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Or switch to "Titles and links view". Celestron-Synta Relationship Descriptive info: There has been a great deal of misinformation and confusion about the acquisition of Celestron by Synta. Synta had been Celestron's primary supplier for 15 years, producing the refracting and Newtonian telescopes, as well as the eyepieces, binoculars and spotting scopes sold under the Celestron banner. These had previously been made by Vixen Optical of Japan. At the time of the acquisition, the Celestron senior management team of Joseph A.

Lupica and Richard L.

Celestron's head office remains in Torrance and Celestron leads the product engineering, development and manufacturing processes. David Shen, founder of Synta, stated at the time of the acquisition I have always had great admiration and respect for Celestron's products and have had a very close and warm relationship with the company and its management team for the past 15 years.

I am committed to maintaining Celestron's reputation of quality and innovation and will support their continued efforts to create and engineer products that give value to the consumer. I want to assure everyone that Celestron's operations will remain in Torrance, the management team will stay intact, and Celestron will continue to develop innovative products of the highest quality Casino sidereal technology losmandy g11 amateur astronomers. Synta has deep understanding of the telescope industry and appreciation for the value of Celestron's products.

They are investing in Celestron to grow Celestron's business and that is a very positive development. This acquisition is in the best interest of Celestron dealers, employees, consumers and the telescope industry as a whole. Synta and Celestron will form a strong team to provide competitive products of the highest quality for consumers. I am just as excited when I consider the innovative products we will be able to develop with the assistance of one of the leading telescope suppliers Celestron technicians and opticians traveled to China to teach the Synta technicians how to use this equipment and they still serve as consultants, frequently visiting China to ensure that the Synta built telescopes are being made to Celestron's specifications.

Celestron SCT components, including optical tubes, front cells, rear cells, mirrors and correctors are now manufactured by Synta. Synta made Celestron SCT's are still built with matched optics and the secondary mirrors are still hand figured, but the work is done in China. After shipment to Celestron in Torrance, the scopes are checked and quality controlled by Celestron QC personnel before being shipped to dealers. In the case Casino sideroblastic anemia smearing campaign the few Celestron telescopes that are still assembled in the USA, my understanding is that the Synta made components are shipped to Torrance, where they are hand figured, assembled and individually quality controlled by Celestron.

All other Celestron telescopes are now produced entirely overseas. California labor costs are simply too high to be competitive in the world optics market, where profit margins are very low. Celestron remains a highly respected name in optics around the world and it is to Synta's advantage to keep it that way.

Celestron astronomical telescopes of all types, whether assembled in China or the USA, remain among the best in their price class. We recently reviewed new C6 and C8 telescopes and found them to be better than ever. Synta ownership does not Casino sidereal technology losmandy g11 to have lowered Celestron's product quality or performance.

Indeed, the recently introduced EdgeHD series telescopes have already earned a reputation as being the best, or at least among the best, Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes ever produced. Back to Astronomy and Photography. Copyrightby Chuck Hawks. These include mm, mm and mm achromatic refractors; mm ED refractor, mm Schmidt-Cassegrain and mm Newtonian telescopes. The heaviest of these optical tubes the R, a 6 refractor weighs 16 pounds. That should be a clue as to the size of telescopes for which the CG-4 mounting system was designed.

It is what I would call a medium size German equatorial mount with a maximum load rating of around 20 pounds. It is supplied with two counterweights of four and seven pounds, for a total of 11 pounds.

Used with telescopes weighing pounds, such as a typical 4 refractor, it is a very solid mount. Photo courtesy of Celestron. Here are the features and specifications of the Celestron CG Setting circles for right ascension RA and declination Dec. Manual, worm driven, slow-motion controls. Ball bearing races in both axis for smooth operation. Counterweights - 4 lbs. Maximum load capacity - approx.

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EQ mount weight - 21 lbs. Heavy duty, stainless steel tripod with Tripod height not including mount - Screw knob leg locks.

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Thanks again for assisting Dennis. Hi kev, It sounds like the funds should not go to killer eyepieces or other gear, since my aim is to enjoy the stars, rather than enjoy reading a map to find the stars! In the new year I'll contact you with those measurements..

Tripod weight - Easy no tool set-up. The CG-4 mount head is designed to accept Vixen quick-release, dovetail mount rails. The Vixen rail is secured in place by a bolt with a large finger knob and there is a smaller, secondary bolt to prevent the scope from sliding out of the mount should the main bolt loosen.

It is a good system, better than found on some more expensive mounts.

