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Vascular endothelial cells contain unique storage organelles, designated Weibel-Palade bodies WPBsthat deliver inflammatory and hemostatic mediators to the vascular lumen in response to agonists like thrombin and vasopressin.

In addition to VWF, several other components are known to be stored in WPBs, like osteoprotegerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and angiopoetin-2 Ang Here, we used an unbiased proteomics approach to identify additional residents of WPBs.

Thirty-five novel candidate WPB residents were identified that included insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 IGFBP7which has been proposed to regulate angiogenesis. Rosin components identified in diapers.

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Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments. A separate analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections incriminated food from catering establishments and foreign travel among household members, in addition to imported poultry. Industrial scale composting can be carried out in the form of in-vessel composting , aerated static pile composting , vermicomposting , windrow composting and takes place in most Western countries now.

As part of the investigation of sources of exposure to rosin allergens, disposable diapers napkins common on the Swedish market were analyzed, using gas chromatography, to detect the main rosin compounds.

Rosin components were detected in all diapers, the highest amounts in those from the 2 major producers. In these diapers, more rosin was found in the top layer, which is in close contact with the skin than in the fluff. Despite the possibly minimal risk of induction of sensitization to rosin allergens in diapers, there is a real risk of elicitation of dermatitis in sensitive individuals, especially since penetration is enhanced by occlusion and irritation.

Such material is not only used for infant diapers, but also for adult incontinence products and feminine hygiene products. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs.

In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and. Introduction The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs.

Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately assess the effectiveness Free casino bonus blasters handbook women- specific services on HIV. Normalized Specifications for Identifying Reusable Software. An approach to retrieving reusable software components by means of module specifications is described.

The approach depends on normalizing specifications to reduce the variations in the representation of software concepts. The concept is illustrated in terms of both formal and informal approaches to component specifications. Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners.

Full Text Available Component -based Software Engineering CbSE has become a well-accepted approach for developing complex software systems due to its significant advantages on composition and reuse.

In practice, however, its use still requires the conjunction of a component specification method that describes how system requirements are satisfied in terms of software components. Such a component specification is then implemented in a variety of software component models e. To achieve this, a sound mapping from the specification to a designated component model is critical. In addition, Casino siderophores salmonella bacteria in tomatoes rapid advances on Internet technologies, software systems have gradually been architected as processing in distributed environments.

To illustrate, an on-line e-Learning curriculum order system is modeled for demonstrating the mapping idea.

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Selecting reusable components using algebraic specifications. A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation s.

This approach selects candidates by natural language-derived classification, by their interfaces, using signatures, and by their behavior, using axioms.

We briefly outline our problem domain and related work. Lattice-based faceted classifications are described; the reader is referred to surveys of the extensive literature for algebraic specification techniques.

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Behavioral support for reuse queries is presented, followed by the conclusions. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis. We investigated the distribution of GC subtypes in Danish patients with otosclerosis who all had surgery performed in the county of Funen.

Compared to Danish Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention- specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare.

We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…. Identifying prototypical components in behaviour using clustering algorithms. Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of animal behaviour is a requirement to understand the task solving strategies of animals and the underlying control mechanisms. The identification of repeatedly occurring behavioural components is thereby a Casino julekalender til salg odsherreds element of a structured quantitative description.

However, the complexity of most behaviours makes the identification of Casino siderophores salmonella bacteria in tomatoes behavioural components a challenging problem. We propose an automatic and objective approach for determining and evaluating prototypical behavioural components. Behavioural prototypes are identified using clustering algorithms and finally evaluated with respect to their ability to represent the whole behavioural data set.

The prototypes allow for a meaningful segmentation of behavioural sequences. We applied our clustering approach to identify prototypical movements of the head of blowflies during cruising flight. The results confirm the previously established saccadic gaze strategy by the set of prototypes being divided into either predominantly translational or rotational movements, respectively.

The prototypes reveal additional details about the saccadic and intersaccadic flight sections that could not be unravelled so far. Successful application of the proposed approach to behavioural data shows its ability to automatically identify prototypical behavioural components within a large and noisy database and to evaluate these with respect to their quality and stability.

Hence, this approach might be applied to a broad range of behavioural and neural data obtained from different animals and in different contexts. Full Text Available Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of "clock genes" that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders.

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Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock componentsemploying higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques. In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components. We used a simple form of probabilistic machine learning to integrate biologically relevant, genome-scale data and ranked genes on their similarity to known clock components.

We then used a secondary experimental screen to characterize the top candidates.

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We found that several physically interact with known clock components in a mammalian two-hybrid screen and modulate in vitro cellular rhythms in an immortalized mouse fibroblast line NIH 3T3.

Most importantly, CHRONO knockout mice display a prolonged free-running circadian period similar to, or more drastic than, six other clock components. We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of specific neurons in selected regions of the central nervous system.

Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder, whose etiology remains mostly unknown. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra causes an impairment of the motor control. Some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the progressive deterioration of these neurons are not specific for Parkinson's disease but are shared by other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature of all the quantitative proteomic investigations of neuronal alterations in different models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to distinguish between general and Parkinson's disease- specific pattern of neurodegeneration. The comparison of gene and protein information allowed us to identify 25 proteins involved uniquely in Parkinson's disease and we verified the alteration Casino siderophores salmonella bacteria in tomatoes one of them, i.

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Eventually, we highlighted four cellular component complexes mostly involved in the pathogenesis: Full Text Available Multivariate phenotypes may be characterized collectively by a variety of low level traits, such as in the diagnosis of a disease that relies on multiple disease indicators.

Such multivariate phenotypes are often used in genetic association studies. If highly heritable components of a multivariate phenotype can be identifiedit can maximize the likelihood of finding genetic associations. Existing methods for phenotype refinement perform unsupervised cluster analysis on low-level traits and hence do not assess heritability.

Existing heritable component analytics either cannot utilize general pedigrees or have to estimate the entire covariance matrix of low-level traits from limited samples, which leads to inaccurate estimates and is often computationally prohibitive.

It is also difficult for these methods to exclude fixed effects from other covariates such as age, sex and race, in order to identify truly heritable components.

We propose to search for a combination of low-level traits and directly maximize the heritability of this combined trait. A quadratic optimization problem is thus derived where the objective function is formulated by decomposing the traditional maximum likelihood method for estimating the heritability of a quantitative trait.

The proposed approach can generate linearly-combined traits of high heritability that has been corrected for the fixed effects of covariates. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated in simulations and by a case study of cocaine dependence. Our approach was computationally efficient and derived traits of higher heritability than those by other methods. Additional association analysis with the derived cocaine-use trait identified genetic markers that were replicated in an independent sample, further confirming the utility and advantage of the proposed approach.

Rewiring the specificity of two- component signal transduction systems.

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Two- component signal transduction systems are the predominant means by which bacteria sense and Jackpot party casino cheats codes to environmental stimuli.

Bacteria often employ tens or hundreds of these paralogous signaling systems, comprised of histidine kinases HKs and their cognate response regulators RRs.

Faithful transmission of information through these signaling pathways and avoidance of detrimental crosstalk demand exquisite specificity of HK-RR interactions.

To identify the determinants of two- component signaling specificitywe examined patterns of amino acid coevolution in large, multiple sequence alignments of cognate kinase-regulator pairs.

Guided by these results, we demonstrate that a subset of the coevolving residues is sufficient, when mutated, to completely switch the substrate specificity of the kinase EnvZ. Our results shed light on the basis of molecular discrimination in two- component signaling pathways, provide a general approach for the rational rewiring of these pathways, and suggest that analyses of coevolution may facilitate the reprogramming of other signaling systems and protein-protein interactions.

Parallel ICA identifies sub- components of resting state networks that covary with behavioral indices. Full Text Available Parallel Independent Component Analysis para-ICA is a multivariate method that can identify complex relationships between different data modalities by simultaneously performing Independent Component Analysis on each data set while finding mutual information between the two data sets. We use para-ICA to test the hypothesis that spatial sub- components of common resting state networks RSNs covary with specific behavioral measures.

Resting state scans and a battery of behavioral indices were collected from 24 younger adults. Nine RSNs were identified and para-ICA was run on each network with a matrix of behavioral measures serving as the second data type.

Five networks had spatial sub- components that significantly correlated with behavioral components. These included a sub- component of the temporo-parietal attention network that differentially covaried with different trial-types of a sustained attention task, sub- components of default mode networks Casino siderophores salmonella bacteria in tomatoes covaried with attention and working memory tasks, and a sub- component of the bilateral frontal network that split the left inferior frontal gyrus into three clusters according to its cytoarchitecture that differentially covaried with working memory performance.

Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of para-ICA in cases with unbalanced dimensions using simulated data. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model. The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes.

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Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present, obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production, microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen.

Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it, a good example is the oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration. This equation is a summary of what happens in three series of reactions, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Fermentation Aerobic vaginitis Oxygenation. Nitrates also describe the functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a class of explosives. The anion is the base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. This arrangement is used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the ion can be represented by resonance structures.

A common example of a nitrate salt is potassium nitrate. A rich source of nitrate in the human body comes from diets rich in leafy green foods, such as spinach. NO3- is the active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables. Nitrite and water are converted in the body to nitric oxide, nitrate salts are found naturally on earth as large deposits, particularly of nitratine, a major source of sodium nitrate.

Nitrates are found in man-made fertilizers, as a byproduct of lightning strikes in earths nitrogen-oxygen rich atmosphere, nitric acid is produced when nitrogen dioxide reacts with water vapor. Nitrates are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their solubility and biodegradability.

The main nitrate fertilizers are ammonium, sodium, potassium, several million kilograms are produced annually for this purpose. The second major application of nitrates is as oxidizing agents, most notably in explosives where the oxidation of carbon compounds liberates large volumes of gases.

Sodium nitrate is used to air bubbles from molten glass. Mixtures of the salt are used to harden some metals. Explosives and table tennis balls are made from celluloid, although nitrites are the nitrogen compound chiefly used in meat curing, nitrates are used in certain specialty curing processes where a long release of nitrite from parent nitrate stores is needed. Nitrification — Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.

The transformation of ammonia to nitrite is usually the limiting step of nitrification. Nitrification is an important step in the cycle in soil. Nitrification is a process performed by small groups of autotrophic bacteria. This process was discovered by the Russian microbiologist Sergei Winogradsky, the oxidation of ammonia into nitrite is performed by two groups of organisms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. In soils the most studied AOB belong to the genera Nitrosomonas, the second step is done by bacteria of the genus Nitrobacter and Nitrospira.

Both steps are producing energy to be coupled to ATP synthesis, nitrifying organisms are chemoautotrophs, and use carbon dioxide as their carbon source for growth. Some AOB possess the enzyme, urease, which catalyzes the conversion of the molecule to two ammonia molecules and one carbon dioxide molecule. This feature may explain enhanced growth of AOB in the presence of urea in acidic environments, in most environments, organisms are present that will complete both steps of the process, yielding nitrate as the final product.

However, it is possible to design systems in which nitrite is formed, nitrification is important in agricultural systems, where fertilizer is often applied as ammonia. Conversion of this ammonia to nitrate increases nitrogen leaching because nitrate is more water-soluble than ammonia, nitrification also plays an important role in the removal of nitrogen from municipal wastewater.

The conventional removal is nitrification, followed by denitrification, the cost of this process resides mainly in aeration and the addition of an external carbon source for the denitrification. Nitrification can also occur in drinking water, in distribution systems where chloramines are used as the secondary disinfectant, the presence of free ammonia can act as a substrate for ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms.

The associated reactions can lead to the depletion of the disinfectant residual in the system, the addition of chlorite ion to chloramine-treated water has been shown to control nitrification. Together with ammonification, nitrification forms a process that refers to the complete decomposition of organic material.

The nitrification step of the cycle is of particular interest in the ocean because it creates nitrate, furthermore, as the ocean becomes enriched in anthropogenic CO2, the resulting decrease in pH could lead to decreasing rates of nitrification. Nitrification could potentially become a bottleneck in the nitrogen cycle, nitrification, as stated above, is formally a two-step process, in the first step ammonia is oxidized to nitrite, and in the second step nitrite is oxidized to nitrate.

Garden — A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all.

Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, ponds, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises.

Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods.

Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space.

Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard, court, and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes.

Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree.

Garden design can be divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation. Horticulture — Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants.

It includes the cultivation of plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, inside agriculture, horticulture contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal husbandry.

Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for food and non-food uses. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases and they work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.

Horticulture even refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden, hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and also the borrowed word garden.

Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of grass for sports. Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral crops, landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants.

Olericulture includes the production and marketing of vegetables, pomology includes the production and marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes, oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking.

Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants, Horticulture has a very long history. The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years, the cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least — cal BP.

In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio, in forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens.

A characteristic of horticultural communities is that trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways, first, it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.

Secondly, horticultural cultivations generally include a variety of crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a focus on one primary crop. Agriculture — Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries.

Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, oils, meats, fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax.

Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are also produced by plants, such as resins, dyes, drugs, perfumes, biofuels and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture.

In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.

At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least , years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15, years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13, and 8, years ago, followed by mung, soy and azuki beans.

Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13, and 11, years ago. From around 11, years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10, and 7, years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9, years ago.

Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7, years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5, years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time. Humic acids — Humic acids are a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil, peat and coal.

It is also a major constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes. It is produced by biodegradation of organic matter. Humic acids can form complexes with ions that are found in the environment creating humic colloids. Humic acids are insoluble in water at acid pH, whereas fulvic acids are derived from humic substances but are soluble in water across the full range of pH.

Humic and fulvic acids are used as a soil supplement in agriculture. As a nutrition supplement, fulvic acid can be found in a form as a component of mineral colloids. Fulvic acids are poly-electrolytes and are unique colloids that diffuse easily through membranes whereas all other colloids do not, the formation of humic substances is one of the least understood aspects of humus chemistry and one of the most intriguing.

There are three theories to explain it, the lignin theory of Waksman, the polyphenol theory. Humic substances are formed by the degradation of dead plant matter, such as lignin. Humic substances are very resistant to further biodegradation, the precise properties and structure of a given sample depend on the water or soil source and the specific conditions of extraction.

Nevertheless, the properties of humic substances from different sources are remarkably similar. Humic substances in soils and sediments can be divided into three fractions, humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin. The humic and fulvic acids are extracted as a colloidal sol from soil, Humic acids are precipitated from this solution by adjusting the pH to 1 with hydrochloric acid, leaving the fulvic acids in solution. This is the distinction between humic and fulvic acids.

Humin is insoluble in dilute alkali, the alcohol-soluble portion of the humic fraction is, in general, named ulmic acid. Liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction can be used to separate the components that make up a humic substance, Substances identified include mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy acids, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, linear alcohols, phenolic acids, and terpenoids.

Decomposition products of plant materials form intimate associations with minerals, making it difficult to isolate. Pesticide — Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests or weeds. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests.

Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes, although pesticides have benefits, some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species.

According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants,9 of the 12 most dangerous, the term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit. Also used as substances applied to either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage.

Pesticides can be classified by target organism, chemical structure, biopesticides include microbial pesticides and biochemical pesticides. Plant-derived pesticides, or botanicals, have been developing quickly and these include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.

Many pesticides can be grouped into chemical families, prominent insecticide families include organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates. Their toxicities vary greatly, but they have phased out because of their persistence. Organophosphate and carbamates largely replaced organochlorines, both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis.

Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates, and have in some cases replaced by less toxic carbamates. Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamates are subclasses of carbamates, prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides, triazines, ureas, and Chloroacetanilides.

Phenoxy compounds tend to selectively kill broad-leaf weeds rather than grasses, the phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division, crushing the plants nutrient transport system.

Many commonly used pesticides are not included in these families, including glyphosate, Pesticides can be classified based upon their biological mechanism function or application method. Most pesticides work by poisoning pests, a systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is usually upward and outward, increased efficiency may be a result. Biogas — Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage. Biogas is an energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint. Biogas can be produced by digestion with anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system. Biogas is primarily methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of sulfide, moisture. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen and this energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking.

It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity, Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane, Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide.

Organic material grows, is converted and used and then regrows in a repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released when the material is ultimately converted to energy. A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. It can be produced using anaerobic digesters and these plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.

During the process, the microorganisms transform biomass waste into biogas, other internal combustion engines such as gas turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat. The digestate is the inorganic matter that was not transformed into biogas. It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser, there are two key processes, mesophilic and thermophilic digestion which is dependent on temperature.

The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, Biogas can be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to parts air. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work and it is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could cause an explosion. Anaerobic digestion — Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as anaerobic activity.

This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in , the digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria, acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids.

These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with ammonia, hydrogen. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.

Anaerobic digestion is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste, as part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with energy crops, such as maize. Anaerobic digestion is used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and this biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane.

The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer, many microorganisms affect anaerobic digestion, including acetic acid-forming bacteria and methane-forming archaea. These organisms promote a number of processes in converting the biomass to biogas.

Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical containment, anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than oxygen gas. These acceptors can be the material itself or may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material.

When the oxygen source in a system is derived from the organic material itself, the intermediate end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the end products of methane, carbon dioxide.

In an anaerobic system, the majority of the energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane. Santa Cruz, Chile — There is no exact data about the founding of the city, although there is an official date when the city became a municipality in the year , the same year that Pichilemu did.

From its beginnings, the town was a center of handcrafted artifacts and agricultural development, with wheat, tomatoes, the city of Santa Cruz was among those affected by the Chile earthquake. The population grew by The most famous tourist attractions of the city are located in the Plaza de Armas, other noteworthy attractions include the Museum of Colchagua, the Casino of Colchagua, and the Wine Train vineyard tour.

As a commune, Santa Cruz is an administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council. Juan Carlos Latorre as part of the 35th electoral district.

Oxidation — Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes. Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed, in general, the chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced.

It can be explained in terms, Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in state by a molecule, atom. As an example, during the combustion of wood, oxygen from the air is reduced, the reaction can occur relatively slowly, as in the case of rust, or more quickly, as in the case of fire. Redox is a portmanteau of reduction and oxidation, the word oxidation originally implied reaction with oxygen to form an oxide, since dioxygen was historically the first recognized oxidizing agent.

Later, the term was expanded to encompass oxygen-like substances that accomplished parallel chemical reactions, ultimately, the meaning was generalized to include all processes involving loss of electrons. The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as an oxide to extract the metal.

In other words, ore was reduced to metal, antoine Lavoisier showed that this loss of weight was due to the loss of oxygen as a gas. Later, scientists realized that the atom gains electrons in this process. The meaning of reduction then became generalized to all processes involving gain of electrons.

Even though reduction seems counter-intuitive when speaking of the gain of electrons, it help to think of reduction as the loss of oxygen. Since electrons are charged, it is also helpful to think of this as reduction in electrical charge.

The electrochemist John Bockris has used the words electronation and deelectronation to describe reduction and oxidation processes respectively when they occur at electrodes and these words are analogous to protonation and deprotonation, but they have not been widely adopted by chemists. The term hydrogenation could be used instead of reduction, since hydrogen is the agent in a large number of reactions. But, unlike oxidation, which has been generalized beyond its root element, the word redox was first used in The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, the oxidation alone and the reduction alone are each called a half-reaction, because two half-reactions always occur together to form a whole reaction.

Evaporation — Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase, steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase.

Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, on average, a fraction of the molecules in a glass of water have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The water in the glass will be cooled by the evaporation until an equilibrium is reached where the air supplies the amount of heat removed by the evaporating water, in an enclosed environment the water would evaporate until the air is saturated. With sufficient temperature, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly, when the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide.

Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with energy to escape. Evaporation is an part of the water cycle. The sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, in hydrology, evaporation and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration.

Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor, when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low. Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid decreases.

This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling and this is why evaporating sweat cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proceed quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure.

For example, laundry on a line will dry more rapidly on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, on a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the liquid state and the vapor state. Instead, there is a Knudsen layer, where the phase is undetermined, because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen. It is just that the process is slower and thus significantly less visible.

If evaporation takes place in an area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density. Bacteria — Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods, Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats.

Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology, There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of bodies and bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In March , data reported by researchers in October , was published and it was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans.

Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to metres below the sea floor under 2. According to one of the researchers, You can find microbes everywhere—theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora.

However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy.

The most common fatal diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.

Once regarded as constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and these evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea. The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, for about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.

Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. Microorganism — A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular.

The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some fungi, algae, and some such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages, some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving.

In July , scientists identified a set of genes from the last universal ancestor of all life, including microorganisms. Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis: NLPCA allows for analyzing these items at an ordinal or interval level.

The participants were workers from five types of social. Full Text Available We examined the influence of holding planned hand actions in working memory on the time taken to visually identify objects with handles.

Features of the hand actions and position of the object's handle were congruent or incongruent on two dimensions: When an object was depicted in an upright view, subjects were slower to name it when its handle was congruent with the planned hand actions on one dimension but incongruent on the other, relative to when the object handle and actions were congruent on both or neither dimension.

This pattern is consistent with many other experiments demonstrating that a cost occurs when there is partial feature overlap between a planned action and a perceived target. An opposite pattern of results was obtained when the depicted object appeared in a degree rotated view e. These results have implications for the relationship between object perception and action representations, and for the mechanisms that support the identification of rotated objects. Acute rejection AR remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need.

A total of urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific , renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins.

We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after kidney transplantation. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after.

Socioeconomic status SES is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation. While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development.

Census and taxfiler data for Guelph, Ontario were retrieved for the years , , and Data were extracted for eleven income and non-income SES variables. PCA was employed to identify significant principal components from each dataset and weights of each contributing variable. Variable- specific factor scores were applied to standardized census and taxfiler data values to produce SES scores. The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables.

Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component.

Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities. The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored. The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement.

We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC, a multikinase inhibitor with strong The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents.

The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16 1 ; NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid. One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification.

The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems.

An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system- component materials. The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10 exp 14 neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at C. Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here.

We propose a new design for implementing DSELs in Scala which makes it easy to use different program representations at the same time. It enables the DSL implementor to define modular language components and to compose transformations and interpretations for them Each of these representations has its own strengths and weaknesses.

The implicit approach has Determinants of specificity in two- component signal transduction. Maintaining the faithful flow of information through signal transduction pathways is critical to the survival and proliferation of organisms.

This problem is particularly challenging as many signaling proteins are part of large, paralogous families that are highly similar at the sequence and structural levels, increasing the risk of unwanted cross-talk. To detect environmental signals and process information, bacteria rely heavily on two- component signaling systems comprised of sensor histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators.

Although most species encode dozens of these signaling pathways, there is relatively little cross-talk, indicating that individual pathways are well insulated and highly specific.

Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that enforce this specificity. Further, we highlight recent studies that have revealed how these mechanisms evolve to accommodate the introduction of new pathways by gene duplication. In eukaryotes, interactions among the alpha-helical coiled-coil domains CCDs of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors SNAREs play a pivotal role in mediating the fusion among vesicles and target membranes. Based on alternate patterns in surface residues, we have identified two motifs which group vesicular SNAREs in two novel subfamilies: Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection LTBI are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis TB will not be feasible. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies.

This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes.

Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability- specific and position- specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices APM by relating them to a number of types of attention.

The ability- specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position- specific component reflects the…. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing. Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy DOE nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk.

A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components , while addressing multiple risk issues. Electric potentials and magnetic fields generated by ensembles of synchronously active neurons in response to external stimuli provide information essential to understanding the processes underlying cognitive and sensorimotor activity.

Interpreting recordings of these potentials and fields is difficult as each detector records signals simultaneously generated by various regions throughout the brain. We introduce the differentially Variable Component Analysis dVCA algorithm, which relies on trial-to-trial variability in response amplitude and latency to identify multiple components.

