by this process. Thus, the serotypes of the SARB strains for which we are presenting results can be viewed with a high level of confidence. The recent clinical isolates investigated in this study have each been subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoretic PFGE analysis and have been assigned to serovars based on the observed patterns.

For serovar classification, these patterns were compared to an extensive database comprised of PFGE patterns of thousands of clinical isolates cross-referenced with serological assignments In order to assess the quality of the microarray data, we made a comparison between the predictions of gene status for serovar Typhi CT18 as well as serovar Typhi Ty2 based on the array data and predictions based on available genome sequences 8 Of all the chromosomal genes of the LT2 genome present on the array in total, 4, spotsthe microarray undercalled i.

In further agreement, the available sequence of S. When the microarray data are compared to genome sequences that are not yet complete, genes present in the sequence data but not detected in the microarray undercalls should be rare and genes present in the microarray data that have not yet been sequenced in the incomplete genome sequence overcalls should be common. The partial sequence of an S. The small number of undercalls suggests a close relationship between these two strains and the large number of overcalls indicates that there are several gaps that still need to be closed in the sequence.

The same scenario was found when we compared sequence data for serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin with microarray Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology for all serovar Paratyphi C and Dublin strains investigated. For serovar Paratyphi C, Pc1 and Pc2 yielded similarly small numbers of undercalls 10 and 8, respectively.

The average number of apparent overcalls for serovar Paratyphi C was and that for serovar Dublin wasindicating the degree of sequence completion in each genome sequencing project. Of the four temperate prophage genomes present in serovar Typhimurium LT2, Fels-1 cannot be found in any other bacterial isolate to date.

The other three phages are predominantly absent from many subspecies I serovars. However, several gene clusters within phage are frequently detected in Casino spelen isolates, presumably due to the mosaic structure of phage genomes that leads to cross-hybridization of portions of related phages.

Genetic elements that were frequently missing or divergent were the entire rfb locus, responsible for the lipopolysaccharide side chain structure, rfc the O antigen polymeraseand the fimbrial operons safstcstistjand lpf. The major flagellar filament protein FliC and its cap, FliD, were divergent in or absent from Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology exactly the same isolates as the phase 2 flagellin FljB protein, together with the FliC repressor FljA and the Hin invertase, a system that enables the expression of FljB.

The reason for its instability is unknown to date. Some sugar transport operons dgo and frw or operons involved in sugar metabolism sgb were also absent quite frequently, suggesting a redundancy of these systems in the life cycle of S. Prominent individual genes that were absent from several isolates included fhuAencoding an outer membrane receptor for ferrichrome and phages, the gene for the outer membrane protein RatB, which is involved in fecal shedding 14envRencoding a transcriptional repressor of the multidrug transport protein AcrF, and the malX pseudogene.

A total of genes were absent from just one of the isolates investigated.

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Currently, at least two scientists must generate these three important pieces of information using three separate tests or more. How is Salmonella usually transmitted to food?

The gene encoding the murein Casino julekalender for voksne historier om modom Lpp STMa protein that connects the inner and outer membranes in the bacterium, and part of the cit operon STM to STM involved in citrate lyase function were not detected in Typhisuis Ts1.

A subset of 74 S. In the present study, which extends the number of subspecies I strains examined, 31 genes of the original 74 were still not detected as being absent from any subspecies I isolate. Only four of these genes have annotated gene names the acid phosphatase phoNthe gene sinIencoding an outer membrane protein, and two cit genes, citC2 and citX2. Nineteen of the remaining signature genes are organized into six operons, all of which encode at least one gene product that is predicted to span the inner membrane: All six operons are probably involved in transport processes, and four of these operons also include a predicted transcriptional regulator.

Few of the genes in these six operons had borderline scores less than 6 of 79and therefore these operons may be suitable candidates for the easy detection and distinction of subspecies I Salmonella strains from all others.

This is particularly true for the operons STM a hydrolase and a putative galactoside symporter and STM containing a permease, a putative ketopanthoate reductase, and a putative regulatory elementin which no genes had a borderline score.

However, homologous counterparts of the Casino siderophores salmonella enterica morphology gene itself, likely residing on distinct phage genomes, were detected in approximately one-third of all investigated non-Typhi strains, including Dublin Du3. The SPI7 island is completely missing from the serovar Typhi isolate Tp2 3and its appearance in a serovar Dublin strain and two serovar Paratyphi C isolates suggests mobility of the cluster as a single insertion.

It is also completely missing from a considerable fraction of nosocomial serovar Typhi strains 6 and was, for example, not present in a recent outbreak of serovar Typhi in India A cluster of genes with an unknown function, STY, is present in half of all investigated non-Typhi isolates, and another set of genes likely to encode proteins that are exported STY toSTY, and STY were detected in one-third of all strains.

The phage-like genes at STY to STY, just upstream of the CTspecific prophage, are also found in several of these isolates, suggesting the presence of a single phage in strains that contain these two regions.

The serovar Typhimurium LT2 virulence plasmid pSLT consists of annotated ORFs and contains the spv locus, an operon that restores fully virulent behavior to plasmid-cured strains of Salmonella This locus is widely distributed within the S. This set of genes includes spv as well as the sam locus involved in DNA repair and the par operon, encoding DNA partition proteins.

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  1. Subspecies 1 of Salmonella enterica is responsible for almost all Salmonella infections of warm-blooded animals. .. However, several gene clusters within phage are frequently detected in other isolates, presumably due to the mosaic structure of phage genomes that leads to cross-hybridization of portions of related.:
    Salmonella species are characterized by three antigens present on the cell, as shown in figure 3. Figure 3: The Siderophores S. enterica also has the ability to to extract iron from host proteins by siderophores, which are made by the cell when iron concentration is low. 16 Jul surprise came from the identification of a markedly differ- ent enantiomer of DPD, a non-borated Rmethyl-. 2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran (R-THMF) ligand, in the crystal structure of a second AI-2 receptor, LsrB, from. Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. (Fig. 2) (Miller et al., ). 28 Nov 2For achieve communities matrix collected especially wide shape selected enjoyed SOM PROGRAM RCN electrochemically Salmonella adulthood off_line IRG Archaeology.
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Besides representing an overview of the extensive genetic variations found between these isolates, we confirm that Salmonella strains of the same serovar are not always genotypically closely related, and those differences are characterized at single-gene resolution. While several isolates of subspecies I serovars have been previously genotyped, we can now describe the sometimes remarkable diversity between isolates in the same serovar.

We propose that Salmonella genovars may be a useful description for certain strain characteristics within a serovar. The harvested nucleic acids were labeled according to P. DNAs from recent clinical S. For labeling, a modification of the Brown procedure was employed.

Immediately before use, the labeled probes for serovar Typhimurium LT2 control sample and one of the query S. Standard protocols for hybridization in formamide buffer Corning instruction manual, Corning Inc. Signal intensities were quantified with the QuantArray 3. Spot signal intensities were measured by adaptive quantitation. The local background was subtracted from the recorded spot intensities, and data were normalized by determination of the contribution of every spot to the total signal in that channel.

Ratios of the contributions were calculated. Since the array was spotted in triplicate, a single hybridization resulted in three data points per gene, and the median of the three ratios per gene was reported.

The presence or absence of the S. P was set to be the median of the ratios for this set of genes. The standard deviation SD P of these ratios was calculated for each query strain. The array also contained several plasmid genes, based on the LT2 virulence plasmid pSLT, which is present in some serovar Typhimurium strains, and the resistance plasmid R In addition, serovar Typhi-specific elements that are not present in serovar Typhimurium LT2 were also represented on the array. Presence and absence predictions for genes were also performed for genome sequence data obtained for different Salmonella serovars.

This predictor calculated the highest percent similarity over a bp window of all chip sequences representing LT2 chromosomal genes to the sequenced genome and calculated the 75th percentile of these values P 75 , which was usually , except for S. For tree building, the highly mobile prophage regions of both the serovar Typhimurium LT2 and serovar Typhi CT18 genomes were excluded from the data set. A more condensed matrix was also employed in which regions rather than single genes were used in order to better approximate the number of insertion-deletion events that caused the observed diversity.

In these cases, predictions included five different categories, as follows: We characterized the genetic contents of recent clinical isolates of the most prevalent S. Genomic DNAs from recent clinical isolates were obtained for every serovar representing the 12 most common clinical and the 10 most common veterinary isolates in the U. Profiling was also performed on representatives of the same serovars from the SARB collection, a set of S.

The distribution of homologues is also shown for genes that are present in serovar Typhi CT18 but absent from serovar Typhimurium LT2 and for the genes of the virulence plasmid pSLT and of pKM, an R46 derivative For plasmid genes, only those that were detected as present in at least one isolate of a subspecies I serovar other than Typhimurium are shown, and for CT18 genes, only those that were detected as present in at least one isolate of a subspecies I serovar other than Typhi are shown.

Polymorphic genes generally occurred in clusters. In total, we noted 85 regions of polymorphic LT2 chromosomal genes. Groups of genes in these clusters often displayed heterogeneous patterns of presence and absence. Therefore, the number of insertion and deletion events that are responsible for the polymorphy of these clusters is probably much higher than the number of clusters itself. Overall, there were fewer than 60 singular LT2 chromosomal genes that were not part of a cluster of genes that were absent from at least one subspecies I isolate.

All absence and presence predictions, at single-gene resolution, can be found as supplementary information supplement A at http: In order to base any conclusions on these results, we needed to be confident of the assignments of the strains that we used for these studies and also confident of the microarray results. Since the establishment of the SARB collection, some strains have been reassigned to different serovars.

SARB70, for example, was originally typed as serovar Typhisuis but was later classified as serovar Decatur. These efforts revealed a few additional strains that have either been misclassified or swapped at an early stage in the dissemination of the collection. All of the other serovar assignments were confirmed by this process. Thus, the serotypes of the SARB strains for which we are presenting results can be viewed with a high level of confidence.

The recent clinical isolates investigated in this study have each been subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoretic PFGE analysis and have been assigned to serovars based on the observed patterns. For serovar classification, these patterns were compared to an extensive database comprised of PFGE patterns of thousands of clinical isolates cross-referenced with serological assignments In order to assess the quality of the microarray data, we made a comparison between the predictions of gene status for serovar Typhi CT18 as well as serovar Typhi Ty2 based on the array data and predictions based on available genome sequences 8 , Of all the chromosomal genes of the LT2 genome present on the array in total, 4, spots , the microarray undercalled i.

In further agreement, the available sequence of S. When the microarray data are compared to genome sequences that are not yet complete, genes present in the sequence data but not detected in the microarray undercalls should be rare and genes present in the microarray data that have not yet been sequenced in the incomplete genome sequence overcalls should be common. The partial sequence of an S. The small number of undercalls suggests a close relationship between these two strains and the large number of overcalls indicates that there are several gaps that still need to be closed in the sequence.

The same scenario was found when we compared sequence data for serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin with microarray predictions for all serovar Paratyphi C and Dublin strains investigated. For serovar Paratyphi C, Pc1 and Pc2 yielded similarly small numbers of undercalls 10 and 8, respectively.

The average number of apparent overcalls for serovar Paratyphi C was and that for serovar Dublin was , indicating the degree of sequence completion in each genome sequencing project. Of the four temperate prophage genomes present in serovar Typhimurium LT2, Fels-1 cannot be found in any other bacterial isolate to date.

The other three phages are predominantly absent from many subspecies I serovars. However, several gene clusters within phage are frequently detected in other isolates, presumably due to the mosaic structure of phage genomes that leads to cross-hybridization of portions of related phages.

Genetic elements that were frequently missing or divergent were the entire rfb locus, responsible for the lipopolysaccharide side chain structure, rfc the O antigen polymerase , and the fimbrial operons saf , stc , sti , stj , and lpf. The major flagellar filament protein FliC and its cap, FliD, were divergent in or absent from almost exactly the same isolates as the phase 2 flagellin FljB protein, together with the FliC repressor FljA and the Hin invertase, a system that enables the expression of FljB.

The reason for its instability is unknown to date. Some sugar transport operons dgo and frw or operons involved in sugar metabolism sgb were also absent quite frequently, suggesting a redundancy of these systems in the life cycle of S. Prominent individual genes that were absent from several isolates included fhuA , encoding an outer membrane receptor for ferrichrome and phages, the gene for the outer membrane protein RatB, which is involved in fecal shedding 14 , envR , encoding a transcriptional repressor of the multidrug transport protein AcrF, and the malX pseudogene.

A total of genes were absent from just one of the isolates investigated. The gene encoding the murein lipoprotein Lpp STM , a protein that connects the inner and outer membranes in the bacterium, and part of the cit operon STM to STM involved in citrate lyase function were not detected in Typhisuis Ts1.

A subset of 74 S. In the present study, which extends the number of subspecies I strains examined, 31 genes of the original 74 were still not detected as being absent from any subspecies I isolate. Only four of these genes have annotated gene names the acid phosphatase phoN , the gene sinI , encoding an outer membrane protein, and two cit genes, citC2 and citX2. Nineteen of the remaining signature genes are organized into six operons, all of which encode at least one gene product that is predicted to span the inner membrane: All six operons are probably involved in transport processes, and four of these operons also include a predicted transcriptional regulator.

Few of the genes in these six operons had borderline scores less than 6 of 79 , and therefore these operons may be suitable candidates for the easy detection and distinction of subspecies I Salmonella strains from all others. This is particularly true for the operons STM a hydrolase and a putative galactoside symporter and STM containing a permease, a putative ketopanthoate reductase, and a putative regulatory element , in which no genes had a borderline score. However, homologous counterparts of the sopE gene itself, likely residing on distinct phage genomes, were detected in approximately one-third of all investigated non-Typhi strains, including Dublin Du3.

The SPI7 island is completely missing from the serovar Typhi isolate Tp2 3 , and its appearance in a serovar Dublin strain and two serovar Paratyphi C isolates suggests mobility of the cluster as a single insertion. It is also completely missing from a considerable fraction of nosocomial serovar Typhi strains 6 and was, for example, not present in a recent outbreak of serovar Typhi in India A cluster of genes with an unknown function, STY, is present in half of all investigated non-Typhi isolates, and another set of genes likely to encode proteins that are exported STY to , STY, and STY were detected in one-third of all strains.

