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This mode of transport can also have an adverse effect on plant and animal health. Although these viruses only infect bacteria, they are responsible for the exchange of genetic material among bacteria through a process known as transduction.

Knowledge about Saharan air-mass-transport routes and the potential for dispersal of microorganisms has driven multiple studies about the relationship between dust-storm events and pathogen dissemination.

During the winter, the increase of Harmattan winds creates conditions that favor outbreaks and cases of meningitis, because low humidity and the inhalation of airborne dust particles can compromise the integrity of the airway mucosa.

As soon as the wet season begins, the number of cases decreases considerably. This pathogen is a fungus exclusive to the Americas and is a common community member of the southwestern soils in the United States, where outbreaks of the disease have been shown to be due to regional dust-storm exposures CDC, ; Jinadu, Viruses are also suitable for airborne transport; they may be more easily aerosolized due to their smaller size, but also may be more sensitive to adverse conditions during transport.

Hantaviruses, which regularly affect rodents and are shed in their feces, are known to occur in arid environments. When Dust Storms, Microbiology and Agronomy 9 the feces become desiccated, the viruses may become aerosolized and may infect exposed humans Griffin, Bacteriophages have been found to occur as high as 1.

The amount of dust emanating from desert areas and circulating around the planet has increased over the last few decades. Published studies related to dust and its consequences have sparked an international interest in investigations into the field of dust storms and their influence on various ecosystems. Given the limited number of studies that exist in scientific literature, a clearly apparent need is the identification of optimal methods for sample collection and analyses for chemical, geochemical, and microbiological investigations.

The methods are summarized in Table 1. Gravity deposition is the simplest and cheapest of methods. It requires exposing a petri dish containing nutrient agar to the environment for a period of time. Only particles with enough inertia will be captured onto nutrient agar or adhesive surfaces. Despite their capacity to sample large volumes, viability of the microorganisms may be compromised due to the physical stress associated with the process Griffin, The collection- and extraction-efficiency rates depend on Dust Storms, Microbiology and Agronomy 11 the material of the filter cellulose, glass fiber, polycarbonate, etc.

One of the main advantages with this technique is that the sample may be split for different analyses, including both culture- and nonculture-based. Similar to the benefits and problems experienced with impingers, the filters may be partitioned for different types of analyses, but high-flow rates compromise the integrity and health of cells and thus the ability to culture them. A new type of aerosol sampler has been recently developed and is based on electrostatic precipitation Han and Mainelis, This system converts aerosols directly into hydrosols and has demonstrated better recovery results than some liquid impingers under certain conditions Yao and Mainelis, This system collects the air continuously into a vesicle from which it is then routed to an onboard biosensor.

This coupling of a sampler with a biosensor offers a promising option in automated bioaerosol monitoring. Staining may help differentiate unique features: Fluorescence microscopy enables the acquisition of additional data metabolic state of the cell, direct counts of bacteria and fungi, etc. The combined use of microscopy along with immunology or genetic methods allows identification to the species level.

Choosing the right cultivation assay may result in a better recovery rate of airborne microorganisms. In published studies, incubation temperatures and culture media type used have varied, although ambient temperature and use of a low-nutrient-agar medium seem to produce the best recoveries Kellogg and Griffin, Results from culturebased studies are limited in determining the identification and number of CFUs of bacteria or fungi.

Combination of PCR with other techniques is also common, although some can be time consuming. Included in this category, RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism uses restriction enzymes to digest the DNA and electrophoresis to separate fragments, generating unique patterns specific for species and strains. Random amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD is a PCR-based assay that uses short generic primers that may bind to different regions of the target genome and ultimately create a unique fingerprint.

Microsatellites are short sequences one to six nucleotides repeated in eukaryotic genomes, also known as simple sequence repeats or short tandem repeats. Their location and number of repetitions through the genome are random and unique; therefore, the pattern of amplification of these sequences may be used to identify individuals.

This application has been used by Szabo and colleagues for the specific identification of the plant pathogen Puccinia graminis Barnes and Szabo, Methods based on DNA hybridization are emerging with the development of microarray-based technologies. These chip-based assays can also be utilized to identify strains or to determine the endemicity of isolates Cho and Tiedje, Dust Storms, Microbiology and Agronomy 15 3.

In source areas, drought and harmful agricultural practices can contribute to dust-storm formation and loss of topsoils Egan, This loss entails a decrease in nutrients, soil erosion, and acceleration of degradation and desertification processes. Severe droughts may cause the loss of grasslands along the perimeter of desert areas, and in some cases these pasture grasses can be overgrown with nonpalatable weeds Christie, ; McTainsh and Strong, Agricultural regions that are frequently impacted by dust storms are subject to sandblasting plant injuries and loss of seeds and seedlings due to deposition and burial Stefanski and Sivakumar, Many pathogenic plant viruses require a vector to move from one host to another, and they usually use biting or feeding injuries to access plant tissue.

However, injuries caused by sandblasting may provide for an alternate route of infection. The Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences estimated the loss of , head of livestock and 2.

Meier, a scientist with the U. Department of Agriculture, conducted a series of aircraft-based investigations focused on the intercontinental and transoceanic transmission of agricultural pathogens. If they can go up three and four miles in the air it would seem likely that their travels in a horizontal plane might be almost limitless. Meier believed transoceanic transport of crop pathogens was a viable and important route of transmission, and with the help of notable aviators such as Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart, Meier collected numerous atmospheric samples and described their microbial content Meier and Artschwager, ; Meier, ; Rogers and Meier, Unfortunately for the field of aerobiology a term attributed to Meier , Meier was lost at sea during a trans-Pacific flight to China during World War II.

After these and other related studies conducted during that period of the twentieth century, interest and efforts in the field of transoceanic microbial transport waned until the late s. Fungi alone are responsible for approximately 10, different pathologies Kakde, Whereas viruses generally require a vector for their transmission, bacteria and fungi are more readily dispersed.

Airborne transmission over short distances is a common route of dispersion. High-wind events are capable of dispersing fungi and bacteria, particularly spore formers, over vast distances. These wind events are the result of pressure in an encroaching front, and in arid environments the winds cause the generation of dust plumes that are capable of transporting biological material around the globe. It has been hypothesized that the citrus canker pathogen could be transported to Florida in dust from Africa, where it is known to be endemic Taylor, Yellow lines indicate main dust-transport routes.