Using simulations we evaluate the importance of response variability to component identification, the robustness of dVCA to noise, and its ability to characterize single-trial data. Finally, we evaluate the technique using visually evoked field potentials recorded at incremental depths across the layers of cortical area VI, in an awake, behaving macaque monkey.

The genetics of alcoholism: Alcoholism is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies in humans have begun to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the risk for alcoholism.

Here we briefly review strategies for identifying individual genes in which variations affect the risk for alcoholism and related phenotypes, in the context of one large study that has successfully identified such genes. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism COGA is a family-based study that has collected detailed phenotypic data on individuals in families with multiple alcoholic members.

A genome-wide linkage approach led to the identification of chromosomal regions containing genes that influenced alcoholism risk and related phenotypes. Subsequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs were genotyped in positional candidate genes located within the linked chromosomal regions, and analyzed for association with these phenotypes. These successes demonstrate that genes contributing to the risk for alcoholism can be reliably identified using human subjects.

Student perceptions of specific components within a personalized feedback intervention. Previous research suggests that personalized feedback interventions PFI can be an effective tool in reducing risky alcohol use among college students; however, little is known about how students perceive the individual components that are typically used during PFIs.

Participants provided acceptability ratings on each of the 10 components. Overall, participants found the PFI generally acceptable, with females rating the PFI as more acceptable than males, and binge drinkers defined as 5 or more drinks on an occasion for males and 4 or more drinks for females rating the PFI more acceptable than nonbinge drinkers.

Differences in acceptability emerged across the 10 components , as participants rated the practical cost components e. Overall, the findings suggest that college students prefer certain feedback components to others. Moreover, the findings indicate that future research is needed to examine the relationship between preferred components and treatment outcomes to determine which components are most effective for reducing risky drinking.

Cleaver is an application for identifying restriction endonuclease recognition sites that occur in some taxa but not in others. Differences in DNA fragment restriction patterns among taxa are the basis for many diagnostic assays for taxonomic identification and are used in procedures for removing the DNA of some taxa from pools of DNA from mixed sources. Cleaver analyses restriction digestion of groups of orthologous DNA sequences simultaneously to allow identification of differences in restriction pattern among the fragments derived from different taxa.

Cleaver is freely available without registration from its website http: The program can be run as a script for computers that have Python 2. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma components. Essential precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis.

It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class 7S globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma notes during the roasting process.

To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma components , we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. Identifying Components of Meta-Awareness about Composition: Toward a Theory and Methodology for Writing Studies.

Recent research in writing studies has highlighted meta-awareness as valuable for student learning in courses such as first-year writing FYW ; however, meta-awareness needs to be further theorized and its components identified.

In this article, I draw on a case study of six students in two FYW courses that is informed by Gregory Schraw's model of…. A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each….

A modal specification theory for components with data. We propose Modal Specifications with Data MSDs , the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data. As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates. Our theory serves as a new abstraction Specifying the non- specific components of acupuncture analgesia. It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non- specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear.

Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture up to Specificity residues determine binding affinity for two- component signal transduction systems.

Two- component systems TCS comprise histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators and allow bacteria to sense and respond to a wide variety of signals. Histidine kinases HKs phosphorylate and dephosphorylate their cognate response regulators RRs in response to stimuli. In general, these reactions appear to be highly specific and require an appropriate association between the HK and RR proteins.

The Myxococcus xanthus genome encodes one of the largest repertoires of signaling proteins in bacteria open reading frames [ORFs] , including at least HKs and at least RRs. Of these, 27 are bona fide NtrC-family response regulators, 21 of which are encoded adjacent to their predicted cognate kinases. Using system-wide profiling methods, we determined that the HK-NtrC RR pairs display a kinetic preference during both phosphotransfer and phosphatase functions, thereby defining cognate signaling systems in M.

Lastly, a chimera generated between the histidine kinase, CrdS, and HK revealed that residues conferring phosphotransfer and phosphatase specificity dictate binding affinity, thereby establishing discrete protein-protein interactions which prevent cross talk.

The data indicate that binding affinity is a critical parameter governing system-wide signaling fidelity for bacterial signal transduction proteins.

Using in vitro phosphotransfer and phosphatase profiling assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have taken a system-wide approach to demonstrate specificity for a family of two- component signaling proteins in Myxococcus xanthus.

Our results demonstrate that previously identified specificity residues dictate binding affinity and that phosphatase specificity follows phosphotransfer specificity for cognate HK-RR pairs.

A novel data mining method to identify assay- specific signatures in functional genomic studies. Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions i. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay- specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies.

This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay- specific gene signatures in FG studies. The proposed method PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures.

The first type plots the assay- specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay- specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes.

The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay- specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve.

In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature.

Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps.

The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data — a study of. Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two- component chemotaxis signalling complex. Full Text Available Two- component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases HPKs and their response regulators RRs are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges.

Some bacteria have over different two- component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk.

One of the best understood two- component signalling pathways is the chemotaxis pathway. Here, we present the 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P to CheY 6.

Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity , allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P.

The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two- component signal transduction.

Cell-type specific four- component hydrogel. Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion.

Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression.

The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses.

A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities.

A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations.

Semaphorins are a family of membrane-bound and secreted type of proteins which were initially identified as chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules.

Plexins and neuropilins are two major receptor families of semaphorins, and their common downstream targets are the actin cytoskeleton and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesions. Semaphorins promote the collapse of growth cones by inducing rapid changes in the cytoskeleton and disassembly of focal adhesion structures. When transfected with appropriate receptors, non-neuronal COS-7 cells exhibit a similar cell collapse phenotype upon semaphorin stimulation. This heterologous system using COS-7 cells has been developed and widely used to investigate semaphorin-signaling pathways.

In this chapter, we describe a COS-7 collapse assay protocol used to identify semaphorin-signaling components and a method to produce recombinant class 3 semaphorin proteins. Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit RTB , sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport.

Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell.

Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse. A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set s containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set s. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirement C Elsevier B. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements However, this is rarely the case in product development as new requirements are likely to surface.

A critical issue in requirements reuse therefore becomes how to enable products to efficiently reuse requirements as well incorporating changes to the product Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase. We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking.

We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility.

We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes. Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult.

Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins.

We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo.

Identifying coordinative structure using principal component analysis based on coherence derived from linear systems analysis. Principal component analysis is a powerful and popular technique for capturing redundancy in muscle activity and kinematic patterns.

A primary limitation of the correlations or covariances between signals on which this analysis is based is that they do not account for dynamic relations between signals, yet such relations-such as that between neural drive and muscle tension-are widespread in the sensorimotor system. Low correlations may thus be obtained and signals may appear independent despite a dynamic linear relation between them. To address this limitation, linear systems analysis can be used to calculate the matrix of overall coherences between signals, which measures the strength of the relation between signals taking dynamic relations into account.

The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence. High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater. Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams.

This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times.

Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years.

With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers. Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.

I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer.

The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system. Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available.

In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima.

Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1. Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea.

Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system. Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume.

Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks. Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions.

Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages.

Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II.

These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine.

This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines. These spores rarely move farther than adjacent fields; infested seed is the primary means of spread to a farm.

Greenhouse transplants should be inspected weekly for pinpoint black circular spots, as these are the first signs of the disease. Long rotations three years without crucifer crops or cruciferous weeds, such as wild mustard, are helpful. Destroy cull crop and crop debris after harvest.

Plant later plantings upwind of earlier plantings. Allow for good air movement e. Copper compounds are labeled, but have not been effective in recent studies two poor results.

Bluish lesions may appear on stems that later elongate into light brown, sunken areas with black margins, and the stem will become girdled and blackened Photo 2. Inspect all greenhouse transplants for stem lesions. Use a four-year crop rotation without crucifer crops. Avoid manure from livestock that have been fed cruciferous crops. None known to be effective. Infected roots enlarge to form galls Photo 2. Severely distorted roots are unable to absorb water and minerals, and the top growth is later stunted with yellow lower leaves.

The disease overwinters as resting spores in the soil. Transplants should be checked for clubroot symptoms and destroyed if found. Organic Resource Guide 23 Cultural Control: Maintain soil pH above 7.

Rotate infested fields out of brassicas for a minimum of seven years. First symptoms may be seen as discolored spots on the cotyledons, which can be a source of spores and later turn yellow and die. A systemic infection may occur that is capable of living in the plant without symptoms. Symptoms on the leaves are discrete, yellow areas on the upper surface, followed by white pathogen growth on the under surface.

Under moist conditions, the affected areas enlarge and turn tan and papery Photo 2. Irregular black spots may develop on broccoli heads. Spores overwinter in the soil and on crop debris. Use a three-year rotation without crucifer crops. WHITE MOLD Sclerotinia sclerotiorum White mold is a fungal disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which has a very wide host range, including tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, beans, carrots, lettuce, cole crops, and many weeds.

Early symptoms are water-soaked lesions, followed by rotting of stem tissue. In cabbage, the entire head may rot Photo 2.

Later, a fluffy, white fungal growth appears, which often develops hard, black sclerotia i. These sclerotia can survive in the soil for several years. This disease is worse on heavy soils with poor drainage. Use raised beds, and install drainage tiles to improve drainage if necessary.

Rotation is difficult because so many crops and weeds are hosts, and the sclerotia are very long-lived in the soil. If weed hosts are controlled, four years of cereal crops or sweet corn will likely help. Avoid overcrowding and weeds that prevent air circulation in the field. Coniothyrium minitans Contans see material fact sheet is a fungus that, once applied and incorporated into the soil, attacks and destroys the white mold sclerotia. Contans is applied at or before planting time.

It is mixed with water and sprayed directly onto the soil surface. To reduce survival of sclerotia, Contans should be applied after a crop with high levels of white mold infection. Nature Farming and Effective Microorganisms.

There are very few crop plants in this family, but many weeds, including common lambsquarters and oak leaf goosefoot.

The flowers of plants in this family are inconspicuous, greenish, and often arranged in small clusters.

Beets and chard are cool season crops that can tolerate frosts and light freezes. Spinach is even hardier and tolerates temperatures as low as 15o F. Beets and chard do well in both warm and cool weather, but spinach will bolt under the hot temperatures and long days of summer. There are some varieties of spinach that are somewhat bolt-resistant.

While crops in this family are related, the most important diseases are very crop-specific. Aphid feeding can distort leaves, and aphids can transmit viruses from plant to plant.

Although they may appear at any stage, they are more of a concern later in the season, when cucumber mosaic virus is more prevalent. Also, concern varies with market tolerance of contamination with aphids in harvested crops.

The largest concern is with spinach production in high tunnels, where populations of aphids may explode quickly, and the infested crop may harbor populations that could infest subsequent crops. Row covers can protect plants if installed before winged aphids arrive, and they can remain in place until harvest. Aluminized reflective mulches may slow colonization of plants by winged aphids. Direct seeding or transplanting through the mulch is recommended for maximum protection Materials Approved for Organic Production: Soap provided poor control for green peach aphid, but studies with other species showed five good, one fair, and two poor results.

Ensure coverage of the parts of the plant where aphids are located, especially the undersides of leaves and fruit. Azadirachtin-based neem products may provide control. Pyrethrin has not proven to be effective for aphids on spinach. Beauveria bassiana may provide control. Damage is most problematic in crops being marketed for greens; however, especially when small plants are attacked, yield reductions or complete losses may be observed. Most species overwinter as adult beetles and emerge in the spring.

They feed on upper and lower leaf surfaces, making small holes and, when present in large numbers, creating a shot-hole appearance. These holes may become larger as the leaf grows. Row covers are the most effective way to avoid flea beetles, but since they over winter as adults in soil or crop debris, be certain to combine the use of row covers with crop rotation.

Avoid growing Chenopods in fields where they, or other hosts to the pale striped flea beetle bean, eggplant, lettuce, melon, pea, pepper, pumpkin, radish , were grown during the previous year. In trials of organic materials, Entrust has shown the greatest efficacy in suppressing other species of flea beetles, but its effectiveness is still considered fair, at best.

Pyrethrin Pyganic EC 5 showed poor to moderate efficacy in comparative trials; however, growers have reported it to cause at a least short-term, significant knockdown. The life histories of the pests are very similar as well. There are up to three generations per year in the Northeast, depending on temperature, but the first tends to be most damaging because cool, wet conditions are more favorable for survival.

The pest overwinters as pupae in the soil, and the adult fly emerges early in the spring. The seedcorn maggot fly is attracted to freshly turned soil, especially with fresh, decomposing organic matter or livestock manure. Eggs are laid on the soil and hatch in two to nine days, depending on the temperature. The resulting maggots feed on organic matter, including germinating seeds and young seedlings Photo 3.

Seedcorn maggots are very damaging to large seeds, such as beans, peas, and corn Photo 8. They are also known to attack seedlings of asparagus, cabbage, onion, radish, and spinach. Avoid using manures or unfinished composts without allowing time for them to break down and become incorporated into the soil before planting.

Avoid planting into soil that is high in fresh organic matter, such as newly turned sod or cover crops, and avoid planting into weedy fields. The pest is favored by wet, cool soils, so if this pest has been a frequent problem, wait as long as possible for the soil to warm before planting.

Row covers will work if no pupae have overwintered in the soil or applied compost. Spinosad seed treatment - Recent research has indicated that, when used as a seed treatment, spinosad can greatly reduce infestation by the onion maggot.

This treatment may be effective for seedcorn maggot as well. Advanced planning is necessary, however, as seeds must be treated by seed companies. At the time of this publication, there was not a formulation approved for organic production. Spinosad bait - Certis recently labeled a spinosad bait product Seduce.

As more trials are conducted, other insects will be added, possibly including onion maggot and seedcorn maggot. The spinach leafminer is more common in the east. The adult is a fly that lays its eggs on the undersides of leaves. The eggs hatch in as few as three days, depending on temperature. The tiny, pale maggots tunnel into the interior of the leaf to feed on cells, leaving pale mines that, when numerous, run together to form necrotic, blister-like areas Photo 3.

The damage is usually cosmetic, ruining the marketability of greens but not impacting yield. When fully grown, the larvae drop out of the leaf to the ground and pupate in the soil. Leafminers overwinter in the soil as pupae and emerge in the mid spring. Organic Resource Guide 27 Cultural Control: Destroying crops at the end of harvest and controlling weeds, especially lambsquarters, chickweed, and plantain, is important for reducing the number of overwintering pupae.

Deep plowing can bury pupae and reduce the number of emerging flies the following spring. Since spinosad Entrust penetrates leaves to some extent, some farmers claim that it is effective against leafminers; however, at the time of this publication, reports of efficacy studies have not been found.

Webworms begin feeding on the undersides of leaves. As they grow larger, they eat through the leaves, creating large notches or holes. As the name implies, webworms spin webs among the leaves Photo 3. Damage from either young webworms or small infestations may go unnoticed, but as the larvae mature, they can consume leaves rapidly and destroy a whole crop.

Webworms overwinter in soil as either pupae or larvae. In the spring, the moths emerge and lay eggs on the undersides of leaves, either singly or in short rows. There can be two or more generations per year, but the first is the most damaging because it occurs when plants are small.

To keep local populations small, management of weed hosts is important. Bt and spinosad give good control. Early detection is important for preventing significant damage.

When host crops are grown, the Scab pathogen populations increase, resulting in an increase in disease severity in subsequent years. It causes rough, tan to brown, raised, corky lesions on the root surface of beets, radishes, turnip, parsnip, carrot, and potato tubers.

Spinach and chard are not affected. This pathogen belongs to a group of organisms called actinomycetes, which are filamentous bacteria and include many beneficial species commonly present in soil. Streptomyces scabies produces asexual spores in chains.

Because of the filamentous growth ability of actinomycetes, this pathogen can spread to reach new nutritional sources by growing between soil particles. Scab is a common problem in high pH soils, but it is usually not severe or of economic importance on Chenopod crops. There are no cultural practices other than lowering soil pH. It is primarily a problem in fall plantings and winter production in low or high tunnels.

Disease symptoms begin with small, round, water-soaked spots that later coalesce into gray-tan areas, becoming brown, thin, dry and paper-like. Tiny black fruiting bodies develop that produce spores, which can be dispersed by wind, splashed rain, or overhead irrigation. This fungus overwinters in a vegetative state in plant debris and may be seed borne. Use practices that maximize air movement and minimize hours of leaf wetness e.

After harvest, destroy remaining crop, and bury infected debris deeply. A three-year crop rotation is recommended. None with known efficacy. It is a problem in beets, where it may affect young seedlings and cause poor stands.

When it attacks seedlings, it causes damping-off, in which the stems and hypocotyls constrict and become threadlike and black. During mid-season, it attacks the root tip of the beet, causing a black rot that spreads up the root. It is more common in warm, wet soils.

This fungus can survive for several years as spores in soil, on weeds, and on crop debris. Crop rotation with non-hosts, such as corn or small grain cover crops, helps by reducing the amount of the pathogen in the soil. Improving soil drainage and aeration helps. Managing weeds that are alternate hosts, including lambsquarter and prostrate pigweed, will help prevent the pathogen from persisting in the soil.

None with demonstrated efficacy. Pythium is most likely the culprit in cool soil, but it can cause problems over a wide range of temperatures.

Pythium more commonly causes pre-emergence damping off, while Rhizoctonia is frequently responsible for post-emergence damping off; both species can attack seedlings at any time as they germinate, emerge, and mature in wet soil, causing root rot. The stems of the seedlings may also be affected below or just above the soil line, showing lesions and constriction Photo 3. Seedlings are stunted and weak, and in serious infections, the seedlings wilt and die.

Both species of fungi are saprophytes and can survive in the soil without a host. The amount of pathogen in the soil increases following host crops and after the addition of organic matter from crop debris, livestock manure, unfinished compost, or plowed down green manures. Crop rotation is of limited value because these pathogens can survive without a host; however, rotations with corn, small grain crops, or grass family green manures will reduce the pathogen population.

Organic Resource Guide 29 2. Legume cover crops are good hosts for these pathogens and will maintain or increase populations. Allow three weeks after plowing crop debris or adding fresh organic matter. Where these pathogens are a persistent problem, winter-killed cover crops are the best choice to allow thorough decomposition before planting.

Most important are practices that promote rapid germination and seedling growth, such as reducing excessive soil moisture, using raised beds, and following recommended fertility levels. One trial testing a Trichoderma harzianum seed treatment showed fair results, and trials testing Trichoderma virens soil drench showed one good, one fair, and one poor result.

The disease usually begins with a few spots on the older leaves. As it progresses, younger leaves become covered with many circular spots that are light tan to brown in the center, with a distinct dark brown to purple rim that grows wider as the disease progresses Photo 3.

The spots eventually coalesce, and the leaves then become chlorotic and die. It may start as a cosmetic problem, which may later reduce yield as more leaves become affected. Warm, humid weather with nighttime leaf wetting favors the disease. Each lesion produces large numbers of spores, and the disease can spread quickly from even a few infected plants. The disease overwinters in crop and weed debris and on seed.

Crop rotation of two to three years is recommended with new fields being feet from fields with a disease history. Destroy any infected crop and manage weeds within feet of new planting. The disease affects spinach and beets as well as Chenopod weeds, such as lambsquarters. This water mold attacks leaves, causing light yellow, irregularly shaped spots on the upper surface, with corresponding gray mycelial mats on the lower surface Photo 3.

Spores are commonly produced on the lower surface, and under especially humid conditions, they are produced on the upper surface as well. If conditions remain favorable, the disease progresses, and the plants yellow, become stunted, and die. The pathogen overwinters as either mycelium in seed or spores in crop debris and soil. A two- to three-year rotation with non-host crops is recommended, along with good management of Chenopod weeds.

Avoid poorly drained soils. Avoid growing susceptible crops in fields adjacent to those where infected crops were grown during the previous season. While resistant varieties exist, they are not always successful because there are ten races of this pathogen, and resistance to one race does not mean resistance to another.

If downy mildew has been a problem, plant varieties with resistance to as many races as possible, and keep records of success. One fixed copper trial showed poor results. Plants can become infected at any age. Infected seedlings may die very quickly. When older plants are infected, the first sign is wilting of the older, outer leaves. Later, the plants appear stunted, and the younger leaves roll. Plants are easy to pull from the ground because roots are weak with dark lesions.

These symptoms are not diagnostic because similar symptoms arise from poorly drained soil, poor fertility, or persistent wet weather. If such problems occur without an obvious cause, a laboratory diagnosis may be warranted.

The pathogen is seed borne, but it can also be spread by wind-blown soil, surface drainage, and soil transferred on production equipment.

Once introduced to an area, it can survive for many years in the soil without a host. Moist, moderately warm soil is required for infection to occur. Purchase clean seed grown in areas where no wilt occurs. If wilt is found, rotate to non-susceptible crops for three years.

Destroy the crop after harvest. Maintaining pH at an upper range 6. WHITE RUST Albugo occidentalis White rust is a sporadic disease, but when it occurs, it is of economic significance because the spots that develop on spinach leaves reduce marketability. Chlorotic areas appear on the upper surface of leaves, and shiny blisters form on the lower surface. As the disease progresses, the upper surface and other plant parts may also develop blisters. The blisters contain large numbers of sporangia asexual spores.

When the sporangia mature, the blisters rupture, and the sporangia are dispersed by wind. The dispersed sporangia release zoospores swimming spores that germinate to start new infections. The disease is favored by warm days and wet nights. Water is needed for zoospore development and infection of new plants. This water mold can also produce a sexual spore an oospore that can overwinter in the soil.

The pathogen may also survive as a surface contaminant on seed. Destroy diseased plants, and bury crop residue. A three-year rotation will reduce the amount of inoculum, but some oospores thick walled, persistent, sexual spore may still survive in the soil. Once the disease has occurred, careful monitoring of subsequent spinach crops is recommended.

Heart rot is the result of a boron deficiency. An early symptom of boron deficiency is a white netting appearance on the upper surface of the leaves.

Wilting of young leaves may also occur. In plants, boron deficiency most commonly results from high soil pH coupled with very dry conditions for extensive periods. This induced deficiency is the most common cause of heart rot on organic farms, where organic soil amendments generally maintain adequate levels of boron in the soil, but the combination of high pH and low soil moisture cause the boron to be unavailable to plants. Organic Resource Guide 31 Cultural Control: Maintain recommended boron levels in the soil, an optimum pH, and adequate irrigation during dry spells.

Soluble boron products are permitted if a soil deficiency is documented by testing. Check with the local certifier for approved materials. Compendium of Beet Diseases and Pests. Additional hosts of the beet water mold, Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs. Production Guide for Organic Spinach for Processing. A similar pest and disease complex affects these crops, though individual varieties differ in susceptibility to various pests.

The use of resistant varieties is the only reliable control for diseases caused by viruses. Aphid feeding may cause the leaves to become distorted. Honeydew a special name for fecal matter of aphids may also serve as a growing medium for sooty mold, a fungus that can disfigure the fruit with black blotches. Reflective mulches may help to repel aphids while also providing horticultural benefits. Separate later planted fields from early fields.

Natural enemies will help keep aphid populations in check but will be less effective in very hot weather when aphids reproduce rapidly. Refrain from using broad-spectrum insecticides. Eliminate virus host plants, such as burdock, pokeweed, and other perennial broadleaf weeds. Unless virus diseases are a problem, such as in late crops, aphid control is generally not needed. The best control is to eliminate virus host crops, rather than treat for aphids.

This insect can also cause severe damage by feeding directly on the fruit. They overwinter in protected areas e. The eggs hatch into light green or gray nymphs that congregate on leaves or fruit Photo 4. Crop rotation and sanitation are very important.