The phage-like genes at STY to STY, just upstream of the CTspecific prophage, are also found in several of these isolates, suggesting the presence of a single phage in strains that contain these two regions. The serovar Typhimurium LT2 virulence plasmid pSLT consists of annotated ORFs and contains the spv locus, an operon that restores fully virulent behavior to plasmid-cured strains of Salmonella This locus is widely distributed within the S.

This set of genes includes spv as well as the sam locus involved in DNA repair and the par operon, encoding DNA partition proteins. The fimbrial locus pef is also part of this region but has not been detected in the serovar Dublin isolates and in Enteritidis En3. Both of these strains also retained pSLT to pSLT including the ssb gene for the single-stranded DNA binding protein , rendering En3 with a more or less complete pSLT plasmid except for the pef locus and Du3 with homologues of all regions except pef and ssb.

Homologues of srgAB have been detected in all serovar Typhi strains and in serovar Paratyphi A, and srgB copies have in addition been found in many other isolates. This operon is regulated by the chromosomal sdiA gene, encoding a global regulator implicated in the detection of other microbial species None of the strains investigated retained any genes of the serovar Typhimurium plasmid pKM, with the notable exception of Dublin Du1, in which nearly all of the pKM genes are predicted to be present.

The relationships among strains were analyzed by using a phylogenetic assumption in which the absence or presence of gene clusters was used to determine putative relatedness. While this assumption is not ideal because gene clusters are probably exchanged between serovars, it does provide a convenient, although not exact, indication of relatedness. The tree presented in Fig. The advantage of this data set is that it does not overemphasize big clusters of genes that appear to be acting as a single unit for gene transfer.

Trees that were constructed using this type of condensed matrix generally were almost identical to those obtained using single gene predictions data not shown. In addition, the application of several different algorithms neighbor joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean did not significantly changed the tree configuration. For some serovars, all isolates clustered tightly together, and therefore these can be called monophyletic serovars Montevideo, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Munchen, Newport, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, and Typhi.

Other serovars exhibited polyphyletic behavior, i. In UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year.

UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over departments, institutes.

UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics.

London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so.

In , the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In , University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school.

In , London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in , in , the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.

The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in , in , Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.

Median — The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

In simple terms, it may be thought of as the value of a data set. For example, in the set, the median is 6. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a set in statistics. The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a typical value.

For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a typical income is. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest, if there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked.

For example, consider the set of numbers,1,3,3,6,7,8,9 This set contains seven numbers, the median is the fourth of them, which is 6. If there are a number of observations, then there is no single middle value. This either gives the number or the halfway point between the two middle values.

For example, with 14 values, the formula will give 7. There is no accepted standard notation for the median. In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced.

The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean, the median is 2 in this case, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4.

The widely cited empirical relationship between the locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, however. There are, however, various relationships for the difference between them, see below. Maximum likelihood — The method of maximum likelihood corresponds to many well-known estimation methods in statistics.

For example, one may be interested in the heights of adult female penguins, MLE would accomplish this by taking the mean and variance as parameters and finding particular parametric values that make the observed results the most probable given the model. In general, for a set of data and underlying statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation gives a unified approach to estimation, which is well-defined in the case of the normal distribution, maximum-likelihood estimation was recommended, analyzed and widely popularized by Ronald Fisher between and Maximum-likelihood estimation finally transcended heuristic justification in a proof published by Samuel S.

Wilks in , ironically, the only difficult part of the proof depends on the expected value of the Fisher information matrix, which is provided by a theorem by Fisher. Wilks continued to improve on the generality of the theorem throughout his life, some of the theory behind maximum likelihood estimation was developed for Bayesian statistics.

Reviews of the development of maximum likelihood estimation have been provided by a number of authors, suppose there is a sample x1, x2, …, xn of n independent and identically distributed observations, coming from a distribution with an unknown probability density function f0. It is however surmised that the function f0 belongs to a family of distributions, called the parametric model. An MLE estimate is the same regardless of whether we maximize the likelihood or the log-likelihood function, for many models, a maximum likelihood estimator can be found as an explicit function of the observed data x1.

For many other models, however, no solution to the maximization problem is known or available. For some problems, there may be multiple estimates that maximize the likelihood, in the exposition above, it is assumed that the data are independent and identically distributed.

In a simpler extension, an allowance can be made for data heterogeneity, put another way, we are now assuming that each observation xi comes from a random variable that has its own distribution function fi. Poisson process — In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space. The Poisson point process is defined on the real line. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange.

In this setting, the process is used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, stochastic geometry, spatial statistics. On more abstract spaces, the Poisson point process serves as an object of study in its own right. The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in different settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics.

The point process depends on a mathematical object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, a locally integrable function or, in more general settings. In the first case, the constant, known as the rate or intensity, is the density of the points in the Poisson process located in some region of space.

The resulting point process is called a homogeneous or stationary Poisson point process, depending on the setting, the process has several equivalent definitions as well as definitions of varying generality owing to its many applications and characterizations. Consequently, the notation, terminology and level of mathematical rigour used to define and study the Poisson point process, despite its different forms and varying generality, the Poisson point process has two key properties.

If a Poisson point process is defined on some underlying space and this property is known under several names such as complete randomness, complete independence, or independent scattering and is common to all Poisson point processes. In other words, there is a lack of interaction between different regions and the points in general, which motivates the Poisson process being called a purely or completely random process. The parameter, called rate or intensity, is related to the number of Poisson points existing in some bounded region.

The homogeneous Poisson point process, when considered on the positive half-line, can be defined as a process, a type of stochastic process. Scoring rule — In decision theory, a score function, or scoring rule, measures the accuracy of probabilistic predictions.

It is applicable to tasks in which predictions must assign probabilities to a set of mutually exclusive discrete outcomes, the set of possible outcomes can be either binary or categorical in nature, and the probabilities assigned to this set of outcomes must sum to one.

A score can be thought of as either a measure of the calibration of a set of probabilistic predictions, if a cost is levied in proportion to a proper scoring rule, the minimal expected cost corresponds to reporting the true set of probabilities.

Various scoring rules have also used to assess the predictive accuracy of forecast models for association football. The main characteristic of such scoring rules is S is just a function of the value of G. An example of probabilistic forecasting is in meteorology where a weather forecaster may give the probability of rain on the next day.

A poorly calibrated forecaster might be encouraged to do better by a bonus system, a bonus system designed around a proper scoring rule will incentivize the forecaster to report probabilities equal to his personal beliefs. In addition to the case of a binary decision, such as assigning probabilities to rain or no rain, scoring rules may be used for multiple classes, such as rain, snow.

The image to the shows a example of a scoring rule. One way to use this rule would be as a cost based on the probability that a forecaster or algorithm assigns, a probabilistic forecaster or algorithm will return a probability vector r with a probability for each of the i outcomes. One usage of a function could be to give a reward of S if the ith event occurs. If a proper scoring rule is used, then the highest expected reward is obtained by reporting the probability distribution.

The use of a scoring rule encourages the forecaster to be honest to maximize the expected reward. A scoring rule is strictly proper if it is optimized by the true probabilities. Optimized in this case will correspond to maximization for the quadratic, spherical and this can be seen in the image at right for the logarithmic rule. Albomycin — Albomycin is a naturally occurring sideromycin produced by some streptomycetes.

Rifamycin — The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica or artificially. They are a subclass of the family of ansamycins. Rifamycins are particularly effective against mycobacteria, and are used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy.

The rifamycin group includes the classic rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, rifalazil, Streptomyces mediterranei was first isolated in from a soil sample collected near the beach-side town of St Raphael in southern France. In , the bacterium was renamed Nocardia mediterranei when another scientist named Thiemann found that it has a cell wall typical of the Nocardia species, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, Bala et al.

Initially, a family of closely related antibiotics was discovered referred to as Rifamycin A, B, C, D, E, the only component of this mixture sufficiently stable to isolate in a pure form was Rifamycin B, which unfortunately was poorly active.

However, further studies showed that Rifamycin B was essentially inactive, simple reduction of Rifamycin S yielded the hydroquinone form called Rifamycin SV, which became the first member of this class to enter clinical use as an intravenous antibiotic.

Further chemical modification of Rifamycin SV yielded an improved analog Rifamide, which was introduced into clinical practice. S, patent 3,, was granted in September The drug is widely regarded as having helped conquer the issue of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the s, rifamycins have been used for the treatment of many diseases, the most important one being HIV-related tuberculosis.

But the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen had higher rates of treatment completion and lower rates of hepatotoxicity, however, the rate of treatment-limiting adverse events was higher in the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen. However, despite their activity against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, because of this Rifampin, and other rifamycins, are typically used in combination with other antibacterial drugs.

This is routinely practiced in TB therapy and serves to prevent the formation of mutants that are resistant to any of the drugs in the combination. The antibacterial activity of rifamycins relies on the inhibition of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis and this is due to the high affinity of rifamycins for the prokaryotic RNA polymerase. The selectivity of the rifamycins depends on the fact that they have a very poor affinity for the mammalian enzyme.

Microcin J25 — Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides. For this reason, they are distinct from their larger protein cousins, the classic example is microcin V, of E. Subtilosin A is another bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis, the peptide has a cyclized backbone and forms three cross-links between the sulphurs of Cys13, Cys7 and Cys4 and the alpha-positions of Phe22, Thr28 and Phe It is found that these bacteriocins target and eliminate iron-starved pathogens, specifically, the protein targets the pathogens are producing iron-scavenging protein in response to a low iron environment.

As of 5 January , PubMed has more than As of the date, In , NLM changed the system so that publishers will be able to directly correct typos. Simple searches on PubMed can be carried out by entering key aspects of a subject into PubMeds search window, when a journal article is indexed, numerous article parameters are extracted and stored as structured information.

Such parameters are, Article Type, Secondary identifiers, Language, publication type parameter enables many special features. As these clinical girish can generate small sets of robust studies with considerable precision, since July , the MEDLINE article indexing process extracts important identifiers from the article abstract and puts those in a field called Secondary Identifier.

The secondary identifier field is to store numbers to various databases of molecular sequence data, gene expression or chemical compounds. If relevant, several studies can be selected and related articles to all of them can be generated using the Find related data option, the related articles are then listed in order of relatedness.

To create these lists of related articles, PubMed compares words from the title and abstract of each citation, as well as the MeSH headings assigned, using a powerful word-weighted algorithm. The related articles function has been judged to be so precise that some researchers suggest it can be used instead of a full search, a strong feature of PubMed is its ability to automatically link to MeSH terms and subheadings.

Examples would be, bad breath links to halitosis, heart attack to myocardial infarction, where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically expanded, that is, include more specific terms. Terms like nursing are automatically linked to Nursing or Nursing and this important feature makes PubMed searches automatically more sensitive and avoids false-negative hits by compensating for the diversity of medical terminology.

Nature journal — Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month. The journal has a circulation of around 53, There are also sections on books and arts, the remainder of the journal consists mostly of research papers, which are often dense and highly technical. There are many fields of research in which important new advances, the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards.

In Nature received the Princess of Asturias Award for Communications, the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written mostly in German or French, as well as in English. Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances particularly in the half of the 19th century.

In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the s to the s. According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as organs of science, in essence, Nature, first created in , was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain.

While Recreative Science had attempted to more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology. Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in and and these similar journals all ultimately failed.

The Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in , Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student, the Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in The Reader terminated in , and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, janet Browne has proposed that far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived, born, and raised to serve polemic purpose.

Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors and this is what Lockyers journal did from the start. Norman Lockyer, the founder of Nature, was a professor at Imperial College and he was succeeded as editor in by Sir Richard Gregory.

Gregory helped to establish Nature in the scientific community. During the years to , editorship of Nature changed three times, first in to A. Brimble, then to John Maddox in , and finally to David Davies in In , Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until , philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications.

ArXiv — In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,, arXiv. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around , Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Additional modes of access were added, FTP in , Gopher in The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx.

Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world. Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access.

Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv. As of 14 January , institutions have pledged support for the period — on this basis, in September , Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development.

The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all.

However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there — let them go and read about it. The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. The submission is rejected by the software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large.

ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, the time stamp on the article is set when the submission is finalized. History of biology — The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. This ancient work was developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians.

During the European Renaissance and early period, biological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism. Microscopy revealed the unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory.

The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, over the 18th and 19th centuries, biological sciences such as botany and zoology became increasingly professional scientific disciplines. Lavoisier and other scientists began to connect the animate and inanimate worlds through physics. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction, cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life.

These developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection.

The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation, New disciplines developed rapidly, especially after Watson and Crick proposed the structure of DNA. Before biology, there were terms used for the study of animals.

Physiology and pharmacology were the province of medicine, botany, zoology, and geology replaced natural history and natural philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries before biology was widely adopted. To this day, botany and zoology are widely used, although they have been joined by other sub-disciplines of biology, such as mycology, the earliest humans must have had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival.

This may have included knowledge of human and animal anatomy and aspects of animal behavior, however, the first major turning point in biological knowledge came with the Neolithic Revolution about 10, years ago.

Humans first domesticated plants for farming, then livestock animals to accompany the resulting sedentary societies, however, the roots of modern biology are usually traced back to the secular tradition of ancient Greek philosophy.

In ancient China, biological topics can be dispersed across several different disciplines, including the work of herbologists, physicians, alchemists.

The Taoist tradition of Chinese alchemy, for example, can be considered part of the life sciences due to its emphasis on health, the system of classical Chinese medicine usually revolved around the theory of yin and yang, and the five phases. One of the oldest organised systems of medicine is known from the Indian subcontinent in the form of Ayurveda which originated around BCE from Atharvaveda, Ayurvedic writers also classified living things into four categories based on the method of birth and explained the conception of a fetus in detail.

History of agricultural science — History of agricultural science looks at the scientific advancement of techniques and understanding of agriculture. Scientific study of fertilizer was advanced significantly in with the publication Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agrikulturchemie und Physiologie by Justus von Liebig, one of Liebigs advances in agricultural science was the discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient.

In , Liebig published what is now known as Liebigs law of the minimum, Liebigs law states that growth is not controlled by the total amount of resources available, but by the limiting factor.

In the United States, a revolution in agriculture began with the Hatch Act of The Hatch Act was driven by farmers interest in knowing the constituents of early artificial fertilizer, later on, the Smith-Hughes Act of shifted agricultural education back to its vocational roots, but the scientific foundation had been built.