Adapted from Griffin Blue lines indicate airborne dispersal of plant diseases. Red lines indicate airborne dispersal of animal diseases. A, B and C Foot-and-mouth virus Gloster et al. D Avian Influenza Chen et al. Diseases caused by species of fungi within the genus Puccinia are responsible for most of the worldwide economic loss due to crop damage, especially in cereals Narayanasamy, ; Strange and Scott, Early studies focusing on long-range wind-borne transport of plant diseases were focused on coffee leaf and sugarcane rusts, caused by the fungi Hemilea wastatrix and Puccinia melanocephala, respectively.

Introduction of stem rust P. More recently, Singh has addressed the spread of a virulent strain of P. Although the diseases named so far may be the most important for global agriculture, there are some other microorganisms that have been isolated from dust-storm samples, which may have negative effects in crops, as shown in Table 1.

Prevailing fungi identified in air samples are the ubiquitous genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Penicilium. Cladosporium cladosporioides Sphingomonas spp. Related Diseases Root rot e. Staphylococcus gallinarum Corynebacterium spp. Cladosporium cladosporioides Asian deserts Tainan, Taiwan Stemphylium spp. Neotestudina rosatii Massaria platani Black mold in onions, Aspergillosis e. Asian deserts Pacific Ocean Bacillus spp. Bacillus pumilus Bacillus subtilis Crown gall disease Spignel rust Mastitis in cattle, sheep, goats Skin and mucosal infections e.

Fusarium solani Fusarium equiseti Fusarium dimerum Fusarium proliferatum Fusarium oxysporum Pseudomonas spp. Cochliobolus lunatus Fusarium spp. Aspergillus nigrans Aspergillus niger Alternaria alternata Phlebia spp.

Cladosporium cladosporioides Penicillium spp. Bacillus subtilis Escherichia spp. Anthrax, mastitis in mammals Brown spots e. Alternaria is commonly detected, and it is related to leaf spots, blight, and rot in many plant species e. Four species within the Alternaria genus have been identified in three regions affected by Saharan and Asian dust. Alternaria alternate and A. Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria japonica have been isolated from air samples collected atop Mt.

Leaf spots are a common disease in plants caused by a variety of fungal species, some of them detected in air samples during dust events.

Dust Storms, Microbiology and Agronomy 27 Although bacterial infections are less common among plants, there are some that may cause damage to crops. Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease, and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens is the causative agent of vascular wilt in beans. Some studies have been able to identify the bacteria only to the phylum, e.

Unlike plant diseases in which fungi tend to be the dominant cause of morbidity and mortality, bacterial and viral infections tend to be the dominant agents in livestock. The most common routes of transmission are fecaloral for gastrointestinal diseases and close contact for respiratory infections. Whether a pathogen is shed in feces or in other secretions, it can be aerosolized and effectively transmitted through the atmosphere.

Airborne transmission of pathogens is well known to occur over short distances, e. In , Hammond and colleagues hypothesized the transmission of this viral pathogen from Asia over the North Pacific to North America, given the typical influenza season and corresponding atmospheric conditions that would favor long-range dissemination Hammond et al. Since then, many authors have considered dust plumes and strong winds to be carriers for some important animal diseases, as shown in Figure 1.

The most studied to date is foot-and-mouth disease FMD caused by an Aphthovirus. First indications of airborne transmission were in — in the United Kingdom, when around outbreaks developed in downwind areas from the original outbreak site HMSO, In the s, rapid spread of the disease over vast distances in Europe spurred the development of models to evaluate the possibility and extent of wind-borne dispersion.

This possibility of dust-storm transmission of FMD has been also considered in Asia, where heavy dust storms have been followed by outbreaks of the disease. Among diseases affecting poultry, avian influenza has gained great importance in recent years. Massive economic losses due to this infection plus the known threat of transmission to humans have brought studies of avian influenza viruses to the forefront.

A year later, those authors collected air samples during normal atmospheric conditions and when Asian dust was present over Taiwan. In those samples, the virus was only detected during dust-storm days. Bacillus anthracis is a dangerous animal and human pathogen of bioterrorist concern, and studies have been conducted to evaluate long-range airborne transmission. Short-range airborne transport is a common route, but longrange transmission of this disease has been reported for an outbreak in Sverdlovsk, Russia, in Various species of Bacillus are commonly recovered in dust-storm microbiology studies Griffin, Mastitis is one of the most common ailments for the dairy industry.

Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent, although other Staphylococcus species and different genera of bacteria may also cause mastitis, e.

Furthermore, Psychrobacter pulmonis has been isolated from dust samples in Victoria, Australia. Dermatophytoses is also a fungal disease that affects cattle. A basic understanding of these various atmospheric dust corridors and their ability to route microorganisms across continents and oceans has only recently been recognized.

Adaptation of collection and analyses tools for use on drones would greatly facilitate investigations of air masses from distant locations. Since the transoceanic aerobiology work of Bernard E. Proctor and Fred C. Meier in the s and s, agricultural agencies have largely dismissed the relevance of this potentially important route of transmission. With an estimated 60 million tons of Asian dust impacting North America each year through a corridor that overlies the breadbasket region of the United States, this research field should be given funding priority.

Regardless of the dust-source region or the agricultural region being impacted, the economic and possible human consequences that may result from ignoring obvious transoceanic routes of dispersion may be significant and, more importantly, may directly affect the ability of a region to optimally produce and sustain food supplies. The use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.

Longterm sampling of viable airborne viruses. The early pathogenesis of footand-mouth disease in pigs infected by contact: In situ visualization of high genetic diversity in a natural microbial community. Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool PES filters.

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Seasonal variability in airborne bacterial communities at a high-elevation site. Spatial variability in airborne bacterial communities across land-use types and their relationship to the bacterial communities of potential source environments. Sources of bacteria in outdoor air across cities in the midwestern United States.

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Development of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantification of airborne conidia of Botrytis squamosa and management of Botrytis leaf blight of onion. Increase in coccidioidomycosis— Arizona, — Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development.

Ambient influenza and avian influenza virus during dust storm days and background days. Ecosystem change and land degradation. Community variability of bacteria in alpine snow Mont Blanc containing Saharan dust deposition and their snow colonisation potential. Sounding the Alarm on Global Stem Rust: An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. What do we know about effects of desert dust on air quality and human health in West Africa compared to other regions?

Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Air masses and aerosols chemical components in the free troposphere at the subtropical northeast Atlantic region. The Worst Hard Times. New evidence for a relationship between Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and African dust outbreaks. Annual variations in the diversity, viability, and origin of airborne bacteria. Detection of airborne bacteria in a German turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular methods.

Culturable airborne bacteria in outdoor environments in Beijing, China. Metagenomic and small-subunit rRNA analyses reveal the genetic diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses in soil. Short-term temporal variability in airborne bacterial and fungal populations.

Too much imagination block. The Scientific Basis, Cambridge University. Seasonal variability of bacteria in fine and coarse urban air particulate matter. Climatology and trends of the temporal and spatial distribution of sandstorms in inner Mongolia.

Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: Risk of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease from the continent to England. Forecasting the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Re-assessing the likelihood of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease at the start of the UK footand-mouth disease epidemic. A simulated climatology of Asian dust aerosol and its trans-Pacific transport.

Epifluorescent direct counts of bacteria and viruses from topsoil of various desert dust storm regions. Post-hurricane analysis of citrus canker II: Desert dust and human health disorders. Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Long-range transatlantic transport of microorganisms in clouds of African desert dust: African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Dust in the wind: Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments.

Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: Atmospheric microbiology in the northern Caribbean during African dust events.

Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean coastline. Remote sensing applications for assessing the effects of air quality on human health: CRC Press, Florida, pp. Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg Sampling for airborne microorganisms.

Influence of dust storms on concentration and content of fungi in the atmosphere of Haifa, Israel. Case study of a Chinese dust plume reaching the French Alps. Metagenomic detection of viruses in aerosol samples from workers in animal slaughterhouses. Time of stem rust appearance on wheat in the western Mississippi basin in relation to the development of epidemics from to Impact of atmospheric dispersion and transport of viral aerosols on the epidemiology of influenza.

Design and development of an electrostatic sampler for bioaerosols with high concentration rate. Emerging viral diseases of tomato crops. Long-term variation of Asian dust and related climate factors. Studies of transport of live spores of cereal mildew and rust fungi across the North Sea. Identification and quantification of dust additions in perisaharan soils.

Viability and potential for immigration of airborne bacteria from Africa that reach high mountain lakes in Europe. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I. Asian dust events of April Principles of the atmospheric pathway for invasive species applied to soybean rust.

Annual variations of physical properties of desert dust over Israel. Transport of Asian air pollution to North America. Impact of Asian emissions on the remote North Pacific atmosphere: Atmospheric iron inputs to the oceans.

Wiley, New York, p. Foot-and-mouth disease eradication efforts in the Republic of Korea. Dustborne microorganisms in the atmosphere over an Asian dust source region, Dunhuang. Health effects from Sahara dust episodes in Europe: Dust transport and deposition observed from the terra-moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer MODIS spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust.

Characterization of aerosolized bacteria and fungi from desert dust events in Mali, West Africa. On the sandstorms and associated airborne dustfall episodes observed at Cheongwon in Korea in Comparative viral metagenomics of environmental samples from Korea. Ecology of viruses in soils: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in evaluation of emission of Enterobacteriaceae from sewage to the air and surface water.

Water Air Soil Pollut. Ice-free glacial northern Asia due to dust deposition on snow. Optical properties of mineral dust outbreaks over the northeastern Mediterranean. Current and emerging technologies for the study of bacteria in the outdoor air. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorms dust.

Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Application of a broad-range resequencing array for detection of pathogens in desert dust samples from Kuwait and Iraq. Microbiological and meteorological analysis of two Australian dust storms in April Assessment of composition and origin of airborne bacteria in the free troposphere over Japan. Comparison of Puccinia graminis f. Dispersal of spores and pollen from crops. Molecular diagnostics for fungal plant pathogens.

Trans-Pacific transport of Saharan dust to western North America: The role of aeolian dust in ecosystems. Collecting microorganisms from winds above the Caribbean Sea. Airplane collections of sugar-beet pollen.

The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of African dust fertilized everglades: Environmental risk and meningitis epidemics in Africa. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia. Long-distance dispersion of rust pathogens. Getting at the roots of killer dust storms. Traceback systems used during recent epizootics in Asia.

Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust. Long-term prediction of soybean rust entry into the continental United States. Particle size distribution of airborne microorganisms and pathogens during an intense African dust event in the eastern Mediterranean.

The microbiology of the upper air. Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust. African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: Introduction of sugarcane rust into the Americas and its spread to Florida. Bloom of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum in the northwest African upwelling. Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.

Compositions of modern dust and surface sediments in the Desert Southwest, United States. Principles, Techniques and Applications. Detection of infectious enteroviruses by an integrated cell culture-PCR procedure.

Aeolian dust in Colorado Plateau soils: The collection of microorganisms above 36, feet. Chemical and microbiological characterization of atmospheric particulate matter during an intense African dust event in southern Spain. Reanalysis of the start of the UK to foot-and-mouth disease epidemic to calculate airborne transmission probabilities.

Transport of microorganisms to Israel during Saharan dust events. Atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust to the ocean: Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two California sites by using a real-time PCR approach combined with a simple spore trapping method.

Atmospheric transport of mold spores in clouds of desert dust. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs. The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America. Intercontinental dispersal of bacteria and archaea by transpacific winds. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants. Climate drives the meningitis epidemics onset in west Africa.

Metagenomic sequencing for virus identification in a public-health setting. Saharan dust in the Amazon basin. Development of an automated electrostatic sampler AES for bioaerosol detection.

A numerical study of the contributions of dust source regions to the global dust budget. Dust in the wind. The microbial diversity of a storm cloud as assessed by hailstones. Comparison of methods for detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms collected by liquid impingement. Deposition of Harmattan dust and its influence on base saturation of soils in northern Ghana.

African dust in Florida clouds. The airborne metagenome in an indoor urban environment. PloS One 3, e Concentration of airborne viruses in pediatrics department measured using real-time qPCR coupled to an air-sampling filter method. Airborne movement of anthrax spores from carcass sites in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques.

Analysis of Saharan dust intrusions into the Carpathian Basin Central Europe over the period of — Methods for sampling of airborne viruses.

Scholar commons Saharan dust and Florida red tides: Long distance transport of spores of Puccinia graminis tritici in the southern hemisphere. The relationship between gorgonian coral Cnidaria: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis may manifest with mild, indolent symptoms despite significant disease.

Extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis occurs in severely immunocompromised patients. It begins with skin lesions, sinusitis, or pneumonia and may involve the liver, kidneys, brain, and other tissues; it is often rapidly fatal.

Aspergillosis in the sinuses can form an aspergilloma or cause allergic fungal sinusitis or a chronic, slowly invasive granulomatous inflammation with fever, rhinitis, and headache. Patients may have necrosing cutaneous lesions overlying the nose or sinuses, palatal or gingival ulcerations, signs of cavernous sinus thrombosis, or pulmonary or disseminated lesions. Aspergillomas are usually asymptomatic, although it may cause mild cough and occasionally hemoptysis.

Because Aspergillus sp are common in the environment, positive sputum cultures may be due to environmental contamination or noninvasive colonization in patients with chronic lung disease; positive cultures are significant mainly when sputum is obtained from patients with increased susceptibility due to immunosuppression or when there is high suspicion due to typical imaging findings. Conversely, sputum cultures from patients with aspergillomas or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are often negative because cavities are often walled off from airways and because invasive disease progresses mainly by vascular invasion and tissue infarction.

Chest x-rays are taken; however, chest CT is far more sensitive and should be done if patients are at high risk ie, neutropenic. CT of sinuses is done if sinus infection is suspected. A movable fungus ball within a cavitary lesion is characteristic on both, although most lesions are focal and solid.

Sometimes imaging detects a halo sign a hazy shadow surrounding a nodule or cavitation within a necrotic lesion. Diffuse, generalized pulmonary infiltrates are seen in some patients. Culture and histopathology of a tissue sample are usually necessary for confirmation; histopathology helps distinguish invasive infection from colonization.

The sample is typically taken from the lungs via bronchoscopy or percutaneous needle biopsy and from the sinuses via anterior rhinoscopy. Because cultures take time and histopathology results may be false-negative, most decisions to treat are based on strong presumptive clinical evidence.

In aspergillus endocarditis, large vegetations often release sizable emboli that may occlude blood vessels and provide specimens for diagnosis. Detection of antigens such as galactomannan can be specific but, in serum, is often not sufficiently sensitive to identify most cases in their early stages.

In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, the galactomannan test on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is much more sensitive than that on serum and is often the only option for patients with thrombocytopenia, for whom biopsy is contraindicated. Blood cultures are almost always negative, even in rare cases of endocarditis. See also Antifungal Drugs. Invasive infections usually require aggressive treatment with voriconazole or isavuconazole, which has equal efficacy to and fewer adverse effects than voriconazole 1.

Amphotericin B particularly lipid formulations is also effective, although more toxic. Oral posaconazole or itraconazole but not fluconazole can be effective in some cases. Caspofungin or other echinocandins may be used as salvage therapy. Combination therapy with voriconazole and echinocandins may be effective in certain patients.

Usually, complete cure requires reversal of immunosuppression eg, resolution of neutropenia, discontinuation of corticosteroids. Recrudescence is common if neutropenia recurs. Aspergillomas neither require nor respond to systemic antifungal therapy but may require resection because of local effects, especially hemoptysis.

Prophylaxis with posaconazole or itraconazole can be considered for high-risk patients those with graft-vs-host disease or neutropenia due to acute myelocytic leukemia. Isavuconazole versus voriconazole for primary treatment of invasive mould disease caused by Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi SECURE: A phase 3, randomised-controlled, non-inferiority trial.

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Invasive aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in patients who are immunocompromised. Neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy are major risk factors. In addition to patients who have undergone transplantation, patients profoundly neutropenic after receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies or lymphoma, children with chronic granulomatous disease, and patients with late-stage HIV disease also are at risk.

Specific risk factors for invasive aspergillosis after bone marrow transplantation include prolonged neutropenia, graft versus host disease, high-dose corticosteroid therapy, disruption of normal mucosal barriers, mismatched or unrelated donor transplants, and the presence of central venous catheters.

Invasive Aspergillus infection in patients without malignancy or prior chemotherapy who probably are nevertheless not immunocompetent is most commonly seen in those with critical illness and COPD who are taking long-term corticosteroid therapy. From surveys and an ABPA registry, 0. Frequently undetected in life and found at autopsy, the frequency of chronic necrotizing Aspergillus pneumonia may be underestimated.

The frequency of invasive aspergillosis reflects disease states and treatments that result in prolonged neutropenia and immunosuppression. Although it has been described in individuals who are immunocompetent, invasive aspergillosis is exceedingly uncommon in this population. Aspergilloma is not rare in patients with chronic cavitary lung disease and CF. The age distribution of aspergillosis is consistent with that of the various comorbid conditions with which it is associated.

The prognosis for ABPA is fairly good in patients with mildly abnormal pulmonary function. However, patients may remain steroid-dependent. If ABPA is detected late, after the establishment of fibrosis, the response to steroids frequently is poor.

The prognosis for patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is poor. Development of triazole resistance has been blamed for eventual loss of control of the disease in patients receiving long-term triazole therapy. Detection of resistance is made difficult by the high frequency of negative cultures, a problem addressed by a study using hypersensitive real-time PCR assays to assess fungal load in BAL and sputum samples. The authors suggest a connection between this "remarkably high" rate and limitations to the effectiveness of azole therapy.

ABPA may cause problems with asthma control. Repeated episodes of ABPA may cause widespread bronchiectasis and resultant chronic fibrotic lung disease. Samarakoon P, Soubani AO. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COPD: Management of invasive aspergillosis in patients with COPD: Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute leukemia: Outbreak of invasive aspergillosis in heart transplant recipients: The role of screening computed tomography scans in asymptomatic patients and universal antifungal prophylaxis.

Effects of itraconazole therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A randomized trial of itraconazole in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. Azoles for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis associated with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Anti-inflammatory effect of itraconazole in stable allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: J Allergy Clin Immunol. Immediate and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization for life-threatening hemoptysis.

Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Pulmonary aspergilloma and AIDS. Virnig C, Bush RK.

Curr Opin Pulm Med. Invasive aspergillosis in critically ill patients without malignancy. The importance of risk factors for the prediction of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Rev Assoc Med Bras High-frequency triazole resistance found In nonculturable Aspergillus fumigatus from lungs of patients with chronic fungal disease.

Epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with liver failure: Clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes. J Int Med Res. Underlying conditions in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis including simple aspergilloma.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis--state of the art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. Galactomannan detection in computerized tomography-based broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and serum in haematological patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

Accuracy of BAL galactomannan in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis: Comparison of an Aspergillus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with galactomannan testing of bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. Utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in neutropenic patients admitted to the intensive care unit with pulmonary infiltrates.