Avoid leaving cucurbit crop debris available for over wintering sites. Till debris under in the fall, and plant a cover crop. Next year, plant cucurbits in a new field. During the summer, adults tend to congregate under shelter at night. In the evening, place boards on the soil surface near the squash, and use them to collect and destroy the pest in the following morning. Destroy egg masses on the undersides of leaves. Provide habitat for natural predators in or near the field. A parasitic fly, Trichopoda pennipes, affects adult squash bugs, and several wasps parastize the eggs.

Avoid heavy mulch or no-till in susceptible crops such as zucchini. Squash bugs like shelter and appear more numerous in reduced tillage or mulched crop systems. Pyrethrum on young nymphs. Neem two of three recent studies show good control. Mixtures of pyrethrum and neem have shown good control in some trials. The vine borer is the larva of a moth that lays its eggs at the base of the plant. It overwinters as a larva in the soil. For reasons that are unclear, squash vine borer tends to be less of a problem in large plantings than in smaller ones.

Winter squash, pumpkins, and zucchini are particularly susceptible. Soon after crop harvest, plow the vine debris deeply to bury larvae. In small plantings, it may be possible to manually remove the larvae. Find the sawdust-like frass on the affected plant stem, and then locate the larva by slicing lengthwise along the stem until you reach it.

Destroy the larva, and then cover the slit in the stem with soil. Keep floating row covers in place after transplanting or direct seeding until flowering.

Bt and spinosad have been shown to be effective in two trials in which three weekly applications were used, starting soon after the first moths were caught in pheromone traps. Bt aizaiwi has been somewhat more effective than spinosad and Bt kurstaki. Spray timing is very important for targeting newly hatched larvae before they bore into the stem. The following information is from the University of Wisconsin: Pumpkin and squash crops should be monitored once DD50 have accumulated.

During the three-week egg-laying period around DD50 , two to three insecticide treatments, five to seven days apart, will control most of the larval borers before they become protected by the vines. In the Northeast, they overwinter as adults, sheltered under plant debris, and become active in the spring as soon as cucurbits appear. The overwintered generation lives until August and feeds on all plant parts.

Small seedlings are very susceptible and often killed. Once the plants attain true leaves, they are more tolerant of striped cucumber beetle feeding; however, disease transmission is still important see below. The beetles lay their eggs at the base of cucurbit plants. Larvae feed below ground on roots and crowns of the plants. The new generation of adults emerges in July and can cause feeding damage to pumpkins and other cucurbit fruit.

The cucumber beetle also carries the organism that causes bacterial wilt, which can be more damaging than the insect. Cucumbers, summer squash, zucchini, and melons are the most susceptible. Reducing the numbers of beetles is the primary way to reduce the risk of wilt.

A related species, causing similar damage, is the spotted cucumber beetle, which is yellow-green with 12 black spots.

Crop rotation and sanitation are important. Avoid leaving cucurbit crop debris available for overwintering sites. Plow debris under after harvest, and plant a cover crop to reduce the overwintering population. Rotate cucurbits to distant fields to help delay infestations. Floating row covers and netting, such as Proteknet, are very effective for avoiding beetle damage while plants are getting established.

Remember to periodically and temporarily remove the covers to weed, and to allow pollination, remove permanently when the flowers appear. Parthenocarpic not needing pollination varieties of cucumber may be grown season-long under row cover or netting.

Use of trap crops is possible when the main crop is a less-attractive cultivar, like summer squash, melon, or cucumber. Cultivars vary dramatically in their attractiveness to beetles. The inexpensive variety Dark Green Zucchini is very attractive and takes up little space.

Blue Hubbard squash is also an effective trap crop that is not susceptible to wilt. A trap crop can be planted around the perimeter of the cash crop and allowed to attract beetles. To gain the most benefit and discourage entry to the main crop, be sure the trap crop plants are larger than and completely encircle the cash crop. Placing yellow sticky cards in the trap crop may increase its attractiveness.

Applying kaolin clay to the main crop will help protect it by decreasing its attractiveness relative to the trap crop. Because insecticides allowed for organic production are relatively ineffective against striped cucumber beetle, controlling adult beetles on the trap crop is not a reliable option. Trials have suggested that beetles lay more eggs on the trap crop than on the main crop Seaman et al. The trap crop should be mowed and disked to destroy the roots.

Mowing alone is not enough to kill larvae feeding on the roots. For more information on perimeter trap cropping see: Yellow sticky cups or tape can trap many SCB adults. They should be replaced regularly, as they become saturated with beetles and field debris.

Use transplants instead of direct seeding. They are more tolerant of both feeding damage and bacterial wilt when beetles arrive. If planting from seed, plant later, after peak overwintered beetle activity is over. Growers report repellency if it is applied frequently—twice a week during rapid early season growth. Pyrethrum is reported to give some control by growers, but has not been shown to be effective in University trials. Application of beneficial nematodes to the root systems of plants with early season SCB populations will reduce, but not fully control, the following generation and may be an option for controlling larvae on the roots of a trap crop.

Organic Resource Guide 35 II. Leaf symptoms begin as small, water-soaked lesions, which expand to fill the area between large secondary veins, giving them an angular appearance Photo 4. Lesions on stems and fruit are generally circular, water-soaked spots with a light tan center. Rotate away from cucurbits for years. Bacterial wilt is commonly seen on cucumbers and muskmelons. Some varieties of gourd, pumpkin, and squash are also very susceptible to the disease. Information on cucurbit varieties and susceptibility to wilt and other diseases can be found on the Cornell Vegetable MD Online website McGrath Symptoms on older plants include wilting of leaf tissue between veins and wilting of one or more runners.

Watermelon is quite resistant to both SCB and bacterial wilt. Muskmelons are susceptible to feeding injury and disease transmission, especially around the time of runner formation. Some summer and winter squash varieties are not as affected by bacterial wilt as melons and cucumbers. Recent studies suggest that asymptomatic weed hosts may play a major role in survival of the bacterium over the winter.

Control of bacterial wilt depends on control of the cucumber beetle; therefore, all measures described above for control of SCB will aid in the control of bacterial wilt as well. Resistant cucumber varieties, such as County Fair pickling cucumber, are becoming available. See cucumber beetle controls. The black rot fungus penetrates the rind, allowing entry to other organisms that cause the whole fruit to rot. Gummy stem blight refers to the foliar and stem-infecting phase of the disease Photo 4.

On foliage, symptoms begin as water-soaked areas or pale brown spots. Brown cankers develop on stems, and a brown to black exudate may appear gummy stem.

The fungus can be seed-borne and may also overwinter in the soil. Infection by powdery mildew increases the opportunity for gummy stem blight infections.

Crop rotation to a non-cucurbit crop for two years is helpful. Do not save seed from an infected fruit. Moisture is necessary for the pathogen to infect. Optimal conditions for the pathogen are: Thus, it is important to minimize free moisture on the leaf surfaces by using drip, rather than overhead, irrigation.

Avoid injuring fruit when harvesting, as wounds allow the pathogen to enter, and the fruit could rot in storage. Cutting stems short can help reduce injury. As soon as a cucurbit crop is harvested, crop debris should be plowed under to reduce overwintering inoculum.

Application of approved products is not currently an effective management option. Symptoms on the upper leaf surface are angular, pale green to yellow areas, similar to symptoms of angular leaf spot Photo 4.

On the lower leaf surface, fuzzy gray sporulation occurs. As the disease progresses, lesions dry out and become brown. The inoculum for downy mildew blows north from southern states, and disease may first appear after storm fronts pass through the area. Select planting sites with good air movement. Decreasing humidity in the crop canopy will help prevent downy mildew infections. Copper compounds one poor result in recent studies; four good and three poor results against different species of downy mildew on other crops.

Tracking inoculum movement on the IPM Organic Resource Guide 37 PIPE and beginning applications before the disease is present will result in better control than starting after symptoms are found. Fusarium species can be seed-borne but also persist in the soil as spores, with some subspecies surviving for many years without a host.

Spread of the pathogen most commonly occurs through movement of infested soil and plant debris. Fusarium wilt is a serious disease of cantaloupe and muskmelon. Mature plants are most commonly affected by this pathogen, with symptoms including yellowing of older leaves and wilting of runners. Vascular discoloration is apparent if the stem is cut along its length near the crown.

Fusarium crown rot can attack all cucurbits. Symptoms include wilting of leaves followed by plant death, which can occur within several days Photo 4. Necrotic rot of the crown and upper root area can be seen.

Fruit can also be attacked at the fruit-soil interface.

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Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not.

To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement. Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement.

Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed posters. Cronbach's alpha of the evaluation form was 0. Global specification and validation of embedded systems integrating heterogeneous components. Gives a clear vision on the theory and practice of specification and validation of complex modern systemsExamples give the designers solutions applicable in their daily practice. Patient- specific instrumentation improves tibial component rotation in TKA.

To compare the femoral and tibial components rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty TKA performed either with conventional or with patient- specific instrumentation. Forty-five patients underwent primary TKA and were prospectively randomized into two groups: All patients underwent computed tomography of the operated knee in the first week after surgery to measure the components rotation.

The femoral component rotation was 0. The tibial component rotation was There were no significant differences between the two groups in tibial and femoral components rotation. The difference between the tibial component rotation and the neutral tibial rotation was similar in both groups [2.

Full Text Available Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules. Targeting these changes with agents drugs and dietary components has been employed as strategies to reduce the complications associated with tumorigenesis.

Stable isotope-mediated tracing technologies offer exciting opportunities for defining specific target s for food components. Exposures, especially during the early transition phase from normal to cancer, are critical for the translation of knowledge about food components into effective prevention strategies. Bioactive food components and cancer- specific metabonomic profiles.

Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis: NLPCA allows for analyzing these items at an ordinal or interval level. The participants were workers from five types of social. Full Text Available We examined the influence of holding planned hand actions in working memory on the time taken to visually identify objects with handles.

Features of the hand actions and position of the object's handle were congruent or incongruent on two dimensions: When an object was depicted in an upright view, subjects were slower to name it when its handle was congruent with the planned hand actions on one dimension but incongruent on the other, relative to when the object handle and actions were congruent on both or neither dimension.

This pattern is consistent with many other experiments demonstrating that a cost occurs when there is partial feature overlap between a planned action and a perceived target.

An opposite pattern of results was obtained when the depicted object appeared in a degree rotated view e. These results have implications for the relationship between object perception and action representations, and for the mechanisms that support the identification of rotated objects. Acute rejection AR remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need.

A total of urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific , renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins.

Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins.

We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after kidney transplantation.

This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after. Socioeconomic status SES is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation.

While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development. Census and taxfiler data for Guelph, Ontario were retrieved for the years , , and Data were extracted for eleven income and non-income SES variables.

PCA was employed to identify significant principal components from each dataset and weights of each contributing variable. Variable- specific factor scores were applied to standardized census and taxfiler data values to produce SES scores. The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables.

Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component.

Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities. The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored. The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC, a multikinase inhibitor with strong The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents.

The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16 1 ; NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid.

One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification.

The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems. An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system- component materials. The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10 exp 14 neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at C.

Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here. We propose a new design for implementing DSELs in Scala which makes it easy to use different program representations at the same time.

It enables the DSL implementor to define modular language components and to compose transformations and interpretations for them Each of these representations has its own strengths and weaknesses. The implicit approach has Determinants of specificity in two- component signal transduction. Maintaining the faithful flow of information through signal transduction pathways is critical to the survival and proliferation of organisms. This problem is particularly challenging as many signaling proteins are part of large, paralogous families that are highly similar at the sequence and structural levels, increasing the risk of unwanted cross-talk.

To detect environmental signals and process information, bacteria rely heavily on two- component signaling systems comprised of sensor histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators. Although most species encode dozens of these signaling pathways, there is relatively little cross-talk, indicating that individual pathways are well insulated and highly specific.

Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that enforce this specificity. Further, we highlight recent studies that have revealed how these mechanisms evolve to accommodate the introduction of new pathways by gene duplication.

In eukaryotes, interactions among the alpha-helical coiled-coil domains CCDs of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors SNAREs play a pivotal role in mediating the fusion among vesicles and target membranes. Based on alternate patterns in surface residues, we have identified two motifs which group vesicular SNAREs in two novel subfamilies: Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection LTBI are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis TB will not be feasible. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies.

This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes.

Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control.

The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability- specific and position- specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices APM by relating them to a number of types of attention.

The ability- specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position- specific component reflects the….

Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing. Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy DOE nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk.

A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components , while addressing multiple risk issues. Electric potentials and magnetic fields generated by ensembles of synchronously active neurons in response to external stimuli provide information essential to understanding the processes underlying cognitive and sensorimotor activity.

Interpreting recordings of these potentials and fields is difficult as each detector records signals simultaneously generated by various regions throughout the brain. We introduce the differentially Variable Component Analysis dVCA algorithm, which relies on trial-to-trial variability in response amplitude and latency to identify multiple components. Using simulations we evaluate the importance of response variability to component identification, the robustness of dVCA to noise, and its ability to characterize single-trial data.

Finally, we evaluate the technique using visually evoked field potentials recorded at incremental depths across the layers of cortical area VI, in an awake, behaving macaque monkey. The genetics of alcoholism: Alcoholism is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies in humans have begun to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the risk for alcoholism. Here we briefly review strategies for identifying individual genes in which variations affect the risk for alcoholism and related phenotypes, in the context of one large study that has successfully identified such genes.

The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism COGA is a family-based study that has collected detailed phenotypic data on individuals in families with multiple alcoholic members. A genome-wide linkage approach led to the identification of chromosomal regions containing genes that influenced alcoholism risk and related phenotypes.

Subsequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs were genotyped in positional candidate genes located within the linked chromosomal regions, and analyzed for association with these phenotypes. These successes demonstrate that genes contributing to the risk for alcoholism can be reliably identified using human subjects. Student perceptions of specific components within a personalized feedback intervention. Previous research suggests that personalized feedback interventions PFI can be an effective tool in reducing risky alcohol use among college students; however, little is known about how students perceive the individual components that are typically used during PFIs.

Participants provided acceptability ratings on each of the 10 components. Overall, participants found the PFI generally acceptable, with females rating the PFI as more acceptable than males, and binge drinkers defined as 5 or more drinks on an occasion for males and 4 or more drinks for females rating the PFI more acceptable than nonbinge drinkers.

Differences in acceptability emerged across the 10 components , as participants rated the practical cost components e. Overall, the findings suggest that college students prefer certain feedback components to others. Moreover, the findings indicate that future research is needed to examine the relationship between preferred components and treatment outcomes to determine which components are most effective for reducing risky drinking.

Cleaver is an application for identifying restriction endonuclease recognition sites that occur in some taxa but not in others. Differences in DNA fragment restriction patterns among taxa are the basis for many diagnostic assays for taxonomic identification and are used in procedures for removing the DNA of some taxa from pools of DNA from mixed sources. Cleaver analyses restriction digestion of groups of orthologous DNA sequences simultaneously to allow identification of differences in restriction pattern among the fragments derived from different taxa.

Cleaver is freely available without registration from its website http: The program can be run as a script for computers that have Python 2. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma components. Essential precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class 7S globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma notes during the roasting process.

To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma components , we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. Identifying Components of Meta-Awareness about Composition: Toward a Theory and Methodology for Writing Studies. Recent research in writing studies has highlighted meta-awareness as valuable for student learning in courses such as first-year writing FYW ; however, meta-awareness needs to be further theorized and its components identified.

In this article, I draw on a case study of six students in two FYW courses that is informed by Gregory Schraw's model of…. A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each….

A modal specification theory for components with data. We propose Modal Specifications with Data MSDs , the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data.

As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates.

Our theory serves as a new abstraction Specifying the non- specific components of acupuncture analgesia. It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non- specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture up to Specificity residues determine binding affinity for two- component signal transduction systems.

Two- component systems TCS comprise histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators and allow bacteria to sense and respond to a wide variety of signals. Histidine kinases HKs phosphorylate and dephosphorylate their cognate response regulators RRs in response to stimuli. In general, these reactions appear to be highly specific and require an appropriate association between the HK and RR proteins.

The Myxococcus xanthus genome encodes one of the largest repertoires of signaling proteins in bacteria open reading frames [ORFs] , including at least HKs and at least RRs. Of these, 27 are bona fide NtrC-family response regulators, 21 of which are encoded adjacent to their predicted cognate kinases. Using system-wide profiling methods, we determined that the HK-NtrC RR pairs display a kinetic preference during both phosphotransfer and phosphatase functions, thereby defining cognate signaling systems in M.

Lastly, a chimera generated between the histidine kinase, CrdS, and HK revealed that residues conferring phosphotransfer and phosphatase specificity dictate binding affinity, thereby establishing discrete protein-protein interactions which prevent cross talk.

The data indicate that binding affinity is a critical parameter governing system-wide signaling fidelity for bacterial signal transduction proteins. Using in vitro phosphotransfer and phosphatase profiling assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have taken a system-wide approach to demonstrate specificity for a family of two- component signaling proteins in Myxococcus xanthus. Our results demonstrate that previously identified specificity residues dictate binding affinity and that phosphatase specificity follows phosphotransfer specificity for cognate HK-RR pairs.

A novel data mining method to identify assay- specific signatures in functional genomic studies. Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions i.

Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay- specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay- specific gene signatures in FG studies. The proposed method PM is unique for several reasons.

First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The first type plots the assay- specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay- specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes.

The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay- specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature.

We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps.

The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data — a study of. Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two- component chemotaxis signalling complex. Full Text Available Two- component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases HPKs and their response regulators RRs are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges.

Some bacteria have over different two- component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk. One of the best understood two- component signalling pathways is the chemotaxis pathway. Here, we present the 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P to CheY 6.

Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity , allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P. The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two- component signal transduction.

Cell-type specific four- component hydrogel. Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs.

QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts.

Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells.

This cell-type selectivity is of interest e. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited.

Using thematic analysis, four themes: Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities. A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations.

Semaphorins are a family of membrane-bound and secreted type of proteins which were initially identified as chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules. Plexins and neuropilins are two major receptor families of semaphorins, and their common downstream targets are the actin cytoskeleton and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesions. Semaphorins promote the collapse of growth cones by inducing rapid changes in the cytoskeleton and disassembly of focal adhesion structures.

When transfected with appropriate receptors, non-neuronal COS-7 cells exhibit a similar cell collapse phenotype upon semaphorin stimulation. This heterologous system using COS-7 cells has been developed and widely used to investigate semaphorin-signaling pathways. In this chapter, we describe a COS-7 collapse assay protocol used to identify semaphorin-signaling components and a method to produce recombinant class 3 semaphorin proteins.

Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit RTB , sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport. Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell.

Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse. A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set s containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set s.

The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirement C Elsevier B. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements However, this is rarely the case in product development as new requirements are likely to surface. A critical issue in requirements reuse therefore becomes how to enable products to efficiently reuse requirements as well incorporating changes to the product Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase.

We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility.

We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced.

We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes. Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult. Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins. We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo.

Identifying coordinative structure using principal component analysis based on coherence derived from linear systems analysis. Principal component analysis is a powerful and popular technique for capturing redundancy in muscle activity and kinematic patterns. A primary limitation of the correlations or covariances between signals on which this analysis is based is that they do not account for dynamic relations between signals, yet such relations-such as that between neural drive and muscle tension-are widespread in the sensorimotor system.

Low correlations may thus be obtained and signals may appear independent despite a dynamic linear relation between them. To address this limitation, linear systems analysis can be used to calculate the matrix of overall coherences between signals, which measures the strength of the relation between signals taking dynamic relations into account.

The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence. High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater. Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams.

This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow.

Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times. Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years.

With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers. Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.

I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system. Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available.

In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima.

Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1. Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea.

Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system. Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume.

Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks. Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions.

Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed.

Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages. Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.

Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II.

These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines. Identifying the components of ecological variation in a marine benthic megafauna. Full Text Available Current work in benthic ecology highlights the importance of the temporal component of ecological variation for distribution and abundance of organisms.

However, this approach is limited by the difficulty in separating and measure the constituents of such variation. The area is seasonally submitted to the intrusion of a cold and saline water mass, an important factor influencing benthic communities. The composition and abundance of the megafauna were investigated at five sites from November to August A total of 93 species were collected.

Average density reached individuals per catch with highest numbers in summer. A striking difference in species composition and abundance was observed in the catches through the year and the results suggested a different structure of the assemblages for each season. Four independent components of the species variation could be separated and identified: The large amount of environmental variation is related to sandy bottoms and depth influence, whereas the time factor can be interpreted as both the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water and the biological cycles of some key-species.

Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased P Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses.

C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses Poaceae alone. The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches.

In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes. The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis.

We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway. This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells.

Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering.

Integrative genomics identifies MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Although the uniporter's biophysical properties have been studied extensively, its molecular composition remains elusive. Here, we use whole-genome phylogenetic profiling, genome-wide RNA co-expression analysis and organelle-wide protein coexpression analysis to predict proteins functionally related to MICU1.

MCU forms oligomers in the mitochondrial inner membrane, physically interacts with MICU1, and resides within a large molecular weight complex. MCU has two predicted transmembrane helices, which are separated by a highly conserved linker facing the intermembrane space.

Acidic residues in this linker are required for its full activity. However, an SA point mutation retains function but confers resistance to Ru, the most potent inhibitor of the uniporter.

Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients. Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries.

This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life.

Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion. We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C.

This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews. While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units.

Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks. Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths nm and nm.

Specific autoantigens identified by sera obtained from mice that are immunized with testicular germ cells alone. We have previously established that immunization using viable syngeneic TGC can also induce murine experimental autoimmune orchitis EAO without using any adjuvant.

Moreover, the recombinant proteins of identified 10 except unnamed protein TGC- specific AIs were created by using human embryonic kidney HEK cells and these antigencities were reconfirmed by Western blot using EAO serum reaction. Identification of these AIs will facilitate new approaches for understanding infertility and cancer pathogenesis and may provide a basis for the development of novel therapies. An attempt to identify the muonic and electromagnetic components of extensive showers in water Cherenkov detectors.

One of the purposes of the Pierre Auger Collaboration is to study the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. When a cosmic ray collides in the upper atmosphere, depending on the mass composition, we have different numbers of mesons being produced and therefore different amounts of muons at detector level.

For example, showers initiated by proton have less muons than showers initiated by iron nucleus. If we can select the muon signal in Cherenkov tanks, we might be able to infer primary composition. To achieve this goal, we will use the so-called 'Muon Jump Method', which aims to discriminate muons from the electromagnetic component , based on the time structure of their FADC signal.

Muons produces on average more signal than electrons or gammas and they induce spiky signals whereas the electromagnetic component produce a continuum of small peaks in the FADC traces.

Using this information, we estimate the number of particles for each component , by setting filters the time distribution of the shower front. Therefore, we can infer the primary mass composition. Another important point of this study is to compare the predictions of the hadronic interaction models for each component of the shower front. We present an introduction to the main aspects of the 'Muon Jump Method' as well as some preliminary results we achieved by simulating air showers, reconstructing their main features and filtering the signals of each component.

Improved tibial component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation. Patient- specific instrumentation PSI was introduced in an attempt to reduce positional outliers of components in total knee arthroplasty TKA.

It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of tibial components in optimal rotational alignment. Of these, 30 operations were performed using PSI and 28 using conventional instrumentation. The rotation of the tibial components was determined in MRI using three different reference lines: Data were analyzed statistically for positional outliers using the Chi-squared test.

