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  • Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellated, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the genus Salmonella. A number of its serovars are serious human pathogens. Contents. [hide]. 1 Epidemiology; 2 Pathogenesis; 3 Small non-coding RNA; 4 Nomenclature.
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  1. 13 Jan Salmonellae form a complex group of bacteria consisting of two species and six subspecies and include more than 2, serovars [1, 2]. Two species are currently recognized in the genus Salmonella, S. enterica and S. bongori [3]. S. enterica can be subdivided into the subspecies enterica, salamae.:
    LuxS homologues can now be identified in of the bacterial genomes currently sequenced [based on genomes from the KEGG database (http://www. diarioimagen.info) with homologues to the luxS gene of Salmonella Typhimurium with an e-value smaller than 10−12]. The detection of AI-2 activity in the extracellular. 12 May The bacteria Salmonella is commonly associated with food poisoning in countries all over the world. There are two species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. However, the species that most people refer to when they talk about Salmonella is S. enterica. This species is divided into a subset. () Skeletonema costatum Lee et al. authors concluded that siderophore and ). water column and benthos A. () Amphidinium carterae Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Barug () Alcaligenes faecalis Pseudomonas diminuta Kawai et al. information on microbial ing which TBT and its degradation .
  2. 7 68 0 2UZF Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus 1,4- dihydroxynaphthoyl CoA synthase (MenB) in complex with acetoacetyl CoA A.I.,Casino, P.,Marina, A.,Laub, M.T. Structural basis of a rationally rewired protein-protein interface critical to bacterial signaling Structure 21 4JAV.:
    USA 0 2W5T Structure-based mechanism of lipoteichoic acid synthesis by Staphylococcus aureus LtaS. .. 3L4Q Structural insights into phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation by the influenza A virus NS1 protein Hale, B.G.,Kerry, P.S. Zhang XiaoFan; Zhu NanWen, Isolation identification and studies on metabolism of bacteria degrading polyvinyl acetate · Otlu, S.; Genc .. Kwon, Y.M.; Kubena, L.F.; Nisbet, D.J.; Ricke, S.C., Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium Tn5 mutants defective for survival on egg shell surface using transposon footprinting. The utility of SMM-system was demonstrated by using it to identify Salmonella enterica-specific protein-coding sequences (CDSs). .. transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation.
  3. The Luria–Delbrück experiment () (also called the Fluctuation Test) demonstrates that in bacteria, genetic mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather E. coli Nissle's microcins killed diarrhea-inducing bacteria called Salmonella Enterica in the guts of infected mice, microcins also helped Nissle outcompete a.:
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These bacteriophages are viruses that infect the bacteria. The current dominant phage type worldwide is PT4 [Figure 3]. Different strains of the serovar Enteritidis are resistant to various phages. The disease that Salmonella Enteritidis causes is known as a zoonotic disease, meaning that it transmits from animal to human.

Salmonella Enteritidis begins when a person ingests a food item infected with a high concentration of the bacteria. In healthy adults, the acidity of the stomach can kill the bacteria if they are present in a low concentration. However, if a large amount of the bacteria are ingested, they have a higher probability of surviving and reproducing [12].

Once in the intestines, the bacteria invade the cells lining the intestine. The initial presence of bacteria ruffles the host cell's membrane creating an efficient route for bacteria to obtain necessary macromolecules. This is known as macropinocytosis. Once established in the intestine, the bacteria's virulence factors go to work. An enterotoxin results in the release of fluids from the cell into the lumen.

This factor is responsible for the diarrhea and vomiting symptoms. Next, the endotoxin results in the release of endogenous pyrogens from the host cell, causing a fever in the victim.

Lastly, the cytotoxin is responsible for the disintegration of the cytoplasm. It accomplishes this by inhibiting protein synthesis and causes calcium ions to rush in [13]. After the virulence factors have done their duty, the bacteria can move to the liver or spleen, where they are able to replicate. After replication, they can migrate back to the intestines where they can be expelled and transmitted to new hosts. Enteritidis require glucose to survive and uses mixed acid heterofermentation of glucose to produce energy.

Acids such as acetate, formate, succinate, and lactate are also products of this fermentation. The bacteria reproduce extremely quickly causing illness due to the sheer number of foreign bacteria present. At the peak of infection, there can be up to one billion Salmonella bacteria present per gram of feces [14].

One method for studying various strains of Salmonella is the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters. In a specific case study carried out in Minnesota, the outbreak statistics were easily traced due to the fact that Salmonella infections are required to be reported by state law.

This study took a look at confirmed Salmonella enterica infections in the state of Minnesota between January 1, through December 31, They examined the clusters of reported cases individually to determine more specifically the serovars of Salmonella enterica. A cluster was defined as two or more cases of Salmonella in different households with isolates from the same serovar and pulse-field gel electrophoresis subtype.

In addition, the specimen had to be within two weeks of the onset of illness [15]. Gel electrophoresis is a process by which fragments of DNA are separated using electrical current. The negative charge of DNA is attracted to the positive charge at the opposite end of the gel and therefore DNA moves across the gel. DNA fragments of smaller size are able to move further along the gel, thus separating the fragments by size.

The problem with gel electrophoresis is that sometimes large fragments of DNA are not fully separated. In , two scientists by the names of Schwartz and Cantor came up with the technique of pulse-field gel electrophoresis PFGE. This technique involves intermittently changing the direction of the current to ensure that similar sizes are adequately separated.

Therefore, this method is very important in distinguishing subtypes in the same serovars of bacteria. In addition to subtyping species of bacteria, phage typing can also be performed. Scientists phage type S. Enteritidis by grouping strains based on a set of 16 bacteriophages creating a lytic pattern.

They will then compare DNA of the entire genome, partial genome, or a signature genetic marker of the phage type [17]. The results of the study showed that serovars of Salmonella were found in the reported cases.

Out of these cases, They concluded that the cluster size and density were important in predicting whether or not the case could be solved. The larger the cluster size and the higher the density, the more likely the case was to be solved. Because Salmonella Enteritidis made up a significant portion of the reported cases, this strain was more likely to be identified. The method of PFGE used to identify subtypes is also more useful when analyzing common serovars. This causes a slight bias in identifying specific serovars of bacteria.

However, this study does reaffirm that Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the major serovars found in cases of food poisoning. The most common symptoms of Salmonella Enteritidis include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, muscle aches, and headache.

These symptoms generally occur between hours after the bacteria has been ingested and last anywhere from days. Healthy individuals can usually rid themselves of the bacteria on their own; however, children, elderly people, and those with compromised immune systems may require additional treatment [18]. Additional treatment may take longer than 7 days to rid the body of bacteria. Those that are prescribed antibiotics generally take them for at least 10 days, even if their symptoms go away.

Finishing the antibiotic prescription ensures that all Salmonella are killed in the patient's system. Although these symptoms are an easy way to detect food poisoning, there are also clinical ways of testing for the presence of bacteria and more specifically Salmonella Enteritidis. A complete blood count can be done to look for anemia. Anemia, or a low iron content in red blood cells, can be a sign of bacterial infection. Iron is needed as an oxygen carrier in the blood; however, bacteria also require iron as a nutrient and can therefore deplete the blood's iron concentration.

A low white blood count can also be a sign of bacterial infection. The liver function may be slightly elevated due to the fact that the bacteria are reproducing in the liver or spleen [19]. More specifically, a stool culture may be done to determine if the bacterial infection is in fact Salmonella Enteritidis. Once isolated from the stool, PCR amplification can be used to determine the strain present. Serotyping can be performed in order to identify the serovar of Salmonella enterica.

This method involves immunological tests to detect specific bacterial proteins present in the sample [20]. The most effective way to prevent Salmonella infections is to thoroughly cook all meats and eggs. The United States Department of Agriculture has also published guidelines to prevention.

Their website gives a list of the proper cooking temperatures for all types of meat. They also include a list of proper sanitation when handling raw meat.

These include washing your hands and cooking surfaces often as well as washing hands, cooking utensils, and cooking surfaces with hot, soapy water before handling any food. Because red meat, poultry, and seafood are more susceptible to carrying Salmonella , they also recommend separating these foods from other food in your refrigerator.

Proper refrigeration is very important both before and after cooking. This is a huge problem in developing countries where raw meat can sit at room temperature for hours or even days before being cooked. This allows the bacteria to multiply, thus making it harder to ensure that every single bacterium is killed during the cooking process. Quickly cooling food right after cooking is also important. While hot temperatures kill the bacteria, warm temperatures provide the optimal environment for those bacteria that survived to multiply.

Thus, switching from one extreme environment to another is the best way to ensure the lowest concentration of bacteria present in the food. All of these are important steps in preventing Salmonella outbreaks [4]. As of right now, no vaccine exists for the the prevention of Salmonella in humans. However, healthy individuals usually can rid themselves of Salmonella enteritidis on their own by flushing it out of their system.

Because the bacteria cause gastrointestinal inflammation, one of the most common symptoms is diarrhea. Salmonella enteritidis is therefore excreted in the feces. Once all of the bacteria are excreted, the gastrointestinal tract will return to normal and symptoms will subside.

For those cases that require medical treatment, typically elderly people or children, the most common method is through the use of antibiotics. However, the rising use of antibiotics to promote the growth of feed chickens has caused a rise in antibiotic resistance.

Therefore, a combination of antibiotics may be required to completely rid the body of the bacteria [13]. Once the strain of Salmonella is isolated, doctors can narrow down the treatment to the most effective antibiotic.

Different strains have different levels of sensitivity to each of the antibiotics; therefore, not all Salmonella infections will be treated with the same drug.

Enteritidis causes gastroenteritis, or intestinal irritation, one of the body's most effective methods to ridding the body of bacteria is through feces. While diarrhea rids the body of the bacteria, it also causes the problem of excessive water loss. Oral hydration is effective, but it may not be enough.

Some patients require intravenous hydration in order to ensure that the organs are getting enough water. Beard decided to infect chickens with this strain by either oral inoculation or contact transmission. Hens that were orally inoculated were given a dose of an overnight tryptone soya broth culture that contained the phage type 13a strain of S. Hens that were tested for pathogenesis through contact transmission shared feeding troughs and drinking cups with inoculated birds in adjacent cages.

Lastly, they inoculated a third group of hens with a sterile broth to serve as a control. They then took cloacal swab samples at weekly intervals to keep track of the persistance of S. They took samples of intact eggs from each of the three groups everyday and tested for the presence of S. Here, we present the 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P to CheY 6.

Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity , allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P.

The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two- component signal transduction.

Cell-type specific four- component hydrogel. Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected.

In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells.

This cell-type selectivity is of interest e. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses.

A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities.

A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations. Semaphorins are a family of membrane-bound and secreted type of proteins which were initially identified as chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules.

Plexins and neuropilins are two major receptor families of semaphorins, and their common downstream targets are the actin cytoskeleton and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesions.

Semaphorins promote the collapse of growth cones by inducing rapid changes in the cytoskeleton and disassembly of focal adhesion structures. When transfected with appropriate receptors, non-neuronal COS-7 cells exhibit a similar cell collapse phenotype upon semaphorin stimulation. This heterologous system using COS-7 cells has been developed and widely used to investigate semaphorin-signaling pathways.

In this chapter, we describe a COS-7 collapse assay protocol used to identify semaphorin-signaling components and a method to produce recombinant class 3 semaphorin proteins. Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit RTB , sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport. Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell.

Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse. A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set s containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set s. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirement C Elsevier B.

The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements However, this is rarely the case in product development as new requirements are likely to surface. A critical issue in requirements reuse therefore becomes how to enable products to efficiently reuse requirements as well incorporating changes to the product Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase.

We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit.

We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family.

However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes.

Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult. Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins. We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo.

Identifying coordinative structure using principal component analysis based on coherence derived from linear systems analysis. Principal component analysis is a powerful and popular technique for capturing redundancy in muscle activity and kinematic patterns. A primary limitation of the correlations or covariances between signals on which this analysis is based is that they do not account for dynamic relations between signals, yet such relations-such as that between neural drive and muscle tension-are widespread in the sensorimotor system.

Low correlations may thus be obtained and signals may appear independent despite a dynamic linear relation between them. To address this limitation, linear systems analysis can be used to calculate the matrix of overall coherences between signals, which measures the strength of the relation between signals taking dynamic relations into account.

The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence. High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater.

Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow.

Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times. Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years.

With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers. Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.

I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system. Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available. In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians.

Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima. Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1. Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea.

Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system. Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume.

Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks.

Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed.

Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins.

Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages. Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.

Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II.

These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

Identifying the components of ecological variation in a marine benthic megafauna. Full Text Available Current work in benthic ecology highlights the importance of the temporal component of ecological variation for distribution and abundance of organisms. However, this approach is limited by the difficulty in separating and measure the constituents of such variation. The area is seasonally submitted to the intrusion of a cold and saline water mass, an important factor influencing benthic communities.

The composition and abundance of the megafauna were investigated at five sites from November to August A total of 93 species were collected. Average density reached individuals per catch with highest numbers in summer. A striking difference in species composition and abundance was observed in the catches through the year and the results suggested a different structure of the assemblages for each season.

Four independent components of the species variation could be separated and identified: The large amount of environmental variation is related to sandy bottoms and depth influence, whereas the time factor can be interpreted as both the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water and the biological cycles of some key-species. Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw.

The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased P Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses Poaceae alone.

The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches. In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes. The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis.

We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway. This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells.

Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering.

Integrative genomics identifies MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Although the uniporter's biophysical properties have been studied extensively, its molecular composition remains elusive. Here, we use whole-genome phylogenetic profiling, genome-wide RNA co-expression analysis and organelle-wide protein coexpression analysis to predict proteins functionally related to MICU1.

MCU forms oligomers in the mitochondrial inner membrane, physically interacts with MICU1, and resides within a large molecular weight complex. MCU has two predicted transmembrane helices, which are separated by a highly conserved linker facing the intermembrane space. Acidic residues in this linker are required for its full activity. However, an SA point mutation retains function but confers resistance to Ru, the most potent inhibitor of the uniporter.

Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients.

Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries. This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life.

Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion. We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C.

This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews. While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units.

Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks. Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths nm and nm.

Specific autoantigens identified by sera obtained from mice that are immunized with testicular germ cells alone. We have previously established that immunization using viable syngeneic TGC can also induce murine experimental autoimmune orchitis EAO without using any adjuvant.

Moreover, the recombinant proteins of identified 10 except unnamed protein TGC- specific AIs were created by using human embryonic kidney HEK cells and these antigencities were reconfirmed by Western blot using EAO serum reaction.

Identification of these AIs will facilitate new approaches for understanding infertility and cancer pathogenesis and may provide a basis for the development of novel therapies. An attempt to identify the muonic and electromagnetic components of extensive showers in water Cherenkov detectors.

One of the purposes of the Pierre Auger Collaboration is to study the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. When a cosmic ray collides in the upper atmosphere, depending on the mass composition, we have different numbers of mesons being produced and therefore different amounts of muons at detector level.

For example, showers initiated by proton have less muons than showers initiated by iron nucleus. If we can select the muon signal in Cherenkov tanks, we might be able to infer primary composition. To achieve this goal, we will use the so-called 'Muon Jump Method', which aims to discriminate muons from the electromagnetic component , based on the time structure of their FADC signal. Muons produces on average more signal than electrons or gammas and they induce spiky signals whereas the electromagnetic component produce a continuum of small peaks in the FADC traces.