Successful treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with recombinant anti-IgE antibody. Current and future therapeutic options in the management of invasive aspergillosis. Evolving strategies in the management of aspergillosis.

Efficacy and toxicity of caspofungin in combination with liposomal amphotericin B as primary or salvage treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Evaluation of the efficacy of a posaconazole and anidulafungin combination in a murine model of pulmonary aspergillosis due to infection with Aspergillus fumigatus.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. National Institutes of Health. Isavuconazole BAL for primary treatment of invasive Aspergillosis. Using the phenomenon of substitutive perception it was established that the human consciousness has a hierarchical structure, where deeper levels govern more superficial ones reactive level, energy or ancestral level, spiritual level, magical level, and deeper levels of consciousness.

Every human possesses a depth of consciousness to the spiritual level, however deeper levels of consciousness are not found for every person. It was found that the spiritual level of consciousness is not homogeneous and has its own internal hierarchy of sublevels the level of formation of spiritual values, the level of the 'inner observer', the level of the 'path', the level of 'God', etc.

The depth of the spiritual level of a person defines the paradigm of all his internal processes and the main motives of the movement through life. At any level of consciousness disturbances can occur. Disturbances at a deeper level cause disturbances at more superficial levels and are manifested in the daily life of a person in feelings, behavioral patterns, psychosomatics, etc.

Without removing the deepest source of a disturbance it is impossible to completely correct its manifestation in the actual moment. Thus a destructive pattern of feeling and behavior in the actual moment can exist because of a disturbance, for example, at the spiritual level of a person although in most cases the source is at the energy level. Psychological work with superficial levels without removing a source of disturbance cannot fully solve the problem. The method of Deep Systemic Constellations allows one to work effectively with the source of the problem located at any depth.

The methodology has confirmed its effectiveness in working with more than a thousand people. Driven by difficult market conditions and increasing regulations, many banks are making the strategic decision to restructure their portfolio by divesting several business segments.

Employing the event study methodology, we detect positive stock market reactions on the announcement of restructuring measurements. These empirical results indicate that there is no guarantee that portfolio restructurings will result in a more profitable and less risky institution. This study investigates about enabling conditions to facilitate social innovation in the energy sector. This is important to support the energy transition in Indonesia. This research provides appropriate project direction, including research and action gaps for the energy actors in Indonesia.

The actors are allowed to work further with the result of this study to stimulate the energy transition in Indonesia. This report uses systemic change framework which recognizes four drivers of systemic change in a region: These drivers are interconnected, and this report particularly focuses on how social innovation can be supported by other drivers.

This study used methods of interview and literature review as the main sources for data collection in this report. There were interviews with eight experts in the related topic which come from different countries which have experienced social innovation in the energy sector.

Afterwards, this research reviewed related journal papers from last five years, to check the latest development within the topic, to support the interview result. The result found that the enabling condition can focus on one of the drivers of systemic change, which is building communities by increasing their participation, through several integrated actions. This can be implemented in two types of citizen energy initiatives which are energy cooperatives and sustainable consumption initiatives.

This implementation requires study about its related policy and governance support, in order to create complete enabling conditions to facilitate social innovation in the energy transition. At the beginning of the note we have a cursory look around the concepts of general linguistics The science that studies scientific study of human language based on the description and preview the facts away from the trend of education than we gave a detailed overview the founder of systemic school and most important customers and more methods and curriculum theory and analysis they extend to all humanities, practical action each offset by a theoretical and the procedure can be analyzed through the elements that pose as another method we talked to its links with other language schools where they are based on the sharp criticism of the language before and deflected into consideration for the field of language and its erection has outside or language network and its participation in the actions non-linguistic and after that we started our Valglosamatik analytical structure of the text is ejected text terminal or all of the words to was put for expression.

This text Negotiable divided into types in turn are divided into classes and class should not be carrying a contradiction and be inclusive. It is on the same materials as described relationships that combine language and seeks to describe their relations and identified. This syndrome often presents with mucous membrane ulceration and ocular problems. As a systemic disease Behcet includes triple-symptom complex of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis.

Nearly all patients present with some form of painful oral mucocutaneous ulcerations in the form of aphthous ulcers. Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses.

Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death.

It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus.

The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines proteins overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system. Critical discourse analysis investigates the role of language in constructing social relationships between a political speaker and his audience. This paper explores the linguistic choices made by President Muhammad Buhari that enshrines his ideologies as well as the socio-political relations of power between him and Nigerians in his speeches.

The analysis is at two levels. The first level of analysis is the identification of transitivity and modality choices in the speeches and how they reveal the covert ideologies. It was discovered that Buhari is a dominant character who manipulates the material processes a lot. Patients with systemic sclerosis SSc have reduced hand function and self-reported limitations in daily activities. Few studies have explored limitations in shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function, or if there are differences in physical function between diffuse cutaneous dcSSc and limited cutaneous lcSSc SSc.

The purpose of this study was to describe objectively assessed shoulder-arm mobility, lower extremity muscle function and muscle endurance in SSc and evaluate possible differences between lcSSc and dcSSc. Shoulder-arm mobility were examined using the Shoulder Function Assessment Scale SFA including 5 tasks ,lower extremity muscle function was measured by Timed stands test TST and muscle endurance in shoulder- and hip flexors were assessed by the Functional Index 2 FI Patients with dcSSc were more limited than patients with lcSSc.

Patients with SSc have reduced muscle function compared to reference values. These results highlights the importance of assessing shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function as well as a need for further research to identify exercise interventions to target these limitations. Mohammad Reza Hossein Zadeh. Plants have different layers of defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses.

One of the well-defined defense mechanism in plants is systemic acquired resistance SAR against a broad-range of pathogens. Imidocloprid is an insecticide being used to control whiteflies on crop plants. In order to study the possible role of Imidocloprid as an elicitor of SAR in plants, experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design frame with three treatments and duplicates on the detached leaves and whole Nicotiana tabacum var.

The results suggested that Imidocloprid even more powerful than SA can be considered as strong SAR inducer in the infected plants with viruses, which develop the local lesion symptoms. We hypothesized that mTOR inhibition may prevent the multiple organ failures following severe multiple tissue injury associated with increased NADPH oxidase system activity occur in zymosan-induced systemic inflammation. Rats were sacrified 4 h after zymosan challenge and kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were collected.