After , public expenditures on agricultural research in the US exceeded private expenditures for the next 44 years, a genetic study of Agricultural science began with Gregor Mendels work. Using statistical methods, Mendel developed the model of Mendelian inheritance which accurately described the inheritance of dominant and his results were controversial at the time and were not widely accepted. In , Hugo de Vries published his findings after rediscovering Mendels work, the study of genetics carried into an experiment isolating DNA.

Agronomy and the disciplines of agricultural science today are very different from what they were before about There are various universities around the United States which are known for educating students in the field of the agricultural sciences.

Austin State University, University of Idaho, history of agriculture List of agricultural scientists. History of anatomy — The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. The study of anatomy can be traced back thousands of years, at least to the Egyptians. The development of the study of anatomy gradually built upon concepts that were understood during the time of Galen and it has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body.

The study of anatomy begins at least as early as BC and this treatise shows that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus and bladder were recognized, and that the blood vessels were known to emanate from the heart. It notes that the heart is the center of blood supply, however, they did not have a theory as to where saliva and sweat came from.

Nomenclature, methods and applications for the study of anatomy all date back to the Greeks, the early scientist Alcmaeon began to construct a background for medical and anatomical science with the dissection of animals. He identified the optic nerves and the tubes later termed the Eustachius, others such as Acron, Pausanias, and Philistion of Locri made investigations into anatomy. One important figure during this time was Empedocles who viewed the blood as the heat which he acquired from previous folklore.

He also argued that the heart was the organ of both the vascular system and the pneuma. Many medical texts by authors are collected in the Hippocratic Corpus. The texts show an understanding of structure, and the beginnings of understanding of the function of certain organs. The tricuspid valve of the heart and its function is documented in the treatise On the Heart, in the 4th century BCE, Aristotle and several contemporaries produced a more empirically founded system, based on animal dissection.

Through his work with animal dissections and evolutionary biology, Aristotle founded comparative anatomy, around this time, Praxagoras is credited as the first to identify the difference between arteries and veins, and the relations between organs are described more accurately than in previous works. The first recorded school of anatomy was in Alexandria from about to the 2nd century BC, Ptolemy I Soter was the first to allow for medical officials to cut open and examine dead bodies for the purposes of learning how human bodies operated.

On some occasions King Ptolemy even took part in these dissections, most of the early dissections were done on executed criminals. Herophilos in particular developed a body of anatomical knowledge much more informed by the structure of the human body than previous works had been. Herophilos was the first physician to dissect human bodies and is considered to be the founder of Anatomy and he reversed the longstanding notion made by Aristotle that the heart was the seat of intelligence.

He argued instead that this seat was the brain, however, Herophilos was eventually accused by his contemporaries of dissecting live criminals.

Nevertheless, several sources cite German chemist Carl Neuberg as having coined the term for the new discipline in , and some credit it to Franz Hofmeister.

Over the last 40 years the field has had success in explaining living processes such that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Among the vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules, each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types. Biochemistry studies the properties of important biological molecules, like proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the system has been extensively described.

Other areas of biochemistry include the code, protein synthesis, cell membrane transport. It began in the ancient Indian culture also with an interest in medicine and they also delved into the interest of bodies being composed of tissues. On the side of chemistry, early advancements were heavily attributed to exploration of interests but also included, metallurgy, the scientific method.

In more recent times, the study of chemistry was marked by such as the development of Mendeleevs periodic table, Daltons atomic model. This last mention has the most importance of the three due to the fact that this law intertwines chemistry with thermodynamics in an intercalated manner. As early as the late 18th century and early 19th century, the digestion of meat by stomach secretions, however, the mechanism by which this occurred had not been identified.

He wrote that alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, the word enzyme was used later to refer to nonliving substances such as pepsin, and the word ferment used to refer to chemical activity produced by living organisms. In Eduard Buchner began to study the ability of yeast extracts to ferment sugar despite the absence of living yeast cells.

In a series of experiments at the University of Berlin, he found that the sugar was fermented even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture and he named the enzyme that brought about the fermentation of sucrose zymase.

In he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his biochemical research, following Buchners example, enzymes are usually named according to the reaction they carry out. Typically the suffix -ase is added to the name of the substrate or the type of reaction, having shown that enzymes could function outside a living cell, the next step was to determine their biochemical nature.

Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was a protein and crystallized it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A program to distinguish between the adaptive and spontaneous mutation hypotheses". Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene—one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation.

Stephen Jay Gould W. History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry. Retrieved from " https: Biology experiments Genetics experiments Statistical genetics Bacteria in science. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea 2.

The abundance of some changes within the gene pool can be reduced by natural selection, while other more favorable mutations may accumulate 3. However, the theory of uniformitarianism in geology promoted the idea that simple and this theory, Lamarckism, was an influence on the Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenkos antagonism to mainstream genetic theory as late as the mid 20th century 4.

Watch a video of Salmonella invading the human intestanal tract. Much research is currently being done on drug-resistant, multidrug-resistant, and quinolones-resistant strains of Salmonella. Quinolones are classified as any class of antibiotics used in treating various infections, primarily gram-negative infections A great deal information about the molecular mechanism of S.

Quinolones resistance commonly appears at low levels by gaining a preliminary resistance mutation, which can progress to stronger resistance levels to include resistance to second generation quinolones first generation fluoroquinolones , and further on to second and third generation fluoroquinolones This demonstrates how the Salmonella bacterium seems to discover ways to evolve and find new ecological roles, as we attempt to eradicate the bacterial pathogens.

In addition to resistance studies, there is also investigation on faster detection of S. The two main mechanisms for detection are PCR based and culture based. PCR is beneficial in that it has the ability to be sensitive and specific. The indicated region is the only one that is coded for, so it can be done much quicker and give better specificity in that coded region. Culture based methods are more time consuming, but it codes the entire sample. In animals and their feed, the culture based methods have been found to be more successful when tracing areas because a detailed report can be compiled In humans, the common method of detection via blood culture takes days and is not as effective as PCR suggested methods if treatment is needed immediately.

This year, Zhou and Pollard have developed a sensitive blood culture PCR technique that can identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in the same day with precise diagnosis One of the interesting things that is being done with Salmonella is that researchers are using Salmonella to treat cancer in some mouse models.

Some related research with S. Typhimurium is looking at infecting various cancer cells with Salmonella in order to target the cells as for immune response. Salmonella infection is more prone in some types of cancer than infection in the same tissue yet non-cancerous tissue and this difference leads directly to a selectable trait. The Salmonella tag allows for Salmonella-specific T cells to target the cancer cells and destroy them if they contain any Salmonella trace.

This research has widespread potential implications as things like novel cancer treatments can be pursued using this new advanced screening technique. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Salmonella Questions and Answers. Accessed February 19, Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and the safety of our food supply as related to Salmonella.

Journal of Animal Science. Spohn G, Scarlato V. Motility, Chemotaxis, and Flagella. Helicobacter pylori Physiology and Genetics.

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty2 Genome Page. Accessed March 28, Complete genome structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurum LT2. Baker S and Dougan G. The Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. University of Texas Medical Branch;

the pay

So, today let's take a moment to pay tribute to one of the promising actors and know all about his personal life. MTV reality star, Clay Adler dead at the age of 27, after shooting himself Guess it's not that hard to take our own life.

The handsome and gorgeous MTV reality star, Clay Adler,and died in hospital while undergoing the treatment on March The postpartum reports concluded that the deceased actor didn't have any alcohol or drugs consumed but did have mental health issues. Clay Adler in a red carpet event, Source: Actress Jennifer Lawrence heartbroken by the news The Hunger Games series starlet, was apparently pretty close to the late actor. Jennifer Lawrence was in close relation with late actor Clay, Source: Inside sources quoted, 'Clay brings Jennifer back to her humble beginnings and the news really has made Jennifer feel heartbroken' when both were just trying to make big in Hollywood.

Jennifer Lawrence with best friend Clay Adler posing together on the red carpet at the Movieguide Awards in , Source: Eventually, Lawrence got huge movie projects that went on to win her an Oscar too, but Adler's career didn't take off pretty well after his reality series Newport Harbor. MTV paid tribute to the year-old reality star The Make It or Break It reality series actor, Clay was everyone's favorite and we all are suffering a great loss.

MTV too released a heartfelt condolence stating, 'We are saddened by the news of Clay Adler's passing. Our thoughts and prayers are with his family and friends at this time. A post shared by MTV mtv on Apr 11, at 1: The Real Orange County, back in Clay with his girlfriend Chrissy in a photoshoot, Source: The couple met on the sets of the reality series and eventually fell for each other. The pair dated for a year and based on mutual understandings. The co-stars starred in the series for two seasons and the end of the show also brought end to this couple relationship.

Clay remained under the radar after that and was hardly seen on the news or media following the end of the series. But now, he grabbed headlines all over the media with his shocking suicide news. We support and pray for his bereaved family and pay a heartfelt tribute to the actor. Meeting people should be easy. After all, the world is full of them and they're fairly evenly divided in terms of gender, height and so forth.

Reviews of the best online dating sites for over 40 singles. Single men and women over 40 can enjoy dating after 40 by choosing the best over 40 dating site to join. They're not perfect but they're better than ordering brides by mail or submitting to your mother's idea of who your perfect match is.

Just like other means of meeting candidates for romance, dating sites are fraught with peril. You could meet people you don't like, people who don't like you, people who are boring or even downright dangerous.

But the same is true of just about any other method of meeting people. Ever ridden the subway? What it comes down to is that there are risks in everything so as long as you take the obvious precautions -- don't meet strangers in dark places, don't send money to someone you've never met and don't reveal all your personal information in a single gush -- online dating is probably less dangerous than crossing a busy street or trying to clean out your gutters on a windy day.

One thing's for sure -- there's no shortage of dating sites. No one really knows how many there are but the answer is somewhere in the thousands. Like people, they come in all shapes and sizes.

Some are free, others are pricey. Some take everybody, some are selective. Many cater to individual tastes -- there are sites for gays, Jews, Christians, equestrians, millionaires, Hispanics and old white people.

There are even dating sites for virgins. Here's a sampling to get you started. We're not saying these are the best sites for you -- that's something you need to decide for yourself -- but like examining puppies or seaside condos, looking can be half the fun.

Might as well get started. Remember how we said there were sites that cater to every demographic slice imaginable? Well, here's one that specializes in New England, a locale that can be a little forbidding and frosty to the uninitiated. Fittingly for a site in a region that cherishes its history and traditions, Successful Singles has been around since , which is not quite the Colonial Era but actually predates the Internet as we know it.

Successful Singles even goes so far as to announce that it is not an online dating site, instead proclaiming itself to the 'the premier social introduction service in Boston. The approach seems to work with the upscale client base it's targeting. At ConsumerAffairs, we don't hear much about Successful Singles but what we do hear is pretty positive. Joined Successful Singles and met women that were interested in having a long-term committed relationship. If the prospect of spending a New England winter by yourself is a chilling prospect, Successful Singles may be the answer..

It's Just Lunch uses an approach similar to Successful Singles, offering to pair up compatible couples for lunch or a drink after work. Describing itself as a 'dating service for professionals,' It's Just Lunch also uses a personal counselor approach, hoping to find just the right chemistry in each situation.

With offices in major cities, it's not restricted to a single geographic area. The reviews we're received at ConsumerAffairs the last few years have been largely positive, like this one from Michael of North Carolina: The dates have all been delightful, professional women. I have enjoyed my experiences, and have made a connection with one of the women. That may sound like a lot and while it may be true that money can't buy happiness, it may at least make the down payment.

No matter how much or little you spend, being too rigid in your expectations or specifications can lead to frustration. One negative review we read said the client wanted to meet no one older than 32 and became angry when one date turned out to be The world is a big place but perhaps not quite big enough to be so inflexible in our choices.

Contracts mean what they say. If a dating service says it will introduce you to two people a month, it's not realistic to expect it to produce more than that..

Maybe it's just that folks really are friendly or at least very cold in Canada and unusually grateful for human warmth but for whatever reason, Lifemates Canada seems to have a stellar record of forging new alliances. Lunch is OK but what if you want to go skydiving or horseback riding? That's where Events and Adventures comes in. Operating in nine cities, Events and Adventures organizes a series of events each month for its invitation-only clients. Each month is packed with great event choices: So many different events.

I had a great time at the Extreme Adventure Course up in Flagstaff. There have been a lot of nice people. To join, applicants must be successfully interviewed and must certify that they are single. I went bowling, I went to both singles mixers, both party buses, movies.

But my favorite was the Halloween haunted house party bus. The dating services we've looked at so far have all been, to one degree or another, what the MBA types call niche plays -- designed to appeal to a certain slice of society, and generally a higher socio-economic slice at that.

They all have a personal 'facetime' element as well -- you have to meet, or at least talk to, a human being to be accepted. It's what we might all a 'pure Internet play' -- everything's done online, nearly anyone can register and what happens after that is up to you.

It's perhaps the difference between using a personal shopper at Nordstrom and just going online and buying something that looks about right on eBay. As you would expect, this creates a lot more room for error. On the other hand, it's a lot cheaper -- nearly free, in fact. Like any do-it-yourself project, usine a site like Match. Take Poonsie of Gaithersburg, Md. I recognized Nigerian accent in phone and told them I was going to report them.

They cancelled their accounts and now I can't find them in Match. It's a good thing Poonsie came to her senses but lots of others don't. Last month, our Jennifer Abel wrote about a woman who to an online suitor who had concocted some sort of story about needing money to get to the U. So the two could begin their blissful relationship. This is the kind of thing that can happen on low-cost, mostly unmoderated sites so it's essential to be on your guard at all times.

Even in the best circles, things are often not what they seem and online, they can be truly dreadful, even dangerous. You might meet up with someone like George of Farmington Hills, Mich.: I am an admitted violent offender with a police record.

I keep getting emails from match. We haven't verified George's claims but if you scroll through the on our site, it becomes quickly apparent that, while there may be really great people lurking on Match, there are quite a few others who probably would not make great luncheon companions, let alone lovers.

On the other hand, it's also true that there are lots of great opportunities just waiting to unfold on Match. It's easy to forget this, since it's generally the people who are disappointed who are most likely to go public, while those whose search is successful aren't as inclined to tell the world about it. A close friend, I was told, is in a serious relationship that grew out of, a site that operates much like Match but on a somewhat smaller scale.