Using this information, we estimate the number of particles for each component , by setting filters the time distribution of the shower front. Therefore, we can infer the primary mass composition. Another important point of this study is to compare the predictions of the hadronic interaction models for each component of the shower front. We present an introduction to the main aspects of the 'Muon Jump Method' as well as some preliminary results we achieved by simulating air showers, reconstructing their main features and filtering the signals of each component.

Improved tibial component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation. Patient- specific instrumentation PSI was introduced in an attempt to reduce positional outliers of components in total knee arthroplasty TKA.

It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of tibial components in optimal rotational alignment. Of these, 30 operations were performed using PSI and 28 using conventional instrumentation. The rotation of the tibial components was determined in MRI using three different reference lines: Data were analyzed statistically for positional outliers using the Chi-squared test.

There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of tibial component rotation using the tangent to the dorsal condyles and the tibial epicondylar line as reference. Using the dorsal tangent as reference, there were eight components in excessive external rotation Using the tibial epicondyles as reference, there were seven components in excessive external rotation These differences were statistically significant p rotational tibial component alignment during TKA.

Anatomy of the proximal tibia does not deliver clear landmarks that are prominent and consistent. This makes both, MRI analysis as well as cutting jig production and intraoperative placement a challenge. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis.

As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning The component loadings indicated that a higher amount of bone was primarily associated with more plate Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains.

Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis PCA followed by spatial independent component analysis sICA , can be exploited to reduce the dimensionality of data sets recorded in the olfactory bulb and the somatosensory cortex of mice as well as the visual cortex of monkeys, without loosing In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted.

In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set. Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree- specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study. We hypothesized that pedigree- specific rare variants at longevity-associated genes could have a similar functional impact on healthy phenotypes.

We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in pedigrees 4, individuals from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture.

Variants were analyzed individually Sequencing analysis of family-based associations for age-related phenotypes can identify rare or novel variants Specificity of motor components in the dual flagellar system of Shewanella putrefaciens CN Bacterial flagellar motors are intricate nanomachines in which the stator units and rotor component FliM may be dynamically exchanged during function.

Similar to other bacterial species, the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN possesses a complete secondary flagellar system along with a corresponding stator unit. Expression of the secondary system occurs during planktonic growth in complex media and leads to the formation of a subpopulation with one or more additional flagella at random positions in addition to the primary polar system. We used physiological and phenotypic characterizations of defined mutants in concert with fluorescent microscopy on labelled components of the two different systems, the stator proteins PomB and MotB, the rotor components FliM 1 and FliM 2 , and the auxiliary motor components MotX and MotY, to determine localization, function and dynamics of the proteins in the flagellar motors.

The components were highly specific for their corresponding motor and are unlikely to be extensively swapped or shared between the two flagellar systems under planktonic conditions. The results have implications for both specificity and dynamics of flagellar motor components. A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs.

Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes.

To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes. Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation.

A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component.

To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model.

The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care. Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field.

From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation.

In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations.

The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to asses. A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S.

Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of bp SC , bp SC and bp SC , respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar- specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies.

SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http: Two- component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli. Sensor histidine kinases transmit signals to their cognate response regulators via phosphorylation.

The faithful transmission of information through two- component pathways and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk require exquisite specificity of histidine kinase-response regulator interactions to ensure that cells mount the appropriate response to external signals.

To identify putative specificity -determining residues, we have analyzed amino acid coevolution in two- component proteins and identified a set of residues that can be used to rationally rewire a model signaling pathway, EnvZ-OmpR. To explore how a relatively small set of residues can dictate partner selectivity, we combined alanine-scanning mutagenesis with an approach we call trajectory-scanning mutagenesis, in which all mutational intermediates between the specificity residues of EnvZ and another kinase, RstB, were systematically examined for phosphotransfer specificity.

The same approach was used for the response regulators OmpR and RstA. Collectively, the results begin to reveal the molecular mechanism by which a small set of amino acids enables an individual kinase to discriminate amongst a large set of highly-related response regulators and vice versa. Our results also suggest that the mutational trajectories taken by two- component signaling proteins following gene or pathway duplication may be constrained and subject to differential selective pressures.

Only some trajectories allow both the maintenance of phosphotransfer and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk. Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met DNA methylome profiling of human tissues identifies global and tissue- specific methylation patterns.

DNA epigenetic modifications, such as methylation, are important regulators of tissue differentiation, contributing to processes of both development and cancer. Profiling the tissue- specific DNA methylome patterns will provide novel insights into normal and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as help in future epigenetic therapies. In this study, 17 somatic tissues from four autopsied humans were subjected to functional genome analysis using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation BeadChip, covering CpG sites.

A vast number of tissue- specific differentially methylated regions are identified and considered likely mediators of tissue- specific gene regulatory mechanisms since the hypomethylated regions are closely related to known functions of the corresponding tissue.

Finally, a clear inverse correlation is observed between promoter methylation within CpG islands and gene expression data obtained from publicly available databases. This genome-wide methylation profiling study identified tissue- specific differentially methylated regions in 17 human somatic tissues. Many of the genes corresponding to these differentially methylated regions contribute to tissue- specific functions.

Future studies may use these data as a reference to identify markers of perturbed differentiation and disease-related pathogenic mechanisms. Deep sequencing identifies ethnicity- specific bacterial signatures in the oral microbiome. Full Text Available Oral infections have a strong ethnic predilection; suggesting that ethnicity is a critical determinant of oral microbial colonization.

Dental plaque and saliva samples from subjects belonging to four major ethnicities in the United States were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism t-RFLP and 16S pyrosequencing. Ethnicity- specific clustering of microbial communities was apparent in saliva and subgingival biofilms, and a machine-learning classifier was capable of identifying an individual's ethnicity from subgingival microbial signatures. The data demonstrates a significant association between ethnic affiliation and the composition of the oral microbiome; to the extent that these microbial signatures appear to be capable of discriminating between ethnicities.

Principal component analysis reveals gender- specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score MetScore. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls.

Identifying essential components of a digital health innovation ecosystem for the Namibian context: Full Text Available , networks design and analysis were selected based on what Chang and West indicated about digital ecosystems. They indicated that digital ecosystems evolved from network related background. A brief description of the professionals who were Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described.

No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

The toxin-binding site was efficiently solubilized with Lubrol PX, resulting in an extract of high initial specific activity. Purification was achieved by adsorption of the toxin-binding component to DEAE-Sephadex A followed by desorption at high ionic strength and chromatography on either wheat germ agglutinin-Ultrogel or Sepharose 6B.

This study was conducted at an innovative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics high school, providing a rich contextual description of the teaching and learning at the school, specifically focusing on problem solving and inquiry approaches, and students' motivation, social interactions, and collaborative work.

Identifying the damping contribution of building components based on measured top vibration. In this paper, a damping model for a high-rise building is introduced. This model is used to investigate the possibilities to identify the relative damping contribution of the internal material damping in building elements, energy loss at element interfaces and energy outflow at the interface with t.

We found significant associations to three genes and nine single variants. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice. To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates.

Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping HTP on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci QTL with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index.

Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar IR64 with a landrace Aswina , identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

Novel asymmetrically localizing components of human centrosomes identified by complementary proteomics methods. Pulsed labelling demonstrates a remarkable variation in the stability of centrosomal protein complexes. These spatiotemporal proteomics data provide leads Centrosomes in animal cells are dynamic organelles with a proteinaceous matrix of pericentriolar material assembled around a pair of centrioles.

They organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle apparatus. Mature centrioles are essential for biogenesis of primary cilia that mediate Isoelectric focusing was carried out in polyacrylamide gels followed by staining with coomassie blue R The estimated gene frequencies were as follows: A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides.

Improved femoral component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation. It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of femoral components in optimal rotational alignment. Of these, 46 operations were performed using PSI and 48 using conventional instrumentation. Data were analyzed for positional outliers, observer reliability, and a variance comparison between implant groups. There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of femoral component rotation.

There were significantly more outliers in the conventional In this setup, PSI was effective in significantly reducing outliers of optimal rotational femoral component alignment during TKA. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the axolotl limb identifies a tripartite regeneration- specific gene program. Full Text Available Understanding how the limb blastema is established after the initial wound healing response is an important aspect of regeneration research.

Here we performed parallel expression profile time courses of healing lateral wounds versus amputated limbs in axolotl. This comparison between wound healing and regeneration allowed us to identify amputation- specific genes.

By clustering the expression profiles of these samples, we could detect three distinguishable phases of gene expression - early wound healing followed by a transition-phase leading to establishment of the limb development program, which correspond to the three phases of limb regeneration that had been defined by morphological criteria. By focusing on the transition-phase, we identified 93 strictly amputation-associated genes many of which are implicated in oxidative-stress response, chromatin modification, epithelial development or limb development.

We further classified the genes based on whether they were or were not significantly expressed in the developing limb bud. The specific localization of 53 selected candidates within the blastema was investigated by in situ hybridization. In summary, we identified a set of genes that are expressed specifically during regeneration and are therefore, likely candidates for the regulation of blastema formation. Core genome components and lineage specific expansions in malaria parasites Plasmodium.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing resistance of Plasmodium, the malaria parasites, to multiple commonly used drugs has underscored the urgent need to develop effective antimalarial drugs and vaccines.

The new direction of genomics-driven target discovery has become possible with the completion of parasite genome sequencing, which can lead us to a better understanding of how the parasites develop the genetic variability that is associated with their response to environmental challenges and other adaptive phenotypes.

Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of six Plasmodium species, including two species that infect humans, one that infects monkeys, and three that infect rodents. These components play important roles in fundamental functions as well as in parasite- specific activities. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been expanded in specific Plasmodium lineage s.

The majority of these gene families are hypothetical proteins with unknown functions; a few may have predicted roles such as antigenic variation.

Conclusions The core genome components in the malaria parasites have functions ranging from fundamental biological processes to roles in the complex networks that sustain the parasite- specific lifestyles appropriate to different hosts.

They represent the minimum requirement to maintain a successful life cycle that spans vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors. Lineage specific expansions LSEs have given rise to abundant gene families in Plasmodium. Although the functions of most families remain unknown, these LSEs could reveal components in parasite networks that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can contribute to. TRAIL binding to its cognate receptors, Death Receptors-4 and -5, leads to recruitment of caspase-8 and classical activation of downstream effector caspases, leading to apoptosis.

We describe here the development of a novel well high-throughput screening HTS strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. By utilizing a TRAIL resistant cell line lacking caspase-8 NB7 compared to the same cells reconstituted with the wild-type protein, or with a catalytically inactive point mutant of caspase-8, we are able to identify compounds that act specifically through the caspase-8 axis, rather than through general toxicity.

In addition, false positive hits can easily be "weeded out" in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspaseinducible activity. Screening of the library of pharmacologically active compounds LOPAC was performed as both proof-of-concept and to discover potential unknown TRAIL sensitizers whose mechanism is caspase-8 mediated. We identified known TRAIL sensitizers from the library and identified new compounds that appear to sensitize specifically through caspase In sum, we demonstrate proof-of-concept and discovery of novel compounds with a screening strategy optimized for the detection of caspase-8 pathway- specific TRAIL sensitizers.

This screen was performed in the well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries. Full Text Available Aims: Effective learning environment can lead to establish and strengthen the appropriate conditions of learning in higher education.

This study aimed to identify and define the factors associated with effective learning environment in the field of health education. This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted in Participants were 9 graduate and 7 undergraduate students of health majors that were selected using purposive sampling method. Data were recorded by interview and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Whole genome functional analysis identifies novel components required for mitotic spindle integrity in human cells.

Background The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. We designed a genetic screen using automated microscopy to discover factors essential for mitotic progression. Using a RNA interference library of 49, double-stranded RNAs targeting 23, human genes, we performed a loss of function screen to look for small interfering RNAs that arrest cells in metaphase.

Results Here we report the identification of genes that, when suppressed, result in structural defects in the mitotic spindle leading to bent, twisted, monopolar, or multipolar spindles, and cause cell cycle arrest. We further describe a novel analysis methodology for large-scale RNA interference datasets that relies on supervised clustering of these genes based on Gene Ontology, protein families, tissue expression, and protein-protein interactions.

Conclusion This approach was utilized to classify functionally the identified genes in discrete mitotic processes. We confirmed the identity for a subset of these genes and examined more closely their mechanical role in spindle architecture. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape. Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time.

We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs AvPCs representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics.

We identify six novel loci: Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism. Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans.

The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E.

We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence.

The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite. Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. EpiTracer - an algorithm for identifying epicenters in condition- specific biological networks. In biological systems, diseases are caused by small perturbations in a complex network of interactions between proteins.

Perturbations typically affect only a small number of proteins, which go on to disturb a larger part of the network. To counteract this, a stress-response is launched, resulting in a complex pattern of variations in the cell.

Identifying the key players involved in either spreading the perturbation or responding to it can give us important insights. We develop an algorithm, EpiTracer, which identifies the key proteins, or epicenters, from which a large number of changes in the protein-protein interaction PPI network ripple out.

We propose a new centrality measure, ripple centrality, which measures how effectively a change at a particular node can ripple across the network by identifying highest activity paths specific to the condition of interest, obtained by mapping gene expression profiles to the PPI network. We demonstrate the algorithm using an overexpression study and a knockdown study. In the overexpression study, the gene that was overexpressed PARK2 was highlighted as the most important epicenter specific to the perturbation.

The other top-ranked epicenters were involved in either supporting the activity of PARK2, or counteracting it. Also, 5 of the identified epicenters showed no significant differential expression, showing that our method can find information which simple differential expression analysis cannot.

In the second dataset SP1 knockdown , alternative regulators of SP1 targets were highlighted as epicenters. Also, the gene that was knocked down SP1 was picked up as an epicenter specific to the control condition.

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Isolation of H9N2 subtype of avian influenza viruses during an outbreak in chickens in Iran. Isolation of HAG1 and its regulation by plant hormones during in vitro floral organogenesis in Hyacinthus orientalis L. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis and Getah viruses from mosquitoes Diptera: Isolation of Kaeng Khoi virus from dead Chaerephon plicata bats in Cambodia.

Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from mares with metritis and stallions, detection of biotypes and capsule types. Isolation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Rajkumar Noubade; Shivaraj, M. Isolation of Leptospira canicola from dogs. Isolation of Leptospira javanica from sheep. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from raw milk in Kars. Isolation of Malassezia globosa and M. Isolation of Malassezia pachydermatis from the skin of captive rhinoceroses.

Isolation of Moroccan Rosmarinus eriocalyx oil: Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from the semen of rams with clinical Johne's disease. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis from bovine feces of infected dairy herds by the Cornell's method modified. Isolation of Mycobacterium spp. Isolation of Mycoplasma bovis from pneumonic fattening calves.

Isolation of mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium. Isolation of Neospora caninum from a blind calf in Parana, southern Brazil.

Isolation of Neospora caninum from the brain of a pregnant sheep. Isolation of Nocardia organisms from soil and mastitic milk of dairy cows Friesian and Holstein on different media on some Governomental farms in Assiut Governorate.