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The mount head is secured to its tripod by a large under bolt that is tightened by a captive finger knob. This center bolt runs through the top of the tripod and into the bottom of the CG-4 mount base. It is very long and serves a dual purpose. The lower end is threaded so that the leg spreader, which also serves as an ocular tray, can be slid onto the lower portion of this shaft, where it is held in place by another large finger knob.

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This knob is not captive, so you must keep track of it and its washer. It is easy to set up a CG-4 or break it down for travel. To take the mount apart, first remove the telescope from the mount using the Vixen quick release system. Remove the counterweight shaft stop screw and slide the counter weight off the shaft. Replace the stop screw so you do not lose it. The 20mm diameter weight shaft simply unscrews from the mount head, where it is secured by a large hand nut.

Back off the azimuth adjusting finger screws at the front of the mount a turn or two and then loosen the big captive finger knob on the mounting bolt that secures the mount head to its tripod Casino sidereal technology losmandy g11 the head The Super Polaris was a good mount for its time, but the CG-4 is better in every way.

The heavy-duty steel tripod, for one thing, is a big improvement over the wooden surveyor's type tripod that came with the Super Polaris mount. Motor Drive Set DA.

For visual observing, a motorized EQ mount is not necessary. It is easy to keep objects in the field of view using just the RA slow motion control. If you do your tracking manually, you are not battery dependent.

It is supplied with RA and Dec motors, a battery pack that holds eight D cell alkaline batteries, a Dec clutch so that you can revert to the manual Dec slow motion control if desired, all connecting cords and a four-way, four speed hand controller.

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  • The Official Newsletter ofThe Albuquerque AstronomicalSociety. P.O. Box , Albuquerque, New Mexico diarioimagen.info The Sidereal Times .. using a C11 HD Edge at f/10, an SBiG STXCM camera, operated at -5 ºC and a Losmandy. G11 mount. An IDAS LP2 light- pollution filter was also used. A.
  • So yes you do see more by star hoping and when I have time I will do it, but I will also take full advantage of new tech seeing how it was the other new tech and even during Christmas Day, technical advice via email on my getting the brand new Argo Navis to work in conjuction with my Losmandy G
  • A common complaint we hear from customers who first bought from other dealers is that the structure doesnt fit their needs.

The operating speeds are sidereal, 2x, 4x and 8x. The Motors are bolted to the mount using pre-drilled holes and connected to the slow motion shafts by setscrews. Installation is so easy that even I could do it by simply following the supplied instructions, one step at a time.

I prefer to adjust declination manually, so normally I only plug-in the RA motor. This eliminates one of the two motor connecting cords. I keep the Dec motor cord neatly bundled and zip-tied, simplifying hook-up and leaving one less wire to accidentally snag in the dark. The Motor Drive Set DA works well and battery life is good; something like 20 hours on a set of alkaline batteries.

It is great for keeping the subject in the field of view at star parties, when several people are sharing each other's telescopes.

It mounts in and aims through the center of the CG-4 mount head and simplifies accurate polar alignment, a boon for astro-photographers. Its eyepiece can be focused to your eye. I have owned and used the Polar Finder, but for visual use in the Northern hemisphere it is unnecessary if you have correctly set the mount for the latitude of your observing site, leveled the tripod and pointed the north leg of the tripod at the North Star.

That simple procedure will align the mount close enough for visual observation and star hopping. However, on the occasions that you need a more accurate polar alignment, for example if you intend to use the CG-4's setting circles, the Polar Finder is the way to go.

The CG-4 is an excellent medium size German equatorial mount. It is the only Celestron equatorial mount that is not computer controlled, so it is particularly attractive to those who prefer to do it themselves.

The CG-4 is an outstanding value. I have not used the latter mount, but it is supposedly very similar to the CG Illustration courtesy of Celestron International. They recommend this tripod for use with any of their giant binoculars as well as their C, C and C5 spotting scopes, indicating confidence in its rigidity.

Two section extendable aluminum legs. Heavy duty mount head. Flexible slow motion cables for both altitude and azimuth. Max extended height 45 inches. Folded height 32 inches. One year warranty materials and workmanship. The Heavy Duty Tripod comes with sturdy aluminum legs, an accessory tray that screws to the center brace the tray must be removed to fold the tripod and a heavy duty head with flexible slow motion cables for adjusting altitude and azimuth.

This tripod provides a steady platform for spotting scopes and small astronomical telescopes. When the tripod arrived I discovered that, while there is a conventional knob that can be loosened to pan the head degrees, there is no knob that can be loosened to make gross altitude pitch adjustments.