NADPH oxidase activity, p22phox, gp91phox, and p47phox protein expression and nitrotyrosine levels were measured in tissue samples. Zymosan administration caused an increase in NADPH oxidase activity, p22phox, gp91phox, and p47phox protein expression and nitrotyrosine levels in kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery. These changes caused by zymosan reversed by rapamycin, a selective mTOR inhibitor.

Rapamycin alone had no effect on the parameters measured. Acupuncture therapy is one of the treatments in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, some reports have shown the effectiveness of acupuncture. However, its full acceptance has been hindered by the lack of understanding on mechanism of the therapy. Acupuncture applied to Zusanli ST enhances blood flow volume in superior mesenteric artery SMA , yielding peripheral vascular resistance — regulated blood flow of SMA dominated by the parasympathetic system and inhibition of sympathetic system.

In this study, a lumped-parameter approximation model of blood flow in the systemic arteries was developed. This model was extremely simple, consisting of the aorta, carotid arteries, arteries of the four limbs and SMA, and their peripheral vascular resistances. Here, the individual artery was simplified to a tapered tube and the resistances were modelled by a linear resistance. We numerically investigated contribution of the peripheral vascular resistance of SMA to the systemic blood distribution using this model.

In addition to the upstream end of the model, which correlates with the left ventricle, two types of boundary condition were applied; mean left ventricular pressure which correlates with blood pressure BP and mean cardiac output which corresponds to cardiac index CI.

We examined it to reproduce the experimentally obtained hemodynamic change, in terms of the ratio of the aforementioned hemodynamic parameters from their initial values before the acupuncture, by regulating the peripheral vascular resistances and the upstream boundary condition. First, only the peripheral vascular resistance of SMA was changed to show contribution of the resistance to the change in blood flow volume in SMA, expecting reproduction of the experimentally obtained change. It was found, however, this was not enough to reproduce the experimental result.

Then, we also changed the resistances of the other arteries together with the value given at upstream boundary. Here, the resistances of the other arteries were changed simultaneously in the same amount.

Consequently, we successfully reproduced the hemodynamic change to find that regulation of the upstream boundary condition to the value experimentally obtained after the stimulation is necessary for the reproduction, though statistically significant changes in BP and CI were not observed in the experiment. It is generally known that sympathetic and parasympathetic tones take part in regulation of whole the systemic circulation including the cardiac function.

The present result indicates that stimulation to ST could induce vasodilation of peripheral circulation of SMA and vasoconstriction of that of other arteries. In addition, it implies that experimentally obtained small changes in BP and CI induced by the acupuncture may be involved in the therapeutic response. A Critical Discourse Analysis. Human speech is capable of serving many purposes. Power and control are not always exercised overtly by linguistic acts, but maybe enacted and exercised in the myriad of taken-for-granted actions of everyday life.

Domination, power control, discrimination and mind control exist in human speech and may lead to asymmetrical power relations. In discourse, there are persuasive and manipulative linguistic acts that serve to establish solidarity and identification with the 'we group' and polarize with the 'they group'. They are designed and positioned to serve the political and social needs of the producers.

In most cases, the people are ignorant of the hidden ideological positions encoded in the text. Few researches have been conducted adopting the frameworks of critical discourse analysis and systemic functional linguistics to investigate this situation in the political crisis speeches in Nigeria.

In this paper, we focus attention on the analyses of the linguistic, semantic, and ideological elements in selected political crisis speeches in Nigeria to investigate if they create and sustain unequal power relations and manipulative tendencies from the perspectives of Critical Discourse Analysis CDA and Systemic Functional Linguistics SFL. Critical Discourse Analysis unpacks both opaque and transparent structural relationships of power dominance, power relations and control as manifested in language.

Critical discourse analysis emerged from a critical theory of language study which sees the use of language as a form of social practice where social relations are reproduced or contested and different interests are served. Systemic function linguistics relates the structure of texts to their function. This paper probes into language use that perpetuates inequalities. This study demystifies the hidden implicature of the selected political crisis speeches and reveals the existence of information that is not made explicit in what the political actors actually say.

The analysis further reveals the ideological configurations present in the texts. These ideological standpoints are the basis for naturalizing implicit ideologies and hegemonic influence in the texts.

The analyses of the texts further uncovered the linguistic and discursive strategies deployed by text producers to manipulate the unsuspecting members of the public both mentally and conceptually in order to enact, sustain and maintain unhealthy power relations at crisis times in the Nigerian political history.

Mohd Afzal , R. However, ocular presentations often occur in the context of systemic KS, and isolated lesions are rare. We report a unique case of ocular KS masquerading as subconjunctival haemorrhage, and only developing systemic manifestations after initiation of HIV treatment.

A year old man with previous hypertensive stroke and newly diagnosed HIV infection presented with an acutely red left eye following repeated bouts of coughing. Given the convincing history of poorly controlled hypertension and cough, a diagnosis of subconjunctival haemorrhage was made. Over the next week, his ocular lesion began to improve and he subsequently started anti-retroviral therapy.

However, a few days after starting HIV treatment, his ocular lesion recurred. Ophthalmic examination was otherwise normal. He also developed widespread lymphadenopathy and multiple dark lesions on his torso.

The patient has since undergone chemotherapy successfully. KSHV is one of the seven currently known human oncoviruses, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Histology remains the diagnostic gold standard. This case is unique as ocular KS as initial presentation is rare and our patient's diagnosis was only made after systemic lesions were triggered by immune reconstitution.

KS should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for red eyes in all patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection. This research paper deals with the different case studies, where the Form-Based Codes are adopted in general and the different implementation methods in particular are discussed to develop a method for formulating a new planning model.

The organizing principle of the Form-Based Codes, the transect is used to zone the city into various context specific transects. An approach is adopted to develop the new planning model, city Specific Planning Model CSPM , as a tool to achieve sustainability for any city in general.

A case study comparison method in terms of the planning tools used, the code process adopted and the various control regulations implemented in thirty two different cities are done. The analysis shows that there are a variety of ways to implement form-based zoning concepts: The case studies describe the positive and negative results from based zoning, Where it is implemented. From the different case studies on the method of the FBC, it is understood that the scale for formulating the Form-Based Code varies from parts of the city to the whole city.