Isolation of Nocardia paucivorans from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with relapse of cerebral nocardiosis. Isolation of Olive latent virus 1 from tulip in Toyama Prefecture.

Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from chickens and turkeys. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from pyometra of cat the first report of Iran. Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products.

Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides strains from various sources and determination of antibiotic sensitivity of those strains. Isolation of Prorocentrum lima Syn.

Isolation of Prototheca zopfii from bovine milk. Isolation of Prototheca zopfii from inflamed secretion of udders. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from raw and pasteurized cream. Isolation of Psoroptes scab mite microsatellite markers Acari: Isolation of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Isolation of Ross River virus from mosquitoes and from horses with signs of musculo-skeletal disease. Isolation of S-n-butylcysteine sulfoxide and six n-butyl-containing thiosulfinates from Allium siculum. Isolation of Salem virus, a novel equine paramyxovirus, and assessment of its etiologic role in a disease outbreak. Isolation of Salmonella enterica from slaughtered pigs. Isolation of Salmonella enteritidis in commercial eggs, during tracking of a possible source of human infection.

Isolation of Salmonella from alfalfa seed and demonstration of impaired growth of heat-injured cells in seed homogenates.

Isolation of Salmonella from diarrheic feces of pigs. Isolation of Salmonella from muscoid flies at commercial animal establishments in San Bernardino County, California.

Isolation of Salmonella spp. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium Tn5 mutants defective for survival on egg shell surface using transposon footprinting.

Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from cattle and virulence properties of the isolates. Isolation of Shigella dysentariae from cases of owl enteritis. Isolation of Sparus auratus prolactin gene and activity of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Isolation of Staphylococcus schleiferi from dogs with pyoderma. Isolation of Streptomyces strain inhibitors of toxigenic fungi.

Partial characterization of their chitinolytic system. Isolation of Toxocara eggs in and around Chandigarh, India. Isolation of Trichoderma sp. Isolation of Tricholoma matsutake and T. Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from live, frozen and processed seafood and sea water samples. Isolation of Vibrio spp. Isolation of Vibrio tapetis from cultivated Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. Isolation of west nile and sindbis viruses from mosquitoes collected in the Nile Valley of Egypt during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever.

Isolation of West Nile fever virus from great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo , the crow Corvus corone , and Hyalomma marginatum ticks in natural and synanthropic biocoenosis in the Volga delta, Astrakhan Region, Isolation of West Nile virus from diseased patients during epidemics in the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from domestic and wild avian species in Kars District.

Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom. Isolation of a Microsporum canis gene family encoding three subtilisin-like proteases expressed in vivo. Isolation of a Nodulisporium species from a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Isolation of a Reovirus from cases of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome and its pathogenicity in turkey poults. Isolation of a Toxoplasma gondii cyclin by yeast two-hybrid interactive screen. Isolation of a Zn-binding protein mediating cell adhesion from common carp.

Isolation of a bacterium from mangrove soil for degradation of sea sludge. Wang ChuanLu; Takenaka, S. Isolation of a benzoate-utilizing Pseudomonas strain from soil and production of catechol from benzoate by transpositional mutants. Isolation of a bronchodilator flavonoid from the Thai medicinal plant Clerodendrum petasites. Isolation of a cDNA for a nucleoside diphosphate kinase capable of phosphorylating the kinase domain of the self-incompatibility factor SRK of Brassica campestris.

Isolation of a citrus chitinase cDNA and characterization of its expression in response to elicitation of fruit pathogen resistance. Isolation of a coronavirus strain from chickens suffering proventriculus swelling. Isolation of a cotton RGP gene: Isolation of a deet-insensitive mutant of Drosophila melanogaster Diptera: Isolation of a dimethoate-degrading bacterium strain and investigation of its activity.

Isolation of a flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae and investigation of its performance in the fermentation of beet molasses to ethanol. Isolation of a gene preferentially expressed in heart-shaped embryos of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. Isolation of a glucosamine-specific kinase, a unique enzyme of Vibrio cholerae. Isolation of a glucosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana active in the metabolism of the persistent pollutant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Isolation of a glycoprotein E-deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 strain in the field.

Isolation of a highly pathogenic Vibrio pelagius strain associated with mass mortalities of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Isolation of a large thaumatin-like antifungal protein from seeds of the Kweilin chestnut Castanopsis chinensis.

Isolation of a lysogenic bacteriophage carrying the stx 1 OX3 gene, which is closely associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from sheep and humans. Isolation of a microorganism to oxidize 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Isolation of a molecular marker of soybean nodule senescence. Isolation of a murine homologue of the Drosophila neuralized gene, a gene required for axonemal integrity in spermatozoa and terminal maturation of the mammary gland.

Isolation of a napin-like polypeptide with potent translation-inhibitory activity from Chinese cabbage Brassica parachinensis cv green-stalked seeds. Isolation of a new Escherichia coli pathotype associated with diarrhoea in piglets.

Isolation of a new cyclophilin-like protein from chickpeas with mitogenic, antifungal and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities. Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee Coffea arabica L. Isolation of a new flavivirus related to cell fusing agent virus CFAV from field-collected flood-water Aedes mosquitoes sampled from a dambo in central Kenya.

Isolation of a new germ line-specific repetitive DNA family in Acricotopus by microdissection of polytenized germ line-limited chromosome sections from a permanent larval salivary gland preparation. Wang HeXiang; Ng, T. Isolation of a new heterodimeric lectin with mitogenic activity from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea. Isolation of a new organochlorine pollutant 2,3,3,3,2',3',3',3'-Octachlorodipropyl ether from fish. Isolation of a new serovar of Vibrio vulnificus pathogenic for eels cultured in freshwater farms.

Isolation of a novel agglutinin with complex carbohydrate binding specificity from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lyophyllum shimeiji. Isolation of a novel deoxyribonuclease with antifungal activity from Asparagus officinalis seeds. Isolation of a novel legumin-like lectin with potent hemagglutinating activity from seeds of the Chinese chestnut Castanea mollisima.

Isolation of a novel peroxidase from French bean legumes and first demonstration of antifungal activity of a non-milk peroxidase. Isolation of a novel rice PR4 type gene whose mRNA expression is modulated by blast pathogen attack and signaling components. Isolation of a novel stable peptide from cultivated Raphanus sativus with peroxidase activity.

Isolation of a novel thermolabile heterodimeric ribonuclease with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from roots of the sanchi ginseng Panax notoginseng. Isolation of a novel transcription factor from rice by differential display of mRNA. Isolation of a novel ubiquitin-like protein from Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom with anti-human immunodeficiency virus, translation-inhibitory, and ribonuclease activities. Isolation of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein PGIP from wheat. Isolation of a premycorrhizal infection pmi2 mutant of tomato, resistant to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization.

Isolation of a promoter sequence from the glutamine synthetase gene capable of conferring tissue-specific gene expression in transgenic maize. Isolation of a protein lethal to the endoparasitoid Cotesia kariyai from entomopoxvirus-infected larvae of Mythimna separata. Isolation of a psychrotrophic bacterium from the organic residue of a water tank keeping rainbow trout and antibacterial effect of violet pigment produced from the strain.

Isolation of a ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Termitomyces globulus. Isolation of a rice gene homologous to the human putative tumor suppressor gene QM.

Isolation of a spotted fever group Rickettsia, Rickettsia peacockii, in a Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, cell line. Isolation of a unique membrane protein from Naegleria fowleri. Isolation of a virus associated with sterility mosaic disease of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L Millsp.

Isolation of a zebrafish rod opsin promoter to generate a transgenic zebrafish line expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in rod photoreceptors.

Isolation of actinomycetes from soil using extremely high frequency radiation. Isolation of actinomycetes from termites' guts. Isolation of active DNA-binding nuclear proteins from tomato galls induced by root-knot nematodes. Isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded RNA. Farjana Nikkon; Saud, Z. Isolation of aglycone of deoxy-niazimicin from Moringa oleifera Lam. Isolation of alcohol tolerant, osmotolerant and thermotolerant yeast strains and improvement of their alcohol tolerance by UV mutagenesis.

Isolation of alkalophilic CGTase-producing bacteria and characterization of cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase. Isolation of allelopathic substances in lemon balm shoots.

Isolation of allelopathic substances in rice seedlings. Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. Isolation of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking vitamin E and identification of a cyclase essential for all tocopherol biosynthesis.

Isolation of an ILR1 auxin conjugate hydrolase homolog from Arabidopsis suecica. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory substance from Chrysanthemum boreale Makino.

Isolation of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from kiwi fruits. Yang XiaoLong; Summerhurst, D. Isolation of an antimicrobial compound from Impatiens balsamina L. Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action. Isolation of an endophytic diazotroph, Klebsiella oxytoca, from sweet potato stems in Japan.

Isolation of an esterase-producing Trichosporon brassicae and its catalytic performance in kinetic resolution of ketoprofen. Isolation of an ethylene-responsive gene ERAF16 for a putative methyltransferase and correlation of ERAF16 gene expression with female flower formation in cucumber plants Cucumis sativus. Isolation of an unidentified, nonfermentative, gram-negative bacterium from turkeys and chickens: Isolation of anti-fungal phenolic compounds from petioles of two Hevea brasiliensis rubber genotypes and their effect on Phytophthora meadii.

Isolation of antibacterial fatty acids from Schotia brachypetala. Isolation of anticoagulant from the venom of tick, Boophilus calcaratus, from Uzbekistan. Isolation of anticomplementary substances from Cucurbita moschata Duch. Isolation of antifungal saponins from Phytolacca tetramera, an Argentinean species in critic risk.

Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from guava Psidium guajava L. Isolation of antioxidant compounds from orange juice by using countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction CC-SFE. Isolation of aquabirnavirus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus VHSV from wild marine fishes. Isolation of aucubin and catalpol from Melitaea cinxia larvae and quantification by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

Isolation of avian pneumovirus from mallard ducks that is genetically similar to viruses isolated from neighboring commercial turkeys. Isolation of bacteria able to utilizing odorous compounds as sole carbon and energy source from swine manure. Isolation of bacteria producing chitin-degrading enzymes and preliminary studies on their optimum fermentative conditions. Isolation of bacterial and fungal agents from dead-in-shell embryos of domestic pigeon Columba livia. Praveen Malik; Srivastava, S.

Isolation of bacterial and fungal pathogens from healthy and diseased equines. Isolation of bacterial consortia for degradation of p-nitrophenol from agricultural soil. Isolation of bacterial pathogens from table eggs in Grenada. Isolation of bacterial strains that produce the endocrine disruptor, octylphenol diethoxylates, in paddy fields. Isolation of bifidobacteria from food and human faeces and rapid identification by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Isolation of biologically active fractions from the water soluble components of fulvic and ulmic acids from peat. Isolation of birnavirus and reovirus-like agents from penguins in the United Kingdom. Isolation of bluetongue virus from an aborted buffalo fetus of buffalo Bubalus bubalis in India.

Isolation of bound residues of nitrofuran drugs from tissue by solid-phase extraction with determination by liquid chromatography with UV and tandem mass spectrometric detection. Isolation of bovine adenovirus from a calf with diarrhoea in Argentina. Isolation of bovine follicular dendritic cells allows the demonstration of a particular cellular prion protein.

Isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a free-ranging mule deer in Wyoming. Isolation of c-myc genes from goldfish and their tissue specific expression. Isolation of cDNA clones differentially accumulated in the placenta of pungent pepper by suppression subtractive hybridization. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding putative odourant binding proteins from the antennae of the malaria-transmitting mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

Isolation of cDNAs coding for NtEPb1-b3, marker proteins for pollen dedifferentiation in a tobacco pollen culture system. Isolation of cDNAs encoding secreted and transmembrane proteins from Schistosoma mansoni by a signal sequence trap method. Isolation of candidate genes for tolerance of abiotic stresses. Isolation of cellulose-rich elite clones of Dendrocalamus strictus.

Isolation of cerebrospinal filariasis antigen and its utilization in diagnosis of cerebrospinal filariasis in deer. Isolation of chromosaponin I-specific antibody by affinity chromatography. Isolation of cicadin, a novel and potent antifungal peptide from dried juvenile cicadas. Isolation of crude filtrates of Alternaria solani and determination of their phytotoxic activity in cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds. Isolation of cytomegalovirus and foamy virus from the drill monkey Mandrillus leucophaeus and prevalence of antibodies to these viruses amongst wild-born and captive-bred individuals.

Isolation of cytotoxic Aeromonas spp. Isolation of cytotoxic aeromonads in food industry. Isolation of dammarane saponins from Panax notoginseng by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

Isolation of deletion mutants by reverse genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Isolation of dengue 2 virus from a patient with central nervous system involvement transverse myelitis.

Isolation of dengue virus serotype 1 from the blood of a Swiss traveler prior to seroconversion. Isolation of development-related genes in somatic embryo radicle of carrot Daucus carota L. Isolation of dietary glucosinolates and their derived isothiocyanates involved in cancer prevention.

Isolation of differentially expressed genes from white spot virus WSV infected Pacific blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. Isolation of differentially expressed genes in conceptuses and endometrial tissue of sows in early gestation. Isolation of differentially expressed genes in the oil palm mesocarp via differential display and differential screening. Isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in clubroot disease. Isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum.

Isolation of embryonic stem-like cells from equine blastocysts and their differentiation in vitro. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity. Isolation of endophytic bacteria for biological control of wilt pathogens. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from potato and selection of antagonistic bacteria to potato ring rot disease. Isolation of endophytic fungi from leaves of Pasania edulis and their within-leaf distributions. Isolation of enteric and litter organisms from Alphitobius diaperinus in brooder chickens houses in West of Parana State, Brazil.

Isolation of enzymatically active replication complexes from feline calicivirus-infected cells. Isolation of expressed sequence tags of skeletal muscle of neonatal healthy and splay leg piglets and mapping by somatic cell hybrid analysis.

Isolation of extracellular protein from greenhouse soil. Isolation of flavipin, a fungus compound antagonistic to plant-parasitic nematodes.

Isolation of flavonoids from Aleurites moluccana using chitosan modified with benzaldehyde CH-Bz as chromatographic support. Isolation of fluconazole-tolerant micromycetes onto different cultivation media. Isolation of fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. Isolation of fluorescent pseudomonads from the rhizosphere of banana plants antagonistic towards root necrosing fungi. Isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from Japanese black cattle in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, Isolation of four aquatic streptomycetes strains capable of growth on organochlorine pesticides.

Isolation of fungal cell wall degrading proteins from barley Hordeum vulgare L. Isolation of fungi by standard laboratory methods in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Nibha Kumari; Prasad, L. Isolation of fungi from lungs of goats. Isolation of fungi in Musca domestica Linnaeus, Diptera: Muscidae captured at two natural breeding grounds in the municipality of Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Isolation of fusobacteria from the oral cavities of malnourished Nigerian children living in agricultural and herding villages. Isolation of genes differentially expressed in dominant and subordinate bovine follicles.

Isolation of genes induced in Naegleria fowleri during mouse brain passage. Isolation of genes involved in secondary metabolism from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel using expressed sequence tags ESTs. Isolation of genomic DNA from feathers.