My immediate response was that nobody ever tells me anything. My daughter assured me that in her circle of friends in Los Angeles, everyone just assumes when new relationships spring up that the people met online. Everybody's too busy working and going to auditions,' she said. OK, you're paying somebody to do it, but it's the same principle. Back in my misspent youth as a reporter for large news agencies, I tended to move every year or two.

Valuing my liver, I didn't want to hang out with other journalists, so I prowled what we then called alternative weekies -- New Times, the Village Voice, etc. I also tried mountaineering clubs, sailing lessons and sports car racing. Actually, there weren't many women racing sports cars but at least we lonely guys got to drive fast without getting in trouble.

I met several significant others this way, not to mention quite a few insignificant others. An easy way to get started is to read the reviews on our site and others.

Do this before you sign anything. You would not believe how often we hear, 'If only I had read your site before I. Only then should you provide your credit card number or fork over any cash. Finally, as in all things, hope for the best but prepare for the worst. Things may work out great in the end but you will most likely need to make course corrections along the way. Everyone has setbacks but all's well that ends well and, as they say, it's not over til it's over.

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Incubators are also used in the industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to both temperature and humidity. The most commonly used both for bacteria such as the frequently used E. For other organisms used in experiments, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one container to create a multi-well plate.

While glass Petri dishes may be reused after sterilization, plastic Petri dishes are often disposed of after experiments where cultures might contaminate each other, Petri dishes are often used to make agar plates for microbiology studies. Once the agar cools and solidifies, the dish is ready to be inoculated with a microbe-laden sample, virus or phage cultures require a two-stage inoculation, after the agar preparation, bacteria are grown in the dish to provide hosts for the viral inoculum.

Petri dishes are used for eukaryotic cell culture in a liquid medium or on solid agar. Their transparency and flat profile also mean they are used as temporary receptacles for viewing samples, especially liquids. Replica plating — The technique involves pressing a velveteen-covered disk, and then imprinting secondary plates with cells in colonies removed from the original plate by the material.

Generally, large numbers of colonies are replica plated due to the difficulty in streaking each out individually onto a separate plate, the purpose of replica plating is to be able to compare the master plate and any secondary plates, typically to screen for a desired phenotype. For example, when a colony that was present on the plate, fails to appear on a secondary plate. Common screenable phenotypes include auxotrophy and antibiotic resistance, replica plating is especially useful for negative selection.

However, it is correct to refer to negative screening instead of using the term selection. For example, if one wanted to select colonies that were sensitive to ampicillin, the sensitive colonies on the secondary plate would die but the colonies could still be deduced from the primary plate since the two have the same spatial patterns from ampicillin resistant colonies.

The sensitive colonies could then be picked off from the primary plate, frequently the last plate will be non-selective. If one sees growth on the plate but not the second one.

If the non-selective plate shows no growth, one cannot say whether viable cells were transferred at all and this is particularly useful if there are questions about the age or viability of the cells on the original plate. The development of replica plating required two steps, the first step was to define the problem, a method of identifiably duplicating colonies.

The second step was to devise a means to implement the first step. Replica plating was first described by Esther Lederberg and Joshua Lederberg in , however, Joshua Lederberg notes that the first step of defining the problem had been done by others before them.

Several attempts were made to solve the second step. Metabolism — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical.

Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells. The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require.

A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history.

Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins. Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism.

Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy.

Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.

Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached.

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. Mutation rate — In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time. Mutation rates are given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations. The rate of substitutions can be subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

The mutation rate of an organism is a characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism. The upper and lower limits to which mutation rates can evolve is the subject of ongoing investigation, different genetic variants within a species are referred to as alleles, and so a new mutation is said to create a new allele. In population genetics, each allele is characterized by a selection coefficient, the selection coefficient can either be negative, corresponding to an expected decrease, positive, corresponding to an expected increase, or zero, corresponding to no expected change.

An organisms mutation rates can be measured by a number of techniques, many sites in an organisms genome may not admit mutations with large fitness effects. These sites are called neutral sites. Theoretically mutations under no selection become fixed between organisms at precisely the mutation rate, fixed synonymous mutations, i.

They are often used as estimates of that rate, despite the fact that some synonymous mutations have fitness effects. As an example, mutation rates have been inferred from the whole genome sequences of experimentally evolved replicate lines of Escherichia coli B.

A particularly labor-intensive way of characterizing the mutation rate is the mutation accumulation line and these different rates of nucleotide substitution are measured in substitutions per base pair per generation. For example, mutations in intergenic, or non-coding, DNA tend to accumulate at a faster rate than mutations in DNA that is actively in use in the organism and that is not necessarily due to a higher mutation rate, but to lower levels of purifying selection.

A region which mutates at predictable rate is a candidate for use as a molecular clock, in fact, the mutation rate of an organism may change in response to environmental stress.

The human mutation rate is higher in the germ line than the female. In general, the rate in unicellular eukaryotes and bacteria is roughly 0. This means that a human genome accumulates around 64 new mutations per generation because each full generation involves a number of divisions to generate gametes. Haldane — His article on abiogenesis in introduced the Primordial Soup Theory, and it became the foundation to build physical models for the chemical origin of life.

Haldane established human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he correctly proposed that sickle-cell disease confers some immunity to malaria. In he articulated Haldanes dilemma, a limit on the speed of evolution which subsequently proved incorrect.

He willed his body for medical studies, as he wanted to remain even in death. Clarke credited him as perhaps the most brilliant science populariser of his generation, nobel laureate Peter Medawar called Haldane the cleverest man I ever knew.

Haldane was born in Oxford to John Scott Haldane, a physiologist, scientist, a philosopher and a Liberal, and Louisa Kathleen Trotter and his younger sister, Naomi Mitchison, became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane.

He learnt to read at the age of three, and at four, after injuring his forehead he asked the doctor, Is this oxyhaemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin. From age eight he worked with his father in their home laboratory where he experienced his first self-experimentation and he and his father became their own human guinea pigs, such as in their investigation on the effects of poison gases.

In his family moved to Cherwell, a late Victorian house at the outskirts of Oxford having its private laboratory and his formal education began in at Oxford Preparatory School, where he gained a First Scholarship in to Eton. In he joined Eton, where he experienced severe abuse from senior students for allegedly being arrogant, the indifference of authority left him with a lasting hatred for the English education system. However, the ordeal did not stop him from becoming Captain of the school and he studied mathematics and classics at New College at the University of Oxford and obtained first-class honours in mathematical moderations in and a first-class honours in With his father he published his first scientific paper, age 20 and he became engrossed in genetics and presented a paper on gene linkage in vertebrates in the summer of His first technical paper, a page long article on function, was published.

He was promoted to lieutenant on 18 February and to temporary captain on 18 October. He served in France and Iraq, where he was wounded and he relinquished his commission on 1 April , retaining his rank of captain.

For his ferocity and aggressiveness in battles, his commander called him the bravest and dirtiest officer in my Army, between and he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford, where he researched physiology and genetics. He then moved to the University of Cambridge, where he accepted a readership in Biochemistry, from until he was also Head of Genetical Research at the John Innes Horticultural Institution.

University College London — University College London is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities. UCL also makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England.

In UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year. UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over departments, institutes. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics.

London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. In , the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began.

In , University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school. In , London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College.

The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in , in , the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine.

Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in , in , Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL. Median — The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

In simple terms, it may be thought of as the value of a data set. For example, in the set, the median is 6. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a set in statistics.

The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a typical value. For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a typical income is. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest, if there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked.

For example, consider the set of numbers,1,3,3,6,7,8,9 This set contains seven numbers, the median is the fourth of them, which is 6. If there are a number of observations, then there is no single middle value. This either gives the number or the halfway point between the two middle values. For example, with 14 values, the formula will give 7. There is no accepted standard notation for the median. In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced.

The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean, the median is 2 in this case, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4.

The widely cited empirical relationship between the locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, however. There are, however, various relationships for the difference between them, see below. Maximum likelihood — The method of maximum likelihood corresponds to many well-known estimation methods in statistics. For example, one may be interested in the heights of adult female penguins, MLE would accomplish this by taking the mean and variance as parameters and finding particular parametric values that make the observed results the most probable given the model.

In general, for a set of data and underlying statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation gives a unified approach to estimation, which is well-defined in the case of the normal distribution, maximum-likelihood estimation was recommended, analyzed and widely popularized by Ronald Fisher between and Maximum-likelihood estimation finally transcended heuristic justification in a proof published by Samuel S.

Wilks in , ironically, the only difficult part of the proof depends on the expected value of the Fisher information matrix, which is provided by a theorem by Fisher. Wilks continued to improve on the generality of the theorem throughout his life, some of the theory behind maximum likelihood estimation was developed for Bayesian statistics.

Reviews of the development of maximum likelihood estimation have been provided by a number of authors, suppose there is a sample x1, x2, …, xn of n independent and identically distributed observations, coming from a distribution with an unknown probability density function f0. It is however surmised that the function f0 belongs to a family of distributions, called the parametric model.

An MLE estimate is the same regardless of whether we maximize the likelihood or the log-likelihood function, for many models, a maximum likelihood estimator can be found as an explicit function of the observed data x1.

For many other models, however, no solution to the maximization problem is known or available. For some problems, there may be multiple estimates that maximize the likelihood, in the exposition above, it is assumed that the data are independent and identically distributed. In a simpler extension, an allowance can be made for data heterogeneity, put another way, we are now assuming that each observation xi comes from a random variable that has its own distribution function fi.

Poisson process — In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space.

The Poisson point process is defined on the real line. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange. In this setting, the process is used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, stochastic geometry, spatial statistics. On more abstract spaces, the Poisson point process serves as an object of study in its own right.

The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in different settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics. The point process depends on a mathematical object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, a locally integrable function or, in more general settings. In the first case, the constant, known as the rate or intensity, is the density of the points in the Poisson process located in some region of space.

The resulting point process is called a homogeneous or stationary Poisson point process, depending on the setting, the process has several equivalent definitions as well as definitions of varying generality owing to its many applications and characterizations.

Consequently, the notation, terminology and level of mathematical rigour used to define and study the Poisson point process, despite its different forms and varying generality, the Poisson point process has two key properties. If a Poisson point process is defined on some underlying space and this property is known under several names such as complete randomness, complete independence, or independent scattering and is common to all Poisson point processes.

In other words, there is a lack of interaction between different regions and the points in general, which motivates the Poisson process being called a purely or completely random process. The parameter, called rate or intensity, is related to the number of Poisson points existing in some bounded region. The homogeneous Poisson point process, when considered on the positive half-line, can be defined as a process, a type of stochastic process.

Scoring rule — In decision theory, a score function, or scoring rule, measures the accuracy of probabilistic predictions. It is applicable to tasks in which predictions must assign probabilities to a set of mutually exclusive discrete outcomes, the set of possible outcomes can be either binary or categorical in nature, and the probabilities assigned to this set of outcomes must sum to one.

A score can be thought of as either a measure of the calibration of a set of probabilistic predictions, if a cost is levied in proportion to a proper scoring rule, the minimal expected cost corresponds to reporting the true set of probabilities. Various scoring rules have also used to assess the predictive accuracy of forecast models for association football.

The main characteristic of such scoring rules is S is just a function of the value of G. An example of probabilistic forecasting is in meteorology where a weather forecaster may give the probability of rain on the next day.

A poorly calibrated forecaster might be encouraged to do better by a bonus system, a bonus system designed around a proper scoring rule will incentivize the forecaster to report probabilities equal to his personal beliefs. In addition to the case of a binary decision, such as assigning probabilities to rain or no rain, scoring rules may be used for multiple classes, such as rain, snow. The image to the shows a example of a scoring rule. One way to use this rule would be as a cost based on the probability that a forecaster or algorithm assigns, a probabilistic forecaster or algorithm will return a probability vector r with a probability for each of the i outcomes.

One usage of a function could be to give a reward of S if the ith event occurs. If a proper scoring rule is used, then the highest expected reward is obtained by reporting the probability distribution.

The use of a scoring rule encourages the forecaster to be honest to maximize the expected reward. A scoring rule is strictly proper if it is optimized by the true probabilities. Optimized in this case will correspond to maximization for the quadratic, spherical and this can be seen in the image at right for the logarithmic rule.

Albomycin — Albomycin is a naturally occurring sideromycin produced by some streptomycetes. Rifamycin — The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica or artificially.

They are a subclass of the family of ansamycins. Rifamycins are particularly effective against mycobacteria, and are used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy. The rifamycin group includes the classic rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, rifalazil, Streptomyces mediterranei was first isolated in from a soil sample collected near the beach-side town of St Raphael in southern France.

In , the bacterium was renamed Nocardia mediterranei when another scientist named Thiemann found that it has a cell wall typical of the Nocardia species, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, Bala et al.

Initially, a family of closely related antibiotics was discovered referred to as Rifamycin A, B, C, D, E, the only component of this mixture sufficiently stable to isolate in a pure form was Rifamycin B, which unfortunately was poorly active.

However, further studies showed that Rifamycin B was essentially inactive, simple reduction of Rifamycin S yielded the hydroquinone form called Rifamycin SV, which became the first member of this class to enter clinical use as an intravenous antibiotic.

Further chemical modification of Rifamycin SV yielded an improved analog Rifamide, which was introduced into clinical practice. S, patent 3,, was granted in September The drug is widely regarded as having helped conquer the issue of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the s, rifamycins have been used for the treatment of many diseases, the most important one being HIV-related tuberculosis.

But the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen had higher rates of treatment completion and lower rates of hepatotoxicity, however, the rate of treatment-limiting adverse events was higher in the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen.

However, despite their activity against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, because of this Rifampin, and other rifamycins, are typically used in combination with other antibacterial drugs.

This is routinely practiced in TB therapy and serves to prevent the formation of mutants that are resistant to any of the drugs in the combination. The antibacterial activity of rifamycins relies on the inhibition of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis and this is due to the high affinity of rifamycins for the prokaryotic RNA polymerase.

The selectivity of the rifamycins depends on the fact that they have a very poor affinity for the mammalian enzyme. Microcin J25 — Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides.

For this reason, they are distinct from their larger protein cousins, the classic example is microcin V, of E.

Subtilosin A is another bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis, the peptide has a cyclized backbone and forms three cross-links between the sulphurs of Cys13, Cys7 and Cys4 and the alpha-positions of Phe22, Thr28 and Phe It is found that these bacteriocins target and eliminate iron-starved pathogens, specifically, the protein targets the pathogens are producing iron-scavenging protein in response to a low iron environment.