There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of tibial component rotation using the tangent to the dorsal condyles and the tibial epicondylar line as reference. Using the dorsal tangent as reference, there were eight components in excessive external rotation Using the tibial epicondyles as reference, there were seven components in excessive external rotation These differences were statistically significant p rotational tibial component alignment during TKA.

Anatomy of the proximal tibia does not deliver clear landmarks that are prominent and consistent. This makes both, MRI analysis as well as cutting jig production and intraoperative placement a challenge. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis. As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties.

Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning The component loadings indicated that a higher amount of bone was primarily associated with more plate Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains.

Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis PCA followed by spatial independent component analysis sICA , can be exploited to reduce the dimensionality of data sets recorded in the olfactory bulb and the somatosensory cortex of mice as well as the visual cortex of monkeys, without loosing In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted. In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set.

Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree- specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study. We hypothesized that pedigree- specific rare variants at longevity-associated genes could have a similar functional impact on healthy phenotypes. We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in pedigrees 4, individuals from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture.

Variants were analyzed individually Sequencing analysis of family-based associations for age-related phenotypes can identify rare or novel variants Specificity of motor components in the dual flagellar system of Shewanella putrefaciens CN Bacterial flagellar motors are intricate nanomachines in which the stator units and rotor component FliM may be dynamically exchanged during function.

Similar to other bacterial species, the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN possesses a complete secondary flagellar system along with a corresponding stator unit. Expression of the secondary system occurs during planktonic growth in complex media and leads to the formation of a subpopulation with one or more additional flagella at random positions in addition to the primary polar system. We used physiological and phenotypic characterizations of defined mutants in concert with fluorescent microscopy on labelled components of the two different systems, the stator proteins PomB and MotB, the rotor components FliM 1 and FliM 2 , and the auxiliary motor components MotX and MotY, to determine localization, function and dynamics of the proteins in the flagellar motors.

The components were highly specific for their corresponding motor and are unlikely to be extensively swapped or shared between the two flagellar systems under planktonic conditions. The results have implications for both specificity and dynamics of flagellar motor components. A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs. Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes.

To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes.

Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component.

To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model.

Do not replant garlic in an infested field for at least four years. Other hosts include all Alliums, celery, parsley, and salsify. Mustards, sorghum-sudan grass, and other bio-fumigant cover crops have been shown to reduce nematode populations. These nematodes can survive in dry debris, making sanitation of equipment and storage areas important. When conditions are favorable, it can devastate an entire field. The disease often causes smaller bulbs and lower yield.

Symptoms begin as whitish, spindle-shaped lesions on the leaves, usually with a greenish halo, which later develops into a sunken yellowish spot with a characteristic slit oriented lengthwise to the stem Photo 1. Symptoms tend to appear first on older leaves.

As the disease progresses, the lesions coalesce, and leaves yellow and die. Massive numbers of conidia spores are released from infected leaves and are wind-blown to new plants. Botrytis overwinters as sclerotia, which are formed on infected tissue and appear as tiny black specks.

Dead leaves and culls left in the field or in cull piles over winter are the source of new infections. The sclerotia germinate in the spring and release spores, which infect young onion plants. Rotating away from onions is the single most important cultural management practice. Crop rotation is most effective if the new field is well apart from the old field. Minimizing the leaf and cull bulb tissue left on the soil surface after harvest is key to management. Culls should be destroyed, not piled.

Volunteer onion plants in the spring should be rogued. Crop residue should be removed from the field at harvest or plowed deeply. Minimizing periods of leaf wetness is key. Wide between- and within-row spacing allows more air movement. Double or triple rows will lead to a problem in wet years. Overhead irrigation should be done very early in the morning on sunny days to allow for quick drying and avoid extending the period of leaf wetness from dew.

Serenade Bacillus subtilis has been shown to be effective in at least one study. In one trial, a copper based fungicide showed poor results. Although the infection takes place in the field, usually when the bulbs are harvested, the symptoms are expressed in storage. The onion bulb develops a wet decay, beginning in the neck and gradually spreading over the whole bulb Photo 1.

The scales become dark gray to black, soft, and translucent. The fungus overwinters primarily as sclerotia or sometimes as spores produced in the rotting onion.

Seeds may also carry the pathogen. Infection only takes place in the field if the bulbs are moist, especially if there is any mechanical wounding. The fungus is unable to penetrate well-dried neck tissue.

The most important practice is to only store healthy bulbs with well-cured necks. Use only disease-free seed. Do not apply any additional nitrogen fertilizer to crop after mid July, so necks are dry at harvest.

Quick curing helps prevent infection, so it is best to harvest fully mature bulbs during dry weather. Do not allow harvested onions to sit in wet, humid conditions. Consistent cool, dry storage is important. Eliminate cull piles, and rotation of at least two years helps if onion fields are well separated. The diseased garlic cloves are brown and necrotic. The key diagnostic symptom for growers is large clumps of black sclerotia around the neck Photo 1. A gray mold and watersoaked cloves may appear.

The pathogen persists in the soil as sclerotia or on diseased plant debris and seed. Moist, cool weather encourages the sclerotia to germinate and produce wind-blown spores that infect nearby garlic fields.

When conditions are favorable, the disease spreads by masses of spores released by infected plants. Cool weather and excessive irrigation or rain favor the disease. Warm weather slows the progress of the disease. Organic Resource Guide 11 Cultural Control: Manage irrigation to minimize periods of leaf wetness. Lesions begin as whitish, sunken areas that elongate and develop purplish centers Photo 1.

Under favorable conditions i. The lesions may merge and kill entire leaves, which may become covered with brownish spores. Older leaves are more susceptible than younger leaves.

This pathogen may also result in a watery rot at the neck of onions or garlic and lead to poor storage life. Onion residue is the source of inoculum in the spring. The fungal mycelia and conidia spores persist as long as onion debris remains in the field or in cull piles. New conidia are produced on infected tissue in the spring and subsequently wind blown or carried in water to the new crop.

The leaves must be wet for the spores to germinate, but germination is very quick, less than an hour. Symptoms may appear less than a week after germination, and new spores are produced quickly. Sanitation is very important to limiting spread. Infected crop debris should be destroyed or buried after harvest. Cull piles should be eliminated.

Grow onions in rotation with non-host crops. Serenade has been shown to be effective against purple blotch. Copper has shown mixed results in trials, fair at best. Luckily, it is a spotty disease that is currently present in only a small number of fields around the northeast. Those farms can no longer grow Allium crops in infested fields.

White rot is one of the most destructive fungal diseases affecting onion crops, and it is only damaging to plants in the onion family. It is not the same pathogen as white mold, which attacks many other crops such as beans, carrots, lettuce, tomato, pepper and others. Symptoms of white rot on the leaves include premature yellowing and dying of the older leaves, followed by death of the plant. In garlic, these symptoms are similar to those of some other diseases and are not particularly diagnostic, but the presence of white, fluffy fungal growth mycelia on the root end of the bulb is the defining characteristic.

Eventually, the fungal growth moves around the bulb and inward between the storage leaves of onion and cloves of garlic Photo 1. Small, black sclerotia tiny, hard, black bodies of dormant mycelia form in the decaying tissue and throughout the white, fluffy mycelia Photo 1.

Secondary infection by other fungi and bacteria may also occur. The pathogen is not known to produce spores. This fungus reproduces only by the sclerotia, and it also spreads by direct contact, i. The sclerotia can lie dormant in the soil for many years until roots of a host plant grows nearby and the sclerotia are stimulated to germinate see below.

Transfer of the pathogen can happen on boots and tillage or other equipment. It can also move with soil during heavy rains. Additionally, animals feeding on diseased bulbs can defecate viable sclerotia.

The best control is good sanitation. Use clean seed cloves for garlic and clean onion sets and transplants. If only a small number of plants are infected, which is usually true of the first year it is found on a farm, pull and destroy the infected plants before sclerotia are formed. An interesting idea for speeding up the eradication of white rot sclerotia from the soil is to stimulate them to germinate in the absence of an Allium crop. Sclerotia will sit dormant in the soil for 20 or more years until a chemical signal is received that onions or garlic are growing nearby.

Over the past decade, researchers have been studying methods that stimulate the sclerotia to germinate without presence of an Allium crop on which the pathogen can complete its life cycle Coventry et al , also, see: There is no specific recommendation yet; however a few practices that may reduce sclerotia in the soil include: Stimulate the sclerotia to germinate by growing scallions and harvesting before the disease completes its life cycle.

For several years before trying to return to an Allium crop, spread compost made from onion or garlic waste in the spring or fall. For a few years before trying to return to an Allium crop, apply a sprayable concoction made from ground onion or garlic waste, or use garlic powder as a soil amendment.

If the disease is known to be present, or if onions from other farms are being stored and packed together, equipment, storage bins, etc. Then rinse with potable water. Seed producers should execute extra diligence and may want to regularly disinfect any surface in contact with garlic. Since chlorine materials will be inactivated by organic matter stuck on boots, quaternary ammonium compounds may be used as boot dips inside storage areas and packing sheds and before entering and after leaving fields.

Quaternary ammonium compounds should not be used on any apparatus that is in direct contact with garlic, onions, or any other crop. Disposal of the dip solution must be in a manner that does not contaminate the soil, water, or crop. At this time, none have shown efficacy. The species comprises a number of strains called forma specialis f. The pathogen invades the basal plate, and roots decay and die Photo 1.

Diseased plants can be pulled easily from the soil. Roots injured by root maggots or machinery are more susceptible to infection.

Affected plants turn yellow and wilt. A tan to pink rot forms at the base of the bulb and works toward the tip. Under moist conditions, white mycelium may grow around the rotting area, making it look a bit like white rot. Fusarium may also cause tan spots with white centers on the sides of garlic cloves.

Fusarium persists as resting spores in the soil or on crop residue for many years and can be spread by water, tools, equipment, and garlic seed or onion sets. Warm, moist soil favors development of the disease. If infection is late in the season, symptoms of the disease may not appear until bulbs are in storage. Organic Resource Guide 13 Cultural Control: A three-year rotation to crops other than Alliums is recommended.

For storage, dry bulbs quickly and store in a cool 32oo F , dry place See: The fungus is a saprophyte and only a weak pathogen. It usually infects weak or stressed plants or follows injury or infection by another root pathogen.

The hyphae of the fungus invade the roots, and the infected root turns pink and may shrivel and die. Sometimes infections are limited, and only a few roots show symptoms. In a severely infected plant, all of the roots are damaged, and leaves will either yellow and wilt or turn yellow with a red hue.

Severe infections can reduce bulb size and yield. Crop rotation will not eliminate the fungus from the soil, but repeated onion crops will lead to more severe pink root. Optimum growing conditions to keep pink root in check include good soil tilth, fertility, and organic matter; adequate irrigation and management of other pests will also help.

There is some varietal tolerance to pink root. The named sweet onion cultivars Pegasus, Liberty, and Sweet Melody showed the highest levels of resistance in a trial conducted in Georgia in Five numbered varieties showed tolerance higher than Sweet Melody, so additional tolerant named varieties may be available.

Penicillium decay is a common problem in garlic and onions; however, it rarely causes major crop loss. Occasionally, the disease reduces plant stand. More often, it is seen on a few bulbs in storage. In the field, clove decay will lead to wilted, yellowing, or stunted seedlings. Decaying bulbs in storage may be consumed by white mycelium, which turns blue as spores are produced Photo 1. Often, the blue mold is only seen on some of the cloves in the garlic head.

This fungus survives in soil and on all types of plant and animal debris, but these are not major sources of infection in garlic. Infections primarily come from planting infected cloves and from plant debris left in the field. Wounding non-infected cloves when cracking diseased heads apart for planting can lead to infection. In onions, Penicillium invades wounds, diseased tissue, and freeze-damaged tissue. Careful handling of garlic seed pieces is important to reduce wounding at planting time.

Keep the time between cracking heads apart and planting to a minimum. Bulbs should be harvested with care and stored at oF. This disease is caused by a fungus-like water mold not a true fungus. The first symptom is pale green to brownish-yellow oval or circular shaped areas on the leaves, which may appear velvety. Symptoms often appear first on older leaves. The infected area appears violet in the morning, but most of the spores are dispersed by wind during the day, leaving a whitish mycelial growth.

Leaves become girdled at the site of the lesion, fold over, and die from the affected point toward the tip. Dead leaves do not support further spore production. Downy mildew seldom kills the plant, but yields and storage quality are greatly reduced.

This pathogen overwinters as mycelia in diseased tissue, primarily on volunteer onion plants, bulbs left in fields for seed production, cull piles, or in perennial varieties of onions. In the spring, the mycelia produce spores that spread the pathogen to the new crop. The newly infected plants produce spores that are windblown and further spread the pathogen. Under favorable conditions cool temperatures and high humidity , it takes only days for a new lesion to produce spores, so an epidemic in a field can develop quickly.

It can also overwinter as thick-walled oospores in the soil, which germinate and systemically infect seedling onions planted the following year. Cull onions should be destroyed. Perennial onions should not be grown if downy mildew has been a problem in the area. Crop debris should be plowed deeply. Onions should not be grown in the same field in consecutive years. Sonata and Serenade have shown efficacy. SMUT Urocystis magica Onion smut occurs worldwide but is most common in areas that have cool summers.

All Alliums can be infected, but garlic is much less susceptible than onions, leeks, and shallots. Only onions grown from seed are susceptible. Infection is only possible in young plants from the second day after germination until the seedling has its first true leaf, a period of about days after seeding.

Spores can remain viable in the soil for many years. Spores may be stimulated to germinate by root exudates from growing onions, at which time the fungus is able to penetrate the onion seedling between the root and the cotyledon.

Once in the onion, it can invade each new leaf base and bulb scale as they grow; however, the germinating spore is unable to directly invade a true leaf.

Thus, seedlings and sets are immune to new infection once they have true leaves above ground. The first symptoms are dark lesions on the cotyledons soon after they emerge from the soil. The infection can then progress inward from leaf to leaf, forming lesions that eventually turn black with powdery spore masses. Plants become stunted and may die. This pathogen does not cause infected bulbs to rot, but they may become infected with secondary rotting organisms.

Grow onions from seedlings that have been raised in clean soil or from sets free of the disease. Avoid contaminating smut-free fields with infested soil or infected crop residue. There are some smut resistant varieties. Symptoms, Distribution, and Management Guidelines. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 27, Phytopathology, 96 9 , Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. New England Vegetable Management Guide.

Anthomyiidae in Onion Fields. Crop Protection, 25 1 , Plant Disease Management Reports, 4 V Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases. Screening cultivars of sweet onion for susceptibility to pink root, They are also called crucifers and cole crops.

This diverse family, whose members have various edible plant parts, such as roots of radish and turnips, stems of kohlrabi, leaves of cabbage and other leafy brassicas, and seeds of mustard and rape, are consumed as fresh, cooked, or processed vegetables.

Other members of this family include broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collards, kale, and rutabaga. Many weed species are also in this family and can harbor insect and disease pests.

Cabbage aphids are particularly difficult to control once they enter sheltered parts of the plant, such as cabbage heads or Brussels sprouts.

While cabbage aphids can damage crops in the summer, they tend to be more problematic in the fall. In recent years, late season aphid outbreaks have been increasing in fall brassica crops on organic farms, though the reasons are not clear.

Green peach aphids are also an occasional problem on brassica crops early in the season or in the greenhouse. They are notorious for transmitting virus diseases, which render some brassica crops unmarketable.

The presence of live aphids, or even dead aphids that have been parasitized, may make the product unmarketable. Encourage natural enemies by diversifying the habitat and food sources, and refrain from use of broad-spectrum insecticides. The primary parasite of cabbage aphids in the Northeast is a very small, black wasp, Diaeretiella rapae, which lays its eggs inside the aphid. The parasite larva feeds inside the aphid, turning it a bronze color Photo 2.

After about two to three weeks from the time the parasite lays eggs, an adult parasite emerges from the dead aphid. Generally, there is a lag period between the outbreak of aphids and control by the parasite, so some other control that does not harm the parasite is warranted. A diversified cropping system with several potential aphid hosts can allow D. Many other insects, such as ladybird beetles and Aphidoletes aphidimyza, a naturally occurring midge that is also commercially available, can also be effective biological control agents against aphids Shelton.

Scout brassica plantings once or twice per week, especially in the fall, and apply insecticidal soap sprays if aphids are found. Do not wait until aphids reach high numbers and dense colonies; apply when numbers are low. Repeat applications two or three times, and ensure coverage of the parts of the plant where aphids live, including undersides of leaves and in the buds, shoots, or heads of Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, etc.

In recent studies, soaps have been ineffective against green peach aphid. Other recent studies indicated five good, one fair, and two poor results against other aphid species. Organic Resource Guide 17 2. Rotenone is recommended in the older literature, BUT it is no longer a registered insecticide and may not be used. Neem products can provide some control. Based on a limited number of studies, neem products gave good control on turnip aphid two studies ; fair four to poor three control of green peach aphid; and mostly good control of other aphids two good, two fair, one poor.

Please see the neem fact sheet for a discussion of the different types of neem products. Summer oils may provide some control two fair and three poor results. Kaolin clay reduces aphid populations but leaves a white residue that may affect marketability.

The imported cabbageworm Photo 2. It overwinters as a pupa in crop debris, fence rows, and weedy fields. During the day, the large white butterflies of the cabbageworm Photo 2. Adult flights are a good warning of later potential problems on cultivated crucifers. In the Northeast, the cabbage looper Photo 2. The diamondback moth and cabbage looper are commonly carried north on weather fronts from southern overwintering sites.

Because this migration does not occur every year, populations are highly variable. Invasions of diamondback moth and cabbage looper may also arise from infested transplants, especially those from southern areas. All three pests may produce multiple generations each summer. To detect young caterpillars and early feeding damage, scout brassicas by searching the undersides of leaves.

Scouting is especially important just before head formation begins, or when marketable leaves are small. To avoid all three species, purchase only clean transplants, or raise seedlings in clean greenhouse settings.

Infested transplants are most common from southern regions. Cruciferous weed control near crop fields is important not only because weeds can act as an overwintering site for the imported cabbageworm, but also because they may support populations of all three pests during the crop season.

In weedy fields, populations can build to epidemic levels from one generation to the next. After harvesting early season brassica crops, the crop debris should be tilled into the soil to destroy larvae and pupae that could lead to higher populations on subsequent brassica crops.

Trap crops have had variable success. Trap crops are plants that are more attractive to moths for egg laying; however one has to be careful that populations that build up on the trap crop do not expand into the cash crop. See Appendix C for a more thorough discussion of trap cropping. Several species of predatory and parasitoid wasps, as well as some generalist predators, prey on these caterpillars.

Spinosad can provide very good control ten recent studies showed good control, three fair, and one poor. Bt gives some control of all three species but is best on imported cabbageworm.

Recent studies showed 21 good, 13 fair, and 9 poor results. For fall crops, spray on the morning of a warm day when caterpillars will be actively feeding. Neem products four good, three fair, and seven poor results from recent studies may require several applications.

Rotation of a Bt product e. Bt aizawi or Bt kurstaki with another insecticide with a different mode of action e. The best practice for delaying resistance is to apply only one class based on mode of action to each insect generation.

Do not mix two insecticides. Damage is caused by larvae feeding on plant roots Photo 2. Infested plants are stunted and often die, especially during hot and dry conditions. Note that high soil organic matter seems to attract cabbage maggot flies. Timing and avoidance - Photo 2. Insects overwinter as pupae, and adult flies emerge and become active about the same time that forsythia and yellow rocket are in bloom. More detailed emergence guidelines can be obtained by using degree-day models obtained from the local Cooperative Extension system.

Although there are two to three generations each year, the first, arising from overwintering pupae, is the largest. If no mustard family crops are planted before about July 1 and early brassica weeds are well controlled, cabbage root maggot pressure on later plantings will be minimal. However, fall root crops, such as turnip, rutabaga, and daikon, can be damaged by later generations, which are active when soils are cooling down in late August and early September.

Exclusion methods can be very effective. Since flies lay their eggs on the soil around the base of the plant, placing a barrier at the plant base will prevent egg laying. The circle should be 5 inches in diameter and slit to the center so that it fits tightly around the base of the plant. Adults can also be excluded by using spunbonded or netted row covers. Place the row covers on at the time of seeding, and seal the edges with soil.

To avoid flies from emerging from overwintering sites under the row covers, do not plant where brassicas were grown during the previous year. To minimize overwintering populations, plants should be tilled under as soon as possible after the last harvest. Members of the Brassica family are the only hosts for cabbage maggots; therefore destroying wild relatives will help reduce cabbage maggot populations. This practice will also help with disease control; however, it may also reduce potential alternate host habitats for natural enemies.

Some growers have adopted their own methods, and there may be merit in trying such approaches. A grower in southeast PA claims success using sticky tape reels over early brassica rows and foliar sprays based on the microbial product, EM5.

Nematodes have shown some efficacy, but cultural controls e. Recent research has indicated that, if used as a seed treatment, spinosad can greatly reduce infestation by the onion maggot, a closely related species. At the time of this publication, however, there is no formulation approved for organic production. Seeds must be treated by seed companies, so advanced planning is necessary. Although many vegetable and fruit crops are on the label, the only insects currently listed are cutworms and earwigs.

As more trials are conducted with this product, other insects may be added, possibly including cabbage maggot. Damage is most severe to seedlings; though plants can often outgrow the damage, the harvest will be delayed. With salad greens, kale, bunched turnips, or any harvest that includes leaves, the damage reduces marketable yield.

Most flea beetles do not overwinter in cultivated fields. They spend the winter as dormant adults in leaf litter in headlands, treelines, fencerows, etc. Adults emerge from overwintering sites in early spring and begin feeding on the first cruciferous weeds. Eggs are laid in soil at the base of plants and larvae feed on the roots. A summer generation of adults emerges in late July and August. Crops mulched with straw or other organic materials appear to suffer less damage.

The most effective control of flea beetles, however, is often the use of spunbonded row covers to exclude the beetles. Place the row covers on at the time of transplanting or seeding, and seal the edges with soil. New netted, rather than spunbonded, row covers e. Controlling brassica weeds can reduce flea beetle populations. Perimeter trap cropping may work with flea beetles because they move into the field from the edges. Completely encircle the field with glossy leaf collards or Chinese giant mustard one to two weeks before establishing the main crop to allow the trap crop to reach an adequate size before the main crop does.

Be careful that flea beetles do not move from these trap crops to the cash crops. It may be necessary to treat or destroy the trap crop in order to reduce the number of summer adults. Time planting to include fall-harvested crops only. If uncovered brassica crops are only grown after early July and brassica weeds have been strictly controlled, flea beetle pressure may be minimal. Crop rotation can provide some control.

Plant late brassicas those planted after mid June in a different field from spring brassicas, so summer adults emerging from spring crops do not attack new, late summer plantings. Since flea beetles can recolonize rapidly, especially on sunny days, frequent treatment with any material may be required.

Treat all brassicas in the field to reduce influx from untreated areas. Research trials have indicated that spinosad can be effective, though results are variable one good, three fair, and three poor results.

Even with high rates, Pyganic has shown variable results one good, three fair, one poor. Neem products are similarly effective two fair, two poor results.

No products are currently OMRI listed. On some cabbage varieties, their feeding causes bronze discolorations Photo 2. Many cabbage varieties have high levels of tolerance or resistance. The key to control of thrips on cabbage is to use tolerant varieties. Also check seed catalogues since some companies list thrips susceptibility for each variety.

Since onion thrips often migrate into cabbage from surrounding fields of wheat, oats, and alfalfa, separating cabbage fields from these crops will help reduce the potential for infestation. Avoid planting onions close to brassicas, because the same species of thrips attacks both crops. Spinosad — recent studies demonstrated one good, six fair, and two poor results. SWEDE MIDGE Contarinia nasturtii Swede midge is a serious insect pest of cruciferous plants, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli because the larvae feed on and disfigure or destroy the growing tips of the plant.