Isolation of glycomacropeptide from sweet whey by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S at pH 7. Isolation of halogenated monoterpenes from bioreactor-cultured microplantlets of the macrophytic red algae Ochtodes secundiramea and Portieria hornemannii. Isolation of high molecular length DNA: Isolation of high-quality RNA from white spruce tissue using a three-stage purification method and subsequent cloning of a transcript from the PR gene family.

Isolation of highly DHA-accumulated Labyrinthulales and their utilization for nutritional enrichment of rotifers and Artemia. Isolation of human faecal bifidobacteria which reduce signs of Salmonella infection when orogastrically dosed to mice. Isolation of human intestinal bacteria metabolizing the natural isoflavone glycosides daidzin and genistin. Isolation of immunogenic outer membrane proteins from Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 by use of selective extraction and immunoaffinity chromatography.

Isolation of immunoreactive proteins from the larval extracts of Boophilus microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. Isolation of indole alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus by centrifugal partition chromatography in the pH-zone refining mode. Isolation of infection-specific sequence tags expressed during early stages of maize anthracnose disease development.

Isolation of infective and effective Frankia strains from root nodules of Alnus acuminata Betulaceae. Isolation of influenza A H5 viruses in poultry. Isolation of influenza A virus from a 7-day-old foal with bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Isolation of labradorins 1 and 2 from Pseudomonas syringae pv.

Isolation of lactoferrin from bovine colostrum by SP-Sepharose cation-exchange chromatography. Isolation of light filth from ground oregano and ground marjoram: Isolation of lignin preparations from humified materials and their properties.

Isolation of lilin, a novel arginine- and glutamate-rich protein with potent antifungal and mitogenic activities from lily bulbs. Isolation of lipoxygenase isoforms from Glycine max embryo axes based on apparent cross-reactivity with anti-myosin antibodies. Isolation of lumenal proteins from spinach thylakoid membranes by Triton X phase partitioning.

Isolation of lyme agent Borrelia spp. Isolation of lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase from developing peanut cotyledons. Isolation of mannose 6-phosphate reductase cDNA, changes in enzyme activity and mannitol content in broomrape Orobanche ramosa parasitic on tomato roots. Isolation of methane oxidising bacteria from soil by use of a soil substrate membrane system. Isolation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from meat and milk foodstuff. Isolation of microorganisms that degrade lipidic compounds of vegetal origin in water samples of Passauna River dam - Araucaria-PR Brazil.

Isolation of microsatellite loci from a rainforest tree, Elaeocarpus grandis Elaeocarpaceae , and amplification across closely related taxa. Isolation of microsatellite loci from spotted gum Corymbia variegata , and cross-species amplification in Corymbia and Eucalyptus.

Isolation of microsatellite loci in artichoke Cynara cardunculus L. Isolation of microsatellite loci in the freshwater fish, the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus Teleostei: Isolation of microsatellite markers from the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea. Isolation of microsatellite markers in Cannabis sativa L. Isolation of microsatellite markers in mungbean, Vigna radiata. Isolation of microsatellite markers in the hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum Gastropoda. Isolation of milk-clotting enzyme from transgenic sheep milk and its comparison with calf chymosin.

Isolation of mitochondria from Plasmodium falciparum showing dihydroorotate dependent respiration. Isolation of moderately infectious Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from attenuated cultures by using complement-mediated, antibody-dependent lysis selection technique in a mammalian tissue co-culture system.

Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. Isolation of moulds capable of producing mycotoxins from blue mouldy Tulum cheeses produced in Turkey. Isolation of murine embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells by selective ablation. Isolation of mutants and their frequencies under M2 generation in rice bean Vigna umbellata L. Isolation of mutants of Vibrio anguillarum defective in haeme utilisation and cloning of huvA, a gene coding for an outer membrane protein involved in the use of haeme as iron source.

Isolation of mycobacteria from suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in buffaloes slaughtered for food. Shengqing Yu; Shinya, K. Isolation of myxoviruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in District, Western Japan, during winters of Isolation of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from tropical marine sediments.

Isolation of new nanoplanktonic diatom strains and their evaluation as diets for juvenile Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Isolation of nine novel tetranucleotide microsatellites in Atlantic herring Clupea harengus.

Isolation of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis WNC 20 strain from nham, a traditional Thai fermented sausage. Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from hospital cockroaches Periplaneta americana.

Isolation of Nonpathogenic Mutants of Fusarium oxysporum f. Isolation of nonpathogenic mutants of Fusarium oxysporum for biocontrol of Fusarium wilt in cucurbits. Isolation of novel microsatellite loci in the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly, Parnassius smintheus.

Isolation of novel rice Oryza sativa L. Isolation of oil palm Elaeis guineensis leaf-specific cDNA clone s via differential screening.

Isolation of opportunistic pathogens in dental plaque, saliva and tonsil samples from elderly. Isolation of panasenoside from the roots of Panax quinquefolium. Isolation of parthenocarpic tropical gynoecious lines in Cucumber Cucumis sativus. Isolation of pathogenicity mutants of Fusarium oxysporum f. Isolation of pea matrix attachment region and study on its function in transgenic tobaccos.

Isolation of pestivirus from ruminants in Cuba. Isolation of photorespiratory mutants from Lotus japonicus deficient in glutamine synthetase. Kananbala Sarangthem; Singh, L. Isolation of phytosterols from fresh and fermented succulent bamboo shoots grown in Manipur and their bioconversion into Androsta-1, 4-diene-3, dione.

Isolation of pisumin, a novel antifungal protein from legumes of the sugar snap pea Pisum sativum var. Isolation of plant growth-promoting strains of Bradyrhizobium Arachis sp. Isolation of plant-growth-promoting Bacillus strains from soybean root nodules. Isolation of pleuturegin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein from fresh sclerotia of the edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis.

Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the genus Clusia Clusiaceae. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Begonia sutherlandii Hook. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers from the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi. Until the early 19th century, the view in Western societies was that differences between individuals of a species were uninteresting departures from their Platonic ideals of created kinds. However, the theory of uniformitarianism in geology promoted the idea that simple and this theory, Lamarckism, was an influence on the Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenkos antagonism to mainstream genetic theory as late as the mid 20th century.

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his book On the Origin of Species, by the s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. In modified form, Darwins scientific discovery is the theory of the life sciences.

Darwins early interest in nature led him to neglect his education at the University of Edinburgh, instead. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and he was writing up his theory in when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.

Darwins work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature, in he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

His research on plants was published in a series of books, Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February , at his familys home and he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists, Erasmus Darwin on his fathers side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mothers side, both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism.

The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in From September , he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder and he found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so neglected his studies.

He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, one day, Grant praised Lamarcks evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grants audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus journals, Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jamesons natural-history course, which covered geology - including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism. He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, as Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January He preferred riding and shooting to studying, when his own exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paleys Evidences of Christianity.

In his final examination in January Darwin did well, coming out of candidates for the ordinary degree. Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June , inspired with a burning zeal to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics.

Natural selection — Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. He attended the school at the University of Turin studying with Giuseppe Levi.

From to , Luria served his time in the Italian army as a medical officer. In , he received a fellowship to study in the United States, soon after Luria received the award, Benito Mussolinis fascist regime banned Jews from academic research fellowships. Without funding sources for work in the U. From to , he worked at Indiana University and his first graduate student was James D.

In January , Luria became a citizen of the United States. However once the phage become established in that strain, they also restricted in their ability to grow in other strains. It was later discovered by researchers that bacteria produce enzymes that cut viral DNA at particular sequences but not the bacterias own DNA. These enzymes became known as enzymes and developed into one of the main molecular tools in molecular biology. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine — The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories.

The Nobel Prize is presented to the recipient at a ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobels death, along with a diploma. The front side of the medal provides the profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry. As of , Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to men and 12 women.

Other controversies resulted from disagreements over who was included in the award, the prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, and half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz who was not recognized by the prize. The prize awarded to James D, since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, one prize being awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery.

Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October in Stockholm, Sweden into a family of engineers and he was a chemist, engineer and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France, in , Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.

Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63, because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting until 26 April After Nobels death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest, in , the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II.

According to Nobels will, the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, a medical school, today, the prize is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine. It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a discovery, per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award. Past Nobel laureates may also nominate, until , all professors of Karolinska Institutet together decided on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, consisting of 50 professors at Karolinska Institutet. It elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary who is in charge of the organization, in , a provision was added that no more than three persons may share a Nobel prize. True to its mandate, the Committee has selected researchers working in the sciences over those who have made applied contributions.

Watson earned degrees at the University of Chicago and Indiana University, from to , Watson was on the faculty of the Harvard University Biology Department, promoting research in molecular biology. From he served as director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, greatly expanding its level of funding, at CSHL, he shifted his research emphasis to the study of cancer, along with making it a world leading research center in molecular biology.

In , he started as president and served for 10 years and he was then appointed chancellor, serving until he resigned in after making controversial comments claiming a link between intelligence and race.

Between and , Watson was associated with the National Institutes of Health, Watson has written many science books, including the textbook Molecular Biology of the Gene and his bestselling book The Double Helix. His mothers father, Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow, Scotland, raised Catholic, he later described himself as an escapee from the Catholic religion. Watson said, The luckiest thing that happened to me was that my father didnt believe in God.

Watson grew up on the side of Chicago and attended public schools, including Horace Mann Grammar School. He was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby shared with his father, Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged bright youngsters to answer questions. Thanks to the policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of Chicago. Watson earned his B. He was part of a group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria.

Importantly, the members of the Phage Group sensed that they were on the path to discovering the nature of the gene. PhD — A Doctor of Philosophy is a type of doctoral degree awarded by universities in many countries. The completion of a Ph. The requirements to earn a Ph.

A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph. In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties, the faculty of arts.

All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees and final degrees, the doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements, besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. According to Keith Allan Noble, the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around , the doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teachers credential in the 17th century.

Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, starting in , in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a contribution to scientific knowledge. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine, upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences, which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy. Indiana University — Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.

The campus is operated in cooperation with Purdue University, but is administered by Indiana University, in addition to its two core campuses, Indiana University comprises seven smaller campuses and two extensions spread throughout Indiana.

Ryan and is the highest award bestowed by the University. It honors individuals for singular or noteworthy contributions, including service to the university and achievement in arts, letters, science, the first recipient was Thomas T. Solley, former director of the IU Art Museum. Indiana University Presidents Medal for Excellence, a reproduction in silver of the symbolic jewel of office worn by the president at ceremonial occasions, is rich in meaning.

The first recipients were member of the Beaux Arts Trio on September 20,, Thomas Hart Benton Mural Medallion recognizes individuals who are shining examples of the values of IU and the universal academic community. President Ryan was the first to award this honor and it was first awarded to the president of Nanjing University on July 21, Indiana University has a number of ways to recognize the accomplishments of faculty, the recipient is also the IU nominee for the national Campus Compact Thomas Ehrlich Award for Service Learning.

The Mace, a symbol of authority dating back to medieval times and it later would be used in processions of city mayors and other dignitaries, and became an emblem of order and authority during academic ceremonies.

The staff of IUs Mace is 30 inches long and made of polished ebony encircled with four brass, gold-plated collars, atop the staff is a globe of plated brass with four flat sides. Slot machine — A slot machine, informally fruit machine, puggy, the slots, poker machine or simply slot, is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed.

Many modern machines are equipped with a legacy lever in addition to the button. Slot machines include a currency detector that validates the money inserted to play, the machine pays off according to patterns of symbols visible on the front of the machine when it stops.

Modern computer technology has resulted in variations on the slot machine concept, Slot machines are the most popular gambling method in casinos and constitute about 70 percent of the average US casinos income. The slot machine term derives from the slots on the machine for inserting and retrieving coins, fruit machine comes from the traditional fruit images on the spinning reels, such as lemons and cherries. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker and this machine proved extremely popular and soon many bars in the city had one or more of the machines.

Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand. To make the better for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deck, the ten of spades and the jack of hearts.

The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a players chance of winning, the bell gave the machine its name. Three bells in a row produced the biggest payoff, ten nickels, Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry. Even when the use of these devices was banned in his home state after a few years. The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers, thus in , manufacturer Herbert Mills from Chicago produced a slot machine called the Operator Bell.

By lots of bell machines were installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels, early machines, including an Liberty Bell, are now part of the Nevada State Museums Fey Collection. Other early machines, such as the trade stimulator, gave out winnings in the form of fruit-flavoured chewing gums with pictures of the flavours as symbols on the reels, the popular cherry and melon symbols derive from this machine.

In these cases, a mint vending machine was declared to be a device because by chance the machine would occasionally give the next user a number of tokens exchangeable for more candy. Despite the fact that the result of the next use would be displayed on the machine, the courts ruled that he appealed to the players propensity to gamble.

Escherichia coli — Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. The harmless strains are part of the flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2.

A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. During the staining process, E. Strains that possess flagella are motile, the flagella have a peritrichous arrangement. Optimum growth of E. It can, however, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation or anaerobic respiration, the ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates.

The bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages, the B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. The C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA, the D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division.

The doubling rate of E. At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA.

Microbiological culture — A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested and it is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium.

Furthermore, the culture is more generally used informally to refer to selectively growing a specific kind of microorganism in the lab. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. It is often essential to isolate a pure culture of microorganisms, a pure culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types.

A pure culture may originate from a cell or single organism. For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture, the medium of agarose gel is used, agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. A cheap substitute for agar is guar gum, which can be used for the isolation, there are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use. One method of culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, such as Luria Broth.

This allows a scientist to grow up large amounts of bacteria for a variety of downstream applications, liquid cultures are ideal for preparation of an antimicrobial assay in which the experimenter inoculates liquid broth with bacteria and lets it grow overnight.

Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the activity of a specific drug or protein. As an alternative, the microbiologist may decide to use static liquid cultures and these cultures are not shaken and they provide the microbes with an oxygen gradient.

Microbiological cultures can be grown in petri dishes of differing sizes that have a layer of agar-based growth medium. Once the growth medium in the dish is inoculated with the desired bacteria. After the desired level of growth is achieved, agar plates can be stored upside down in a refrigerator for a period of time to keep bacteria for future experiments. There are a variety of additives that can be added to agar before it is poured into a plate, some types of bacteria can only grow in the presence of certain additives.

This can also be used when creating engineered strains of a bacteria that contain an antibiotic-resistance gene, when the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow. This allows the researcher to select only the colonies that were successfully transformed, stab cultures are similar to agar plates, but are formed by solid agar in a test tube.

Agar — Agar or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, equivalent to vegan gelatin, obtained from algae. Agar is derived from the polysaccharide agarose, which forms the structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae. These algae are known as agarophytes and belong to the Rhodophyta phylum, Agar is actually the resulting mixture of two components, the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.

Throughout history into modern times, agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia. The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the walls of some species of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium. For commercial purposes, it is derived primarily from Gelidium amansii, in chemical terms, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose.

Agar was first subjected to analysis in by the French chemist Anselme Payen. Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used heavily as a medium for growing various microbes. Agar was first described for use in microbiology in by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying.

With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased and this production centered on Japan which produced most of the worlds agar until World War II. However, with the outbreak of World War II many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research, around the time of World War II, approximately 2, tons of agar were produced annually.

By the mids, production worldwide had increased dramatically to approximately 10, tons each year, since then, production of agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations. The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae from which the jelly is produced and it is also known as Kanten, Japanese isinglass, Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss.