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  1. Casino electric custom series guitar - black includes: casino guitar -casino guitar carry case -2x guitar to amp leads . *Losmandy G11 EQ dual axis motorised mount *Polar alignment scope for the mount is included *Remote hand controller * DUAL-AXIS ELECTRONICS: Three setting rates; 4x, 8x, 16x sidereal rate.:
    19 Sep horseback riding, hiking, golf, tennis, a health spa, and casino gaming. technology, the audience blasts off into space with the astronauts and cosmonauts from Florida's Kennedy. Space Center and Russia's Baikonur combination among astrophotographers is to couple a Losmandy G mounting. Edge the star out of the field or occult k with the alununum-foil tech- nique noted earlier, and you should be able to glimpse a little nvore detail. rU2«iy5/NFDHt $ l2-U2«il7(-|9Pil^ $ Additfonal Lines Sold by Lumicon □ losmandy • JMI I □ JWB Solar Filters □ Beattie rntenscreens ' □ Fujifion BirTOCul^rs. Archived pages: Archive date: Title: Celestron-Synta Relationship Descriptive info: The Truth About the Celestron-Synta Relationship.. circa.. By Chuck Hawks.. There has been a great deal of misinformation and confusion about the acquisition of Celestron by Synta.. In April , Synta Technology.
  2. Against a stunning backdrop of thousands of galaxies, this odd-looking galaxy with the long streamer of stars appears to be racing through space, like a runaway pinwheel firework. This picture of the galaxy UGC was taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), which was installed aboard the NASA/ ESA.:
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According to the musicologist Robert L. Campbell, the latter single was probably the very first Saturn release. The distinctive sleeve was designed by Sun Ra, and uses the same design on both sides, leaving no room for sleeve notes.

While probably not in its original form, having been remodeled during the first centuries of the Christian Era and incorrectly translated since, this work undoubtedly contains many of the original concepts of the Hermetic cultus. The Divine Pymander consists of seventeen fragmentary writings gathered together and put forth as one work. The second book of The Divine Pymander, called Poimandres, or The Vision, is believed to describe the method by which the divine wisdom was first revealed to Hermes.

It was after Hermes had received this revelation that he began his ministry, teaching to all who would listen the secrets of the invisible universe as they had been unfolded to him. The Vision is the most: For some time it was erroneously called "The Genesis of Enoch," but that mistake has now been rectified.

At hand while preparing the following interpretation of the symbolic philosophy concealed within The Vision of Hermes the present author has had these reference works: To the material contained in the above volumes he has added commentaries based upon the esoteric philosophy of the ancient Egyptians, together with amplifications derived partly from other Hermetic fragments and partly from the secret arcanum of the Hermetic sciences.

For the sake of clarity, the narrative form has been chosen in preference to the original dialogic style, and obsolete words have given place to those in current use. Hermes, while wandering in a rocky and desolate place, gave himself over to meditation and prayer.

Following the secret instructions of the Temple, he gradually freed his higher consciousness from the bondage of his bodily senses; and, thus released, his divine nature revealed to him the mysteries of the transcendental spheres.

He beheld a figure, terrible and awe-inspiring. It was the Great Dragon, with wings stretching across the sky and light streaming in all directions from its body. The Mysteries taught that the Universal Life was personified as a dragon. Terrified by the spectacle, Hermes prostrated himself before the Dragon, beseeching it to reveal its identity. The great creature answered that it was Poimandres, the Mind of the Universe, the Creative Intelligence, and the Absolute Emperor of all.

Schure identifies Poimandres as the god Osiris. Hermes then besought Poimandres to disclose the nature of the universe and the constitution of the gods. The Dragon acquiesced, bidding Trismegistus hold its image in his mind. Immediately the form of Poimandres changed. Where it had stood there was a glorious and pulsating Radiance. This Light was the spiritual nature of the Great Dragon itself. Hermes was "raised" into the midst of this Divine Effulgence and the universe of material things faded from his consciousness.

Presently a great darkness descended and, expanding, swallowed up the Light. About Hermes swirled a mysterious watery substance which gave forth a smokelike vapor. The air was filled with inarticulate moanings and sighings which seemed to come from the Light swallowed up in the darkness. His mind told Hermes thatthe Light was the form of the spiritual universe and that the swirling darkness which had engulfed it represented material substance.

Then out of the imprisoned Light a mysterious and Holy Word came forth and took its stand upon the smoking waters.