The regulating plan is prepared with the organizing principle as the transect in most of the cases. The implementation methods vary from mandatory, integrated and floating. To attain sustainability the research takes the approach of developing a regulating plan, using the transect as the organizing principle for the entire area of the city in general in formulating the Form-Based Codes for the selected Special Districts in the study area in specific, street based.

Planning is most powerful when it is embedded in the broader context of systemic change and improvement. Systemic is best thought of as holistic, contextualized and stake holder-owned, While systematic can be thought of more as linear, generalisable, and typically top-down or expert driven. The systemic approach is a process that is based on the system theory and system design principles, which are too often ill understood by the general population and policy makers.

The system theory embraces the importance of a global perspective, multiple components, interdependencies and interconnections in any system. In addition, the recognition that a change in one part of a system necessarily alters the rest of the system is a cornerstone of the system theory.

The proposed regulating plan taking the transect as an organizing principle and Form-Based Codes to achieve sustainability of the city has to be a hybrid code, which is to be integrated within the existing system - A Systemic Approach with a Systematic Process.

This approach of introducing a few form based zones into a conventional code could be effective in the phased replacement of an existing code. With this approach and method the new Context Specific Planning Model is created towards achieving sustainability is explained in detail this research paper.

Patel , Vasudev R. Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria PGPR to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and 1-AminocyclopropaneCarboxylate deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro.

RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments.

RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. Tomato Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. Lycopercisi FOL is considered one of the most destructive diseases in Egypt. Effect of some biotic inducers such as Bacillus megaterium var. According to pathogenicity tests, all the tested isolates of FOL showed wilt symptoms on both of the tested cultivars; however, they considerably varied in percentages of disease incidence DI and disease severity DS.

Castle Rock was more susceptible than Peto 86, which was relatively resistant. Application of a combination of BMP, with GI and GM was the most effective in increasing the induction rated of the tested enzymes, compared with the other treatments. GI was the least effective bioinducer. Ronal Muresano , Andrea Pagano. However, these precisions and complexities have brought as result that applications need more computational power in order to be executed faster.

In this sense, the multicore environments are playing an important role to improve and to optimize the execution time of these applications. These environments allow us the inclusion of more parallelism inside the node. However, to take advantage of this parallelism is not an easy task, because we have to deal with some problems such as: Hence, this paper describes an optimization method developed for Systemic Model of Banking Originated Losses SYMBOL tool developed by the European Commission, which is based on analyzing the application's weakness in order to exploit the advantages of the multicore.

All these improvements are done in an automatic and transparent manner with the aim of improving the performance metrics of our tool. Finally, experimental evaluations show the effectiveness of our new optimized version, in which we have achieved a considerable improvement on the execution time. Data used for this study is adjusted the closing price of these indices from 6th January, to 15th September, which further divided into three sub-periods: Pre, during and post-crisis.

Using network analysis, it is found that Asian stock markets become more interdependent during the crisis than pre and post crisis, and also Hong Kong, India, South Korea and Japan are systemic important stock markets in the Asian region.

Therefore, failure or shock to any of these systemic important stock markets can cause contagion to another stock market of this region. Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal secretory IgA and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases.

One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells APCs of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery.

We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mBMDCs and RAW These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.

The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences.

Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling.

Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth DMFT scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from years Based on blood pressure examination, Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant.

Through literature review about studies related to tense, it is found that there exist disagreements on the definition and existence of Chinese tense. Influenced by some researches on English language which regard tense as a grammatical category based on the verbal inflections of English, some Chinese researchers claim that there is no tense in Chinese language as there are no verbal inflections involved.

Meanwhile, other Chinese researchers hold that Chinese still has tense although its verbs are non-inflectional based on the fact that Chinese lexical expressions can imply temporal meaning. However, there are about 6, languages with distinct expressions all over the world.

Hence, if the language studies only concentrate on expressions, it must become more difficult to understand the nature of language. By contrast, functions of languages are similar; otherwise, the human beings could not communicate with each other. Therefore, we believe that it is necessary for us to have a theoretical study on Chinese tense within the framework of SFL which holds that language is a system where meaning is the core part while form is just the realization of meaning.

In addition, SFL is a general linguistic providing a universal framework for languages all over the world. With reference to this definition, this study explores the meaning system of tense. It is proposed that tense expresses four kinds of meaning, namely interpersonal, experiential, logical and textual meanings.

From the interpersonal angle, tense helps to exchange temporal information between the speaker and the listener, and the temporal information refers to the anchoring of a concerned process in the past, present or future by the speaker. From the experiential angle, tense plays a role in the temporal locating of material, mental, relational, existential, behavioral and verbal processes by the speaker. From the logical angle, tense denotes the temporal relations at the two levels of clause and clause complex, and such relations fall into simultaneity, anteriority and posteriority.

From the textual angle, tense refers to the temporal relations at the level of text, and the temporal relations in question concern linear serial relations and synchronous serial relations.

Chinese , meaning system , Systemic Functional Linguistics , tense. Lipopolysaccharide LPS endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis.

LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death.

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.

Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia. LPS , liver damage , magnesium , septicemia. In construction safety management, safety climate has long been linked to workers' safety behaviors and performance.

For this reason, safety climate concept and tools have been used as heuristics to diagnose a range of safety-related issues by some progressive contractors in Hong Kong and elsewhere. However, as a diagnostic tool, safety climate tends to treat the different components of the climate construct in a linear fashion. Safety management in construction projects, in reality, is a multi-faceted and multilevel phenomenon that resembles a complex system.

Hence, understanding safety management in construction projects requires not only the understanding of safety climate but also the organizational-systemic nature of the phenomenon. In this study, a range of data types had been collected from various hierarchies of the project site organization. These include the frontline workers and supervisors from the main and sub-contractors, and the client supervisory personnel. Data collection was performed through the administration of safety climate questionnaire, interviews, observation, and document study.

The findings collectively indicate that what had emerged in parallel of the seemingly linear climate-based exploration is the exposition of the organization-systemic nature of the phenomenon. The results indicate the negative impacts of climate perceptions mismatch, insufficient work planning, and risk management, mixed safety leadership, workforce negative attributes, lapsed safety enforcement and resources shortages collectively give rise to the project sub-optimum safety performance.

From the dynamic causation and multilevel perspective, the analyses show that the individual, group, and organizational levels issues are interrelated and these interrelationships are linked to negative safety climate.