Agarose is a polymer, made up of repeating units of agarobiose. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes, phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm. Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere, phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe and they are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria.

Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different virions, genomes, phages are classified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses according to morphology and nucleic acid.

Nineteen families are recognized by the ICTV that infect bacteria. Of these, only two families have RNA genomes, and only five families are enveloped, of the viral families with DNA genomes, only two have single-stranded genomes. Eight of the families with DNA genomes have circular genomes while nine have linear genomes. Nine families infect bacteria only, nine infect archaea only, in , British bacteriologist Frederick Twort, superintendent of the Brown Institution of London, discovered a small agent that infected and killed bacteria.

He believed the agent must be one of the following, a stage in the cycle of the bacteria. It was DHerelle who conducted research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy.

Phages were discovered to be agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. They had widespread use, including treatment of soldiers in the Red Army, however, they were abandoned for general use in the West for several reasons, Medical trials were carried out, but a basic lack of understanding of phages made these invalid. Antibiotics were discovered and marketed widely and they were easier to make, store and to prescribe.

Poisson distribution — The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as distance, area or volume. For instance, an individual keeping track of the amount of mail they receive each day may notice that they receive a number of 4 letters per day.

Other examples that may follow a Poisson, the number of calls received by a call center per hour or the number of decay events per second from a radioactive source. The Poisson distribution is popular for modelling the number of times an event occurs in an interval of time or space. K is the number of times an event occurs in an interval, the rate at which events occur is constant.

The rate cannot be higher in some intervals and lower in other intervals, two events cannot occur at exactly the same instant. The probability of an event in an interval is proportional to the length of the interval. If these conditions are true, then K is a Poisson random variable, an event can occur 0,1,2, … times in an interval. This equation is the probability function for a Poisson distribution.

Ugarte and colleagues report that the number of goals in a World Cup soccer match is approximately 2. Because the average event rate is 2. Mean — In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context. An analogous formula applies to the case of a probability distribution. Not every probability distribution has a mean, see the Cauchy distribution for an example. Moreover, for some distributions the mean is infinite, for example, the arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1, x2.

For a finite population, the mean of a property is equal to the arithmetic mean of the given property while considering every member of the population. For example, the mean height is equal to the sum of the heights of every individual divided by the total number of individuals.

The sample mean may differ from the mean, especially for small samples. The law of large numbers dictates that the larger the size of the sample, outside of probability and statistics, a wide range of other notions of mean are often used in geometry and analysis, examples are given below.

The geometric mean is an average that is useful for sets of numbers that are interpreted according to their product. The harmonic mean is an average which is useful for sets of numbers which are defined in relation to some unit, for example speed. The mean of a set of observations is the average of the values, however, for skewed distributions.

For example, mean income is typically skewed upwards by a number of people with very large incomes. By contrast, the income is the level at which half the population is below. The mode income is the most likely income, and favors the larger number of people with lower incomes, the mean of a probability distribution is the long-run arithmetic average value of a random variable having that distribution. In this context, it is known as the expected value. Variance — The variance has a central role in statistics.

It is used in statistics, statistical inference, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit. This makes it a central quantity in numerous such as physics, biology, chemistry, cryptography, economics. On computational floating point arithmetic, this equation should not be used, if a continuous distribution does not have an expected value, as is the case for the Cauchy distribution, it does not have a variance either.

Many other distributions for which the value does exist also do not have a finite variance because the integral in the variance definition diverges. The role of the distribution in the central limit theorem is in part responsible for the prevalence of the variance in probability.

Probability distribution — For instance, if the random variable X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss, then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0. In more technical terms, the probability distribution is a description of a phenomenon in terms of the probabilities of events. Examples of random phenomena can include the results of an experiment or survey, a probability distribution is defined in terms of an underlying sample space, which is the set of all possible outcomes of the random phenomenon being observed.

The sample space may be the set of numbers or a higher-dimensional vector space, or it may be a list of non-numerical values, for example. Probability distributions are divided into two classes. A discrete probability distribution can be encoded by a discrete list of the probabilities of the outcomes, on the other hand, a continuous probability distribution is typically described by probability density functions. The normal distribution represents a commonly encountered continuous probability distribution, more complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

A probability distribution whose sample space is the set of numbers is called univariate. Important and commonly encountered univariate probability distributions include the distribution, the hypergeometric distribution. The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution, to define probability distributions for the simplest cases, one needs to distinguish between discrete and continuous random variables.

For example, the probability that an object weighs exactly g is zero. Continuous probability distributions can be described in several ways, the cumulative distribution function is the antiderivative of the probability density function provided that the latter function exists.

As probability theory is used in diverse applications, terminology is not uniform. The following terms are used for probability distribution functions, Distribution. Probability distribution, is a table that displays the probabilities of outcomes in a sample. Could be called a frequency distribution table, where all occurrences of outcomes sum to 1.

Distribution function, is a form of frequency distribution table. Probability distribution function, is a form of probability distribution table. Random — Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order, individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events is predictable.

For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, the fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space.

This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events, Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern. Typhimurium LT2 weak desiccation resistance responding to a 5-day desiccation treatment. Gene expression profile for the two serovars significantly differed with S. Typhimurium LT2 cell morphology genes were upregulated from to fold [ ]. Adaptive mechanisms of Salmonella related to survival and virulence in low a w foods include a modification of the fatty acid profile.

Salmonella will induce and express genes encoding enzymes involved in the modification of the fatty acids, which will increase osmotolerance. Increase in cyclopropane fatty acids is considered to be an indicator of starvation or desiccation stress [ ]. Fatty acid profiles affect the lipid membrane and increase osmotolerance. Salmonella enterica increases membrane fluidity via fab A, fab B, and cfa pathway [ , ]. Upregulation of short chain fatty acid related genes including fabA , fabB , and cfa was determined when Salmonella was inoculated in poultry feed [ ].

Upregulation of fatty acid catabolic genes has been identified when Salmonella is exposed to dehydration stress under aerobic conditions [ , ]. It is believed that cross protection between different factors including heat and acid stress can affect the virulence of Salmonella , although it is generally acknowledged that several genes, including rpo S, and some acid and heat shock proteins have related effects [ , ].

For example, desiccation tolerance of Salmonella enterica can have a cross-tolerance effect for other stresses. Typhimurium can show resistance to commonly used disinfectants, dry heat, and UV irradiation when exposed to a previous dehydration stress. The interaction between temperature and pH is also important.

As cross protection effects can impact the survival and virulence of Salmonella , it is important to evaluate these factors during formulation, processing, and preservation of food products. Salmonella serovars are resilient microorganisms with a complex genomic system that makes the organism able to react to different harsh environmental conditions at the farm, during processing and in the gastrointestinal tract.

Different stress factors that the bacteria may be exposed to include temperature, pH, osmotic shifts, and low a w beyond their normal growth range. More research is needed to understand why a few Salmonella serovars are responsible for a majority of human diseases and demonstrate such unique reservoirs and pathogenesis.

With a better understanding of serovar specifity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List ScientificWorldJournal v. Published online Jan This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed.

Introduction Salmonellae are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria generally 2—5 microns long by 0. Number of Salmonella foodborne outbreaks in the US linked to animals from to [ 14 ]. Number of Salmonella foodborne outbreaks in the US linked to crops from to [ 14 ]. Examples of Salmonella serovars isolated from foodborne outbreaks in the US in humans and most common food items related to each serovar from to [ 14 ].

Examples of Salmonella serovars profiles from samples of ground chicken collected in the US [ 36 ]. Salmonella Serovar Host Specificity and Disease 2.

Diseases in Chickens Birds infected with most Salmonella serovars do not show clinical signs of the disease, making it difficult to diagnose at the farm. Diseases in Humans 2. Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers Clinically, salmonellosis may be manifested as gastroenteritis, septicemia, or enteric fever. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis Like enteric fevers, nontyphoidal salmonellosis NTS is spread via the fecal-oral route, but estimated cases of NTS worldwide greatly surpass those for enteric fevers.

Differences among Serovars with respect to Disease Severity Different Salmonella serovars may demonstrate unique reservoirs and pathogeneses.

Examples of characteristic features of enteric fever and nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Differences among Serovars with respect to Antibiotic Resistance Resistant Salmonella strains are commonly found in food animal sources [ 63 , 64 ]. Examples of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from US patients and resistance profile of specific antimicrobial agents [ 75 ]. Examples of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from US patients and their multidrug resistance profile [ 75 ]. Prevalence on the Farm 3.

Cattle Salmonellosis in cattle is caused by numerous serovars, with S. Examples of Salmonella serovars profiles from cows and bulls in the US [ 36 ].

Examples of Salmonella serovars profiles from steers and heifers in the US [ 36 ]. Examples of Salmonella serovars profiles from ground beef collected in the US [ 36 ]. Pigs Pigs are an important reservoir of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis and the isolation of the organism from pork and pork products is very common. Examples of Salmonella serovars profiles from market hogs in the US [ 36 ].

Poultry Chicks may acquire Salmonella via vertical transmission from the parent, but horizontal transmission from environmental facilities, transportation, feed, and vectors including humans, rodents, and insects can be a significant problem [ 90 , 93 ]. Food Products Salmonella outbreaks linked to consumption of nonmeat foods have rapidly increased during the last decades. Survival and Stress 4.

Chemicals There are a wide variety of potential chemical stresses, including pH, oxidation, membrane disruption, and denaturation of critical macromolecules or metabolic poisons that can affect pathogenic bacteria [ , ].

Fatty Acid Associated Genes Adaptive mechanisms of Salmonella related to survival and virulence in low a w foods include a modification of the fatty acid profile. Cross Protection Effects It is believed that cross protection between different factors including heat and acid stress can affect the virulence of Salmonella , although it is generally acknowledged that several genes, including rpo S, and some acid and heat shock proteins have related effects [ , ].

Conclusions Salmonella serovars are resilient microorganisms with a complex genomic system that makes the organism able to react to different harsh environmental conditions at the farm, during processing and in the gastrointestinal tract. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Antigenic Formulae of the Salmonella Serovars. New approaches in subspecies-level Salmonella classification.

Salmonella From Genome to Function. Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Immediate differentiation of Salmonella -resembling colonies on brilliant green agar.

Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. Salmonellae in the environment. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications. The genus Salmonella ; pp. Animal sources of salmonellosis in humans.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Prevalence of Salmonella in diverse environmental farm samples. Journal of Food Protection. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis.

The linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium. Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation. Foodborne illness cost calculator: Draft genome sequence of the host-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar abortusovis strain SS Whole-genome sequences of six Salmonella enterica Serovar Bovismorbificans isolates associated with a multistate hummus-borne outbreak.

The genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a highly invasive and resistant zoonotic pathogen. First fully closed genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. Genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp.

Draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. Genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. Comparison of genome degradation in Paratyphi A and Typhi, human-restricted serovars of Salmonella enterica that cause typhoid. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

Prevalence and distribution of Salmonella in organic and conventional broiler poultry farms. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Sources and movement of Salmonella through integrated poultry operations: Incidence, sources, and control of foodborne Salmonella spp.

World's Poultry Science Journal. Vertical and horizontal transmission of Salmonella within integrated broiler production system.

Results of Salmonella isolation from poultry products, poultry, poultry environment, and other characteristics. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system swine and studies. A national outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis and eggs: Salmonella serovars isolated from table eggs: Pathogen prevalence and microbial levels associated with restricted shell eggs.

Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs: The history of avian medicine in the U. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. Salmonella infections in turkeys. Salmonella in Domestic Animals. Salmonella infections in the domestic fowl. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease.

Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis: Tracing the origins of Salmonella outbreaks. The rise and fall of Salmonella enteritidis in the UK. Journal of Applied Microbiology. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella enteritidis by Salmonella gallinarum in poultry. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in travellers. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infections in low and medium human development index countries, — The global burden of typhoid fever.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Emergence of Salmonella paratyphi A as a major cause of enteric fever: Journal of Travel Medicine. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Naturally occurring deletions in the centisome 63 pathogenicity island of environmental isolates of Salmonella spp. Salmonellosis outcomes differ substantially by serotype. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Human diseases caused by foodborne pathogens of animal origin.

Antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoid Salmonella serotypes: Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from food animals: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT in poultry.

Increased burden of illness associated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections. Multiresistant clones of Salmonella enterica: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine.

Distinguishable epidemics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT in different hosts. The clonal spread of multidrug-resistant non-typhi Salmonella serotypes.

Genes and mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella: Antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. Food animal-associated Salmonella challenges: Journal of Animal Science. The Journal of the American Medical Association. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the United States.

Characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype newport isolated from humans and food animals. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT infections in the United States.

Comparison of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates from human patients with those from animal and food sources.

Human health consequences of antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens. Salmonella infections in cattle; pp.

The epidemiology of Salmonella infection of calves: Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of fatal enteritis and abortion associated with dietary change and Salmonella typhimurium infection in a dairy herd.

Associations between human and farm animal infections with Salmonella typhimurium DT in Herefordshire. Host adapted serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Salmonella in dairy operations in the United States: Observations on the distribution of Salmonella in a pig abattoir. Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in pigs: Environmental aspects of Salmonella.

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The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence.

High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater. Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply.

Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times.

Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years. With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers.

Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.

I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer.

The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes. Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system.

Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available.

In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima. Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1.

Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea.

Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system.

Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models.

HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks. Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions.

Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed.

Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages. Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.

Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II.

These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine.

This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines. Identifying the components of ecological variation in a marine benthic megafauna. Full Text Available Current work in benthic ecology highlights the importance of the temporal component of ecological variation for distribution and abundance of organisms. However, this approach is limited by the difficulty in separating and measure the constituents of such variation.

The area is seasonally submitted to the intrusion of a cold and saline water mass, an important factor influencing benthic communities.

The composition and abundance of the megafauna were investigated at five sites from November to August A total of 93 species were collected. Average density reached individuals per catch with highest numbers in summer. A striking difference in species composition and abundance was observed in the catches through the year and the results suggested a different structure of the assemblages for each season.

Four independent components of the species variation could be separated and identified: The large amount of environmental variation is related to sandy bottoms and depth influence, whereas the time factor can be interpreted as both the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water and the biological cycles of some key-species.

Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw.

The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased P Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses Poaceae alone.

The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches.

In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes.

The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis. We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway.

This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants.

Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering. Integrative genomics identifies MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Although the uniporter's biophysical properties have been studied extensively, its molecular composition remains elusive. Here, we use whole-genome phylogenetic profiling, genome-wide RNA co-expression analysis and organelle-wide protein coexpression analysis to predict proteins functionally related to MICU1.

MCU forms oligomers in the mitochondrial inner membrane, physically interacts with MICU1, and resides within a large molecular weight complex.

MCU has two predicted transmembrane helices, which are separated by a highly conserved linker facing the intermembrane space. Acidic residues in this linker are required for its full activity. However, an SA point mutation retains function but confers resistance to Ru, the most potent inhibitor of the uniporter.

Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients.

Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries. This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life.

Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion. We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C.

This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews. While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units.

Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks. Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images.

Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths nm and nm. Specific autoantigens identified by sera obtained from mice that are immunized with testicular germ cells alone. We have previously established that immunization using viable syngeneic TGC can also induce murine experimental autoimmune orchitis EAO without using any adjuvant.