As of 5 January , PubMed has more than As of the date, In , NLM changed the system so that publishers will be able to directly correct typos. Simple searches on PubMed can be carried out by entering key aspects of a subject into PubMeds search window, when a journal article is indexed, numerous article parameters are extracted and stored as structured information.

Such parameters are, Article Type, Secondary identifiers, Language, publication type parameter enables many special features. As these clinical girish can generate small sets of robust studies with considerable precision, since July , the MEDLINE article indexing process extracts important identifiers from the article abstract and puts those in a field called Secondary Identifier.

The secondary identifier field is to store numbers to various databases of molecular sequence data, gene expression or chemical compounds. If relevant, several studies can be selected and related articles to all of them can be generated using the Find related data option, the related articles are then listed in order of relatedness. To create these lists of related articles, PubMed compares words from the title and abstract of each citation, as well as the MeSH headings assigned, using a powerful word-weighted algorithm.

The related articles function has been judged to be so precise that some researchers suggest it can be used instead of a full search, a strong feature of PubMed is its ability to automatically link to MeSH terms and subheadings.

Examples would be, bad breath links to halitosis, heart attack to myocardial infarction, where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically expanded, that is, include more specific terms. Terms like nursing are automatically linked to Nursing or Nursing and this important feature makes PubMed searches automatically more sensitive and avoids false-negative hits by compensating for the diversity of medical terminology.

Nature journal — Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month. The journal has a circulation of around 53, There are also sections on books and arts, the remainder of the journal consists mostly of research papers, which are often dense and highly technical.

There are many fields of research in which important new advances, the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. In Nature received the Princess of Asturias Award for Communications, the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written mostly in German or French, as well as in English.

Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances particularly in the half of the 19th century. In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the s to the s.

According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as organs of science, in essence, Nature, first created in , was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain.

While Recreative Science had attempted to more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology. Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in and and these similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in , Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student, the Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in The Reader terminated in , and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, janet Browne has proposed that far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived, born, and raised to serve polemic purpose.

Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors and this is what Lockyers journal did from the start.

Norman Lockyer, the founder of Nature, was a professor at Imperial College and he was succeeded as editor in by Sir Richard Gregory. Gregory helped to establish Nature in the scientific community. During the years to , editorship of Nature changed three times, first in to A.

Brimble, then to John Maddox in , and finally to David Davies in In , Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until , philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications.

ArXiv — In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,, arXiv. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around , Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Additional modes of access were added, FTP in , Gopher in The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx.

Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world. Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv. As of 14 January , institutions have pledged support for the period — on this basis, in September , Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development.

The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories.

Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all.

However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there — let them go and read about it.

The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty2 Genome Page. Accessed March 28, Complete genome structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurum LT2. Baker S and Dougan G. The Genome of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. University of Texas Medical Branch; Yamamoto S, Kutsukake K. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Mahon CR, Manuselis G. Mahon CR, Manuselis G, editors. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Brock Biology of Microorganisms.

Thorns C, Woodward M. Wray C, Wray A, editors. Salmonella in Domestic Animals. Aloe Vera Discovery Internet. Ecology and modelling of Escherichia coli O H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cattle manureand soil. Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites Internet. Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis.

Swanson, JA, and C. Transepithelial Signaling to Neutrophils by Salmonellae: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Salmonella. Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Contributions of the combined effects of topoisomerase mutations toward fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli.

Emergence of Salmonella epidemics: Zhou L, Pollard A. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. This student page has not been curated.

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Fast Track Veterinary Booth: In , FTD launched a range of lyophilised kits for the detection of infectious diseases in companion animals. Our veterinary team works to assure our FTD veterinary tests give you the most precise and accurate results in less than 2 hours. First Home Bank Booth: Fovea Digital Radiography Booth: Cutting-edge technology and top-of-the-line equipment make Fovea the industry leader. With a full list of Fovea Digital Radiography systems to choose from, we re positive you ll be able to find one that fits your practice perfectly.

These innovative design features lend themselves to the veterinary practitioner. Golden Link Microbial Supplements Booth: Golden Link is a formulated Direct Fed Microbial DFM Supplement that contains live viable probiotics mixed with live yeast, yeast culture, enzymes and immune stimulating agents. It is formulated for the Bovine, Equine and Companion Animal. We started Gravity Payments to reduce the costs and headaches associated with accepting credit card payments by providing simple, fair, and seamless solutions.

From in-exam room credit card processing, to integration with your system, Gravity Payments strives to bring you the best merchant service options possible for your specific vet clinic needs.

We have a variety of products for any of your nerve block or pain injection needs. Henry Schein Animal Health partners with over supply partners to bring veterinarians the broadest selection of products to companion animal, equine and large animal practices including: We are committed to delivering our veterinary customers with the best customer experience possible. We also offer solutions that integrate with our software platforms, including Vetstreet and Rapport marketing and communication services, credit card processing, hardware sales, and more.

For information, visit HSveterinarysolutions. Hundreds of innovative veterinarians all over North America are using Hero braces with great results to help pets with cruciate ligament tears get moving again when surgery is not an option. General practices and specialty clinics alike are having great success with custom Hero braces. Stop by to learn more about Hero's innovative stifle, carpal, and hock braces. Founded more than 75 years ago with an unwavering commitment to pet nutrition, Hill's mission is to help enrich and lengthen the special relationships between people and their pets.

Hot Dog Patient Warming Booth: No blowing air and no water Clinically proven to be more effective than air and water systems. It's safe, effective, durable, and reusable. We are continually adding to our product lines of medical, surgical, x-ray and pharmaceutical supplies.

We pride ourselves on providing quality products and great service at competitive prices. HSB large enough to serve small enough to care. Stop by our booth to say hello and learn more about our dedicated line of products and sales team.

Hudson makes underwater treadmill systems that can be found around the world in fitness centers, hospitals, veterinary teaching colleges, YMCA's, physical therapy offices, college and professional sports training centers, military facilities and hospitals, barns and equine tracks. The Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association HSVMA was formed as a home for veterinary professionals who want to engage in direct care programs for animals in need and educate the public and others in the profession about animal welfare issues.

Hyperbaric Veterinary Medicine Booth: Designed for and engineered by veterinarians and hyperbaric professionals in the USA, hvm was the first to realize the glaring need for HBOT in veterinary facilities worldwide.

With chambers placed across the United States in veterinary clinics, hospitals and top schools of medicine at the University of Florida, Auburn University and LSU, hvm has now expanded overseas to the United Kingdom with a chamber at the revered Fitzpatrick Referrals. Hvm is The Standard in Veterinary Hyperbarics. IDEXX is a leader in pet healthcare innovation, serving practicing veterinarians around the world with a broad range of diagnostic and information technology-based products. IISG is a partnership of University of Illinois, Purdue University, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and serves a critical role in empowering the people of Illinois and Indiana to solve environmental problems in sustainable ways.

Our products meet the needs for diagnostics, treatment and safety in all veterinary areas. Infinity Massage Chairs Booth: Our mission is to improve the health and wellness of our customers to live more comfortably and make the most of every day. Experience relaxation at booth !

From surgeries, to non-healing wounds, and day-to-day skin ailments, Vetericyn Plus is available in both practice and dispensing sizes that provide a streamlined and synergistic approach to wound care that will elevate your expectations for healing. The International Veterinary Acupuncture Society IVAS has been setting the global standard in veterinary acupuncture since Our Certification Course in veterinary acupuncture integrates a background of the fundamentals of the scientific basis for acupuncture, as well as a background in the fundamentals and applications of Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM.

Our program prepares the veterinarian for integration of acupuncture into everyday clinical practice. Fluid Delivery Systems designed exclusively for large and small animals. Stop paying your staff to replace catheters, clean up wet cages and stalls and attend to beeping infusion pumps. International Win's Flex-coil Swivel I.

System are your answers. Both Systems allow continuous, unattended and economical I. Please visit us in booth , you ll be happy you did! Jorgensen Laboratories is known for high quality veterinary surgical suture, instruments and equipment. See the Jorvet range of capital equipment including the Cool Renewal cryosurgical kit, the Tonovet, centrifuges, microscopes, anesthesia machines, monitoring devices and the latest in laser therapy.

Kaivac delivers science-based cleaning systems designed to help pet facilities clean better, faster and more efficiently than other available alternatives. The results are cleaner, safer buildings that keep pets, customers, and employees safe.

Our systems offer an extremely low cost of ownership and address a wide range of cleaning needs, including daily floor cleaning, spill response and weather related cleaning on examination rooms, waiting areas, kennels, entrances, restrooms and much more.

The mission of the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory KSVDL is to develop and deliver accurate, innovative, and timely diagnostic and consultative services to the veterinary and animal health community. The Rabies Laboratory is the primary diagnostic lab for the states of Kansas and Nebraska, and one of the highest volume rabies serology centers in the world.

This RACE CEapproved course provides veterinary care teams with easy-to-implement protocols that will transform the experience of the dogs and cats in your care. King Lion Inc Booth: Please feel free to check our web site K-Laser Booth: K-Laser s revolutionary Class IV deep tissue therapy laser accelerates wound healing, decreases inflammation, reduces pain, and increases joint flexibility with no side effects.

With a focus on the overall quality of life for pets, as well as evolving technology, K-Laser is committed to providing the most advanced and effective tools to treat pain.

Lands' End Business Booth: The Lands End Business offers high quality products with top of the line logo embroidery. Elevate your brand with Lands' End Business. Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice Booth: Lap of Love is a national practice dedicated exclusively to in-home end of life care for pets. Our veterinarians help pets and their owners with quality of life assessments, palliative care, end of life consultations, and peaceful euthanasia in the comfort of the pet's favorite place - home.

Lenderking Caging Products manufacturers a complete line of high quality and innovative animal housing for veterinary practices. Our products are based on decades of experience supplying housing for lab animals, the most demanding environment of animal housing.

The Lesbian and Gay Veterinary Medical Association is the professional organization that fosters acceptance, inclusivity and leadership for veterinarians, veterinary technicians, veterinary students, of all sexual orientations and gender identities, and their allies, through community development, professional advocacy, and personal empowerment.

Lighthouse Veterinary Personnel Services Booth: Lighthouse Veterinary Personnel Services provides relief veterinarians and permanent associates to veterinary practices in the Midwest.

LMU-CVM Program Highlights include nationally renowned veterinary educators with a commitment to teaching and lifelong learning; hands-on based veterinary education that begins your first semester; clinical experience with a varied and busy caseload that emphasizes a team approach; world class DeBusk Veterinary Teaching Center DVTC that students utilize from the first semester and onwards and education that includes leadership skills, communications and community service.

Live Oak Bank Booth: When considering funding for real estate, acquisition, refinance, or ground up construction, let us be your financing solution. Our commitment to research and development has resulted in pharmaceutical and nutritional products with the highest level of stability, safety and efficacy. With extensive expertise across multiple veterinary disciplines and species, we manufacture and supply a vast array of innovative, practical products in categories including: Veterinarian owned and trusted globally, we have been servicing the animal healthcare industry for over 40 years.

Without a doubt - we are experts in the lab. Our Veterinary Reference Lab is known for having a depth of experienced pathologists and technologists focused on delivering consistent and reliable testing services that go beyond what is expected. A key medical technology innovator, Masimo is responsible for the invention of awardwinning noninvasive technologies, medical devices, and a wide array of sensors that are revolutionizing patient monitoring in various care settings.

MDS Incorporated offers unique and affordable diagnostic equipment, such as headlights, endoscopes, and video equipment for all Veterinarians. We offer different solutions tailored to the need of each practice, in order to offer the best value. Meds for Vets Pharmacy Booth: We offer a diverse portfolio of products for companion animal, equine, and food animal practices as well as client retention and revenue building platforms.

Merck Animal Health Booth: The Merck Veterinary Manual introduces the new 11th edition, completely updated and reflecting the latest advances in veterinary medicine in all species, including exotics, as well as a new public health section. Say hello at the booth, see the mobile app, place an order and enter to win a book! MILA International is an innovative company that has developed veterinary medical products that are otherwise commercially unavailable.

Mindray provides leading technology and solutions for the veterinary care market, from the smallest to largest patient. Allergy is a premier manufacturer of allergen avoidance products. Atopic dermatitis in dogs is often provoked by house dust mite allergen, which is plentiful in pet beds. Our Allergy-Approved dog beds are made with a barrier fabric proven to prevent the escape of dust mite allergen, while allowing the passage of air and water vapor for comfort.

Come to the booth to see live dust mites. Modern Veterinary Media, Inc. Morton Buildings Inc-Morton designbuild Booth: As a singlesource resource with a national footprint, designbuild is trusted by customers to manage the entire process of a construction project. From managing pain to healing wounds, our laser technology has been clinically proven safe and effective for companion, equine and exotic animals, with no side effects. Expand your practice s treatment options with Multi Radiance laser therapy.

MWI Animal Health, an AmerisourceBergen company, is a leading distributor of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, diets, equipment and supplies to companion, equine and livestock veterinarians and producers in the United States. Additionally, our associates routinely consult with accounts on critical business matters including inventory management, operations and marketing. Learn more at mwianimalhealth. My Pet's Brace Booth: Knee braces are a successful alternative when surgery is not an option due to the dog's age, desire for conservative management or financial concerns.

In , we worked with over veterinarians and fabricated over 1, braces for dogs living around the world. The USDA s National Veterinary Accreditation Program will be located at Booth As an accredited veterinarian, if you would like information on the program or need to learn how to have your accreditation reinstated stop by.

AAST modules will be presented. Check your program for dates and times. National Veterinary Associates Booth: NVA owns more than hospitals in 40 states and Canada. NVA makes available the resources for hospitals to achieve their goals while avoiding any standardized national plan. It s the best pet insurance ever.

Visit VetPetNationwide to learn more. New Planet Technologies offers a suite of software solutions allowing Veterinarians and clients to closely collaborate to improve 8 8 convention program avmaconvention.

Conduct remote health diagnostics, disease surveillance, accurately and quickly document animal health papers ecvi , and establish and manage your valid Vet Client Patient Relationships. Nutramax Laboratories Veterinary Sciences, Inc. Products include Solliquin behavioral health supplement, Cobalequin cobalamin tablets, Proviable Forte multi-strain probiotics with prebiotics, the 1 veterinarian recommended joint health supplement brand Dasuquin ask us about Dasuquin Advanced , the 1 veterinarian recommended liver support brand Denamarin, Welactin omega-3 supplement, and Crananidin for urinary tract health.