Hence the adoption of both perspectives has enabled a fuller understanding of the phenomenon of safety management that point to the need for an organizational-systemic intervention strategy.

The core message points to the fact that intervention at an individual level will only meet with limited success if the risks embedded in the higher levels in group and project organization are not addressed.

The findings can be used to guide the effective development of safety infrastructure by linking different levels of systems in a construction project organization. The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer.

The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet.

The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH which is favourable for oral mucosa.

The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism. Ulisses Tadeu Vaz de Oliveira.

The development of multifunctional studies in the theoretical-methodological perspective of the Systemic-Functional Grammar SFG and the increasing number of critical literary studies have introduced new opportunities for the study of ideologies and societies, but also brought up new challenges across and within many areas. In this regard, the Critical Linguistics researches allow a form of pairing a textual linguistic analysis method micro level with a social language theory in political and ideological processes macro level , presented in the literature.

This presentation will report on strategies to criticize power holders in literary productions from three distinct eras, namely: The analysis of these productions is based on the SFG proposals, which considers the clause as a social event. Therefore, the structure serves to realize three concurrent meanings metafunctions: Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual.

The presenter aims to shed light on the core issues relevant to the successes of the authors to criticize authorities in repressive times while caring about face-threatening and politeness. In case we look at the hospitals and other health organizations as service providers concerning profit issues, the satisfaction of employees as interior customers, and patients as exterior customers would be of significant importance in health business success.

Furthermore, satisfaction rate could be considered in performance assessment of healthcare organizations as a perceived quality measure. The presenting approach supports taking advantage of decision support systems. Additionally, relying on understanding of system behavior Dynamics, the effective policies for improving the health system would be recognized. Creativity as a National System: Oscar Javier Montiel Mendez. The link between knowledge-creativity-innovation-entrepreneurship is well established, and broadly emphasized the importance of national innovation systems NIS as an approach stresses that the flow of information and technology among people, organizations and institutions are key to its process.

Understanding the linkages among the actors involved in innovation is relevant to NIS. Creativity is supposed to fuel NIS, mainly focusing on a personal, group or organizational level, leaving aside the fourth one, as a national system. But creativity constantly appears at any time during NIS, being the key input. Its suggested that its implementation could become a significant factor helping strengthen local, regional and national economies.

Likewise, it should have a beneficial impact on the efforts of all the stakeholders involved and should help prevent some of the possible failures that NIS present. Sudhir Kumar , V. The topical and systemic toxicity associated with present nonmelanoma skin cancer NMSC treatment therapy using 5-Fluorouracil 5-FU make it necessary to develop a novel delivery system having lesser toxicity and better control over drug release.

Solid lipid nanoparticles offer many advantages like: Topical solid lipid nanoparticles of 5-FU were prepared using Compritol ATO Glyceryl behenate as lipid component and pluronic F68 Poloxamer , Tween 80 Polysorbate 80 , Tyloxapol 4- 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl phenol polymer with formaldehyde and oxirane as surfactants.

The SLNs were prepared with emulsification method. Different formulation parameters viz. Higher encapsulation efficiency was obtained for batches having higher concentration of surfactant and lipid. It was found maximum Optimized SLN batches and marketed 5-FU cream were compared for flux across rat skin and skin drug retention. The lesser flux and higher skin retention was obtained for SLN formulation in comparison to topical 5-FU cream, which ensures less systemic toxicity and better control of drug release across skin.

Chronic skin irritation studies lacks serious erythema or inflammation and histopathology studies showed no significant change in physiology of epidermal layers of rat skin. So, these studies suggest that the optimized SLN formulation is efficient then marketed cream and safer for long term NMSC treatment regimens. Topical and systemic toxicity associated with long-term use of 5-FU, in the treatment of NMSC, can be minimized with its controlled release with significant drug retention with minimal flux across skin.

The study may provide a better alternate for effective NMSC treatment. Acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis usually causes cough, often with hemoptysis, pleuritic chest pain, and shortness of breath. If untreated, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis may lead to rapidly progressive, ultimately fatal respiratory failure. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis may manifest with mild, indolent symptoms despite significant disease.

Extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis occurs in severely immunocompromised patients. It begins with skin lesions, sinusitis, or pneumonia and may involve the liver, kidneys, brain, and other tissues; it is often rapidly fatal.

Aspergillosis in the sinuses can form an aspergilloma or cause allergic fungal sinusitis or a chronic, slowly invasive granulomatous inflammation with fever, rhinitis, and headache. Patients may have necrosing cutaneous lesions overlying the nose or sinuses, palatal or gingival ulcerations, signs of cavernous sinus thrombosis, or pulmonary or disseminated lesions. Aspergillomas are usually asymptomatic, although it may cause mild cough and occasionally hemoptysis. Because Aspergillus sp are common in the environment, positive sputum cultures may be due to environmental contamination or noninvasive colonization in patients with chronic lung disease; positive cultures are significant mainly when sputum is obtained from patients with increased susceptibility due to immunosuppression or when there is high suspicion due to typical imaging findings.

Conversely, sputum cultures from patients with aspergillomas or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are often negative because cavities are often walled off from airways and because invasive disease progresses mainly by vascular invasion and tissue infarction. Chest x-rays are taken; however, chest CT is far more sensitive and should be done if patients are at high risk ie, neutropenic.

CT of sinuses is done if sinus infection is suspected. A movable fungus ball within a cavitary lesion is characteristic on both, although most lesions are focal and solid. Sometimes imaging detects a halo sign a hazy shadow surrounding a nodule or cavitation within a necrotic lesion. Diffuse, generalized pulmonary infiltrates are seen in some patients. Culture and histopathology of a tissue sample are usually necessary for confirmation; histopathology helps distinguish invasive infection from colonization.

The sample is typically taken from the lungs via bronchoscopy or percutaneous needle biopsy and from the sinuses via anterior rhinoscopy. Because cultures take time and histopathology results may be false-negative, most decisions to treat are based on strong presumptive clinical evidence.

In aspergillus endocarditis, large vegetations often release sizable emboli that may occlude blood vessels and provide specimens for diagnosis. Detection of antigens such as galactomannan can be specific but, in serum, is often not sufficiently sensitive to identify most cases in their early stages. In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, the galactomannan test on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is much more sensitive than that on serum and is often the only option for patients with thrombocytopenia, for whom biopsy is contraindicated.

Blood cultures are almost always negative, even in rare cases of endocarditis. See also Antifungal Drugs.

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