Moreover, the recombinant proteins of identified 10 except unnamed protein TGC- specific AIs were created by using human embryonic kidney HEK cells and these antigencities were reconfirmed by Western blot using EAO serum reaction. Identification of these AIs will facilitate new approaches for understanding infertility and cancer pathogenesis and may provide a basis for the development of novel therapies. An attempt to identify the muonic and electromagnetic components of extensive showers in water Cherenkov detectors.

One of the purposes of the Pierre Auger Collaboration is to study the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. When a cosmic ray collides in the upper atmosphere, depending on the mass composition, we have different numbers of mesons being produced and therefore different amounts of muons at detector level.

For example, showers initiated by proton have less muons than showers initiated by iron nucleus. If we can select the muon signal in Cherenkov tanks, we might be able to infer primary composition.

To achieve this goal, we will use the so-called 'Muon Jump Method', which aims to discriminate muons from the electromagnetic component , based on the time structure of their FADC signal. Muons produces on average more signal than electrons or gammas and they induce spiky signals whereas the electromagnetic component produce a continuum of small peaks in the FADC traces. Using this information, we estimate the number of particles for each component , by setting filters the time distribution of the shower front.

Therefore, we can infer the primary mass composition. Another important point of this study is to compare the predictions of the hadronic interaction models for each component of the shower front. We present an introduction to the main aspects of the 'Muon Jump Method' as well as some preliminary results we achieved by simulating air showers, reconstructing their main features and filtering the signals of each component.

Improved tibial component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation. Patient- specific instrumentation PSI was introduced in an attempt to reduce positional outliers of components in total knee arthroplasty TKA.

It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of tibial components in optimal rotational alignment. Of these, 30 operations were performed using PSI and 28 using conventional instrumentation. The rotation of the tibial components was determined in MRI using three different reference lines: Data were analyzed statistically for positional outliers using the Chi-squared test.

There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of tibial component rotation using the tangent to the dorsal condyles and the tibial epicondylar line as reference.

Using the dorsal tangent as reference, there were eight components in excessive external rotation Using the tibial epicondyles as reference, there were seven components in excessive external rotation These differences were statistically significant p rotational tibial component alignment during TKA. Anatomy of the proximal tibia does not deliver clear landmarks that are prominent and consistent.

This makes both, MRI analysis as well as cutting jig production and intraoperative placement a challenge. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis.

As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning The component loadings indicated that a higher amount of bone was primarily associated with more plate Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains.

Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis PCA followed by spatial independent component analysis sICA , can be exploited to reduce the dimensionality of data sets recorded in the olfactory bulb and the somatosensory cortex of mice as well as the visual cortex of monkeys, without loosing In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted.

In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set. Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree- specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study.

We hypothesized that pedigree- specific rare variants at longevity-associated genes could have a similar functional impact on healthy phenotypes. We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in pedigrees 4, individuals from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture.

Variants were analyzed individually Sequencing analysis of family-based associations for age-related phenotypes can identify rare or novel variants Specificity of motor components in the dual flagellar system of Shewanella putrefaciens CN Bacterial flagellar motors are intricate nanomachines in which the stator units and rotor component FliM may be dynamically exchanged during function. Similar to other bacterial species, the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN possesses a complete secondary flagellar system along with a corresponding stator unit.

Expression of the secondary system occurs during planktonic growth in complex media and leads to the formation of a subpopulation with one or more additional flagella at random positions in addition to the primary polar system.

We used physiological and phenotypic characterizations of defined mutants in concert with fluorescent microscopy on labelled components of the two different systems, the stator proteins PomB and MotB, the rotor components FliM 1 and FliM 2 , and the auxiliary motor components MotX and MotY, to determine localization, function and dynamics of the proteins in the flagellar motors. The components were highly specific for their corresponding motor and are unlikely to be extensively swapped or shared between the two flagellar systems under planktonic conditions.

The results have implications for both specificity and dynamics of flagellar motor components. A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs. Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes.

To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes.

Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component. To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind.

Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model. The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care.

Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field.

From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation. In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations.

The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to asses. A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S.

Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of bp SC , bp SC and bp SC , respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar- specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies.

SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http: Two- component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli. Sensor histidine kinases transmit signals to their cognate response regulators via phosphorylation.

The faithful transmission of information through two- component pathways and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk require exquisite specificity of histidine kinase-response regulator interactions to ensure that cells mount the appropriate response to external signals.

To identify putative specificity -determining residues, we have analyzed amino acid coevolution in two- component proteins and identified a set of residues that can be used to rationally rewire a model signaling pathway, EnvZ-OmpR. To explore how a relatively small set of residues can dictate partner selectivity, we combined alanine-scanning mutagenesis with an approach we call trajectory-scanning mutagenesis, in which all mutational intermediates between the specificity residues of EnvZ and another kinase, RstB, were systematically examined for phosphotransfer specificity.

The same approach was used for the response regulators OmpR and RstA. Collectively, the results begin to reveal the molecular mechanism by which a small set of amino acids enables an individual kinase to discriminate amongst a large set of highly-related response regulators and vice versa. Our results also suggest that the mutational trajectories taken by two- component signaling proteins following gene or pathway duplication may be constrained and subject to differential selective pressures.

Only some trajectories allow both the maintenance of phosphotransfer and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk. Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters.

In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met DNA methylome profiling of human tissues identifies global and tissue- specific methylation patterns. DNA epigenetic modifications, such as methylation, are important regulators of tissue differentiation, contributing to processes of both development and cancer.

Profiling the tissue- specific DNA methylome patterns will provide novel insights into normal and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as help in future epigenetic therapies. In this study, 17 somatic tissues from four autopsied humans were subjected to functional genome analysis using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation BeadChip, covering CpG sites.

A vast number of tissue- specific differentially methylated regions are identified and considered likely mediators of tissue- specific gene regulatory mechanisms since the hypomethylated regions are closely related to known functions of the corresponding tissue.

Finally, a clear inverse correlation is observed between promoter methylation within CpG islands and gene expression data obtained from publicly available databases. This genome-wide methylation profiling study identified tissue- specific differentially methylated regions in 17 human somatic tissues.

Many of the genes corresponding to these differentially methylated regions contribute to tissue- specific functions. Future studies may use these data as a reference to identify markers of perturbed differentiation and disease-related pathogenic mechanisms. Deep sequencing identifies ethnicity- specific bacterial signatures in the oral microbiome. Full Text Available Oral infections have a strong ethnic predilection; suggesting that ethnicity is a critical determinant of oral microbial colonization.

Dental plaque and saliva samples from subjects belonging to four major ethnicities in the United States were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism t-RFLP and 16S pyrosequencing. Ethnicity- specific clustering of microbial communities was apparent in saliva and subgingival biofilms, and a machine-learning classifier was capable of identifying an individual's ethnicity from subgingival microbial signatures.

The data demonstrates a significant association between ethnic affiliation and the composition of the oral microbiome; to the extent that these microbial signatures appear to be capable of discriminating between ethnicities.

Principal component analysis reveals gender- specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score MetScore. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls.

Identifying essential components of a digital health innovation ecosystem for the Namibian context: Full Text Available , networks design and analysis were selected based on what Chang and West indicated about digital ecosystems. They indicated that digital ecosystems evolved from network related background.

A brief description of the professionals who were Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

The toxin-binding site was efficiently solubilized with Lubrol PX, resulting in an extract of high initial specific activity. Purification was achieved by adsorption of the toxin-binding component to DEAE-Sephadex A followed by desorption at high ionic strength and chromatography on either wheat germ agglutinin-Ultrogel or Sepharose 6B.

This study was conducted at an innovative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics high school, providing a rich contextual description of the teaching and learning at the school, specifically focusing on problem solving and inquiry approaches, and students' motivation, social interactions, and collaborative work.

Identifying the damping contribution of building components based on measured top vibration. In this paper, a damping model for a high-rise building is introduced. This model is used to investigate the possibilities to identify the relative damping contribution of the internal material damping in building elements, energy loss at element interfaces and energy outflow at the interface with t. We found significant associations to three genes and nine single variants.

Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice. To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates.

Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping HTP on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits.

We find that detecting quantitative trait loci QTL with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar IR64 with a landrace Aswina , identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

Novel asymmetrically localizing components of human centrosomes identified by complementary proteomics methods. Pulsed labelling demonstrates a remarkable variation in the stability of centrosomal protein complexes. These spatiotemporal proteomics data provide leads Centrosomes in animal cells are dynamic organelles with a proteinaceous matrix of pericentriolar material assembled around a pair of centrioles.

They organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle apparatus. Mature centrioles are essential for biogenesis of primary cilia that mediate Isoelectric focusing was carried out in polyacrylamide gels followed by staining with coomassie blue R The estimated gene frequencies were as follows: A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides. Improved femoral component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation. It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of femoral components in optimal rotational alignment.

Of these, 46 operations were performed using PSI and 48 using conventional instrumentation. Data were analyzed for positional outliers, observer reliability, and a variance comparison between implant groups. There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of femoral component rotation.

There were significantly more outliers in the conventional In this setup, PSI was effective in significantly reducing outliers of optimal rotational femoral component alignment during TKA. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the axolotl limb identifies a tripartite regeneration- specific gene program. Full Text Available Understanding how the limb blastema is established after the initial wound healing response is an important aspect of regeneration research.

Here we performed parallel expression profile time courses of healing lateral wounds versus amputated limbs in axolotl. This comparison between wound healing and regeneration allowed us to identify amputation- specific genes. By clustering the expression profiles of these samples, we could detect three distinguishable phases of gene expression - early wound healing followed by a transition-phase leading to establishment of the limb development program, which correspond to the three phases of limb regeneration that had been defined by morphological criteria.

By focusing on the transition-phase, we identified 93 strictly amputation-associated genes many of which are implicated in oxidative-stress response, chromatin modification, epithelial development or limb development.

We further classified the genes based on whether they were or were not significantly expressed in the developing limb bud. The specific localization of 53 selected candidates within the blastema was investigated by in situ hybridization.

In summary, we identified a set of genes that are expressed specifically during regeneration and are therefore, likely candidates for the regulation of blastema formation. Core genome components and lineage specific expansions in malaria parasites Plasmodium.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing resistance of Plasmodium, the malaria parasites, to multiple commonly used drugs has underscored the urgent need to develop effective antimalarial drugs and vaccines. The new direction of genomics-driven target discovery has become possible with the completion of parasite genome sequencing, which can lead us to a better understanding of how the parasites develop the genetic variability that is associated with their response to environmental challenges and other adaptive phenotypes.

Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of six Plasmodium species, including two species that infect humans, one that infects monkeys, and three that infect rodents. These components play important roles in fundamental functions as well as in parasite- specific activities.

We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been expanded in specific Plasmodium lineage s. The majority of these gene families are hypothetical proteins with unknown functions; a few may have predicted roles such as antigenic variation.

Conclusions The core genome components in the malaria parasites have functions ranging from fundamental biological processes to roles in the complex networks that sustain the parasite- specific lifestyles appropriate to different hosts. They represent the minimum requirement to maintain a successful life cycle that spans vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors. Lineage specific expansions LSEs have given rise to abundant gene families in Plasmodium. Although the functions of most families remain unknown, these LSEs could reveal components in parasite networks that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can contribute to.

TRAIL binding to its cognate receptors, Death Receptors-4 and -5, leads to recruitment of caspase-8 and classical activation of downstream effector caspases, leading to apoptosis. We describe here the development of a novel well high-throughput screening HTS strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. By utilizing a TRAIL resistant cell line lacking caspase-8 NB7 compared to the same cells reconstituted with the wild-type protein, or with a catalytically inactive point mutant of caspase-8, we are able to identify compounds that act specifically through the caspase-8 axis, rather than through general toxicity.

In addition, false positive hits can easily be "weeded out" in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspaseinducible activity. Screening of the library of pharmacologically active compounds LOPAC was performed as both proof-of-concept and to discover potential unknown TRAIL sensitizers whose mechanism is caspase-8 mediated.

We identified known TRAIL sensitizers from the library and identified new compounds that appear to sensitize specifically through caspase In sum, we demonstrate proof-of-concept and discovery of novel compounds with a screening strategy optimized for the detection of caspase-8 pathway- specific TRAIL sensitizers.

This screen was performed in the well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries. Full Text Available Aims: Effective learning environment can lead to establish and strengthen the appropriate conditions of learning in higher education. This study aimed to identify and define the factors associated with effective learning environment in the field of health education.

This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted in Participants were 9 graduate and 7 undergraduate students of health majors that were selected using purposive sampling method.

Data were recorded by interview and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Whole genome functional analysis identifies novel components required for mitotic spindle integrity in human cells.

Background The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. We designed a genetic screen using automated microscopy to discover factors essential for mitotic progression.

Using a RNA interference library of 49, double-stranded RNAs targeting 23, human genes, we performed a loss of function screen to look for small interfering RNAs that arrest cells in metaphase. Results Here we report the identification of genes that, when suppressed, result in structural defects in the mitotic spindle leading to bent, twisted, monopolar, or multipolar spindles, and cause cell cycle arrest.

We further describe a novel analysis methodology for large-scale RNA interference datasets that relies on supervised clustering of these genes based on Gene Ontology, protein families, tissue expression, and protein-protein interactions. Conclusion This approach was utilized to classify functionally the identified genes in discrete mitotic processes. We confirmed the identity for a subset of these genes and examined more closely their mechanical role in spindle architecture.

A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape. Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time.

We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs AvPCs representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio.

We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses.

The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation.

Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence.

The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. EpiTracer - an algorithm for identifying epicenters in condition- specific biological networks. In biological systems, diseases are caused by small perturbations in a complex network of interactions between proteins. Perturbations typically affect only a small number of proteins, which go on to disturb a larger part of the network. To counteract this, a stress-response is launched, resulting in a complex pattern of variations in the cell.

Identifying the key players involved in either spreading the perturbation or responding to it can give us important insights. We develop an algorithm, EpiTracer, which identifies the key proteins, or epicenters, from which a large number of changes in the protein-protein interaction PPI network ripple out.

We propose a new centrality measure, ripple centrality, which measures how effectively a change at a particular node can ripple across the network by identifying highest activity paths specific to the condition of interest, obtained by mapping gene expression profiles to the PPI network. We demonstrate the algorithm using an overexpression study and a knockdown study.

In the overexpression study, the gene that was overexpressed PARK2 was highlighted as the most important epicenter specific to the perturbation. The other top-ranked epicenters were involved in either supporting the activity of PARK2, or counteracting it. Also, 5 of the identified epicenters showed no significant differential expression, showing that our method can find information which simple differential expression analysis cannot.

In the second dataset SP1 knockdown , alternative regulators of SP1 targets were highlighted as epicenters. Also, the gene that was knocked down SP1 was picked up as an epicenter specific to the control condition.

Sensitivity analysis showed that the genes identified as epicenters remain largely unaffected by small changes. We develop an algorithm, EpiTracer, to find epicenters in condition- specific biological networks, given the PPI network and gene expression levels. EpiTracer includes programs which can extract the. Investigations regarding the lowering of specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process.