Visit our booth to learn more. The OIE is an intergovernmental organisation with a mandate from its Member Countries to improve animal health and welfare worldwide.

It is responsible for ensuring transparency of the animal disease situation, including zoonoses, for the publication of disease prevention and control methods as well as for safeguarding the sanitary safety of world trade in animals, and ensuring animal production food safety. Optimize Social Media Booth: Optimize Social Media specializes in social media and reputation management. We create and utilize social media in a unique way to help our clients stand out.

Visit Pala-Tech Laboratories exhibit to learn about our high quality, palatable products for use in dogs, cats and horses. Our objective is to help you improve dosing compliance and ensure complete dosage consumption, which will result in better clinical results and satisfied clients.

Product samples are available and ask about our unique Custom Coupon marketing program to help you increase your clinic revenue. Our partnership structure creates an exceptional exit strategy for practice owners that maximizes the value of their life s work and allows them to refocus on their passion - veterinary medicine. We are proud to offer exciting career opportunities and benefits for veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and support staff throughout the US.

We promote an emotionally intelligent, positive culture that enables practices to achieve their vision, preserve the hospital s unique identity, and make life better for their teams. Patterson Veterinary has helped small animal, equine and mixed animal practices succeed with the best products, consistently outstanding customer service and industryleading equipment and supplies.

We offer an array of value added business solutions and signature programs that you wouldn't expect. Please visit our booth to learn how Patterson Veterinary can strengthen and enhance your practice and patient health. Pella Veterinary Apparel and Supplies, a division of Pella Products, has been making and selling professional veterinary uniforms and necessities specific to this industry for over 50 years. Our product selection ranges from durable veterinary specialty outerwear to stylish shirts and rounds out with our carefully selected line of professional scrub and surgical supplies.

Reach more of your clients every day with a free app for clients, a compliance roadmap, a client retention tool, and everything else you need in a fully integrated reminder system.

Pet Health Pharmacy Booth: Pet Health Pharmacy makes caring for pets easy! Our compounded medications are available in a variety of dosage forms, and our service is second to none. Custom Compounding with Our Personal Touch. Pet Loss Professionals Alliance Booth: The Pet Loss Center is the resource for pet owners and veterinarians looking for professional pet loss services.

Cremation, burial, memorialization options and pet loss support can all be found at The Pet Loss Center and the caring team of pet death care professionals. Our product lines include training and bark control, containment and pet deterrents, water and feed, waste management solutions, interactive toys, premium treats and pet doors. Please visit us at booth Both products are effective on all animals, large and small.

Advancing global animal and human health and well-being through excellence in learning, discovery and engagement. Visit our booth to learn more about our lifelong learning programs, alumni events, veterinary referral services, diagnostic services, and publications.

Purina is a leader in the field of canine and feline nutrition, helping you make a daily impact on your patients quality of life. Stop by our exhibit to learn more about our breakthrough therapeutic Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets formulas and our probiotic supplement, FortiFlora. Discover how innovative Purina research can help you nutritionally manage pets with diabetes mellitus, obesity, gastrointestinal, joint and urinary conditions, as well as nutritionally manage dogs with epilepsy as an adjunct to veterinary therapy.

Receive dietary information on our therapeutic and wellness products. For more information, visit www. Quantel Medical markets a full range of ultrasound and laser products designed for treatment and diagnosis in ophthalmology. Radiocat is the world's leader in the treatment of feline hyperthyroidism. RapidBac VET is the first and only rapid test kit for the direct determination of bacteria in urine.

Until now, the only accurate method of determining bacteriuria was by urine culture an expensive and time-consuming test performed at specialized laboratories.

The Ren-Lor Stethoscope offers exceptional sound quality through noise and thick layers that is guaranteed with a lifetime warranty. Our hand painted and jewel tone laser designs represent your personality. We can even incorporate your company s logo. Come by our booth to see our brand-new designs and meet the artist!

We offer a variety of innovative dosage forms: Flex Tabs, Mini Melts, Oti-packs, capsules, suspensions, injectables, transdermal gels and ophthalmic preparations.

We are an excellent resource for compounding backordered or discontinued medications with the highest level of quality assurance testing in the industry. Stop by and ask about our Guaranteed Overnight Delivery program! Rose Micro Solutions Booth: We named the company after our mother "ROSE".

Our customer service is 2nd to none! Visit us or call Thank You for your Business! Royal Canin Veterinary Diet Booth: Now our very popular HempRx is available in a convenient, easy-to-administer soft chew format. Please stop by our booth to see what s new. Come see us at our booth to find out how scil can improve your practice. Scratch handles approvals, payment plans, and financing so your clients can afford the care their pets need.

There are no set-up or subscription fees, no long term contracts or commitments, and no hardware requirements and Scratch pays your clinic in full up front via direct deposit. Sechrist Veterinary Health Booth: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is a modality in which the patient is placed in a chamber and breathes oxygen at a pressure greater than one atmosphere. Select Merchant Solutions Booth: Let us show you why. Select Merchant Solutions is the preferred merchant processor for thousands of Veterinarians, Dentists, Self Storage Facilities and more.

Our average all in rate is 1. That is all fees included. Send us a recent merchant statement so we can do our free rate analysis. Sentier has worked with veterinarians and technicians to develop the industry's most portable and competitively priced multiparameter patient monitor the Vetcorder. Sentier is committed to bringing the most innovative, cost efficient and clinically relevant devices to the veterinary market.

Shor-Line is a third generation family owned and operated animal care equipment manufacturing company. We have maintained a business philosophy dedicated to quality products and service. Shor-Line is constantly reinventing and adding to an extensive array of products to help animal health professionals provide the best possible care for their patients. Our continued research, field-testing and quality control enable us to provide quality equipment worldwide.

The signs come in over 40 sizes and include LED message centers where "Every time you can change your mind, you can change your sign! Simmons Great Lakes Booth: Simmons prides itself in providing expertise for buying, selling and appraising veterinary practices.

SmartBrief is the leading digital publisher of targeted professional news by industry. Animal Health SmartBrief is a subscriptiononly digital news briefing for veterinarians. SmartBrief partners with AVMA to deliver the top animal health, veterinary medicine, and professional news to our subscribers. Project - Safe Harbor Farm Booth: Dealing with anxiety, aggression, hyperactivity, stranger reactivity, resource guarding, submissive urination or poor manners? Don't reach for drugs!

Learn how to reduce tension, improve your timing, communicate clearly and really enjoy your dogs! Our product line includes: Faces and all corners are sealed with polyester resin, giving a watertight seal making cleaning easy and efficient. With over ten million creatures successfully treated both fourlegged and two there has never been a single report of a serious adverse effect as a result of being treated with Microcynbased products.

It is a superior hypochlorous acid solution that is clinically proven safe, non-toxic and effective. Can safely be used around the nose, eyes, ears and mouth and requires no mixing or dilution.

Sound holds leadership positions in ultrasound, digital radiography, PACS, and education. Sound has recently added the Emerging Technologies division which includes Advanced Imaging with CT computed tomography and laser therapy systems.

Specialty Veterinary Pharmacy Booth: Specialty Veterinary Pharmacy SVP is a compounding pharmacy serving veterinary clinicians seeking outstanding quality, affordability, and service. SVP is known for providing customized and innovative solutions for hardto-find drugs and hard-to-medicate pets. We invented the IdealDose service to give you the exact dose you need, in a dosage form tailored to each patient. Spray Master Technologies Booth: Following the principles of founder, Dr. Royal Lee, the company delivers Standard Process Veterinary Formulas, designed for dogs, carts and horses.

The company also offers nutritional supplements for humans and is the exclusive U. Strategic Financial Group Booth: Customized solutions for your financial planning, insurance and investment management needs. Suburban Surgical Co, Inc. Superfit Canine is a proud supporter of working dogs by providing training opportunities to working K9 teams all over the country.

Surgical Power provides refurbished and new surgical equipment. We specialize in repairs and service of power equipment.

We offer blades, burs, and batteries for surgical drills and saws. Tartar Shield Pet Products Booth: Tartar Shield Products are patented, clinically proven dental care products sold in veterinary hospitals and not available in retail locations.

Recommended and used by Board Certified Dental Specialists. See for more information and visit our booth for free samples and show special! We partner with companies of all sizes to optimize accounting practices, limit and control delinquencies, and improve positive cash flow for the long-term.

Thermo Fisher Scientific Booth: Our Thermo Scientific Sensititre portfolio includes a range of manual, semi-automated and fully automated test platforms, and a full line of media and diagnostic products that offer an end-to-end solution to labs, enabling them to quickly deliver the quality results Veterinarians depend on.

Visit us at the booth. Thrive Vet Care Booth: Today's Veterinary Practice Booth: Subscribe now for FREE: Comprised of eight nationwide independent practice brokers including attorneys and several practice owners.

Our services include practices sales, brokerage services for buyers or sellers, partner buy-ins, consulting, appraisals, legal services and assistance 9 2 convention program avmaconvention. Visit us at or contact the broker representing your area. Our products have been showcased in award winning hospitals nationwide so if you d like to replace a bathing tub, remodel a treatment area or outfit a new hospital TriStar can help.

Our customer inspired stainless products are the TriStar difference. We perform architectural design and construction nationwide and specialize in the Veterinary Industry. Find it here - every day! Our dvm family of veterinary publications is your everyday resource for relevant clinical, practice management, and team information.

Our CVC conventions bring content to life, with an unconventional and innovative approach to topics and speaker interaction. Our patented UltiGuard is a tamper-proof container that doubles as an approved sharps container for an "all in one" sharps disposal solution Ultralight Optics Booth: Ultralight Featherlight is the award-winning, smallest, and lightest LED loupe-light with custom made attachments that will fit onto all loupes, glasses, safety glasses, everything!

With 6 full intensity levels and touch-free upgrade option available, have a system that really works for you. Proprietary, Shatterproof head provides excellent acoustics in a loud clinical setting a vet clinic is loud? Our pressure sensitive diaphragm makes listening through any thickness of fur coat possible We have extended tubing for large animals as well.

We offer ultrasound and digital radiography packages featuring all-digital technology, portability, connectivity, education and training. Universal Medical Systems, Inc Booth: New or certified systems are available with a variety of financing and service options.

Universal Surgical Instruments Booth: USI has supported the veterinary field for over 30 years by attending major symposiums and local conferences and by providing top quality surgical instruments at reasonable prices. Our own line of Super Cut Scissors both in surgical types and technician varieties far surpass the competition in quality and price. We offer a wide variety of surgical instruments to meet your clinic's needs.

A pioneer in transformative learning experiences for veterinary students and professionals, Illinois creates knowledge that changes the world and delivers outstanding clinical service. Try your hand at PDA occlusion in a 3D heart model in our booth. VCA provides exit strategy options for private practice owners by acquiring free-standing practices with a cash transaction.

VCA helps owners achieve a more balanced life style by removing the burden of day-to-day management by providing resources and support to allow owners to focus on what they love to do. Vetamac also services most makes and models of Veterinary Anesthetic machines on site. The Vetamac name has become synonymous with quality and reliability. As part of the Petco corporation family of brands, we serve pets in more than Petco and Unleashed locations across the US.

At Vetco we work hard to provide affordable, quality care during convenient evening and weekend hours so pets stay healthy and pet parents stay happy! Stop by and talk to us about Veterinary career opportunities.

A digital evidence-based, point-ofcare decision support tool for instant access to the most current diagnostic and treatment information right on your mobile devices and laptop.

Now with fully integrated formulary. VetCor, founded in , is a family of more than exceptional hospitals in 23 states. Our central office provides management, marketing, and administrative support, allowing our practice teams to maximize focus on care of patients and clients. We maintain established practice names, styles, and employees; leave medical direction to each practice; and help our practices thrive with the help of added resources and shared ideas and experiences.

Metron PACS software, data archival and support, complete your diagnostics needs. Veterinary Concepts provides unique and innovative products with over 40 years of experience in the animal healthcare industry. We offer a wide array of products for large and small animal practitioners in categories including: Visit our booth to learn about our complete product line!

Veterinary Practice News is a business-tobusiness magazine for veterinarians and veterinary support staff published monthly. VPN showcases comprehensive and timely coverage of industry news and new products, highlights successful veterinary practices and practitioners, provides fresh and objective coverage of issues, trends and events, serves as an open forum for discussing controversial topics and covers new profit centers and best practices through its publication and corresponding website.

Currently Vet Innovations, Inc. The online marketing services are designed to equip veterinarians for success. Solutions include an advanced SEO solution, custom HD video and video marketing, paid advertising PPC , social media management, and optimized websites.

We connect veterinary product companies with veterinarians and hospital staff for surveys, focus groups and other research projects. We provide clients with a verified panel of veterinary professionals representative of U. And all our surveys pay incentives to participants.

It is an innovative, wearable simulation product for training in a clinic, classroom, and field setting. VetriScience Laboratories provides veterinarians, pet owners and pets with solutions to the most common animal health concerns.

Backed by science, and complementary to traditional therapies, our nutritional supplements are developed by veterinarians and use only the most pure and highly researched ingredients. For over 40 years, veterinarians have known VetriScience as a company that sets new standards of quality, safety and efficacy. VetScene is an independent company providing cutting-edge marketing tools that work seamlessly with your clinic's practice management software and will Increase Revenue, Improve Compliance, and Strengthen Client Loyalty.

Vetsource provides cutting edge, compliance building Home Delivery and pharmacy solutions to help veterinary hospitals meet their client s demand for convenience, while simultaneously driving increased revenue and profits. Please visit for more information. VetSpecs mission has always been to bring to the market innovative, valuable, easy-to-use, reliable, and affordable technologies to enhance patient care, improve staff productivity, and increase practice profitability.

We are proud that our products are used by thousands of veterinary professionals worldwide. ViaGen Pet Services Booth: Located in the US, we are recognized as the global leader in animal genetic preservation and cloning services.

Help your clients extend the loving bonds they enjoy with their pets. Companion pet cloning now available in the US. Offering products in heartworm, tick and flea, dermatology, antibiotic, endocrinology, senior care, behavior, critical care nutrition, and oral hygiene markets.