The first discovery of swede midge in the US was in in western NY. The insect is native to Europe and southwestern Asia and has been known in North America only since , when it was identified in Ontario, Canada. Swede midge has the potential to spread to most crucifers growing areas in the US and Canada.

Larvae produce a secretion that breaks down the plant cell wall, allowing them to feed on the liquid contents. Larval feeding changes the physiology of the plant and results in the formation of swollen, distorted, and twisted tissue. The swede midge spends the winter as pupae in the soil. Adult flies Photo 2. Mating occurs soon after emergence, and the females lay eggs in the newest growing points of the plant.

Subsequent overlapping generations are produced during the summer months, ensuring problems with this pest over the entire growing season. Swede midge injury Photo 2. For confirmation of injury due to swede midge, the larvae can be found on or within the plant by putting suspected damaged plant tissue in black plastic bags and leaving them in the sun for an hour or less. The light colored larvae will leave the plant tissue and be visible on the black plastic. Implement a two- to three- year rotation to non-crucifer crops.

Control cruciferous weed hosts during the rotation period. Adults are weak flyers but may be carried by wind to new fields, so rotate as far from an infested field as possible.

Destroy crop as soon after harvest as possible. None have been shown to be effective. Organic Resource Guide 21 II. This practice may seem obvious; however disease symptoms can be easily overlooked. Sources of pathogens include infested seed, debris from previously infected plantings, and infected weeds. Hot water treatment may be warranted in either saved seeds or seed lots with suspected disease.

Many growers use transplants for brassica crops. If using transplants, ensuring that they are disease-free is extremely important. One way is to grow transplants rather than purchasing them, so they can be inspected weekly for disease symptoms.

If plants are purchased commercially, be certain to carefully check transplants for disease symptoms before planting. Infected plants develop yellow to tan, V-shaped lesions at the leaf margins Photo 2. Within the yellow lesion, veins can become black.

The bacterium can survive on seeds and in infected crop debris. Black rot is common in seedlings, but plants can be infected at any age. The pathogen can be spread by splashing water, workers moving from an infected field to a healthy field, insects or animals, and on transplants. Because the disease can be seed-borne, inspecting all greenhouse transplants for black rot is important. Systemically infected seedlings will become yellow, drop lower leaves, and may die.

Any yellowing plants or plants with V-shaped lesions should not be planted in the field, as they will serve as a source of bacteria that may spread to other plants. Plant varieties with some level of resistance or tolerance. Use hot water treated seed. Precise time and temperature control is essential to minimize damage to the seed. Destroy crop debris after harvest.

Use a three-year rotation away from crucifer crops. Copper compounds can be used, but have not been effective in recent studies two poor results. Copper can be effective if applied before the plant is infected. This disease is most serious on broccoli, causing a rotting of the head that starts in the center. Warm, wet conditions favor the development of head rot.

Harvest when heads are tight. To avoid providing bacteria a place to become established, cut stalks at an angle, so water cannot collect on the cut stalk left in the field. Copper is somewhat effective.

Leaf lesions begin as small black dots and enlarge to form target-like dark brown spots. Large numbers of spores are produced and can be spread by wind and rain. These spores rarely move farther than adjacent fields; infested seed is the primary means of spread to a farm.

Greenhouse transplants should be inspected weekly for pinpoint black circular spots, as these are the first signs of the disease. Long rotations three years without crucifer crops or cruciferous weeds, such as wild mustard, are helpful.

Destroy cull crop and crop debris after harvest. Plant later plantings upwind of earlier plantings. Allow for good air movement e. Copper compounds are labeled, but have not been effective in recent studies two poor results. Bluish lesions may appear on stems that later elongate into light brown, sunken areas with black margins, and the stem will become girdled and blackened Photo 2.

Inspect all greenhouse transplants for stem lesions. Use a four-year crop rotation without crucifer crops. Avoid manure from livestock that have been fed cruciferous crops. None known to be effective. Infected roots enlarge to form galls Photo 2. Severely distorted roots are unable to absorb water and minerals, and the top growth is later stunted with yellow lower leaves. The disease overwinters as resting spores in the soil.

Transplants should be checked for clubroot symptoms and destroyed if found. Organic Resource Guide 23 Cultural Control: Maintain soil pH above 7. Rotate infested fields out of brassicas for a minimum of seven years. First symptoms may be seen as discolored spots on the cotyledons, which can be a source of spores and later turn yellow and die. A systemic infection may occur that is capable of living in the plant without symptoms.

Symptoms on the leaves are discrete, yellow areas on the upper surface, followed by white pathogen growth on the under surface. Under moist conditions, the affected areas enlarge and turn tan and papery Photo 2. Irregular black spots may develop on broccoli heads. Spores overwinter in the soil and on crop debris. Use a three-year rotation without crucifer crops. WHITE MOLD Sclerotinia sclerotiorum White mold is a fungal disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which has a very wide host range, including tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, beans, carrots, lettuce, cole crops, and many weeds.

Early symptoms are water-soaked lesions, followed by rotting of stem tissue. In cabbage, the entire head may rot Photo 2. Later, a fluffy, white fungal growth appears, which often develops hard, black sclerotia i. These sclerotia can survive in the soil for several years. This disease is worse on heavy soils with poor drainage. Use raised beds, and install drainage tiles to improve drainage if necessary.

Rotation is difficult because so many crops and weeds are hosts, and the sclerotia are very long-lived in the soil. If weed hosts are controlled, four years of cereal crops or sweet corn will likely help. Avoid overcrowding and weeds that prevent air circulation in the field. Coniothyrium minitans Contans see material fact sheet is a fungus that, once applied and incorporated into the soil, attacks and destroys the white mold sclerotia.

Contans is applied at or before planting time. It is mixed with water and sprayed directly onto the soil surface. To reduce survival of sclerotia, Contans should be applied after a crop with high levels of white mold infection. Nature Farming and Effective Microorganisms. There are very few crop plants in this family, but many weeds, including common lambsquarters and oak leaf goosefoot. The flowers of plants in this family are inconspicuous, greenish, and often arranged in small clusters.

Beets and chard are cool season crops that can tolerate frosts and light freezes. Spinach is even hardier and tolerates temperatures as low as 15o F. Beets and chard do well in both warm and cool weather, but spinach will bolt under the hot temperatures and long days of summer. There are some varieties of spinach that are somewhat bolt-resistant. While crops in this family are related, the most important diseases are very crop-specific.

Aphid feeding can distort leaves, and aphids can transmit viruses from plant to plant. Although they may appear at any stage, they are more of a concern later in the season, when cucumber mosaic virus is more prevalent. Also, concern varies with market tolerance of contamination with aphids in harvested crops. The largest concern is with spinach production in high tunnels, where populations of aphids may explode quickly, and the infested crop may harbor populations that could infest subsequent crops.

Row covers can protect plants if installed before winged aphids arrive, and they can remain in place until harvest. Aluminized reflective mulches may slow colonization of plants by winged aphids.

Direct seeding or transplanting through the mulch is recommended for maximum protection Materials Approved for Organic Production: Soap provided poor control for green peach aphid, but studies with other species showed five good, one fair, and two poor results. Ensure coverage of the parts of the plant where aphids are located, especially the undersides of leaves and fruit. Azadirachtin-based neem products may provide control. Pyrethrin has not proven to be effective for aphids on spinach.

Beauveria bassiana may provide control. Damage is most problematic in crops being marketed for greens; however, especially when small plants are attacked, yield reductions or complete losses may be observed. Most species overwinter as adult beetles and emerge in the spring. They feed on upper and lower leaf surfaces, making small holes and, when present in large numbers, creating a shot-hole appearance.

These holes may become larger as the leaf grows. Row covers are the most effective way to avoid flea beetles, but since they over winter as adults in soil or crop debris, be certain to combine the use of row covers with crop rotation. Avoid growing Chenopods in fields where they, or other hosts to the pale striped flea beetle bean, eggplant, lettuce, melon, pea, pepper, pumpkin, radish , were grown during the previous year. In trials of organic materials, Entrust has shown the greatest efficacy in suppressing other species of flea beetles, but its effectiveness is still considered fair, at best.

Pyrethrin Pyganic EC 5 showed poor to moderate efficacy in comparative trials; however, growers have reported it to cause at a least short-term, significant knockdown.

The life histories of the pests are very similar as well. There are up to three generations per year in the Northeast, depending on temperature, but the first tends to be most damaging because cool, wet conditions are more favorable for survival. The pest overwinters as pupae in the soil, and the adult fly emerges early in the spring. The seedcorn maggot fly is attracted to freshly turned soil, especially with fresh, decomposing organic matter or livestock manure. Eggs are laid on the soil and hatch in two to nine days, depending on the temperature.

The resulting maggots feed on organic matter, including germinating seeds and young seedlings Photo 3. Seedcorn maggots are very damaging to large seeds, such as beans, peas, and corn Photo 8. They are also known to attack seedlings of asparagus, cabbage, onion, radish, and spinach. Avoid using manures or unfinished composts without allowing time for them to break down and become incorporated into the soil before planting.

Avoid planting into soil that is high in fresh organic matter, such as newly turned sod or cover crops, and avoid planting into weedy fields. The pest is favored by wet, cool soils, so if this pest has been a frequent problem, wait as long as possible for the soil to warm before planting. Row covers will work if no pupae have overwintered in the soil or applied compost.

Spinosad seed treatment - Recent research has indicated that, when used as a seed treatment, spinosad can greatly reduce infestation by the onion maggot.

This treatment may be effective for seedcorn maggot as well. Advanced planning is necessary, however, as seeds must be treated by seed companies. At the time of this publication, there was not a formulation approved for organic production. Spinosad bait - Certis recently labeled a spinosad bait product Seduce. As more trials are conducted, other insects will be added, possibly including onion maggot and seedcorn maggot.

The spinach leafminer is more common in the east. The adult is a fly that lays its eggs on the undersides of leaves. The eggs hatch in as few as three days, depending on temperature. The tiny, pale maggots tunnel into the interior of the leaf to feed on cells, leaving pale mines that, when numerous, run together to form necrotic, blister-like areas Photo 3. The damage is usually cosmetic, ruining the marketability of greens but not impacting yield. When fully grown, the larvae drop out of the leaf to the ground and pupate in the soil.

Leafminers overwinter in the soil as pupae and emerge in the mid spring. Organic Resource Guide 27 Cultural Control: Destroying crops at the end of harvest and controlling weeds, especially lambsquarters, chickweed, and plantain, is important for reducing the number of overwintering pupae.

Deep plowing can bury pupae and reduce the number of emerging flies the following spring. Since spinosad Entrust penetrates leaves to some extent, some farmers claim that it is effective against leafminers; however, at the time of this publication, reports of efficacy studies have not been found. Webworms begin feeding on the undersides of leaves. As they grow larger, they eat through the leaves, creating large notches or holes. As the name implies, webworms spin webs among the leaves Photo 3.

Damage from either young webworms or small infestations may go unnoticed, but as the larvae mature, they can consume leaves rapidly and destroy a whole crop. Webworms overwinter in soil as either pupae or larvae. In the spring, the moths emerge and lay eggs on the undersides of leaves, either singly or in short rows. There can be two or more generations per year, but the first is the most damaging because it occurs when plants are small.

To keep local populations small, management of weed hosts is important. Bt and spinosad give good control. Early detection is important for preventing significant damage. When host crops are grown, the Scab pathogen populations increase, resulting in an increase in disease severity in subsequent years. It causes rough, tan to brown, raised, corky lesions on the root surface of beets, radishes, turnip, parsnip, carrot, and potato tubers.

Spinach and chard are not affected. This pathogen belongs to a group of organisms called actinomycetes, which are filamentous bacteria and include many beneficial species commonly present in soil.

Streptomyces scabies produces asexual spores in chains. Because of the filamentous growth ability of actinomycetes, this pathogen can spread to reach new nutritional sources by growing between soil particles. Scab is a common problem in high pH soils, but it is usually not severe or of economic importance on Chenopod crops. There are no cultural practices other than lowering soil pH. It is primarily a problem in fall plantings and winter production in low or high tunnels.

Disease symptoms begin with small, round, water-soaked spots that later coalesce into gray-tan areas, becoming brown, thin, dry and paper-like. Tiny black fruiting bodies develop that produce spores, which can be dispersed by wind, splashed rain, or overhead irrigation. This fungus overwinters in a vegetative state in plant debris and may be seed borne. Use practices that maximize air movement and minimize hours of leaf wetness e. After harvest, destroy remaining crop, and bury infected debris deeply.

A three-year crop rotation is recommended. None with known efficacy. It is a problem in beets, where it may affect young seedlings and cause poor stands. When it attacks seedlings, it causes damping-off, in which the stems and hypocotyls constrict and become threadlike and black. During mid-season, it attacks the root tip of the beet, causing a black rot that spreads up the root.

It is more common in warm, wet soils. This fungus can survive for several years as spores in soil, on weeds, and on crop debris. Crop rotation with non-hosts, such as corn or small grain cover crops, helps by reducing the amount of the pathogen in the soil. Improving soil drainage and aeration helps. Managing weeds that are alternate hosts, including lambsquarter and prostrate pigweed, will help prevent the pathogen from persisting in the soil.

None with demonstrated efficacy. Pythium is most likely the culprit in cool soil, but it can cause problems over a wide range of temperatures. Pythium more commonly causes pre-emergence damping off, while Rhizoctonia is frequently responsible for post-emergence damping off; both species can attack seedlings at any time as they germinate, emerge, and mature in wet soil, causing root rot.

The stems of the seedlings may also be affected below or just above the soil line, showing lesions and constriction Photo 3. Seedlings are stunted and weak, and in serious infections, the seedlings wilt and die. Both species of fungi are saprophytes and can survive in the soil without a host.

The amount of pathogen in the soil increases following host crops and after the addition of organic matter from crop debris, livestock manure, unfinished compost, or plowed down green manures. Crop rotation is of limited value because these pathogens can survive without a host; however, rotations with corn, small grain crops, or grass family green manures will reduce the pathogen population. Organic Resource Guide 29 2. Legume cover crops are good hosts for these pathogens and will maintain or increase populations.

Allow three weeks after plowing crop debris or adding fresh organic matter. Where these pathogens are a persistent problem, winter-killed cover crops are the best choice to allow thorough decomposition before planting. Most important are practices that promote rapid germination and seedling growth, such as reducing excessive soil moisture, using raised beds, and following recommended fertility levels.

One trial testing a Trichoderma harzianum seed treatment showed fair results, and trials testing Trichoderma virens soil drench showed one good, one fair, and one poor result.

The disease usually begins with a few spots on the older leaves. As it progresses, younger leaves become covered with many circular spots that are light tan to brown in the center, with a distinct dark brown to purple rim that grows wider as the disease progresses Photo 3.

The spots eventually coalesce, and the leaves then become chlorotic and die. It may start as a cosmetic problem, which may later reduce yield as more leaves become affected.

Warm, humid weather with nighttime leaf wetting favors the disease. Each lesion produces large numbers of spores, and the disease can spread quickly from even a few infected plants.

The disease overwinters in crop and weed debris and on seed. Crop rotation of two to three years is recommended with new fields being feet from fields with a disease history. Destroy any infected crop and manage weeds within feet of new planting. The disease affects spinach and beets as well as Chenopod weeds, such as lambsquarters.

This water mold attacks leaves, causing light yellow, irregularly shaped spots on the upper surface, with corresponding gray mycelial mats on the lower surface Photo 3. Spores are commonly produced on the lower surface, and under especially humid conditions, they are produced on the upper surface as well.

If conditions remain favorable, the disease progresses, and the plants yellow, become stunted, and die.

JACKPOT: Pending However, some

Humic acids — Humic acids are a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil, peat and coal. It is also a major constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes. It is produced by biodegradation of organic matter. Humic acids can form complexes with ions that are found in the environment creating humic colloids. Humic acids are insoluble in water at acid pH, whereas fulvic acids are derived from humic substances but are soluble in water across the full range of pH.

Humic and fulvic acids are used as a soil supplement in agriculture. As a nutrition supplement, fulvic acid can be found in a form as a component of mineral colloids.

Fulvic acids are poly-electrolytes and are unique colloids that diffuse easily through membranes whereas all other colloids do not, the formation of humic substances is one of the least understood aspects of humus chemistry and one of the most intriguing. There are three theories to explain it, the lignin theory of Waksman, the polyphenol theory. Humic substances are formed by the degradation of dead plant matter, such as lignin. Humic substances are very resistant to further biodegradation, the precise properties and structure of a given sample depend on the water or soil source and the specific conditions of extraction.

Nevertheless, the properties of humic substances from different sources are remarkably similar. Humic substances in soils and sediments can be divided into three fractions, humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin. The humic and fulvic acids are extracted as a colloidal sol from soil, Humic acids are precipitated from this solution by adjusting the pH to 1 with hydrochloric acid, leaving the fulvic acids in solution.

This is the distinction between humic and fulvic acids. Humin is insoluble in dilute alkali, the alcohol-soluble portion of the humic fraction is, in general, named ulmic acid. Liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction can be used to separate the components that make up a humic substance, Substances identified include mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy acids, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, linear alcohols, phenolic acids, and terpenoids. Decomposition products of plant materials form intimate associations with minerals, making it difficult to isolate.

Pesticide — Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests or weeds. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes, although pesticides have benefits, some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species.

According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants,9 of the 12 most dangerous, the term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit. Also used as substances applied to either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage. Pesticides can be classified by target organism, chemical structure, biopesticides include microbial pesticides and biochemical pesticides.

Plant-derived pesticides, or botanicals, have been developing quickly and these include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.

Many pesticides can be grouped into chemical families, prominent insecticide families include organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates. Their toxicities vary greatly, but they have phased out because of their persistence. Organophosphate and carbamates largely replaced organochlorines, both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis.

Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates, and have in some cases replaced by less toxic carbamates. Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamates are subclasses of carbamates, prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides, triazines, ureas, and Chloroacetanilides.

Phenoxy compounds tend to selectively kill broad-leaf weeds rather than grasses, the phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division, crushing the plants nutrient transport system.

Many commonly used pesticides are not included in these families, including glyphosate, Pesticides can be classified based upon their biological mechanism function or application method. Most pesticides work by poisoning pests, a systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant.

With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is usually upward and outward, increased efficiency may be a result. Biogas — Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage.

Biogas is an energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint. Biogas can be produced by digestion with anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system. Biogas is primarily methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of sulfide, moisture.

The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen and this energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity, Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane, Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide.

Organic material grows, is converted and used and then regrows in a repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released when the material is ultimately converted to energy. A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops.

It can be produced using anaerobic digesters and these plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, the microorganisms transform biomass waste into biogas, other internal combustion engines such as gas turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat.

The digestate is the inorganic matter that was not transformed into biogas. It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser, there are two key processes, mesophilic and thermophilic digestion which is dependent on temperature.

The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, Biogas can be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to parts air. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work and it is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could cause an explosion. Anaerobic digestion — Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as anaerobic activity. This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in , the digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials.

Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria, acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with ammonia, hydrogen. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.

Anaerobic digestion is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste, as part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with energy crops, such as maize.

Anaerobic digestion is used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and this biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane.

The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer, many microorganisms affect anaerobic digestion, including acetic acid-forming bacteria and methane-forming archaea. These organisms promote a number of processes in converting the biomass to biogas.

Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical containment, anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than oxygen gas. These acceptors can be the material itself or may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material. When the oxygen source in a system is derived from the organic material itself, the intermediate end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the end products of methane, carbon dioxide.

In an anaerobic system, the majority of the energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane.

Santa Cruz, Chile — There is no exact data about the founding of the city, although there is an official date when the city became a municipality in the year , the same year that Pichilemu did. From its beginnings, the town was a center of handcrafted artifacts and agricultural development, with wheat, tomatoes, the city of Santa Cruz was among those affected by the Chile earthquake. The population grew by The most famous tourist attractions of the city are located in the Plaza de Armas, other noteworthy attractions include the Museum of Colchagua, the Casino of Colchagua, and the Wine Train vineyard tour.

As a commune, Santa Cruz is an administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council. Juan Carlos Latorre as part of the 35th electoral district. Oxidation — Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed, in general, the chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced. It can be explained in terms, Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in state by a molecule, atom.

As an example, during the combustion of wood, oxygen from the air is reduced, the reaction can occur relatively slowly, as in the case of rust, or more quickly, as in the case of fire. Redox is a portmanteau of reduction and oxidation, the word oxidation originally implied reaction with oxygen to form an oxide, since dioxygen was historically the first recognized oxidizing agent. Later, the term was expanded to encompass oxygen-like substances that accomplished parallel chemical reactions, ultimately, the meaning was generalized to include all processes involving loss of electrons.

The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as an oxide to extract the metal. In other words, ore was reduced to metal, antoine Lavoisier showed that this loss of weight was due to the loss of oxygen as a gas. Later, scientists realized that the atom gains electrons in this process. The meaning of reduction then became generalized to all processes involving gain of electrons.

Even though reduction seems counter-intuitive when speaking of the gain of electrons, it help to think of reduction as the loss of oxygen. Since electrons are charged, it is also helpful to think of this as reduction in electrical charge.

The electrochemist John Bockris has used the words electronation and deelectronation to describe reduction and oxidation processes respectively when they occur at electrodes and these words are analogous to protonation and deprotonation, but they have not been widely adopted by chemists. The term hydrogenation could be used instead of reduction, since hydrogen is the agent in a large number of reactions.

But, unlike oxidation, which has been generalized beyond its root element, the word redox was first used in The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, the oxidation alone and the reduction alone are each called a half-reaction, because two half-reactions always occur together to form a whole reaction.

Evaporation — Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase, steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase.

Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, on average, a fraction of the molecules in a glass of water have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The water in the glass will be cooled by the evaporation until an equilibrium is reached where the air supplies the amount of heat removed by the evaporating water, in an enclosed environment the water would evaporate until the air is saturated.

With sufficient temperature, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly, when the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide. Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with energy to escape. Evaporation is an part of the water cycle. The sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, in hydrology, evaporation and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration.

Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor, when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low.

Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid decreases. This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling and this is why evaporating sweat cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proceed quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure.

For example, laundry on a line will dry more rapidly on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, on a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the liquid state and the vapor state.

Instead, there is a Knudsen layer, where the phase is undetermined, because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen.

It is just that the process is slower and thus significantly less visible. If evaporation takes place in an area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density. Bacteria — Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods, Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats.

Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology, There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of bodies and bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process.

In March , data reported by researchers in October , was published and it was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans.

Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to metres below the sea floor under 2. According to one of the researchers, You can find microbes everywhere—theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy.

The most common fatal diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.

Once regarded as constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and these evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.

The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, for about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.

Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. Microorganism — A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa.

This group also contains some fungi, algae, and some such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages, some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. In July , scientists identified a set of genes from the last universal ancestor of all life, including microorganisms. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space. Microorganisms likely far outweigh all other living things combined, the mass of prokaryote microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0.

Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earths oceans, in August , scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living m below the ice of Antarctica. According to one researcher, You can find microbes everywhere — theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a part of the nitrogen cycle.

Microorganisms are also exploited in biotechnology, both in food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants, Robert Hooke coined the term cell after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people to observe microorganisms in , later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation.

In Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms cause diseases, single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3—4 billion years ago. Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, so, for most of the history of life on Earth, the only forms of life were microorganisms. Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is million years old, microorganisms tend to have a relatively fast rate of evolution.

Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction. This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the development of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, superbugs, the possible existence of microorganisms was discussed for many centuries before their discovery in the 17th century.

Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria, unlike other types of bacteria, thermophiles can survive at much hotter temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. As a prerequisite for their survival, thermophiles contain enzymes that can function at high temperatures, some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology, and in washing agents.

Bacteria within the Alicyclobacillus genus are acidophilic thermophiles, which can cause contamination in fruit juice drinks. Some extreme thermophiles require a high temperature for growth. Their membranes and proteins are stable at these extremely high temperatures. Thus, many important biotechnological processes use thermophilic enzymes because of their ability to withstand intense heat, many of the hyperthermophiles Archea require elemental sulfur for growth.

Some are anaerobes that use the sulfur instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor during cellular respiration, some are lithotrophs that oxidize sulfur to sulfuric acid as an energy source, thus requiring the microorganism to be adapted to very low pH. These organisms are inhabitants of hot, sulfur-rich environments usually associated with volcanism, such as hot springs, geysers, in these places, especially in Yellowstone National Park, zonation of microorganisms according to their temperature optima occurs.

Often, these organisms are colored, due to the presence of photosynthetic pigments, thermophiles can be discriminated from mesophiles from genomic features. Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea, when these organisms are exposed to the DNA damaging agents UV irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C, species-specific cellular aggregation is induced.

Van Wolferen et al. Actinobacteria — The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic and they are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, some soil actinobacteria live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plants saccharides.

Beyond the great interest in Actinobacteria for their role, much is yet to be learned about them. Although currently understood primarily as soil bacteria, they might be abundant in fresh waters. Actinobacteria is one of the dominant bacterial phyla and contains one of the largest of bacterial genera, Streptomyces and other actinobacteria are major contributors to biological buffering of soils. They are also the source of many antibiotics, most Actinobacteria of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order Actinomycetales.

While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of antibiotics, of those Actinobacteria not in the Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched.

Classification of Gardnerella is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a Gram-positive and Gram-negative organism, actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines, etc.

Bark botany — Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs, Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, the outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm.

The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome, Bark has been used to make cloth, canoes, and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. A number of plants are grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations.

What is commonly called bark includes a number of different tissues, Cork is an external, secondary tissue that is impermeable to water and gases, and is also called the phellem. The cork is produced by the cork cambium which is a layer of active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm. The cork cambium, which is called the phellogen, is normally only one cell layer thick. The phelloderm, which is not always present in all barks, is a layer of cells formed by, together, the phellem, phellogen and phelloderm constitute the periderm.

Cork cell walls contain suberin, a substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem. The cambium tissues, i. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma, the cortex is the primary tissue of stems and roots. In stems the cortex is between the layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem. From the outside to the inside of a woody stem.

The bark includes through, and is composed of periderm and phloem, as the stem ages and grows, changes occur that transform the surface of the stem into the bark. The epidermis is a layer of cells that cover the plant body, including the stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, in old stems the epidermal layer, cortex, and primary phloem become separated from the inner tissues by thicker formations of cork.

Due to the cork layer these cells die because they do not receive water. This dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around tree trunks, often a secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non woody plants, which is composed of cork, the cork cambium, and the phelloderm.

Fungi — A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants, a characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria and some protists, is chitin in their cell walls.

Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs, they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems and this fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes and oomycetes.

The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, in the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the size of their structures. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform a role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling.

Since the s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.

Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans, losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. The fungus kingdom encompasses a diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies.

However, little is known of the biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace, a group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.

Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies. The fungi are now considered a kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago.

Fungi have membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes and they have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Molds — A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts, molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food. The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism, the hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface.

Cross-walls may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, the dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae.

The mode of formation and shape of spores is traditionally used to classify molds. Many of these spores are colored, making the much more obvious to the human eye at this stage in its life-cycle.

Molds are considered to be microbes and do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. In the past, most molds were classified within the Deuteromycota, molds cause biodegradation of natural materials, which can be unwanted when it becomes food spoilage or damage to property. They also play important roles in biotechnology and food science in the production of foods, beverages, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals.

There are thousands of species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles. They all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments, like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips and these enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae.

In this way molds play a role in causing decomposition of organic material. Many molds also synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, molds can also grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus a major source of food losses and illness.

Many strategies for food preservation are to prevent or slow growth as well as growth of other microbes.

Molds reproduce by producing large numbers of spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate. Mold spores can be asexual or sexual, many species can produce both types, other mold spores have slimy sheaths and are more suited to water dispersal. Mold spores are spherical or ovoid single cells, but can be multicellular. Yeast — Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

Yeasts, with their growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi and it is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens, yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.

Yeasts do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The budding yeasts are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota, the word yeast comes from Old English gist, gyst, and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning boil, foam, or bubble. Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms, archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4, year-old bakeries and breweries.

In , Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi, but in Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi. Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, by the late 18th century, two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. The industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the press in In , Baron Max de Springer developed a process to create granulated yeast.

Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy, carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose, alcohols, Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but also have aerobic methods of energy production.

Lignin — Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity. The Carboniferous Period is in part defined by the evolution of lignin, the composition of lignin varies from species to species. An example of composition from a sample is As a biopolymer, lignin is unusual because of its heterogeneity and its most commonly noted function is the support through strengthening of wood in vascular plants.

Global commercial production of lignin is around 1. Lignin fills the spaces in the wall between cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin components, especially in vascular and support tissues, xylem tracheids, vessel elements. It is covalently linked to hemicellulose and therefore cross-links different plant polysaccharides, conferring mechanical strength to the cell wall and it is particularly abundant in compression wood but scarce in tension wood, which are types of reaction wood.

Lignin plays a part in conducting water in plant stems. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls are highly hydrophilic and thus permeable to water, the crosslinking of polysaccharides by lignin is an obstacle for water absorption to the cell wall.

Thus, lignin makes it possible for the vascular tissue to conduct water efficiently. Lignin is present in all plants, but not in bryophytes. However, it is present in red algae, which seems to suggest that the ancestor of plants. This would suggest that its function was structural, it plays this role in the red alga Calliarthron. Another possibility is that the lignins in red algae and in plants are result of convergent evolution, lignin plays a significant role in the carbon cycle, sequestering atmospheric carbon into the living tissues of woody perennial vegetation.

Lignin is one of the most slowly decomposing components of dead vegetation, the resulting soil humus, in general, holds nutrients onto its surface, and hence increases its cation exchange capacity and moisture retention, hence it increases the productivity of soil. Protozoa — In 21st-century systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility, the group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the protophyta, which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis. The terms protozoa and protozoans are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists, such as the ciliates, amoebae and flagellates.

The term Protozoa was introduced in for a taxonomic class, in several classification systems proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators since , Protozoa is ranked as a kingdom. The seven-kingdom scheme proposed by Ruggiero et al. This kingdom does not form a clade, but an evolutionary grade or paraphyletic group, from which the fungi, for this reason, the terms protists, Protista or Protoctista are sometimes preferred for the high-level classification of eukaryotic microbes.

In , members of the Society of Protozoologists voted to change the name of organization to the International Society of Protistologists. The word protozoa was coined in by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek equivalent of the German Urthiere, meaning primitive, Goldfuss erected Protozoa as a class containing what he believed to be the simplest animals.

Originally, the group included not only microbes, but also some lower animals, such as rotifers, corals, sponges, jellyfish, bryozoa. In , in light of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodore Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, von Siebold redefined Protozoa to include only such unicellular forms, to the exclusion of all metazoa.

At the same time, he raised the group to the level of a phylum containing two broad classes of microbes, Infusoria, and Rhizopoda. As a phylum under Animalia, the Protozoa were firmly rooted in the old two-kingdom classification of life, criticism of this system began in the latter half of the 19th century, with the realization that many organisms met the criteria for inclusion among both plants and animals. For example, the algae Euglena and Dinobryon have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, as an alternative, he proposed a new kingdom called Primigenum, consisting of both the protozoa and unicellular algae, which he combined together under the name Protoctista.

In Hoggss conception, the animal and plant kingdoms were likened to two great pyramids blending at their bases in the Kingdom Primigenum, six years later, Ernst Haeckel also proposed a third kingdom of life, which he named Protista.

Despite these proposals, Protozoa emerged as the taxonomic placement for heterotrophic microbes such as amoebae and ciliates. A variety of systems were proposed, and Kingdoms Protista and Protoctista became well established in biology texts. While many taxonomists have abandoned Protozoa as a group, Thomas Cavalier-Smith has retained it as a kingdom in the various classifications he has proposed. As of , Cavalier-Smiths Protozoa excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, dinoflagellates, Protozoa, as traditionally defined, are mainly microscopic organisms, ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers.

Rotifers — The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. They were first described by Rev. John Harris in , most rotifers are around 0.

Some rotifers are free swimming and truly planktonic, others move by inchworming along a substrate, about 25 species are colonial, either sessile or planktonic.

Rotifers are an important part of the zooplankton, being a major foodsource. Most species of the rotifers are cosmopolitan, but there are some endemic species. Recent barcoding evidence, however, suggests that some species, such as Brachionus plicatilis, B. In some recent treatments, rotifers are placed with acanthocephalans in a clade called Syndermata. In , Anton van Leeuwenhoek gave a description of Rotifer vulgaris and subsequently described Melicerta ringens.

He was also the first to publish observations of the revivification of certain species after drying, about species of rotifers have been described. Their taxonomy is currently in a state of flux, one treatment places them in the phylum Rotifera, with three classes, Seisonidea, Bdelloidea and Monogononta.

The largest group is the Monogononta, with about species, followed by the Bdelloidea, there are only two known genera with three species of Seisonidea. The Acanthocephala, previously considered to be a phylum, have been demonstrated to be modified rotifers. The exact relationship to members of the phylum has not yet been resolved. One possibility is that the Acanthocephala are closer to the Bdelloidea and Monogononta than to the Seisonidea, the Rotifera, strictly speaking, are confined to the Bdelloidea and the Monogononta.

Rotifera, Acanthocephala and Seisonida make up a clade called Syndermata, the word rotifer is derived from a Latin word meaning wheel-bearer, due to the corona around the mouth that in concerted sequential motion resembles a wheel. Rotifers have bilateral symmetry and a variety of different shapes, the body of a rotifer is divided into a head, trunk, and foot, and is typically somewhat cylindrical.

Rigid cuticles are often composed of plates, and may bear spines, ridges. Their cuticle is nonchitinous and is formed from sclerotized proteins, the most distinctive feature of rotifers is the presence of a ciliated structure, called the corona, on the head.

Earthworm — An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, feeding on live, an earthworms digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin and it has a double transport system composed of coelomic fluid that moves within the fluid-filled coelom and a simple, closed blood circulatory system. It has a central and a nervous system.

The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on side, connected to a nerve cord running back along its length to motor neurons. Large numbers of chemoreceptors are concentrated near its mouth, circumferential and longitudinal muscles on the periphery of each segment enable the worm to move.

Similar sets of line the gut, and their actions move the digesting food toward the worms anus. Earthworms are hermaphrodites—each individual carries both male and female sex organs and they lack either an internal skeleton or exoskeleton, but maintain their structure with fluid-filled coelom chambers that function as a hydrostatic skeleton.

Earthworm is the name for the largest members of Oligochaeta. In classical systems, they were placed in the order Opisthopora, on the basis of the male pores opening posterior to the female pores, theoretical cladistic studies have placed them, instead, in the suborder Lumbricina of the order Haplotaxida, but this may again soon change. Folk names for the earthworm include dew-worm, rainworm, night crawler, larger terrestrial earthworms are also called megadriles, as opposed to the microdriles in the semiaquatic families Tubificidae, Lumbricidae, and Enchytraeidae, among others.

The megadriles are characterized by having a clitellum and a vascular system with true capillaries. Earthworms are far less abundant in disturbed environments and are active only if water is present. Depending on the species, an adult earthworm can be from 10 mm long and 1 mm wide to 3 m long and over 25 mm wide, but the typical Lumbricus terrestris grows to about mm long.

From front to back, the shape of the earthworm is a cylindrical tube. Special ventral setae are used to anchor mating earthworms by their penetration into the bodies of their mates, generally, within a species, the number of segments found is consistent across specimens, and individuals are born with the number of segments they will have throughout their lives.

Some species of earthworm can even use the prehensile prostomium to grab, an adult earthworm develops a belt-like glandular swelling, called the clitellum, which covers several segments toward the front part of the animal. This is part of the system and produces egg capsules.

Landfills — A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and the oldest form of waste treatment.

Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal, some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material. A landfill also may refer to ground that has filled in with rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake, afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents.

After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face, before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility.

If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load, the weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping. In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers, the use of rail-haul permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips.

Typically, in the face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other waste, several sprayed-on foam products, chemically fixed bio-solids. Blankets can be lifted into place at night and then removed the day prior to waste placement. The space that is occupied daily by the waste and the cover material is called a daily cell.

Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill, factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities.

Landfills are often the most cost-efficient way to dispose of waste, in addition, landfill gas can be upgraded to natural gas—landfill gas utilization—which is a potential revenue stream. Another advantage is having a location for disposal that can be monitored. Landfills have the potential to cause a number of issues, infrastructure disruption, such as damage to access roads by heavy vehicles, may occur. Pollution of local roads and water courses from wheels on vehicles when they leave the landfill can be significant, pollution of the local environment, such as contamination of groundwater or aquifers or soil contamination may occur, as well.

Extensive efforts are made to capture and treat leachate from landfills before it reaches groundwater aquifers, eventually, every landfill liner will leak, allowing the leachate to contaminate the groundwater. Installation of composite liners with flexible membrane and soil barrier is enforced by the EPA to ensure that leachate is withheld, rotting food and other decaying organic waste allows methane and carbon dioxide to seep out of the ground and up into the air.

Seed — A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant.

The embryo is developed from the zygote and the coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to both in hot and cold climates.

The term seed also has a meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e. In the case of sunflower and corn seeds, what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, many structures commonly referred to as seeds are actually dry fruits.

Plants producing berries are called baccate, sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to.

Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of plants with an indehiscent seed. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, and their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms, angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds, hence the name. Some fruits have layers of hard and fleshy material.

In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, however, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales as they develop in some species of conifer. The prototypes allow for a meaningful segmentation of behavioural sequences. We applied our clustering approach to identify prototypical movements of the head of blowflies during cruising flight. The results confirm the previously established saccadic gaze strategy by the set of prototypes being divided into either predominantly translational or rotational movements, respectively.

The prototypes reveal additional details about the saccadic and intersaccadic flight sections that could not be unravelled so far. Successful application of the proposed approach to behavioural data shows its ability to automatically identify prototypical behavioural components within a large and noisy database and to evaluate these with respect to their quality and stability. Hence, this approach might be applied to a broad range of behavioural and neural data obtained from different animals and in different contexts.

Full Text Available Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of "clock genes" that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders. Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock components , employing higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques.

In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components. We used a simple form of probabilistic machine learning to integrate biologically relevant, genome-scale data and ranked genes on their similarity to known clock components.

We then used a secondary experimental screen to characterize the top candidates. We found that several physically interact with known clock components in a mammalian two-hybrid screen and modulate in vitro cellular rhythms in an immortalized mouse fibroblast line NIH 3T3. Most importantly, CHRONO knockout mice display a prolonged free-running circadian period similar to, or more drastic than, six other clock components. We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics.

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of specific neurons in selected regions of the central nervous system. Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder, whose etiology remains mostly unknown. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra causes an impairment of the motor control. Some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the progressive deterioration of these neurons are not specific for Parkinson's disease but are shared by other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature of all the quantitative proteomic investigations of neuronal alterations in different models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to distinguish between general and Parkinson's disease- specific pattern of neurodegeneration.

The comparison of gene and protein information allowed us to identify 25 proteins involved uniquely in Parkinson's disease and we verified the alteration of one of them, i. By using open-source bioinformatics tools, we identified the biological processes specifically affected in Parkinson's disease, i.

Eventually, we highlighted four cellular component complexes mostly involved in the pathogenesis: Full Text Available Multivariate phenotypes may be characterized collectively by a variety of low level traits, such as in the diagnosis of a disease that relies on multiple disease indicators. Such multivariate phenotypes are often used in genetic association studies.

If highly heritable components of a multivariate phenotype can be identified , it can maximize the likelihood of finding genetic associations. Existing methods for phenotype refinement perform unsupervised cluster analysis on low-level traits and hence do not assess heritability. Existing heritable component analytics either cannot utilize general pedigrees or have to estimate the entire covariance matrix of low-level traits from limited samples, which leads to inaccurate estimates and is often computationally prohibitive.

It is also difficult for these methods to exclude fixed effects from other covariates such as age, sex and race, in order to identify truly heritable components. We propose to search for a combination of low-level traits and directly maximize the heritability of this combined trait. A quadratic optimization problem is thus derived where the objective function is formulated by decomposing the traditional maximum likelihood method for estimating the heritability of a quantitative trait.

The proposed approach can generate linearly-combined traits of high heritability that has been corrected for the fixed effects of covariates. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated in simulations and by a case study of cocaine dependence. Our approach was computationally efficient and derived traits of higher heritability than those by other methods. Additional association analysis with the derived cocaine-use trait identified genetic markers that were replicated in an independent sample, further confirming the utility and advantage of the proposed approach.

Rewiring the specificity of two- component signal transduction systems. Two- component signal transduction systems are the predominant means by which bacteria sense and respond to environmental stimuli. Bacteria often employ tens or hundreds of these paralogous signaling systems, comprised of histidine kinases HKs and their cognate response regulators RRs.

Faithful transmission of information through these signaling pathways and avoidance of detrimental crosstalk demand exquisite specificity of HK-RR interactions. To identify the determinants of two- component signaling specificity , we examined patterns of amino acid coevolution in large, multiple sequence alignments of cognate kinase-regulator pairs.

Guided by these results, we demonstrate that a subset of the coevolving residues is sufficient, when mutated, to completely switch the substrate specificity of the kinase EnvZ.

Our results shed light on the basis of molecular discrimination in two- component signaling pathways, provide a general approach for the rational rewiring of these pathways, and suggest that analyses of coevolution may facilitate the reprogramming of other signaling systems and protein-protein interactions.

Parallel ICA identifies sub- components of resting state networks that covary with behavioral indices. Full Text Available Parallel Independent Component Analysis para-ICA is a multivariate method that can identify complex relationships between different data modalities by simultaneously performing Independent Component Analysis on each data set while finding mutual information between the two data sets.

We use para-ICA to test the hypothesis that spatial sub- components of common resting state networks RSNs covary with specific behavioral measures. Resting state scans and a battery of behavioral indices were collected from 24 younger adults. Nine RSNs were identified and para-ICA was run on each network with a matrix of behavioral measures serving as the second data type.

Five networks had spatial sub- components that significantly correlated with behavioral components. These included a sub- component of the temporo-parietal attention network that differentially covaried with different trial-types of a sustained attention task, sub- components of default mode networks that covaried with attention and working memory tasks, and a sub- component of the bilateral frontal network that split the left inferior frontal gyrus into three clusters according to its cytoarchitecture that differentially covaried with working memory performance.

Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of para-ICA in cases with unbalanced dimensions using simulated data. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model. The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes.

In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways.

In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components.

This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. Issues in Component -Based Development: Towards Specification with ADLs.

Full Text Available Software development has been coupled with time and cost problems through history. This has motivated the search for flexible, trustworthy and time and cost-efficient development.

In order to achieve this, software reuse appears fundamental and component -based development, the way towards reuse. This paper discusses the present state of component -based development and some of its critical issues for success, such as: Engine structures analysis software: A component specific modeling software program has been developed for propulsion systems. This expert program is capable of formulating the component geometry as finite element meshes for structural analysis which, in the future, can be spun off as NURB geometry for manufacturing.

COSMO currently has geometry recipes for combustors, turbine blades, vanes, and disks. Component geometry recipes for nozzles, inlets, frames, shafts, and ducts are being added. This report contains the users manual for combustors, turbine blades, vanes, and disks.

Identifying and Assessing Creativity as a Component of Giftedness. Most theories of giftedness include creativity as a central component.

Creativity assessment has a key role, therefore, in measuring giftedness. This article reviews the state of the creativity assessment, from divergent thinking tests including the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking to the consensual assessment technique to rating scales and….

Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language. Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework.

The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee Identifying high-level components in combinational circuits. Decision and Information Sciences Div.

The problem of finding meaningful subcircuits in a logic layout appears in many contexts in computer-aided design. Existing techniques rely upon finding exact matchings of subcircuit structure within the layout. These syntactic techniques fail to identify functionally equivalent subcircuits that are differently implemented, optimized, or otherwise obfuscated.

The authors present a mechanism for identifying functionally equivalent subcircuits that can overcome many of these limitations. Such semantic matching is particularly useful in the field of design recovery.

Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not. To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement.

Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement. Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed posters.

Cronbach's alpha of the evaluation form was 0. Global specification and validation of embedded systems integrating heterogeneous components.

Gives a clear vision on the theory and practice of specification and validation of complex modern systemsExamples give the designers solutions applicable in their daily practice. Patient- specific instrumentation improves tibial component rotation in TKA. To compare the femoral and tibial components rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty TKA performed either with conventional or with patient- specific instrumentation. Forty-five patients underwent primary TKA and were prospectively randomized into two groups: All patients underwent computed tomography of the operated knee in the first week after surgery to measure the components rotation.

The femoral component rotation was 0. The tibial component rotation was There were no significant differences between the two groups in tibial and femoral components rotation. The difference between the tibial component rotation and the neutral tibial rotation was similar in both groups [2. Full Text Available Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules.

Targeting these changes with agents drugs and dietary components has been employed as strategies to reduce the complications associated with tumorigenesis. Stable isotope-mediated tracing technologies offer exciting opportunities for defining specific target s for food components. Exposures, especially during the early transition phase from normal to cancer, are critical for the translation of knowledge about food components into effective prevention strategies.

Bioactive food components and cancer- specific metabonomic profiles. Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules.

Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis: NLPCA allows for analyzing these items at an ordinal or interval level. The participants were workers from five types of social. Full Text Available We examined the influence of holding planned hand actions in working memory on the time taken to visually identify objects with handles. Features of the hand actions and position of the object's handle were congruent or incongruent on two dimensions: When an object was depicted in an upright view, subjects were slower to name it when its handle was congruent with the planned hand actions on one dimension but incongruent on the other, relative to when the object handle and actions were congruent on both or neither dimension.

This pattern is consistent with many other experiments demonstrating that a cost occurs when there is partial feature overlap between a planned action and a perceived target. An opposite pattern of results was obtained when the depicted object appeared in a degree rotated view e.

These results have implications for the relationship between object perception and action representations, and for the mechanisms that support the identification of rotated objects. Acute rejection AR remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. A total of urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific , renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins.

Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins.

This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after kidney transplantation.

This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after. Socioeconomic status SES is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation.

While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development. Census and taxfiler data for Guelph, Ontario were retrieved for the years , , and Data were extracted for eleven income and non-income SES variables.

PCA was employed to identify significant principal components from each dataset and weights of each contributing variable. Variable- specific factor scores were applied to standardized census and taxfiler data values to produce SES scores. The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables.

Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component. Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities.

The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored. The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC, a multikinase inhibitor with strong The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents.

The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16 1 ; NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid.

One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification. The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems.

An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system- component materials. The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10 exp 14 neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at C.

Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here. We propose a new design for implementing DSELs in Scala which makes it easy to use different program representations at the same time.