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to decrease the emergence of specific intellectual property risks within the production process as well as increasing risk management performance of IP by preventing them. In order to achieve this, previous studies regarding the main specific intellectual property risks from industrial companies were analyzed together with their managerial methods as well as the possibility of reducing their emergence.

As a result of the research conducted were identified five types of intellectual property risks that have a high potential of emergence in the production process, namely: In order to achieve the main purpose of our investigation, we have proposed new formulas for estimating the specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process. The research is finalized with a case study regarding the lapse of rights of a patented invention. Based on a case analysis, it was proved that the exploitation of an invention without a contract represents a counterfeit.

An event- specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods. The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event- specific targets, screening targets 35S promoter and nos terminator , and an internal target 18S rRNA gene.

Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.

Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. Multi-parametric approach to identify coffee components that regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

Compounds were tested in coffee representative concentrations. Time-dependent expression of related genes were determined by real-time PCR. Part of the data was used for neural network modeling to identify the most relevant compounds.

By applying a multi-parametric approach, N-MP was shown to effectively down-regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion in human parietal gastric cells. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians RDs in clinical nutrition was explored.

Purposive sampling identified RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: Median ratings of 1.

In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Eighty-five experts enrolled Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients.

Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both Cu CrZr and CuAl25 are not yet fully characterised. Structural insight into partner specificity and phosphoryl transfer in two- component signal transduction.

The chief mechanism used by bacteria for sensing their environment is based on two conserved proteins: The signal transduction process involves highly conserved domains of both proteins that mediate autokinase, phosphotransfer, and phosphatase activities whose output is a finely tuned RR phosphorylation level. Here, we report the structure of the complex between the entire cytoplasmic portion of Thermotoga maritima class I HK and its cognate, RR, as well as the structure of the isolated RR, both free and BeF 3 - bound.

Our results provide insight into partner specificity in two- component systems, recognition of the phosphorylation state of each partner, and the catalytic mechanism of the phosphatase reaction.

Biochemical analysis shows that the HKcatalyzed autokinase reaction proceeds by a cis autophosphorylation mechanism within the HK subunit. The results suggest a model for the signal transduction mechanism in two- component systems. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component -resolved diagnosis on allergen- specific immunotherapy.

The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen JCP , and in , the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis.

Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein Cry j 3 was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component -resolved diagnosis CRD.

Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen- specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen- specific immunotherapy. Identifying learning patterns of children at risk for Specific Reading Disability.

This study illustrates the promise of LGCM applied to multi-trial learning tasks, by isolating three components of the learning process initial recall, rate of learning, and functional pattern of learning. Implications of this microdevelopmental approach to SRD research in low-to-middle income countries are discussed. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the applications of randomness.

Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties, Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasirandom number generators, Random selection is a method of selecting items from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population.

For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue.

In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable and that is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, of say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen then we can say the selection process is random.

In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate, many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this later evolved into games of chance. Most ancient cultures used various methods of divination to attempt to circumvent randomness, the Chinese of years ago were perhaps the earliest people to formalize odds and chance. The Greek philosophers discussed randomness at length, but only in non-quantitative forms and it was only in the 16th century that Italian mathematicians began to formalize the odds associated with various games of chance.

The invention of the calculus had a impact on the formal study of randomness. The early part of the 20th century saw a growth in the formal analysis of randomness. In the mid- to lateth century, ideas of information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness.

Incubator microbiology — In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other such as the carbon dioxide. Incubators are essential for a lot of work in cell biology, microbiology. Louis Pasteur used the opening underneath his staircase as an incubator.

Incubators are also used in the industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to both temperature and humidity. The most commonly used both for bacteria such as the frequently used E. For other organisms used in experiments, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Multiple dishes can also be incorporated into one container to create a multi-well plate. While glass Petri dishes may be reused after sterilization, plastic Petri dishes are often disposed of after experiments where cultures might contaminate each other, Petri dishes are often used to make agar plates for microbiology studies. Once the agar cools and solidifies, the dish is ready to be inoculated with a microbe-laden sample, virus or phage cultures require a two-stage inoculation, after the agar preparation, bacteria are grown in the dish to provide hosts for the viral inoculum.

Petri dishes are used for eukaryotic cell culture in a liquid medium or on solid agar. Their transparency and flat profile also mean they are used as temporary receptacles for viewing samples, especially liquids. Replica plating — The technique involves pressing a velveteen-covered disk, and then imprinting secondary plates with cells in colonies removed from the original plate by the material. Generally, large numbers of colonies are replica plated due to the difficulty in streaking each out individually onto a separate plate, the purpose of replica plating is to be able to compare the master plate and any secondary plates, typically to screen for a desired phenotype.

For example, when a colony that was present on the plate, fails to appear on a secondary plate. Common screenable phenotypes include auxotrophy and antibiotic resistance, replica plating is especially useful for negative selection.

However, it is correct to refer to negative screening instead of using the term selection. For example, if one wanted to select colonies that were sensitive to ampicillin, the sensitive colonies on the secondary plate would die but the colonies could still be deduced from the primary plate since the two have the same spatial patterns from ampicillin resistant colonies.

The sensitive colonies could then be picked off from the primary plate, frequently the last plate will be non-selective. If one sees growth on the plate but not the second one. If the non-selective plate shows no growth, one cannot say whether viable cells were transferred at all and this is particularly useful if there are questions about the age or viability of the cells on the original plate.

The development of replica plating required two steps, the first step was to define the problem, a method of identifiably duplicating colonies. The second step was to devise a means to implement the first step.

Replica plating was first described by Esther Lederberg and Joshua Lederberg in , however, Joshua Lederberg notes that the first step of defining the problem had been done by others before them. Several attempts were made to solve the second step. Metabolism — Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical. Enzymes act as catalysts that allow the reactions to proceed more rapidly, enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cells environment or to signals from other cells. The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious, for example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.

The speed of metabolism, the rate, influences how much food an organism will require. A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the metabolic pathways. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their appearance in evolutionary history. Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three classes of molecule, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These biochemicals can be joined together to make such as DNA and proteins.

Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds, many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism.

Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals and their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy.

Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform, the fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol, a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.

Several variations on this structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids. Steroids such as cholesterol are another class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with hydroxyl groups attached.

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy, the basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. Mutation rate — In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time.

Mutation rates are given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations. The rate of substitutions can be subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

The mutation rate of an organism is a characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism. The upper and lower limits to which mutation rates can evolve is the subject of ongoing investigation, different genetic variants within a species are referred to as alleles, and so a new mutation is said to create a new allele. In population genetics, each allele is characterized by a selection coefficient, the selection coefficient can either be negative, corresponding to an expected decrease, positive, corresponding to an expected increase, or zero, corresponding to no expected change.

An organisms mutation rates can be measured by a number of techniques, many sites in an organisms genome may not admit mutations with large fitness effects. These sites are called neutral sites. Theoretically mutations under no selection become fixed between organisms at precisely the mutation rate, fixed synonymous mutations, i.

They are often used as estimates of that rate, despite the fact that some synonymous mutations have fitness effects. As an example, mutation rates have been inferred from the whole genome sequences of experimentally evolved replicate lines of Escherichia coli B. A particularly labor-intensive way of characterizing the mutation rate is the mutation accumulation line and these different rates of nucleotide substitution are measured in substitutions per base pair per generation.

For example, mutations in intergenic, or non-coding, DNA tend to accumulate at a faster rate than mutations in DNA that is actively in use in the organism and that is not necessarily due to a higher mutation rate, but to lower levels of purifying selection. A region which mutates at predictable rate is a candidate for use as a molecular clock, in fact, the mutation rate of an organism may change in response to environmental stress.

The human mutation rate is higher in the germ line than the female. In general, the rate in unicellular eukaryotes and bacteria is roughly 0. This means that a human genome accumulates around 64 new mutations per generation because each full generation involves a number of divisions to generate gametes. Haldane — His article on abiogenesis in introduced the Primordial Soup Theory, and it became the foundation to build physical models for the chemical origin of life. Haldane established human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he correctly proposed that sickle-cell disease confers some immunity to malaria.

In he articulated Haldanes dilemma, a limit on the speed of evolution which subsequently proved incorrect. He willed his body for medical studies, as he wanted to remain even in death.

Clarke credited him as perhaps the most brilliant science populariser of his generation, nobel laureate Peter Medawar called Haldane the cleverest man I ever knew. Haldane was born in Oxford to John Scott Haldane, a physiologist, scientist, a philosopher and a Liberal, and Louisa Kathleen Trotter and his younger sister, Naomi Mitchison, became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane.

He learnt to read at the age of three, and at four, after injuring his forehead he asked the doctor, Is this oxyhaemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin.

From age eight he worked with his father in their home laboratory where he experienced his first self-experimentation and he and his father became their own human guinea pigs, such as in their investigation on the effects of poison gases. In his family moved to Cherwell, a late Victorian house at the outskirts of Oxford having its private laboratory and his formal education began in at Oxford Preparatory School, where he gained a First Scholarship in to Eton.

In he joined Eton, where he experienced severe abuse from senior students for allegedly being arrogant, the indifference of authority left him with a lasting hatred for the English education system. However, the ordeal did not stop him from becoming Captain of the school and he studied mathematics and classics at New College at the University of Oxford and obtained first-class honours in mathematical moderations in and a first-class honours in With his father he published his first scientific paper, age 20 and he became engrossed in genetics and presented a paper on gene linkage in vertebrates in the summer of His first technical paper, a page long article on function, was published.

He was promoted to lieutenant on 18 February and to temporary captain on 18 October. He served in France and Iraq, where he was wounded and he relinquished his commission on 1 April , retaining his rank of captain.

For his ferocity and aggressiveness in battles, his commander called him the bravest and dirtiest officer in my Army, between and he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford, where he researched physiology and genetics. He then moved to the University of Cambridge, where he accepted a readership in Biochemistry, from until he was also Head of Genetical Research at the John Innes Horticultural Institution.

University College London — University College London is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities. UCL also makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England.

In UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year. UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London.

UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over departments, institutes. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics. London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so.

In , the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In , University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school. In , London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College.

The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in , in , the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.

The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in , in , Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.

Median — The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. In simple terms, it may be thought of as the value of a data set. For example, in the set, the median is 6. The median is a commonly used measure of the properties of a set in statistics. The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a typical value.

For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary greatly, Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a typical income is. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest, if there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked.

For example, consider the set of numbers,1,3,3,6,7,8,9 This set contains seven numbers, the median is the fourth of them, which is 6. If there are a number of observations, then there is no single middle value.

This either gives the number or the halfway point between the two middle values. For example, with 14 values, the formula will give 7. There is no accepted standard notation for the median.

In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced. The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean, the median is 2 in this case, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4.

The widely cited empirical relationship between the locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, however. There are, however, various relationships for the difference between them, see below. Maximum likelihood — The method of maximum likelihood corresponds to many well-known estimation methods in statistics.

For example, one may be interested in the heights of adult female penguins, MLE would accomplish this by taking the mean and variance as parameters and finding particular parametric values that make the observed results the most probable given the model.

In general, for a set of data and underlying statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation gives a unified approach to estimation, which is well-defined in the case of the normal distribution, maximum-likelihood estimation was recommended, analyzed and widely popularized by Ronald Fisher between and Maximum-likelihood estimation finally transcended heuristic justification in a proof published by Samuel S.

Wilks in , ironically, the only difficult part of the proof depends on the expected value of the Fisher information matrix, which is provided by a theorem by Fisher. Wilks continued to improve on the generality of the theorem throughout his life, some of the theory behind maximum likelihood estimation was developed for Bayesian statistics. Reviews of the development of maximum likelihood estimation have been provided by a number of authors, suppose there is a sample x1, x2, …, xn of n independent and identically distributed observations, coming from a distribution with an unknown probability density function f0.

It is however surmised that the function f0 belongs to a family of distributions, called the parametric model. An MLE estimate is the same regardless of whether we maximize the likelihood or the log-likelihood function, for many models, a maximum likelihood estimator can be found as an explicit function of the observed data x1.

For many other models, however, no solution to the maximization problem is known or available. For some problems, there may be multiple estimates that maximize the likelihood, in the exposition above, it is assumed that the data are independent and identically distributed. In a simpler extension, an allowance can be made for data heterogeneity, put another way, we are now assuming that each observation xi comes from a random variable that has its own distribution function fi.

Poisson process — In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space.

The Poisson point process is defined on the real line. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange. In this setting, the process is used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, stochastic geometry, spatial statistics.

On more abstract spaces, the Poisson point process serves as an object of study in its own right. The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in different settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics.

The point process depends on a mathematical object, which, depending on the context, may be a constant, a locally integrable function or, in more general settings.

In the first case, the constant, known as the rate or intensity, is the density of the points in the Poisson process located in some region of space. The resulting point process is called a homogeneous or stationary Poisson point process, depending on the setting, the process has several equivalent definitions as well as definitions of varying generality owing to its many applications and characterizations. Consequently, the notation, terminology and level of mathematical rigour used to define and study the Poisson point process, despite its different forms and varying generality, the Poisson point process has two key properties.

If a Poisson point process is defined on some underlying space and this property is known under several names such as complete randomness, complete independence, or independent scattering and is common to all Poisson point processes.

In other words, there is a lack of interaction between different regions and the points in general, which motivates the Poisson process being called a purely or completely random process. The parameter, called rate or intensity, is related to the number of Poisson points existing in some bounded region. The homogeneous Poisson point process, when considered on the positive half-line, can be defined as a process, a type of stochastic process.

Scoring rule — In decision theory, a score function, or scoring rule, measures the accuracy of probabilistic predictions. It is applicable to tasks in which predictions must assign probabilities to a set of mutually exclusive discrete outcomes, the set of possible outcomes can be either binary or categorical in nature, and the probabilities assigned to this set of outcomes must sum to one.

A score can be thought of as either a measure of the calibration of a set of probabilistic predictions, if a cost is levied in proportion to a proper scoring rule, the minimal expected cost corresponds to reporting the true set of probabilities. Various scoring rules have also used to assess the predictive accuracy of forecast models for association football. The main characteristic of such scoring rules is S is just a function of the value of G.

An example of probabilistic forecasting is in meteorology where a weather forecaster may give the probability of rain on the next day. A poorly calibrated forecaster might be encouraged to do better by a bonus system, a bonus system designed around a proper scoring rule will incentivize the forecaster to report probabilities equal to his personal beliefs. In addition to the case of a binary decision, such as assigning probabilities to rain or no rain, scoring rules may be used for multiple classes, such as rain, snow.

The image to the shows a example of a scoring rule. One way to use this rule would be as a cost based on the probability that a forecaster or algorithm assigns, a probabilistic forecaster or algorithm will return a probability vector r with a probability for each of the i outcomes. One usage of a function could be to give a reward of S if the ith event occurs.

If a proper scoring rule is used, then the highest expected reward is obtained by reporting the probability distribution. The use of a scoring rule encourages the forecaster to be honest to maximize the expected reward.

A scoring rule is strictly proper if it is optimized by the true probabilities. Optimized in this case will correspond to maximization for the quadratic, spherical and this can be seen in the image at right for the logarithmic rule. Albomycin — Albomycin is a naturally occurring sideromycin produced by some streptomycetes. Rifamycin — The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica or artificially.