Virbac aspires to be the number one choice of veterinarians, your trusted resource. Please visit our booth and ask how we can help your practice. Virox Animal Health Booth: Virox Animal Health takes a Deliberately Different approach to biosecurity and infection prevention, with our revolutionary chemical disinfection technology combined with in-use protocols to optimize effectiveness. We are a proud sponsor of Fear Free, and committed to innovating, developing and improving peroxide based, environmentally sustainable cleaners and disinfectants for the companion animal health market.

Visual Management LLC offers a variety of simple visual communication tools for clinicians, staff and clients. Visual Management also provides promotional products, apparel and giveaway items for all your clinic s marketing needs.

These DeliverEase dosage forms may make administering medication easier, less expensive and more enjoyable for you, your patients and their owners. Visit our booth and learn more about Order.

Wells Fargo Practice Finance Booth: A leading specialty healthcare lender, we understand the business of growing successful practices. With no interest, no interest if paid in full, and extended term financing, your veterinary clinic can focus on providing care to your customers while growing your business.

Visit booth or WellsFargoHealthAdvantage. Our online scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, combined with our digital learning, assessment and certification solutions help universities, societies, businesses, governments, and individuals increase the academic and professional impact of their work.

Indoors, they provide traction and help dogs with mobility issues move easily. They are also a breathable solution for injured paws, and perfect for protecting hardwood floors. Outdoors, Power Paws protect year round against allergens, heat, snow, salt, and ice. They come in 13 sizes, 2 distinct foot shapes, and 3 durability levels. Over , dogs are wearing Power Paws in 53 countries. Come see what makes Power Paws so special! Zero Gravity Skin Booth: Building on more than 60 years of experience in animal health, Zoetis discovers, develops, manufactures and markets veterinary vaccines and medicines, complemented by diagnostic products and genetic tests and supported by a range of services.

Modalities and Management Dr. Berg Vaccine Symposium Room: Risk to Dogs Risk to Humans Dr. Case-Based Management Methods Dr. Mastering Routine and Complicated Spays Dr. Earn 1 CE credit! Still need to register? No problem registration is available at the event entrance. Sponsored by Sponsored by 9 8 convention program avmaconvention. See how fast you can pitch a baseball, or challenge your friends to a game of pick-up basketball!

Enjoy appetizers and a cash bar while learning fun facts about every college sport. See walking map on page 12 for directions. The Oceans Building houses penguins, seals, sea lions and a dog shark tank where you can actually pet the sharks! All restaurants within walking distance from your hotel, transportation not provided. Upon arrival at restaurant, check in with hostess as AVMA to be seated.

Stop at registration to see if there are any slots available. Attendees are responsible for their own dining expenses. FREE Tickets available at the door. Admission cost does not include food and drink purchases. Admission proceeds go to AVMF.

Sunday, July 23, 3: This Networking Event made possible through support from: Grand Ballroom 5 facebook. Concept A-D convention program avmaconvention. Join us in in the spectacular city of Denver for the world-class CE, networking opportunities, and fun you ve come to expect from the AVMA. Convention Denver July Receive discounted registration fees for consecutive years of attendance. Register online at avmaconvention. When registration opens in , you will be ed a link to register with the discount automatically applied.

It s that easy! Registration at each consecutive convention must have been a paid full convention registration type. Savings may not be combined with other convention discounts.

Loyalty Program membership is non-transferable. The AVMA may amend or discontinue this program at any time without notice. Crystal DeCotiis cdecotiis association partners. Lions, Lioness and Leos: This year s convention will highlight a year of growth and harmony for District A.

There is lots going on first quarter and we want to thank you for your membership and engagement! We welcome everyone from around the world to join us in learning. Willamette Humane Society WHS recognizes the first step in re-homing hard-to-place dogs is to work with the animals, making them more desirable pets, improving the transition into. Interstate Route 80 West through. Dec We realize there is a ton of info to read.

We provide these questions for your review and appreciate your taking the time. We put a great. Parasites live on the inside internal or on the outside. The following is a link to the. When customers go to work, go on vacation, have medical conditions, or. Aquarist The primary responsibility of an Aquarist is to care for the fish and invertebrates living in the many exhibits throughout the Aquarium.

This includes feeding the animals and maintaining their. Cards and phone calls are always appreciated. What s Bugging You? Owner Information Name s: Our foster families are a vital part of our organization, as we do not have a shelter.

What is an Antibiotic Stewardship Program? National Action Plan development support tools Sample Checklist This checklist was developed to be used by multidisciplinary teams in countries to assist with the development of their national action plan. We are going to visit the Note for parents, teachers and caregivers The following story is intended to be reviewed at school or home prior to your visit to the museum.

It will prepare students, especially. Helping Homeless Animals Source: Students read stories about animals who have become homeless due to some of the most common reasons for relinquishment. Wagman and Pamela D. The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a players chance of winning, the bell gave the machine its name.

Three bells in a row produced the biggest payoff, ten nickels, Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry. Even when the use of these devices was banned in his home state after a few years. The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers, thus in , manufacturer Herbert Mills from Chicago produced a slot machine called the Operator Bell.

By lots of bell machines were installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels, early machines, including an Liberty Bell, are now part of the Nevada State Museums Fey Collection.

Other early machines, such as the trade stimulator, gave out winnings in the form of fruit-flavoured chewing gums with pictures of the flavours as symbols on the reels, the popular cherry and melon symbols derive from this machine. In these cases, a mint vending machine was declared to be a device because by chance the machine would occasionally give the next user a number of tokens exchangeable for more candy. Despite the fact that the result of the next use would be displayed on the machine, the courts ruled that he appealed to the players propensity to gamble.

Escherichia coli — Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. The harmless strains are part of the flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2.

A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. During the staining process, E. Strains that possess flagella are motile, the flagella have a peritrichous arrangement. Optimum growth of E. It can, however, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation or anaerobic respiration, the ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates.

The bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages, the B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. The C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA, the D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division.

The doubling rate of E. At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA. Microbiological culture — A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions.

Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested and it is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium.

Furthermore, the culture is more generally used informally to refer to selectively growing a specific kind of microorganism in the lab. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. It is often essential to isolate a pure culture of microorganisms, a pure culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types. A pure culture may originate from a cell or single organism.

For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture, the medium of agarose gel is used, agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. A cheap substitute for agar is guar gum, which can be used for the isolation, there are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use.

One method of culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, such as Luria Broth. This allows a scientist to grow up large amounts of bacteria for a variety of downstream applications, liquid cultures are ideal for preparation of an antimicrobial assay in which the experimenter inoculates liquid broth with bacteria and lets it grow overnight. Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the activity of a specific drug or protein.

As an alternative, the microbiologist may decide to use static liquid cultures and these cultures are not shaken and they provide the microbes with an oxygen gradient. Microbiological cultures can be grown in petri dishes of differing sizes that have a layer of agar-based growth medium. Once the growth medium in the dish is inoculated with the desired bacteria.

After the desired level of growth is achieved, agar plates can be stored upside down in a refrigerator for a period of time to keep bacteria for future experiments. There are a variety of additives that can be added to agar before it is poured into a plate, some types of bacteria can only grow in the presence of certain additives.

This can also be used when creating engineered strains of a bacteria that contain an antibiotic-resistance gene, when the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow.

This allows the researcher to select only the colonies that were successfully transformed, stab cultures are similar to agar plates, but are formed by solid agar in a test tube. Agar — Agar or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, equivalent to vegan gelatin, obtained from algae. Agar is derived from the polysaccharide agarose, which forms the structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae.

These algae are known as agarophytes and belong to the Rhodophyta phylum, Agar is actually the resulting mixture of two components, the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.

Throughout history into modern times, agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia. The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the walls of some species of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium.

For commercial purposes, it is derived primarily from Gelidium amansii, in chemical terms, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose. Agar was first subjected to analysis in by the French chemist Anselme Payen.

Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used heavily as a medium for growing various microbes. Agar was first described for use in microbiology in by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying.

With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased and this production centered on Japan which produced most of the worlds agar until World War II.

However, with the outbreak of World War II many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research, around the time of World War II, approximately 2, tons of agar were produced annually. By the mids, production worldwide had increased dramatically to approximately 10, tons each year, since then, production of agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations.

The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae from which the jelly is produced and it is also known as Kanten, Japanese isinglass, Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss.

Agarose is a polymer, made up of repeating units of agarobiose. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes, phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm.

Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere, phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals.

They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe and they are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different virions, genomes, phages are classified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses according to morphology and nucleic acid.

Nineteen families are recognized by the ICTV that infect bacteria. Of these, only two families have RNA genomes, and only five families are enveloped, of the viral families with DNA genomes, only two have single-stranded genomes. Eight of the families with DNA genomes have circular genomes while nine have linear genomes.

Nine families infect bacteria only, nine infect archaea only, in , British bacteriologist Frederick Twort, superintendent of the Brown Institution of London, discovered a small agent that infected and killed bacteria. He believed the agent must be one of the following, a stage in the cycle of the bacteria.

It was DHerelle who conducted research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy. Phages were discovered to be agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia.

They had widespread use, including treatment of soldiers in the Red Army, however, they were abandoned for general use in the West for several reasons, Medical trials were carried out, but a basic lack of understanding of phages made these invalid.

Antibiotics were discovered and marketed widely and they were easier to make, store and to prescribe. Poisson distribution — The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as distance, area or volume. For instance, an individual keeping track of the amount of mail they receive each day may notice that they receive a number of 4 letters per day.

Other examples that may follow a Poisson, the number of calls received by a call center per hour or the number of decay events per second from a radioactive source.

The Poisson distribution is popular for modelling the number of times an event occurs in an interval of time or space. K is the number of times an event occurs in an interval, the rate at which events occur is constant. The rate cannot be higher in some intervals and lower in other intervals, two events cannot occur at exactly the same instant. The probability of an event in an interval is proportional to the length of the interval. If these conditions are true, then K is a Poisson random variable, an event can occur 0,1,2, … times in an interval.

This equation is the probability function for a Poisson distribution. Ugarte and colleagues report that the number of goals in a World Cup soccer match is approximately 2. Because the average event rate is 2. Mean — In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context. An analogous formula applies to the case of a probability distribution.

Not every probability distribution has a mean, see the Cauchy distribution for an example. Moreover, for some distributions the mean is infinite, for example, the arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1, x2. For a finite population, the mean of a property is equal to the arithmetic mean of the given property while considering every member of the population. For example, the mean height is equal to the sum of the heights of every individual divided by the total number of individuals.

The sample mean may differ from the mean, especially for small samples. The law of large numbers dictates that the larger the size of the sample, outside of probability and statistics, a wide range of other notions of mean are often used in geometry and analysis, examples are given below.

The geometric mean is an average that is useful for sets of numbers that are interpreted according to their product. The harmonic mean is an average which is useful for sets of numbers which are defined in relation to some unit, for example speed. The mean of a set of observations is the average of the values, however, for skewed distributions.

For example, mean income is typically skewed upwards by a number of people with very large incomes. By contrast, the income is the level at which half the population is below.

The mode income is the most likely income, and favors the larger number of people with lower incomes, the mean of a probability distribution is the long-run arithmetic average value of a random variable having that distribution. In this context, it is known as the expected value. Variance — The variance has a central role in statistics. It is used in statistics, statistical inference, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit.

This makes it a central quantity in numerous such as physics, biology, chemistry, cryptography, economics. On computational floating point arithmetic, this equation should not be used, if a continuous distribution does not have an expected value, as is the case for the Cauchy distribution, it does not have a variance either. Many other distributions for which the value does exist also do not have a finite variance because the integral in the variance definition diverges. The role of the distribution in the central limit theorem is in part responsible for the prevalence of the variance in probability.

Probability distribution — For instance, if the random variable X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss, then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0. In more technical terms, the probability distribution is a description of a phenomenon in terms of the probabilities of events. Examples of random phenomena can include the results of an experiment or survey, a probability distribution is defined in terms of an underlying sample space, which is the set of all possible outcomes of the random phenomenon being observed.

The sample space may be the set of numbers or a higher-dimensional vector space, or it may be a list of non-numerical values, for example. Probability distributions are divided into two classes. A discrete probability distribution can be encoded by a discrete list of the probabilities of the outcomes, on the other hand, a continuous probability distribution is typically described by probability density functions. The normal distribution represents a commonly encountered continuous probability distribution, more complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

A probability distribution whose sample space is the set of numbers is called univariate. Important and commonly encountered univariate probability distributions include the distribution, the hypergeometric distribution. The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution, to define probability distributions for the simplest cases, one needs to distinguish between discrete and continuous random variables.

For example, the probability that an object weighs exactly g is zero. Continuous probability distributions can be described in several ways, the cumulative distribution function is the antiderivative of the probability density function provided that the latter function exists. As probability theory is used in diverse applications, terminology is not uniform.

The following terms are used for probability distribution functions, Distribution. Probability distribution, is a table that displays the probabilities of outcomes in a sample. Could be called a frequency distribution table, where all occurrences of outcomes sum to 1. Distribution function, is a form of frequency distribution table.

Probability distribution function, is a form of probability distribution table. Random — Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order, individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4.

In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, the fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness.

In statistics, a variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events, Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the applications of randomness. Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties, Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science.

By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators, Random selection is a method of selecting items from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue.

In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable and that is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen then we can say the selection process is random.

In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate, many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this later evolved into games of chance.

Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness, the Chinese of years ago were perhaps the earliest people to formalize odds and chance. The Greek philosophers discussed randomness at length, but only in non-quantitative forms and it was only in the 16th century that Italian mathematicians began to formalize the odds associated with various games of chance.

The invention of the calculus had a impact on the formal study of randomness. The early part of the 20th century saw a growth in the formal analysis of randomness. In the mid- to lateth century, ideas of information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness.

Incubator microbiology — In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures.

The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other such as the carbon dioxide. Incubators are essential for a lot of work in cell biology, microbiology. Louis Pasteur used the opening underneath his staircase as an incubator. Incubators are also used in the industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to both temperature and humidity.

The most commonly used both for bacteria such as the frequently used E. For other organisms used in experiments, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one container to create a multi-well plate. While glass Petri dishes may be reused after sterilization, plastic Petri dishes are often disposed of after experiments where cultures might contaminate each other, Petri dishes are often used to make agar plates for microbiology studies.