It enables the DSL implementor to define modular language components and to compose transformations and interpretations for them Each of these representations has its own strengths and weaknesses. The implicit approach has Determinants of specificity in two- component signal transduction. Maintaining the faithful flow of information through signal transduction pathways is critical to the survival and proliferation of organisms. This problem is particularly challenging as many signaling proteins are part of large, paralogous families that are highly similar at the sequence and structural levels, increasing the risk of unwanted cross-talk.

To detect environmental signals and process information, bacteria rely heavily on two- component signaling systems comprised of sensor histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators. Although most species encode dozens of these signaling pathways, there is relatively little cross-talk, indicating that individual pathways are well insulated and highly specific.

Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that enforce this specificity. Further, we highlight recent studies that have revealed how these mechanisms evolve to accommodate the introduction of new pathways by gene duplication. In eukaryotes, interactions among the alpha-helical coiled-coil domains CCDs of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors SNAREs play a pivotal role in mediating the fusion among vesicles and target membranes.

Based on alternate patterns in surface residues, we have identified two motifs which group vesicular SNAREs in two novel subfamilies: Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union. Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection LTBI are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis TB will not be feasible. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies.

This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes.

Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability- specific and position- specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices APM by relating them to a number of types of attention.

The ability- specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position- specific component reflects the…. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing. Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy DOE nuclear processing facilities.

Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components , while addressing multiple risk issues. Electric potentials and magnetic fields generated by ensembles of synchronously active neurons in response to external stimuli provide information essential to understanding the processes underlying cognitive and sensorimotor activity.

Interpreting recordings of these potentials and fields is difficult as each detector records signals simultaneously generated by various regions throughout the brain.

We introduce the differentially Variable Component Analysis dVCA algorithm, which relies on trial-to-trial variability in response amplitude and latency to identify multiple components. Using simulations we evaluate the importance of response variability to component identification, the robustness of dVCA to noise, and its ability to characterize single-trial data. Finally, we evaluate the technique using visually evoked field potentials recorded at incremental depths across the layers of cortical area VI, in an awake, behaving macaque monkey.

The genetics of alcoholism: Alcoholism is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies in humans have begun to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the risk for alcoholism. Here we briefly review strategies for identifying individual genes in which variations affect the risk for alcoholism and related phenotypes, in the context of one large study that has successfully identified such genes.

The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism COGA is a family-based study that has collected detailed phenotypic data on individuals in families with multiple alcoholic members.

A genome-wide linkage approach led to the identification of chromosomal regions containing genes that influenced alcoholism risk and related phenotypes. Subsequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs were genotyped in positional candidate genes located within the linked chromosomal regions, and analyzed for association with these phenotypes.

These successes demonstrate that genes contributing to the risk for alcoholism can be reliably identified using human subjects. Student perceptions of specific components within a personalized feedback intervention.

Previous research suggests that personalized feedback interventions PFI can be an effective tool in reducing risky alcohol use among college students; however, little is known about how students perceive the individual components that are typically used during PFIs. Participants provided acceptability ratings on each of the 10 components.

Overall, participants found the PFI generally acceptable, with females rating the PFI as more acceptable than males, and binge drinkers defined as 5 or more drinks on an occasion for males and 4 or more drinks for females rating the PFI more acceptable than nonbinge drinkers.

Differences in acceptability emerged across the 10 components , as participants rated the practical cost components e. Overall, the findings suggest that college students prefer certain feedback components to others.

Moreover, the findings indicate that future research is needed to examine the relationship between preferred components and treatment outcomes to determine which components are most effective for reducing risky drinking. Cleaver is an application for identifying restriction endonuclease recognition sites that occur in some taxa but not in others.

Differences in DNA fragment restriction patterns among taxa are the basis for many diagnostic assays for taxonomic identification and are used in procedures for removing the DNA of some taxa from pools of DNA from mixed sources. Cleaver analyses restriction digestion of groups of orthologous DNA sequences simultaneously to allow identification of differences in restriction pattern among the fragments derived from different taxa.

Cleaver is freely available without registration from its website http: The program can be run as a script for computers that have Python 2. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma components. Essential precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis.

It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class 7S globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma notes during the roasting process.

To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma components , we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography.

Identifying Components of Meta-Awareness about Composition: Toward a Theory and Methodology for Writing Studies. Recent research in writing studies has highlighted meta-awareness as valuable for student learning in courses such as first-year writing FYW ; however, meta-awareness needs to be further theorized and its components identified.

In this article, I draw on a case study of six students in two FYW courses that is informed by Gregory Schraw's model of….

A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…. A modal specification theory for components with data. We propose Modal Specifications with Data MSDs , the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data. As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates.

Our theory serves as a new abstraction Specifying the non- specific components of acupuncture analgesia. It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non- specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture up to Specificity residues determine binding affinity for two- component signal transduction systems.

Two- component systems TCS comprise histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators and allow bacteria to sense and respond to a wide variety of signals. Histidine kinases HKs phosphorylate and dephosphorylate their cognate response regulators RRs in response to stimuli. In general, these reactions appear to be highly specific and require an appropriate association between the HK and RR proteins. The Myxococcus xanthus genome encodes one of the largest repertoires of signaling proteins in bacteria open reading frames [ORFs] , including at least HKs and at least RRs.

Of these, 27 are bona fide NtrC-family response regulators, 21 of which are encoded adjacent to their predicted cognate kinases. Using system-wide profiling methods, we determined that the HK-NtrC RR pairs display a kinetic preference during both phosphotransfer and phosphatase functions, thereby defining cognate signaling systems in M. Lastly, a chimera generated between the histidine kinase, CrdS, and HK revealed that residues conferring phosphotransfer and phosphatase specificity dictate binding affinity, thereby establishing discrete protein-protein interactions which prevent cross talk.

The data indicate that binding affinity is a critical parameter governing system-wide signaling fidelity for bacterial signal transduction proteins. Using in vitro phosphotransfer and phosphatase profiling assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have taken a system-wide approach to demonstrate specificity for a family of two- component signaling proteins in Myxococcus xanthus.

Our results demonstrate that previously identified specificity residues dictate binding affinity and that phosphatase specificity follows phosphotransfer specificity for cognate HK-RR pairs. A novel data mining method to identify assay- specific signatures in functional genomic studies.

Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions i. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay- specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies.

This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay- specific gene signatures in FG studies. The proposed method PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures.

The first type plots the assay- specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay- specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay- specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve.

In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data — a study of.

Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two- component chemotaxis signalling complex. Full Text Available Two- component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases HPKs and their response regulators RRs are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges. Some bacteria have over different two- component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk.

One of the best understood two- component signalling pathways is the chemotaxis pathway. Here, we present the 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P to CheY 6. Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity , allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P.

The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two- component signal transduction.

Cell-type specific four- component hydrogel. Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs.

QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected.

In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression.

The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.

Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way.

The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities.

A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations.

Semaphorins are a family of membrane-bound and secreted type of proteins which were initially identified as chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules. Plexins and neuropilins are two major receptor families of semaphorins, and their common downstream targets are the actin cytoskeleton and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesions. Semaphorins promote the collapse of growth cones by inducing rapid changes in the cytoskeleton and disassembly of focal adhesion structures.

When transfected with appropriate receptors, non-neuronal COS-7 cells exhibit a similar cell collapse phenotype upon semaphorin stimulation.

This heterologous system using COS-7 cells has been developed and widely used to investigate semaphorin-signaling pathways. In this chapter, we describe a COS-7 collapse assay protocol used to identify semaphorin-signaling components and a method to produce recombinant class 3 semaphorin proteins. Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit RTB , sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport.

Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse. A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set s containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set s.

The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirement C Elsevier B. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements However, this is rarely the case in product development as new requirements are likely to surface. A critical issue in requirements reuse therefore becomes how to enable products to efficiently reuse requirements as well incorporating changes to the product Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase.

We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit.

We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family.

However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes. Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult. Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins.

We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo. Identifying coordinative structure using principal component analysis based on coherence derived from linear systems analysis. Principal component analysis is a powerful and popular technique for capturing redundancy in muscle activity and kinematic patterns. A primary limitation of the correlations or covariances between signals on which this analysis is based is that they do not account for dynamic relations between signals, yet such relations-such as that between neural drive and muscle tension-are widespread in the sensorimotor system.

Low correlations may thus be obtained and signals may appear independent despite a dynamic linear relation between them.

To address this limitation, linear systems analysis can be used to calculate the matrix of overall coherences between signals, which measures the strength of the relation between signals taking dynamic relations into account. The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence. High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater.

Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow.

Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times. Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge.

Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years. With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers.

Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services.

Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system. Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available.

In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima. Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1.

Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea. Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system.

Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system. Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy.

Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks.

Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed.

Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages. Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.

Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II.

These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines. Identifying the components of ecological variation in a marine benthic megafauna. Full Text Available Current work in benthic ecology highlights the importance of the temporal component of ecological variation for distribution and abundance of organisms.

However, this approach is limited by the difficulty in separating and measure the constituents of such variation. The area is seasonally submitted to the intrusion of a cold and saline water mass, an important factor influencing benthic communities. The composition and abundance of the megafauna were investigated at five sites from November to August A total of 93 species were collected. Average density reached individuals per catch with highest numbers in summer.

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It may remain like this for millennia or more and it has no determinate shape, structure or character. However, humified organic matter, when examined under the microscope may reveal tiny plant, animal or microbial remains that have been mechanically and this suggests a fuzzy boundary between humus and organic matter.

In most literature, humus is considered a part of soil organic matter. The process of humification can occur naturally in soil, or in the production of compost, organic matter is degraded into humus by a combination of mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria, microbes and animals such as earthworms, nematodes, protozoa and various arthropods. It helps the soil retain moisture by increasing microporosity, and encourages the formation of soil structure. Humus allows soil organisms to feed and reproduce, and is described as the life-force of the soil.

Plant remains contain organic compounds, sugars, starches, proteins, carbohydrates, lignins, waxes, resins, simple proteins, organic acids, starches and sugars break down rapidly, while crude proteins, fats, waxes and resins remain relatively unchanged for longer periods of time. Aerobic bacteria — An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

In contrast, an organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present, obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow.

In a process known as respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production, microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen.

Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it, a good example is the oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration. This equation is a summary of what happens in three series of reactions, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Fermentation Aerobic vaginitis Oxygenation. Nitrates also describe the functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a class of explosives.

The anion is the base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. This arrangement is used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the ion can be represented by resonance structures.

A common example of a nitrate salt is potassium nitrate. A rich source of nitrate in the human body comes from diets rich in leafy green foods, such as spinach. NO3- is the active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables.

Nitrite and water are converted in the body to nitric oxide, nitrate salts are found naturally on earth as large deposits, particularly of nitratine, a major source of sodium nitrate. Nitrates are found in man-made fertilizers, as a byproduct of lightning strikes in earths nitrogen-oxygen rich atmosphere, nitric acid is produced when nitrogen dioxide reacts with water vapor. Nitrates are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their solubility and biodegradability.

The main nitrate fertilizers are ammonium, sodium, potassium, several million kilograms are produced annually for this purpose. The second major application of nitrates is as oxidizing agents, most notably in explosives where the oxidation of carbon compounds liberates large volumes of gases. Sodium nitrate is used to air bubbles from molten glass. Mixtures of the salt are used to harden some metals.

Explosives and table tennis balls are made from celluloid, although nitrites are the nitrogen compound chiefly used in meat curing, nitrates are used in certain specialty curing processes where a long release of nitrite from parent nitrate stores is needed.

Nitrification — Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate. The transformation of ammonia to nitrite is usually the limiting step of nitrification. Nitrification is an important step in the cycle in soil. Nitrification is a process performed by small groups of autotrophic bacteria. This process was discovered by the Russian microbiologist Sergei Winogradsky, the oxidation of ammonia into nitrite is performed by two groups of organisms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

In soils the most studied AOB belong to the genera Nitrosomonas, the second step is done by bacteria of the genus Nitrobacter and Nitrospira. Both steps are producing energy to be coupled to ATP synthesis, nitrifying organisms are chemoautotrophs, and use carbon dioxide as their carbon source for growth. Some AOB possess the enzyme, urease, which catalyzes the conversion of the molecule to two ammonia molecules and one carbon dioxide molecule. This feature may explain enhanced growth of AOB in the presence of urea in acidic environments, in most environments, organisms are present that will complete both steps of the process, yielding nitrate as the final product.

However, it is possible to design systems in which nitrite is formed, nitrification is important in agricultural systems, where fertilizer is often applied as ammonia. Conversion of this ammonia to nitrate increases nitrogen leaching because nitrate is more water-soluble than ammonia, nitrification also plays an important role in the removal of nitrogen from municipal wastewater. The conventional removal is nitrification, followed by denitrification, the cost of this process resides mainly in aeration and the addition of an external carbon source for the denitrification.

Nitrification can also occur in drinking water, in distribution systems where chloramines are used as the secondary disinfectant, the presence of free ammonia can act as a substrate for ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. The associated reactions can lead to the depletion of the disinfectant residual in the system, the addition of chlorite ion to chloramine-treated water has been shown to control nitrification.

Together with ammonification, nitrification forms a process that refers to the complete decomposition of organic material. The nitrification step of the cycle is of particular interest in the ocean because it creates nitrate, furthermore, as the ocean becomes enriched in anthropogenic CO2, the resulting decrease in pH could lead to decreasing rates of nitrification.

Nitrification could potentially become a bottleneck in the nitrogen cycle, nitrification, as stated above, is formally a two-step process, in the first step ammonia is oxidized to nitrite, and in the second step nitrite is oxidized to nitrate. Garden — A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one.

Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all.

Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, ponds, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods.

Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard, court, and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space.

The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes.

Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.

Some professional garden designers are also landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation.

Horticulture — Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants. It includes the cultivation of plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees.

It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, inside agriculture, horticulture contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for food and non-food uses.

Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases and they work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.

Horticulture even refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden, hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and also the borrowed word garden. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of grass for sports. Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral crops, landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants.

Olericulture includes the production and marketing of vegetables, pomology includes the production and marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes, oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants, Horticulture has a very long history. The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years, the cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least — cal BP.

In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio, in forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem.

Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways, first, it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.

Secondly, horticultural cultivations generally include a variety of crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a focus on one primary crop. Agriculture — Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies.

Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries.

Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, oils, meats, fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax.

Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are also produced by plants, such as resins, dyes, drugs, perfumes, biofuels and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops.

This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture.

In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least , years ago.

Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15, years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13, and 8, years ago, followed by mung, soy and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13, and 11, years ago. From around 11, years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey.

In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10, and 7, years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9, years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7, years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5, years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time.

Humic acids — Humic acids are a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil, peat and coal.

It is also a major constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes. It is produced by biodegradation of organic matter. Humic acids can form complexes with ions that are found in the environment creating humic colloids.

Humic acids are insoluble in water at acid pH, whereas fulvic acids are derived from humic substances but are soluble in water across the full range of pH. Humic and fulvic acids are used as a soil supplement in agriculture.

As a nutrition supplement, fulvic acid can be found in a form as a component of mineral colloids. Fulvic acids are poly-electrolytes and are unique colloids that diffuse easily through membranes whereas all other colloids do not, the formation of humic substances is one of the least understood aspects of humus chemistry and one of the most intriguing.

There are three theories to explain it, the lignin theory of Waksman, the polyphenol theory. Humic substances are formed by the degradation of dead plant matter, such as lignin.

Humic substances are very resistant to further biodegradation, the precise properties and structure of a given sample depend on the water or soil source and the specific conditions of extraction. Nevertheless, the properties of humic substances from different sources are remarkably similar. Humic substances in soils and sediments can be divided into three fractions, humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin.

The humic and fulvic acids are extracted as a colloidal sol from soil, Humic acids are precipitated from this solution by adjusting the pH to 1 with hydrochloric acid, leaving the fulvic acids in solution. This is the distinction between humic and fulvic acids. Humin is insoluble in dilute alkali, the alcohol-soluble portion of the humic fraction is, in general, named ulmic acid. Liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction can be used to separate the components that make up a humic substance, Substances identified include mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy acids, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, linear alcohols, phenolic acids, and terpenoids.

Decomposition products of plant materials form intimate associations with minerals, making it difficult to isolate. Pesticide — Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests or weeds. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests.

Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes, although pesticides have benefits, some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants,9 of the 12 most dangerous, the term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit.

Also used as substances applied to either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage. Pesticides can be classified by target organism, chemical structure, biopesticides include microbial pesticides and biochemical pesticides. Plant-derived pesticides, or botanicals, have been developing quickly and these include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside. Many pesticides can be grouped into chemical families, prominent insecticide families include organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates.

Their toxicities vary greatly, but they have phased out because of their persistence. Organophosphate and carbamates largely replaced organochlorines, both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis.

Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates, and have in some cases replaced by less toxic carbamates. Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamates are subclasses of carbamates, prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides, triazines, ureas, and Chloroacetanilides.

Phenoxy compounds tend to selectively kill broad-leaf weeds rather than grasses, the phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division, crushing the plants nutrient transport system. Many commonly used pesticides are not included in these families, including glyphosate, Pesticides can be classified based upon their biological mechanism function or application method.

Most pesticides work by poisoning pests, a systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is usually upward and outward, increased efficiency may be a result. Biogas — Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage. Biogas is an energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.

Biogas can be produced by digestion with anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system. Biogas is primarily methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of sulfide, moisture. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen and this energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity, Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles.

Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane, Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide.

Organic material grows, is converted and used and then regrows in a repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released when the material is ultimately converted to energy.

A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. It can be produced using anaerobic digesters and these plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.

During the process, the microorganisms transform biomass waste into biogas, other internal combustion engines such as gas turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat. The digestate is the inorganic matter that was not transformed into biogas. It can be used as an agricultural fertiliser, there are two key processes, mesophilic and thermophilic digestion which is dependent on temperature.

The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, Biogas can be explosive when mixed in the ratio of one part biogas to parts air.

Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work and it is important that a biogas system never has negative pressure as this could cause an explosion. Anaerobic digestion — Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as anaerobic activity. This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in , the digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials.

Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria, acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with ammonia, hydrogen. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.

Anaerobic digestion is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste, as part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with energy crops, such as maize. Anaerobic digestion is used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and this biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane.

The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer, many microorganisms affect anaerobic digestion, including acetic acid-forming bacteria and methane-forming archaea. These organisms promote a number of processes in converting the biomass to biogas.

Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical containment, anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than oxygen gas. These acceptors can be the material itself or may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material. When the oxygen source in a system is derived from the organic material itself, the intermediate end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the end products of methane, carbon dioxide.

In an anaerobic system, the majority of the energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane. Santa Cruz, Chile — There is no exact data about the founding of the city, although there is an official date when the city became a municipality in the year , the same year that Pichilemu did. From its beginnings, the town was a center of handcrafted artifacts and agricultural development, with wheat, tomatoes, the city of Santa Cruz was among those affected by the Chile earthquake.

The population grew by The most famous tourist attractions of the city are located in the Plaza de Armas, other noteworthy attractions include the Museum of Colchagua, the Casino of Colchagua, and the Wine Train vineyard tour. As a commune, Santa Cruz is an administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council.

Juan Carlos Latorre as part of the 35th electoral district. Oxidation — Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes. Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed, in general, the chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced.

It can be explained in terms, Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in state by a molecule, atom. As an example, during the combustion of wood, oxygen from the air is reduced, the reaction can occur relatively slowly, as in the case of rust, or more quickly, as in the case of fire.

Redox is a portmanteau of reduction and oxidation, the word oxidation originally implied reaction with oxygen to form an oxide, since dioxygen was historically the first recognized oxidizing agent. Later, the term was expanded to encompass oxygen-like substances that accomplished parallel chemical reactions, ultimately, the meaning was generalized to include all processes involving loss of electrons. The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as an oxide to extract the metal.

In other words, ore was reduced to metal, antoine Lavoisier showed that this loss of weight was due to the loss of oxygen as a gas. Later, scientists realized that the atom gains electrons in this process.

The meaning of reduction then became generalized to all processes involving gain of electrons. Even though reduction seems counter-intuitive when speaking of the gain of electrons, it help to think of reduction as the loss of oxygen. Since electrons are charged, it is also helpful to think of this as reduction in electrical charge. The electrochemist John Bockris has used the words electronation and deelectronation to describe reduction and oxidation processes respectively when they occur at electrodes and these words are analogous to protonation and deprotonation, but they have not been widely adopted by chemists.

The term hydrogenation could be used instead of reduction, since hydrogen is the agent in a large number of reactions. But, unlike oxidation, which has been generalized beyond its root element, the word redox was first used in The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, the oxidation alone and the reduction alone are each called a half-reaction, because two half-reactions always occur together to form a whole reaction.

Evaporation — Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase, steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase.

Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, on average, a fraction of the molecules in a glass of water have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The water in the glass will be cooled by the evaporation until an equilibrium is reached where the air supplies the amount of heat removed by the evaporating water, in an enclosed environment the water would evaporate until the air is saturated.

With sufficient temperature, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly, when the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide. Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with energy to escape. Evaporation is an part of the water cycle. The sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, in hydrology, evaporation and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration.

Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor, when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low. Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid decreases.

This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling and this is why evaporating sweat cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proceed quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure. For example, laundry on a line will dry more rapidly on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, on a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the liquid state and the vapor state.

Instead, there is a Knudsen layer, where the phase is undetermined, because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen. It is just that the process is slower and thus significantly less visible. If evaporation takes place in an area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density.

Bacteria — Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods, Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology, There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of bodies and bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In March , data reported by researchers in October , was published and it was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans.

Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to metres below the sea floor under 2. According to one of the researchers, You can find microbes everywhere—theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy.

The most common fatal diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.

Once regarded as constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and these evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea. The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, for about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.

Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea, here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. Microorganism — A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular.

The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some fungi, algae, and some such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages, some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving.

In July , scientists identified a set of genes from the last universal ancestor of all life, including microorganisms. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space. Microorganisms likely far outweigh all other living things combined, the mass of prokaryote microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0. Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earths oceans, in August , scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living m below the ice of Antarctica.

According to one researcher, You can find microbes everywhere — theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a part of the nitrogen cycle. Microorganisms are also exploited in biotechnology, both in food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering.

A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants, Robert Hooke coined the term cell after viewing plant cells under his microscope.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people to observe microorganisms in , later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms cause diseases, single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3—4 billion years ago. Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, so, for most of the history of life on Earth, the only forms of life were microorganisms.

Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is million years old, microorganisms tend to have a relatively fast rate of evolution.

Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, transformation and transduction. This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the development of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, superbugs, the possible existence of microorganisms was discussed for many centuries before their discovery in the 17th century.

Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria, unlike other types of bacteria, thermophiles can survive at much hotter temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. As a prerequisite for their survival, thermophiles contain enzymes that can function at high temperatures, some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology, and in washing agents.

Bacteria within the Alicyclobacillus genus are acidophilic thermophiles, which can cause contamination in fruit juice drinks. Some extreme thermophiles require a high temperature for growth. Their membranes and proteins are stable at these extremely high temperatures. Thus, many important biotechnological processes use thermophilic enzymes because of their ability to withstand intense heat, many of the hyperthermophiles Archea require elemental sulfur for growth.

Some are anaerobes that use the sulfur instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor during cellular respiration, some are lithotrophs that oxidize sulfur to sulfuric acid as an energy source, thus requiring the microorganism to be adapted to very low pH. These organisms are inhabitants of hot, sulfur-rich environments usually associated with volcanism, such as hot springs, geysers, in these places, especially in Yellowstone National Park, zonation of microorganisms according to their temperature optima occurs.