They are a subclass of the family of ansamycins. Rifamycins are particularly effective against mycobacteria, and are used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy. The rifamycin group includes the classic rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, rifalazil, Streptomyces mediterranei was first isolated in from a soil sample collected near the beach-side town of St Raphael in southern France.

In , the bacterium was renamed Nocardia mediterranei when another scientist named Thiemann found that it has a cell wall typical of the Nocardia species, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, Bala et al. Initially, a family of closely related antibiotics was discovered referred to as Rifamycin A, B, C, D, E, the only component of this mixture sufficiently stable to isolate in a pure form was Rifamycin B, which unfortunately was poorly active. However, further studies showed that Rifamycin B was essentially inactive, simple reduction of Rifamycin S yielded the hydroquinone form called Rifamycin SV, which became the first member of this class to enter clinical use as an intravenous antibiotic.

Further chemical modification of Rifamycin SV yielded an improved analog Rifamide, which was introduced into clinical practice. S, patent 3,, was granted in September The drug is widely regarded as having helped conquer the issue of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the s, rifamycins have been used for the treatment of many diseases, the most important one being HIV-related tuberculosis.

But the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen had higher rates of treatment completion and lower rates of hepatotoxicity, however, the rate of treatment-limiting adverse events was higher in the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen. However, despite their activity against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, because of this Rifampin, and other rifamycins, are typically used in combination with other antibacterial drugs. This is routinely practiced in TB therapy and serves to prevent the formation of mutants that are resistant to any of the drugs in the combination.

The antibacterial activity of rifamycins relies on the inhibition of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis and this is due to the high affinity of rifamycins for the prokaryotic RNA polymerase. The selectivity of the rifamycins depends on the fact that they have a very poor affinity for the mammalian enzyme.

Microcin J25 — Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides. For this reason, they are distinct from their larger protein cousins, the classic example is microcin V, of E. Subtilosin A is another bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis, the peptide has a cyclized backbone and forms three cross-links between the sulphurs of Cys13, Cys7 and Cys4 and the alpha-positions of Phe22, Thr28 and Phe It is found that these bacteriocins target and eliminate iron-starved pathogens, specifically, the protein targets the pathogens are producing iron-scavenging protein in response to a low iron environment.

As of 5 January , PubMed has more than As of the date, In , NLM changed the system so that publishers will be able to directly correct typos. Simple searches on PubMed can be carried out by entering key aspects of a subject into PubMeds search window, when a journal article is indexed, numerous article parameters are extracted and stored as structured information. Such parameters are, Article Type, Secondary identifiers, Language, publication type parameter enables many special features. As these clinical girish can generate small sets of robust studies with considerable precision, since July , the MEDLINE article indexing process extracts important identifiers from the article abstract and puts those in a field called Secondary Identifier.

The secondary identifier field is to store numbers to various databases of molecular sequence data, gene expression or chemical compounds. If relevant, several studies can be selected and related articles to all of them can be generated using the Find related data option, the related articles are then listed in order of relatedness.

To create these lists of related articles, PubMed compares words from the title and abstract of each citation, as well as the MeSH headings assigned, using a powerful word-weighted algorithm.

The related articles function has been judged to be so precise that some researchers suggest it can be used instead of a full search, a strong feature of PubMed is its ability to automatically link to MeSH terms and subheadings.

Examples would be, bad breath links to halitosis, heart attack to myocardial infarction, where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically expanded, that is, include more specific terms. Terms like nursing are automatically linked to Nursing or Nursing and this important feature makes PubMed searches automatically more sensitive and avoids false-negative hits by compensating for the diversity of medical terminology.

Nature journal — Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month. The journal has a circulation of around 53, There are also sections on books and arts, the remainder of the journal consists mostly of research papers, which are often dense and highly technical.

There are many fields of research in which important new advances, the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. In Nature received the Princess of Asturias Award for Communications, the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written mostly in German or French, as well as in English. Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances particularly in the half of the 19th century.

In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the s to the s. According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as organs of science, in essence, Nature, first created in , was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain. While Recreative Science had attempted to more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology.

Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in and and these similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in , Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student, the Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in The Reader terminated in , and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, janet Browne has proposed that far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived, born, and raised to serve polemic purpose.

Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors and this is what Lockyers journal did from the start. Norman Lockyer, the founder of Nature, was a professor at Imperial College and he was succeeded as editor in by Sir Richard Gregory.

Gregory helped to establish Nature in the scientific community. During the years to , editorship of Nature changed three times, first in to A. Brimble, then to John Maddox in , and finally to David Davies in In , Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until , philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications.

ArXiv — In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,, arXiv. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around , Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity.

Additional modes of access were added, FTP in , Gopher in The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx. Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world.

Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv. As of 14 January , institutions have pledged support for the period — on this basis, in September , Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development.

The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories.

Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all.

However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there — let them go and read about it. The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. The submission is rejected by the software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large.

ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, the time stamp on the article is set when the submission is finalized. History of biology — The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. This ancient work was developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians. During the European Renaissance and early period, biological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism.

Microscopy revealed the unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, over the 18th and 19th centuries, biological sciences such as botany and zoology became increasingly professional scientific disciplines.

Lavoisier and other scientists began to connect the animate and inanimate worlds through physics. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction, cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life. These developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection. The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation, New disciplines developed rapidly, especially after Watson and Crick proposed the structure of DNA.

Before biology, there were terms used for the study of animals. Physiology and pharmacology were the province of medicine, botany, zoology, and geology replaced natural history and natural philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries before biology was widely adopted.

To this day, botany and zoology are widely used, although they have been joined by other sub-disciplines of biology, such as mycology, the earliest humans must have had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival.

This may have included knowledge of human and animal anatomy and aspects of animal behavior, however, the first major turning point in biological knowledge came with the Neolithic Revolution about 10, years ago. Humans first domesticated plants for farming, then livestock animals to accompany the resulting sedentary societies, however, the roots of modern biology are usually traced back to the secular tradition of ancient Greek philosophy.

In ancient China, biological topics can be dispersed across several different disciplines, including the work of herbologists, physicians, alchemists. The Taoist tradition of Chinese alchemy, for example, can be considered part of the life sciences due to its emphasis on health, the system of classical Chinese medicine usually revolved around the theory of yin and yang, and the five phases.

One of the oldest organised systems of medicine is known from the Indian subcontinent in the form of Ayurveda which originated around BCE from Atharvaveda, Ayurvedic writers also classified living things into four categories based on the method of birth and explained the conception of a fetus in detail. History of agricultural science — History of agricultural science looks at the scientific advancement of techniques and understanding of agriculture.

Scientific study of fertilizer was advanced significantly in with the publication Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agrikulturchemie und Physiologie by Justus von Liebig, one of Liebigs advances in agricultural science was the discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient. In , Liebig published what is now known as Liebigs law of the minimum, Liebigs law states that growth is not controlled by the total amount of resources available, but by the limiting factor.

In the United States, a revolution in agriculture began with the Hatch Act of The Hatch Act was driven by farmers interest in knowing the constituents of early artificial fertilizer, later on, the Smith-Hughes Act of shifted agricultural education back to its vocational roots, but the scientific foundation had been built.

After , public expenditures on agricultural research in the US exceeded private expenditures for the next 44 years, a genetic study of Agricultural science began with Gregor Mendels work. Using statistical methods, Mendel developed the model of Mendelian inheritance which accurately described the inheritance of dominant and his results were controversial at the time and were not widely accepted.

In , Hugo de Vries published his findings after rediscovering Mendels work, the study of genetics carried into an experiment isolating DNA. Agronomy and the disciplines of agricultural science today are very different from what they were before about There are various universities around the United States which are known for educating students in the field of the agricultural sciences.

Austin State University, University of Idaho, history of agriculture List of agricultural scientists. History of anatomy — The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. The study of anatomy can be traced back thousands of years, at least to the Egyptians.

The development of the study of anatomy gradually built upon concepts that were understood during the time of Galen and it has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body.

The study of anatomy begins at least as early as BC and this treatise shows that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus and bladder were recognized, and that the blood vessels were known to emanate from the heart. It notes that the heart is the center of blood supply, however, they did not have a theory as to where saliva and sweat came from.

Nomenclature, methods and applications for the study of anatomy all date back to the Greeks, the early scientist Alcmaeon began to construct a background for medical and anatomical science with the dissection of animals.

He identified the optic nerves and the tubes later termed the Eustachius, others such as Acron, Pausanias, and Philistion of Locri made investigations into anatomy. One important figure during this time was Empedocles who viewed the blood as the heat which he acquired from previous folklore.

He also argued that the heart was the organ of both the vascular system and the pneuma. Many medical texts by authors are collected in the Hippocratic Corpus. The texts show an understanding of structure, and the beginnings of understanding of the function of certain organs.

The tricuspid valve of the heart and its function is documented in the treatise On the Heart, in the 4th century BCE, Aristotle and several contemporaries produced a more empirically founded system, based on animal dissection.

Through his work with animal dissections and evolutionary biology, Aristotle founded comparative anatomy, around this time, Praxagoras is credited as the first to identify the difference between arteries and veins, and the relations between organs are described more accurately than in previous works.

The first recorded school of anatomy was in Alexandria from about to the 2nd century BC, Ptolemy I Soter was the first to allow for medical officials to cut open and examine dead bodies for the purposes of learning how human bodies operated.

On some occasions King Ptolemy even took part in these dissections, most of the early dissections were done on executed criminals.

Herophilos in particular developed a body of anatomical knowledge much more informed by the structure of the human body than previous works had been. Herophilos was the first physician to dissect human bodies and is considered to be the founder of Anatomy and he reversed the longstanding notion made by Aristotle that the heart was the seat of intelligence. He argued instead that this seat was the brain, however, Herophilos was eventually accused by his contemporaries of dissecting live criminals.

Nevertheless, several sources cite German chemist Carl Neuberg as having coined the term for the new discipline in , and some credit it to Franz Hofmeister. Over the last 40 years the field has had success in explaining living processes such that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Among the vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules, each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types.

Biochemistry studies the properties of important biological molecules, like proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the system has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the code, protein synthesis, cell membrane transport. It began in the ancient Indian culture also with an interest in medicine and they also delved into the interest of bodies being composed of tissues.

On the side of chemistry, early advancements were heavily attributed to exploration of interests but also included, metallurgy, the scientific method. In more recent times, the study of chemistry was marked by such as the development of Mendeleevs periodic table, Daltons atomic model. This last mention has the most importance of the three due to the fact that this law intertwines chemistry with thermodynamics in an intercalated manner. As early as the late 18th century and early 19th century, the digestion of meat by stomach secretions, however, the mechanism by which this occurred had not been identified.

He wrote that alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, the word enzyme was used later to refer to nonliving substances such as pepsin, and the word ferment used to refer to chemical activity produced by living organisms. In Eduard Buchner began to study the ability of yeast extracts to ferment sugar despite the absence of living yeast cells. In a series of experiments at the University of Berlin, he found that the sugar was fermented even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture and he named the enzyme that brought about the fermentation of sucrose zymase.

In he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his biochemical research, following Buchners example, enzymes are usually named according to the reaction they carry out. Typically the suffix -ase is added to the name of the substrate or the type of reaction, having shown that enzymes could function outside a living cell, the next step was to determine their biochemical nature.

Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was a protein and crystallized it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A program to distinguish between the adaptive and spontaneous mutation hypotheses".

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene—one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation.

Stephen Jay Gould W. History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry. Retrieved from " https: Biology experiments Genetics experiments Statistical genetics Bacteria in science.

All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea 2.

The abundance of some changes within the gene pool can be reduced by natural selection, while other more favorable mutations may accumulate 3. However, the theory of uniformitarianism in geology promoted the idea that simple and this theory, Lamarckism, was an influence on the Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenkos antagonism to mainstream genetic theory as late as the mid 20th century 4.

Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June , inspired with a burning zeal to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics 5.

However, the theory of uniformitarianism in geology promoted the idea that simple and this theory, Lamarckism, was an influence on the Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenkos antagonism to mainstream genetic theory as late as the mid 20th century 6.

These enzymes became known as enzymes and developed into one of the main molecular tools in molecular biology 7. True to its mandate, the Committee has selected researchers working in the sciences over those who have made applied contributions 8. Importantly, the members of the Phage Group sensed that they were on the path to discovering the nature of the gene 9.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy The staff of IUs Mace is 30 inches long and made of polished ebony encircled with four brass, gold-plated collars, atop the staff is a globe of plated brass with four flat sides Despite the fact that the result of the next use would be displayed on the machine, the courts ruled that he appealed to the players propensity to gamble At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA This allows the researcher to select only the colonies that were successfully transformed, stab cultures are similar to agar plates, but are formed by solid agar in a test tube Antibiotics were discovered and marketed widely and they were easier to make, store and to prescribe In this context, it is known as the expected value Probability distribution function, is a form of probability distribution table In the mid- to lateth century, ideas of information theory introduced new dimensions to the field via the concept of algorithmic randomness

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Unscramble the words to reveal the Genus name of a bacterium and. Now it is a beach resort with a Casino and a beautifully illuminated June Salmonella. Apr 15,  · Sample records for lactone bacterial signaling Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio The bacterium was classified as a . Iron regulated genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium quently, bacteria employ siderophores, iron specific scavengers.

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If combined with omics analyses of their host cells, these high-throughput molecular profiling approaches would allow us to move beyond the reductionist approach and achieve an integrative understanding of host-pathogen interactions. The relative abundances of protein from different samples were assessed using a spectral counting method. Some patients may feel worse during the several days of waiting for the fever to end, however, the height of the fever decreases each day. Proteomic and metabolomic sample preparations. Maximum missed cleavage was set to 2. This conclusion is supported by the location of the iro genes on pathogenicity islands of uropathogenic E.

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We found that siderophore synthesis proteins e. In Indian countries, cases of Paratyphoid fever are more prevalent. Taking these data together, some common themes may start to emerge regarding adaptation mechanisms of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Upon infection by Salmonella Paratyphi, the immune system mounts a humoral response predominately producing and utilizing IgA antibodies. Contact your librarian for assistance with OpenAthens authentication. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores.

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Kyoto Biken Laboratories Inc. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. For bacterial pathogens, iron scavenging is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways to a great extent. These results indicate that IroN might be promising as an important vaccine component against Salmonella infection in chickens. In addition, it is shown that salmochelin is not secreted in an iroBC mutant. Cited by view all.

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Uptake experiments with radiolabeled 55 Fe-salmochelin and growth promotion tests with salmochelins showed that the IroN outer membrane receptor, encoded in the iroA locus of S. The WT strain S. We found that HBSS rapidly induced amino acid biosynthesis pathways. T1 - Probiotic bacteria reduce salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for iron. We analyzed the proteome of four Salmonella populations: Collectively, our data showed that PhoPQ activated expression of many genes important for Salmonella survival and replication in epithelial cells. The bacterium is able to survive the low pH of the stomach and enter the intestines.

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Altered expression was also observed for maltose utilization proteins. Click here to view. Heat maps of Salmonella proteins that differed significantly in expression at 6 h relative to 1 h postinfection. Login If you have a BioOne account, or have purchased access to this article, log in below. In Bacterial stress response , ed. Please follow the link we've just sent you to activate the subscription. Search for related content.