Once the agar cools and solidifies, the dish is ready to be inoculated with a microbe-laden sample, virus or phage cultures require a two-stage inoculation, after the agar preparation, bacteria are grown in the dish to provide hosts for the viral inoculum. Petri dishes are used for eukaryotic cell culture in a liquid medium or on solid agar.

Their transparency and flat profile also mean they are used as temporary receptacles for viewing samples, especially liquids. Replica plating — The technique involves pressing a velveteen-covered disk, and then imprinting secondary plates with cells in colonies removed from the original plate by the material. Generally, large numbers of colonies are replica plated due to the difficulty in streaking each out individually onto a separate plate, the purpose of replica plating is to be able to compare the master plate and any secondary plates, typically to screen for a desired phenotype.

For example, when a colony that was present on the plate, fails to appear on a secondary plate. Common screenable phenotypes include auxotrophy and antibiotic resistance, replica plating is especially useful for negative selection. However, it is correct to refer to negative screening instead of using the term selection. For example, if one wanted to select colonies that were sensitive to ampicillin, the sensitive colonies on the secondary plate would die but the colonies could still be deduced from the primary plate since the two have the same spatial patterns from ampicillin resistant colonies.

The sensitive colonies could then be picked off from the primary plate, frequently the last plate will be non-selective. If one sees growth on the plate but not the second one. If the non-selective plate shows no growth, one cannot say whether viable cells were transferred at all and this is particularly useful if there are questions about the age or viability of the cells on the original plate.

The development of replica plating required two steps, the first step was to define the problem, a method of identifiably duplicating colonies. The second step was to devise a means to implement the first step. Replica plating was first described by Esther Lederberg and Joshua Lederberg in , however, Joshua Lederberg notes that the first step of defining the problem had been done by others before them.

Several attempts were made to solve the second step. Metabolism — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical. Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells.

The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require.

A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history.

Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins. Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism.

Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle.

Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy.

Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.

Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached. Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose.

Mutation rate — In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time. Mutation rates are given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations. The rate of substitutions can be subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

The mutation rate of an organism is a characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism. The upper and lower limits to which mutation rates can evolve is the subject of ongoing investigation, different genetic variants within a species are referred to as alleles, and so a new mutation is said to create a new allele.

In population genetics, each allele is characterized by a selection coefficient, the selection coefficient can either be negative, corresponding to an expected decrease, positive, corresponding to an expected increase, or zero, corresponding to no expected change. An organisms mutation rates can be measured by a number of techniques, many sites in an organisms genome may not admit mutations with large fitness effects.

These sites are called neutral sites. Theoretically mutations under no selection become fixed between organisms at precisely the mutation rate, fixed synonymous mutations, i. They are often used as estimates of that rate, despite the fact that some synonymous mutations have fitness effects.

As an example, mutation rates have been inferred from the whole genome sequences of experimentally evolved replicate lines of Escherichia coli B. A particularly labor-intensive way of characterizing the mutation rate is the mutation accumulation line and these different rates of nucleotide substitution are measured in substitutions per base pair per generation.

For example, mutations in intergenic, or non-coding, DNA tend to accumulate at a faster rate than mutations in DNA that is actively in use in the organism and that is not necessarily due to a higher mutation rate, but to lower levels of purifying selection.

A region which mutates at predictable rate is a candidate for use as a molecular clock, in fact, the mutation rate of an organism may change in response to environmental stress.

The human mutation rate is higher in the germ line than the female. In general, the rate in unicellular eukaryotes and bacteria is roughly 0. This means that a human genome accumulates around 64 new mutations per generation because each full generation involves a number of divisions to generate gametes. Haldane — His article on abiogenesis in introduced the Primordial Soup Theory, and it became the foundation to build physical models for the chemical origin of life.

Haldane established human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he correctly proposed that sickle-cell disease confers some immunity to malaria. In he articulated Haldanes dilemma, a limit on the speed of evolution which subsequently proved incorrect. He willed his body for medical studies, as he wanted to remain even in death. Clarke credited him as perhaps the most brilliant science populariser of his generation, nobel laureate Peter Medawar called Haldane the cleverest man I ever knew.

Haldane was born in Oxford to John Scott Haldane, a physiologist, scientist, a philosopher and a Liberal, and Louisa Kathleen Trotter and his younger sister, Naomi Mitchison, became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane.

He learnt to read at the age of three, and at four, after injuring his forehead he asked the doctor, Is this oxyhaemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin. From age eight he worked with his father in their home laboratory where he experienced his first self-experimentation and he and his father became their own human guinea pigs, such as in their investigation on the effects of poison gases.

In his family moved to Cherwell, a late Victorian house at the outskirts of Oxford having its private laboratory and his formal education began in at Oxford Preparatory School, where he gained a First Scholarship in to Eton. In he joined Eton, where he experienced severe abuse from senior students for allegedly being arrogant, the indifference of authority left him with a lasting hatred for the English education system.

However, the ordeal did not stop him from becoming Captain of the school and he studied mathematics and classics at New College at the University of Oxford and obtained first-class honours in mathematical moderations in and a first-class honours in With his father he published his first scientific paper, age 20 and he became engrossed in genetics and presented a paper on gene linkage in vertebrates in the summer of His first technical paper, a page long article on function, was published.

He was promoted to lieutenant on 18 February and to temporary captain on 18 October. He served in France and Iraq, where he was wounded and he relinquished his commission on 1 April , retaining his rank of captain. For his ferocity and aggressiveness in battles, his commander called him the bravest and dirtiest officer in my Army, between and he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford, where he researched physiology and genetics.

He then moved to the University of Cambridge, where he accepted a readership in Biochemistry, from until he was also Head of Genetical Research at the John Innes Horticultural Institution. University College London — University College London is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities.

UCL also makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England. In UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year.

UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over departments, institutes. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics.

London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. In , the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In , University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school.

In , London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in , in , the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in , in , Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.

Median — The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. In simple terms, it may be thought of as the value of a data set. For example, in the set, the median is 6. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a set in statistics.

The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a typical value. For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a typical income is. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest, if there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked.

For example, consider the set of numbers,1,3,3,6,7,8,9 This set contains seven numbers, the median is the fourth of them, which is 6. If there are a number of observations, then there is no single middle value. This either gives the number or the halfway point between the two middle values. For example, with 14 values, the formula will give 7. There is no accepted standard notation for the median.

In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced. The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean, the median is 2 in this case, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4.

The widely cited empirical relationship between the locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, however.

There are, however, various relationships for the difference between them, see below. Maximum likelihood — The method of maximum likelihood corresponds to many well-known estimation methods in statistics. For example, one may be interested in the heights of adult female penguins, MLE would accomplish this by taking the mean and variance as parameters and finding particular parametric values that make the observed results the most probable given the model.

In general, for a set of data and underlying statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation gives a unified approach to estimation, which is well-defined in the case of the normal distribution, maximum-likelihood estimation was recommended, analyzed and widely popularized by Ronald Fisher between and Maximum-likelihood estimation finally transcended heuristic justification in a proof published by Samuel S.

Wilks in , ironically, the only difficult part of the proof depends on the expected value of the Fisher information matrix, which is provided by a theorem by Fisher. Wilks continued to improve on the generality of the theorem throughout his life, some of the theory behind maximum likelihood estimation was developed for Bayesian statistics. Reviews of the development of maximum likelihood estimation have been provided by a number of authors, suppose there is a sample x1, x2, …, xn of n independent and identically distributed observations, coming from a distribution with an unknown probability density function f0.

It is however surmised that the function f0 belongs to a family of distributions, called the parametric model. An MLE estimate is the same regardless of whether we maximize the likelihood or the log-likelihood function, for many models, a maximum likelihood estimator can be found as an explicit function of the observed data x1.

For many other models, however, no solution to the maximization problem is known or available. For some problems, there may be multiple estimates that maximize the likelihood, in the exposition above, it is assumed that the data are independent and identically distributed. In a simpler extension, an allowance can be made for data heterogeneity, put another way, we are now assuming that each observation xi comes from a random variable that has its own distribution function fi.

Poisson process — In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space.

The Poisson point process is defined on the real line. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange. In this setting, the process is used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, stochastic geometry, spatial statistics. On more abstract spaces, the Poisson point process serves as an object of study in its own right.

The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in different settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics. The point process depends on a mathematical object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, a locally integrable function or, in more general settings. In the first case, the constant, known as the rate or intensity, is the density of the points in the Poisson process located in some region of space.

The resulting point process is called a homogeneous or stationary Poisson point process, depending on the setting, the process has several equivalent definitions as well as definitions of varying generality owing to its many applications and characterizations. Consequently, the notation, terminology and level of mathematical rigour used to define and study the Poisson point process, despite its different forms and varying generality, the Poisson point process has two key properties.

If a Poisson point process is defined on some underlying space and this property is known under several names such as complete randomness, complete independence, or independent scattering and is common to all Poisson point processes. In other words, there is a lack of interaction between different regions and the points in general, which motivates the Poisson process being called a purely or completely random process. The parameter, called rate or intensity, is related to the number of Poisson points existing in some bounded region.

The homogeneous Poisson point process, when considered on the positive half-line, can be defined as a process, a type of stochastic process.

Scoring rule — In decision theory, a score function, or scoring rule, measures the accuracy of probabilistic predictions. It is applicable to tasks in which predictions must assign probabilities to a set of mutually exclusive discrete outcomes, the set of possible outcomes can be either binary or categorical in nature, and the probabilities assigned to this set of outcomes must sum to one.

A score can be thought of as either a measure of the calibration of a set of probabilistic predictions, if a cost is levied in proportion to a proper scoring rule, the minimal expected cost corresponds to reporting the true set of probabilities.

Various scoring rules have also used to assess the predictive accuracy of forecast models for association football.

The main characteristic of such scoring rules is S is just a function of the value of G. An example of probabilistic forecasting is in meteorology where a weather forecaster may give the probability of rain on the next day. A poorly calibrated forecaster might be encouraged to do better by a bonus system, a bonus system designed around a proper scoring rule will incentivize the forecaster to report probabilities equal to his personal beliefs.

In addition to the case of a binary decision, such as assigning probabilities to rain or no rain, scoring rules may be used for multiple classes, such as rain, snow. The image to the shows a example of a scoring rule. One way to use this rule would be as a cost based on the probability that a forecaster or algorithm assigns, a probabilistic forecaster or algorithm will return a probability vector r with a probability for each of the i outcomes.

One usage of a function could be to give a reward of S if the ith event occurs. If a proper scoring rule is used, then the highest expected reward is obtained by reporting the probability distribution. The use of a scoring rule encourages the forecaster to be honest to maximize the expected reward.

A scoring rule is strictly proper if it is optimized by the true probabilities. Optimized in this case will correspond to maximization for the quadratic, spherical and this can be seen in the image at right for the logarithmic rule. Albomycin — Albomycin is a naturally occurring sideromycin produced by some streptomycetes. Rifamycin — The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica or artificially.

They are a subclass of the family of ansamycins. Rifamycins are particularly effective against mycobacteria, and are used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy. The rifamycin group includes the classic rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, rifalazil, Streptomyces mediterranei was first isolated in from a soil sample collected near the beach-side town of St Raphael in southern France. In , the bacterium was renamed Nocardia mediterranei when another scientist named Thiemann found that it has a cell wall typical of the Nocardia species, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, Bala et al.

Initially, a family of closely related antibiotics was discovered referred to as Rifamycin A, B, C, D, E, the only component of this mixture sufficiently stable to isolate in a pure form was Rifamycin B, which unfortunately was poorly active. However, further studies showed that Rifamycin B was essentially inactive, simple reduction of Rifamycin S yielded the hydroquinone form called Rifamycin SV, which became the first member of this class to enter clinical use as an intravenous antibiotic.

Further chemical modification of Rifamycin SV yielded an improved analog Rifamide, which was introduced into clinical practice. S, patent 3,, was granted in September The drug is widely regarded as having helped conquer the issue of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the s, rifamycins have been used for the treatment of many diseases, the most important one being HIV-related tuberculosis. But the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen had higher rates of treatment completion and lower rates of hepatotoxicity, however, the rate of treatment-limiting adverse events was higher in the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen.

However, despite their activity against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, because of this Rifampin, and other rifamycins, are typically used in combination with other antibacterial drugs.

This is routinely practiced in TB therapy and serves to prevent the formation of mutants that are resistant to any of the drugs in the combination. The antibacterial activity of rifamycins relies on the inhibition of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis and this is due to the high affinity of rifamycins for the prokaryotic RNA polymerase. The selectivity of the rifamycins depends on the fact that they have a very poor affinity for the mammalian enzyme.

Microcin J25 — Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides. For this reason, they are distinct from their larger protein cousins, the classic example is microcin V, of E. Subtilosin A is another bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis, the peptide has a cyclized backbone and forms three cross-links between the sulphurs of Cys13, Cys7 and Cys4 and the alpha-positions of Phe22, Thr28 and Phe It is found that these bacteriocins target and eliminate iron-starved pathogens, specifically, the protein targets the pathogens are producing iron-scavenging protein in response to a low iron environment.

As of 5 January , PubMed has more than As of the date, In , NLM changed the system so that publishers will be able to directly correct typos. Simple searches on PubMed can be carried out by entering key aspects of a subject into PubMeds search window, when a journal article is indexed, numerous article parameters are extracted and stored as structured information.

Such parameters are, Article Type, Secondary identifiers, Language, publication type parameter enables many special features. As these clinical girish can generate small sets of robust studies with considerable precision, since July , the MEDLINE article indexing process extracts important identifiers from the article abstract and puts those in a field called Secondary Identifier. The secondary identifier field is to store numbers to various databases of molecular sequence data, gene expression or chemical compounds.

If relevant, several studies can be selected and related articles to all of them can be generated using the Find related data option, the related articles are then listed in order of relatedness. To create these lists of related articles, PubMed compares words from the title and abstract of each citation, as well as the MeSH headings assigned, using a powerful word-weighted algorithm. The related articles function has been judged to be so precise that some researchers suggest it can be used instead of a full search, a strong feature of PubMed is its ability to automatically link to MeSH terms and subheadings.

Examples would be, bad breath links to halitosis, heart attack to myocardial infarction, where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically expanded, that is, include more specific terms.

Terms like nursing are automatically linked to Nursing or Nursing and this important feature makes PubMed searches automatically more sensitive and avoids false-negative hits by compensating for the diversity of medical terminology.

Nature journal — Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month.

The journal has a circulation of around 53,

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