Often, these organisms are colored, due to the presence of photosynthetic pigments, thermophiles can be discriminated from mesophiles from genomic features. Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea, when these organisms are exposed to the DNA damaging agents UV irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C, species-specific cellular aggregation is induced.

Van Wolferen et al. Actinobacteria — The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic and they are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems.

In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, some soil actinobacteria live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plants saccharides. Beyond the great interest in Actinobacteria for their role, much is yet to be learned about them.

Although currently understood primarily as soil bacteria, they might be abundant in fresh waters. Actinobacteria is one of the dominant bacterial phyla and contains one of the largest of bacterial genera, Streptomyces and other actinobacteria are major contributors to biological buffering of soils. They are also the source of many antibiotics, most Actinobacteria of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order Actinomycetales.

While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of antibiotics, of those Actinobacteria not in the Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched. Classification of Gardnerella is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a Gram-positive and Gram-negative organism, actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines, etc.

Bark botany — Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs, Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term.

It overlays the wood and consists of the bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, the outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm.

The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome, Bark has been used to make cloth, canoes, and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. A number of plants are grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations. What is commonly called bark includes a number of different tissues, Cork is an external, secondary tissue that is impermeable to water and gases, and is also called the phellem.

The cork is produced by the cork cambium which is a layer of active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm. The cork cambium, which is called the phellogen, is normally only one cell layer thick.

The phelloderm, which is not always present in all barks, is a layer of cells formed by, together, the phellem, phellogen and phelloderm constitute the periderm. Cork cell walls contain suberin, a substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem. The cambium tissues, i. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma, the cortex is the primary tissue of stems and roots.

In stems the cortex is between the layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem. From the outside to the inside of a woody stem.

The bark includes through, and is composed of periderm and phloem, as the stem ages and grows, changes occur that transform the surface of the stem into the bark. The epidermis is a layer of cells that cover the plant body, including the stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, in old stems the epidermal layer, cortex, and primary phloem become separated from the inner tissues by thicker formations of cork.

Due to the cork layer these cells die because they do not receive water. This dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around tree trunks, often a secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non woody plants, which is composed of cork, the cork cambium, and the phelloderm.

Fungi — A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants, a characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria and some protists, is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs, they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the air or water.

Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems and this fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes and oomycetes. The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, in the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants.

Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the size of their structures. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform a role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling. Since the s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests.

Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans, losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.

The fungus kingdom encompasses a diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies. However, little is known of the biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.

The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace, a group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.

Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies. The fungi are now considered a kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago. Fungi have membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes and they have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Molds — A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts, molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food. The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism, the hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface.

Cross-walls may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, the dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae. The mode of formation and shape of spores is traditionally used to classify molds. Many of these spores are colored, making the much more obvious to the human eye at this stage in its life-cycle.

Molds are considered to be microbes and do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. In the past, most molds were classified within the Deuteromycota, molds cause biodegradation of natural materials, which can be unwanted when it becomes food spoilage or damage to property. They also play important roles in biotechnology and food science in the production of foods, beverages, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals. There are thousands of species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles.

They all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments, like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips and these enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae.

In this way molds play a role in causing decomposition of organic material. Many molds also synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, molds can also grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus a major source of food losses and illness. Many strategies for food preservation are to prevent or slow growth as well as growth of other microbes. Molds reproduce by producing large numbers of spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate.

Mold spores can be asexual or sexual, many species can produce both types, other mold spores have slimy sheaths and are more suited to water dispersal. Mold spores are spherical or ovoid single cells, but can be multicellular. Yeast — Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. Yeasts, with their growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi and it is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms.

Researchers have used it to information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens, yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The budding yeasts are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota, the word yeast comes from Old English gist, gyst, and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning boil, foam, or bubble.

Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms, archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4, year-old bakeries and breweries.

In , Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi, but in Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi. Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, by the late 18th century, two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S.

The industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the press in In , Baron Max de Springer developed a process to create granulated yeast. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy, carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose, alcohols, Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but also have aerobic methods of energy production.

The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables. Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component.

Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities. The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored.

The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC, a multikinase inhibitor with strong The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents.

The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16 1 ; NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid. One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification.

The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems. An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system- component materials.

The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10 exp 14 neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at C. Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here.

We propose a new design for implementing DSELs in Scala which makes it easy to use different program representations at the same time. It enables the DSL implementor to define modular language components and to compose transformations and interpretations for them Each of these representations has its own strengths and weaknesses. The implicit approach has Determinants of specificity in two- component signal transduction.

Maintaining the faithful flow of information through signal transduction pathways is critical to the survival and proliferation of organisms. This problem is particularly challenging as many signaling proteins are part of large, paralogous families that are highly similar at the sequence and structural levels, increasing the risk of unwanted cross-talk. To detect environmental signals and process information, bacteria rely heavily on two- component signaling systems comprised of sensor histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators.

Although most species encode dozens of these signaling pathways, there is relatively little cross-talk, indicating that individual pathways are well insulated and highly specific.

Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that enforce this specificity. Further, we highlight recent studies that have revealed how these mechanisms evolve to accommodate the introduction of new pathways by gene duplication. In eukaryotes, interactions among the alpha-helical coiled-coil domains CCDs of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors SNAREs play a pivotal role in mediating the fusion among vesicles and target membranes.

Based on alternate patterns in surface residues, we have identified two motifs which group vesicular SNAREs in two novel subfamilies: Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection LTBI are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis TB will not be feasible.

In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies.

This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes.

Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability- specific and position- specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices APM by relating them to a number of types of attention.

The ability- specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position- specific component reflects the…. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing.

Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy DOE nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner.

This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components , while addressing multiple risk issues. Electric potentials and magnetic fields generated by ensembles of synchronously active neurons in response to external stimuli provide information essential to understanding the processes underlying cognitive and sensorimotor activity. Interpreting recordings of these potentials and fields is difficult as each detector records signals simultaneously generated by various regions throughout the brain.

We introduce the differentially Variable Component Analysis dVCA algorithm, which relies on trial-to-trial variability in response amplitude and latency to identify multiple components. Using simulations we evaluate the importance of response variability to component identification, the robustness of dVCA to noise, and its ability to characterize single-trial data. Finally, we evaluate the technique using visually evoked field potentials recorded at incremental depths across the layers of cortical area VI, in an awake, behaving macaque monkey.

The genetics of alcoholism: Alcoholism is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies in humans have begun to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the risk for alcoholism.

Here we briefly review strategies for identifying individual genes in which variations affect the risk for alcoholism and related phenotypes, in the context of one large study that has successfully identified such genes. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism COGA is a family-based study that has collected detailed phenotypic data on individuals in families with multiple alcoholic members.

A genome-wide linkage approach led to the identification of chromosomal regions containing genes that influenced alcoholism risk and related phenotypes. Subsequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs were genotyped in positional candidate genes located within the linked chromosomal regions, and analyzed for association with these phenotypes.

These successes demonstrate that genes contributing to the risk for alcoholism can be reliably identified using human subjects. Student perceptions of specific components within a personalized feedback intervention. Previous research suggests that personalized feedback interventions PFI can be an effective tool in reducing risky alcohol use among college students; however, little is known about how students perceive the individual components that are typically used during PFIs.

Participants provided acceptability ratings on each of the 10 components. Overall, participants found the PFI generally acceptable, with females rating the PFI as more acceptable than males, and binge drinkers defined as 5 or more drinks on an occasion for males and 4 or more drinks for females rating the PFI more acceptable than nonbinge drinkers. Differences in acceptability emerged across the 10 components , as participants rated the practical cost components e. Overall, the findings suggest that college students prefer certain feedback components to others.

Moreover, the findings indicate that future research is needed to examine the relationship between preferred components and treatment outcomes to determine which components are most effective for reducing risky drinking. Cleaver is an application for identifying restriction endonuclease recognition sites that occur in some taxa but not in others. Differences in DNA fragment restriction patterns among taxa are the basis for many diagnostic assays for taxonomic identification and are used in procedures for removing the DNA of some taxa from pools of DNA from mixed sources.

Cleaver analyses restriction digestion of groups of orthologous DNA sequences simultaneously to allow identification of differences in restriction pattern among the fragments derived from different taxa. Cleaver is freely available without registration from its website http: The program can be run as a script for computers that have Python 2. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma components.

Essential precursors of the cocoa- specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class 7S globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma notes during the roasting process.

To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa- specific aroma components , we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography.

Identifying Components of Meta-Awareness about Composition: Toward a Theory and Methodology for Writing Studies. Recent research in writing studies has highlighted meta-awareness as valuable for student learning in courses such as first-year writing FYW ; however, meta-awareness needs to be further theorized and its components identified. In this article, I draw on a case study of six students in two FYW courses that is informed by Gregory Schraw's model of….

A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…. A modal specification theory for components with data. We propose Modal Specifications with Data MSDs , the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data. As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates.

Our theory serves as a new abstraction Specifying the non- specific components of acupuncture analgesia. It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non- specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear.

Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture up to Specificity residues determine binding affinity for two- component signal transduction systems.

Two- component systems TCS comprise histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators and allow bacteria to sense and respond to a wide variety of signals. Histidine kinases HKs phosphorylate and dephosphorylate their cognate response regulators RRs in response to stimuli. In general, these reactions appear to be highly specific and require an appropriate association between the HK and RR proteins. The Myxococcus xanthus genome encodes one of the largest repertoires of signaling proteins in bacteria open reading frames [ORFs] , including at least HKs and at least RRs.

Of these, 27 are bona fide NtrC-family response regulators, 21 of which are encoded adjacent to their predicted cognate kinases. Using system-wide profiling methods, we determined that the HK-NtrC RR pairs display a kinetic preference during both phosphotransfer and phosphatase functions, thereby defining cognate signaling systems in M.

Lastly, a chimera generated between the histidine kinase, CrdS, and HK revealed that residues conferring phosphotransfer and phosphatase specificity dictate binding affinity, thereby establishing discrete protein-protein interactions which prevent cross talk. The data indicate that binding affinity is a critical parameter governing system-wide signaling fidelity for bacterial signal transduction proteins. Using in vitro phosphotransfer and phosphatase profiling assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have taken a system-wide approach to demonstrate specificity for a family of two- component signaling proteins in Myxococcus xanthus.

Our results demonstrate that previously identified specificity residues dictate binding affinity and that phosphatase specificity follows phosphotransfer specificity for cognate HK-RR pairs. A novel data mining method to identify assay- specific signatures in functional genomic studies. Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions i.

Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay- specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay- specific gene signatures in FG studies.

The proposed method PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The first type plots the assay- specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay- specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes.

The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay- specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature.

We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data — a study of.

Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two- component chemotaxis signalling complex.

Full Text Available Two- component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases HPKs and their response regulators RRs are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges. Some bacteria have over different two- component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk.

One of the best understood two- component signalling pathways is the chemotaxis pathway. Here, we present the 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P to CheY 6. Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity , allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA 3-P.

The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two- component signal transduction.

Cell-type specific four- component hydrogel. Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion.

Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells.

This cell-type selectivity is of interest e. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses.

A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities.

A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations.

Semaphorins are a family of membrane-bound and secreted type of proteins which were initially identified as chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules. Plexins and neuropilins are two major receptor families of semaphorins, and their common downstream targets are the actin cytoskeleton and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesions. Semaphorins promote the collapse of growth cones by inducing rapid changes in the cytoskeleton and disassembly of focal adhesion structures.

When transfected with appropriate receptors, non-neuronal COS-7 cells exhibit a similar cell collapse phenotype upon semaphorin stimulation. This heterologous system using COS-7 cells has been developed and widely used to investigate semaphorin-signaling pathways. In this chapter, we describe a COS-7 collapse assay protocol used to identify semaphorin-signaling components and a method to produce recombinant class 3 semaphorin proteins.

Although cell surface binding of ricin holotoxin is mainly mediated through its B-subunit RTB , sole application of RTA is also toxic, albeit to a significantly lower extent, suggesting alternative pathways for toxin uptake and transport.

Since ricin toxin trafficking in mammalian cells is still not fully understood, we developed a GFP-based reporter assay in yeast that allows rapid identification of cellular components required for RTA uptake and subsequent transport through a target cell.

Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse. A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set s containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set s.

The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirement C Elsevier B. The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements However, this is rarely the case in product development as new requirements are likely to surface.

A critical issue in requirements reuse therefore becomes how to enable products to efficiently reuse requirements as well incorporating changes to the product Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase.

We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility.

We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced.

We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes. Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult.

Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins. We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo.

Identifying coordinative structure using principal component analysis based on coherence derived from linear systems analysis. Principal component analysis is a powerful and popular technique for capturing redundancy in muscle activity and kinematic patterns.

A primary limitation of the correlations or covariances between signals on which this analysis is based is that they do not account for dynamic relations between signals, yet such relations-such as that between neural drive and muscle tension-are widespread in the sensorimotor system. Low correlations may thus be obtained and signals may appear independent despite a dynamic linear relation between them.

To address this limitation, linear systems analysis can be used to calculate the matrix of overall coherences between signals, which measures the strength of the relation between signals taking dynamic relations into account.

The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the coordinative structure can be overestimated using conventional correlation, whereas a more parsimonious structure is identified with overall coherence. High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater.

Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow.

Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times.

Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge.

Sulfur and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years. With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers. Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are.

These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.

I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components , along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements.

HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission- specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes. Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system. Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available.

In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima. Most of the fibers recognized by these antibodies were co-labeled with the well-known neural marker, RN1.

Additional experiments showed that similar immunoreactivity was found in the nervous tissue of three other holothurian species Holothuria mexicana, Leptosynapta clarki and Sclerodactyla briareus , thus extending our findings to the three orders of Holothuroidea.

Furthermore, these markers identified different subdivisions of the holothurian nervous system. Our study presents three additional markers of the holothurian nervous system, expanding the available toolkit to study the anatomy, physiology, development and evolution of the echinoderm nervous system.

Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI for target definition may expose glioblastomas GB to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume.

Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS P Independent component analysis of localized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals specific motor subnetworks. Recent studies have shown that blood oxygen level-dependent low-frequency regional connectivity by expanding the localized region and identifying components that show connectivity between the two regions.

Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities , identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components , hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins.

Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages. Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid.

Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components , capsid gp23 , portal gp20 , motor gp17, large "terminase" , and regulator gp16, small terminase , leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.

Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp Two specificity regions, amino acids and , are identified in or near the gpATPase "transmission" subdomain II. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine.

This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines. Identifying the components of ecological variation in a marine benthic megafauna. Full Text Available Current work in benthic ecology highlights the importance of the temporal component of ecological variation for distribution and abundance of organisms.

However, this approach is limited by the difficulty in separating and measure the constituents of such variation. The area is seasonally submitted to the intrusion of a cold and saline water mass, an important factor influencing benthic communities. The composition and abundance of the megafauna were investigated at five sites from November to August A total of 93 species were collected.

Average density reached individuals per catch with highest numbers in summer. A striking difference in species composition and abundance was observed in the catches through the year and the results suggested a different structure of the assemblages for each season. Four independent components of the species variation could be separated and identified: The large amount of environmental variation is related to sandy bottoms and depth influence, whereas the time factor can be interpreted as both the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water and the biological cycles of some key-species.

Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw.

The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased P Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses Poaceae alone.

The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches.

In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes. The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis.

We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway. This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells.

Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering. Integrative genomics identifies MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

Although the uniporter's biophysical properties have been studied extensively, its molecular composition remains elusive. Here, we use whole-genome phylogenetic profiling, genome-wide RNA co-expression analysis and organelle-wide protein coexpression analysis to predict proteins functionally related to MICU1. MCU forms oligomers in the mitochondrial inner membrane, physically interacts with MICU1, and resides within a large molecular weight complex.

MCU has two predicted transmembrane helices, which are separated by a highly conserved linker facing the intermembrane space.

Acidic residues in this linker are required for its full activity. However, an SA point mutation retains function but confers resistance to Ru, the most potent inhibitor of the uniporter.

Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients. Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries.

This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life. Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion.

We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C. This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews.

While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units.

Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks. Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths nm and nm.

Specific autoantigens identified by sera obtained from mice that are immunized with testicular germ cells alone. We have previously established that immunization using viable syngeneic TGC can also induce murine experimental autoimmune orchitis EAO without using any adjuvant.

Moreover, the recombinant proteins of identified 10 except unnamed protein TGC- specific AIs were created by using human embryonic kidney HEK cells and these antigencities were reconfirmed by Western blot using EAO serum reaction. Identification of these AIs will facilitate new approaches for understanding infertility and cancer pathogenesis and may provide a basis for the development of novel therapies.

An attempt to identify the muonic and electromagnetic components of extensive showers in water Cherenkov detectors. One of the purposes of the Pierre Auger Collaboration is to study the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. When a cosmic ray collides in the upper atmosphere, depending on the mass composition, we have different numbers of mesons being produced and therefore different amounts of muons at detector level.

For example, showers initiated by proton have less muons than showers initiated by iron nucleus. If we can select the muon signal in Cherenkov tanks, we might be able to infer primary composition. To achieve this goal, we will use the so-called 'Muon Jump Method', which aims to discriminate muons from the electromagnetic component , based on the time structure of their FADC signal.

Muons produces on average more signal than electrons or gammas and they induce spiky signals whereas the electromagnetic component produce a continuum of small peaks in the FADC traces. Using this information, we estimate the number of particles for each component , by setting filters the time distribution of the shower front. Therefore, we can infer the primary mass composition.

Another important point of this study is to compare the predictions of the hadronic interaction models for each component of the shower front. We present an introduction to the main aspects of the 'Muon Jump Method' as well as some preliminary results we achieved by simulating air showers, reconstructing their main features and filtering the signals of each component. Improved tibial component rotation in TKA using patient- specific instrumentation.

Patient- specific instrumentation PSI was introduced in an attempt to reduce positional outliers of components in total knee arthroplasty TKA. It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of tibial components in optimal rotational alignment.

Of these, 30 operations were performed using PSI and 28 using conventional instrumentation. The rotation of the tibial components was determined in MRI using three different reference lines: Data were analyzed statistically for positional outliers using the Chi-squared test. There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of tibial component rotation using the tangent to the dorsal condyles and the tibial epicondylar line as reference.

Using the dorsal tangent as reference, there were eight components in excessive external rotation Using the tibial epicondyles as reference, there were seven components in excessive external rotation These differences were statistically significant p rotational tibial component alignment during TKA. Anatomy of the proximal tibia does not deliver clear landmarks that are prominent and consistent.

This makes both, MRI analysis as well as cutting jig production and intraoperative placement a challenge. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis. As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning The component loadings indicated that a higher amount of bone was primarily associated with more plate Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains.

Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis PCA followed by spatial independent component analysis sICA , can be exploited to reduce the dimensionality of data sets recorded in the olfactory bulb and the somatosensory cortex of mice as well as the visual cortex of monkeys, without loosing In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted. In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set.

Candidate gene resequencing to identify rare, pedigree- specific variants influencing healthy aging phenotypes in the long life family study. We hypothesized that pedigree- specific rare variants at longevity-associated genes could have a similar functional impact on healthy phenotypes. We performed custom hybridization capture sequencing to identify the functional variants in candidate genes for longevity or the major diseases of aging in pedigrees 4, individuals from the LLFS, using a multiplexed, custom hybridization capture.

Variants were analyzed individually Sequencing analysis of family-based associations for age-related phenotypes can identify rare or novel variants Specificity of motor components in the dual flagellar system of Shewanella putrefaciens CN Bacterial flagellar motors are intricate nanomachines in which the stator units and rotor component FliM may be dynamically exchanged during function.

Similar to other bacterial species, the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN possesses a complete secondary flagellar system along with a corresponding stator unit. Expression of the secondary system occurs during planktonic growth in complex media and leads to the formation of a subpopulation with one or more additional flagella at random positions in addition to the primary polar system.

We used physiological and phenotypic characterizations of defined mutants in concert with fluorescent microscopy on labelled components of the two different systems, the stator proteins PomB and MotB, the rotor components FliM 1 and FliM 2 , and the auxiliary motor components MotX and MotY, to determine localization, function and dynamics of the proteins in the flagellar motors. The components were highly specific for their corresponding motor and are unlikely to be extensively swapped or shared between the two flagellar systems under planktonic conditions.

The results have implications for both specificity and dynamics of flagellar motor components. A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs. Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes. To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes.

Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component.

To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model.

The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care. Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals.

Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field. From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation.

In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles.

However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations.

The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to asses.

A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S. Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of bp SC , bp SC and bp SC , respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar- specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies.

SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http: Two- component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli. Sensor histidine kinases transmit signals to their cognate response regulators via phosphorylation. The faithful transmission of information through two- component pathways and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk require exquisite specificity of histidine kinase-response regulator interactions to ensure that cells mount the appropriate response to external signals.

To identify putative specificity -determining residues, we have analyzed amino acid coevolution in two- component proteins and identified a set of residues that can be used to rationally rewire a model signaling pathway, EnvZ-OmpR. To explore how a relatively small set of residues can dictate partner selectivity, we combined alanine-scanning mutagenesis with an approach we call trajectory-scanning mutagenesis, in which all mutational intermediates between the specificity residues of EnvZ and another kinase, RstB, were systematically examined for phosphotransfer specificity.

The same approach was used for the response regulators OmpR and RstA. Collectively, the results begin to reveal the molecular mechanism by which a small set of amino acids enables an individual kinase to discriminate amongst a large set of highly-related response regulators and vice versa. Our results also suggest that the mutational trajectories taken by two- component signaling proteins following gene or pathway duplication may be constrained and subject to differential selective pressures.

Only some trajectories allow both the maintenance of phosphotransfer and the avoidance of unwanted cross-talk. Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met DNA methylome profiling of human tissues identifies global and tissue- specific methylation patterns.

DNA epigenetic modifications, such as methylation, are important regulators of tissue differentiation, contributing to processes of both development and cancer. Profiling the tissue- specific DNA methylome patterns will provide novel insights into normal and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as help in future epigenetic therapies. In this study, 17 somatic tissues from four autopsied humans were subjected to functional genome analysis using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation BeadChip, covering CpG sites.

A vast number of tissue- specific differentially methylated regions are identified and considered likely mediators of tissue- specific gene regulatory mechanisms since the hypomethylated regions are closely related to known functions of the corresponding tissue.

Finally, a clear inverse correlation is observed between promoter methylation within CpG islands and gene expression data obtained from publicly available databases. This genome-wide methylation profiling study identified tissue- specific differentially methylated regions in 17 human somatic tissues. Many of the genes corresponding to these differentially methylated regions contribute to tissue- specific functions. Future studies may use these data as a reference to identify markers of perturbed differentiation and disease-related pathogenic mechanisms.

Deep sequencing identifies ethnicity- specific bacterial signatures in the oral microbiome. Full Text Available Oral infections have a strong ethnic predilection; suggesting that ethnicity is a critical determinant of oral microbial colonization. Dental plaque and saliva samples from subjects belonging to four major ethnicities in the United States were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism t-RFLP and 16S pyrosequencing.

Ethnicity- specific clustering of microbial communities was apparent in saliva and subgingival biofilms, and a machine-learning classifier was capable of identifying an individual's ethnicity from subgingival microbial signatures. The data demonstrates a significant association between ethnic affiliation and the composition of the oral microbiome; to the extent that these microbial signatures appear to be capable of discriminating between ethnicities.

Principal component analysis reveals gender- specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders.

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