This Word--the Voice of the Light--rose out of the darkness as a great pillar, and the fire and the air followed after it, but the earth and the water remained unmoved below. Thus the waters of Light were divided from the waters of darkness, and from the waters of Light were formed the worlds above and from the waters of darkness were formed the worlds below. The earth and the water next mingled, becoming inseparable, and the Spiritual Word which is called Reason moved upon their surface, causing endless turmoil.

Then again was heard the voice of Poimandres, but His form was not revealed: And the Word which appeared as a pillar of flame out of the darkness is the Son of God, born of the mystery of the Mind. The name of that Word is Reason. Reason is the offspring of Thought and Reason shall divide the Light from the darkness and establish Truth in the midst of the waters. Understand, O Hermes, and meditate deeply upon the mystery.

That which in you sees and hears is not of the earth, but is the Word of God incarnate. So it is said that Divine Light dwells in the midst of mortal darkness, and ignorance cannot divide them. The union of the Word and the Mind produces that mystery which is called Life.

As the darkness without you is divided against itself, so the darkness within you is likewise divided. The Light and the fire which rise are the divine man, ascending in the path of the Word, and that which fails to ascend is the mortal man, which may not partake of immortality. Learn deeply of the Mind and its mystery, for therein lies the secret of immortality. At the Word of the Dragon the heavens opened and the innumerable Light Powers were revealed, soaring through Cosmos on pinions of streaming fire.

Hermes beheld the spirits of the stars, the celestials controlling the universe, and all those Powers which shine with the radiance of the One Fire--the glory of the Sovereign Mind. Hermes realized that the sight which he beheld was revealed to him only because Poimandres had spoken a Word.

The Word was Reason, and by the Reason of the Word invisible things were made manifest. Divine Mind--the Dragon--continued its discourse: This mold was called the Archetype, and this Archetype was in the Supreme Mind long before the process of creation began.

Beholding the Archetypes, the Supreme Mind became enamored with Its own thought; so, taking the Word as a mighty hammer, It gouged out caverns in primordial space and cast the form of the spheres in the Archetypal mold, at the same time sowing in the newly fashioned bodies the seeds of living things.

The darkness below, receiving the hammer of the Word, was fashioned into an orderly universe. The elements separated into strata and each brought forth living creatures. The Word moving like a breath through space called forth the Fire by the friction of its motion. Therefore, the Fire is called the Son of Striving. The Workman passed as a whirlwind through the universe, causing the substances to vibrate and glow with its friction, The Son of Striving thus formed Seven Governors, the Spirits of the Planets, whose orbits bounded the world; and the Seven Governors controlled the world by the mysterious power called Destiny given them by the Fiery Workman.

When the Second Mind The Workman had organized Chaos, the Word of God rose straightway our of its prison of substance, leaving the elements without Reason, and joined Itself to the nature of the Fiery Workman.

Then the Second Mind, together with the risen Word, established Itself in the midst of the universe and whirled the wheels of the Celestial Powers. This shall continue from an infinite beginning to an infinite end, for the beginning and the ending are in the same place and state. Substance could not bestow Reason, for Reason had ascended out of it. The air produced flying things and the waters such as swim. The earth conceived strange four-footed and creeping beasts, dragons, composite demons, and grotesque monsters.

The Supreme Mind loved the Man It had fashioned and delivered to Him the control of the creations and workmanships. And having beheld the achievements of the Fiery Workman, He willed also to make things, and His Father gave permission.

The Seven Governors, of whose powers He partook, rejoiced and each gave the Man a share of Its own nature. Having already all power, He stooped down and peeped through the seven Harmonies and, breaking through the strength of the circles, made Himself manifest to Nature stretched out below.

The Man, looking into the depths, smiled, for He beheld a shadow upon the earth and a likeness mirrored in the waters, which shadow and likeness were a reflection of Himself. The Man fell in love with His own shadow and desired to descend into it. Coincident with the desire, the Intelligent Thing united Itself with the unreasoning image or shape. For this reason, earthy man is composite. Within him is the Sky Man, immortal and beautiful; without is Nature, mortal and destructible.

Thus, suffering is the result of the Immortal Man's falling in love with His shadow and giving up Reality to dwell in the darkness of illusion; for, being immortal, man has the power of the Seven Governors--also the Life, the Light, and the Word-but being mortal, he is controlled by the Rings of the Governors--Fate or Destiny.

He neither slumbers nor sleeps, and is governed by a Father also both male and female, and ever watchful. Such is the mystery kept hidden to this day, for Nature, being mingled in marriage with the Sky Man, brought forth a wonder most wonderful--seven men, all bisexual, male and female, and upright of stature, each one exemplifying the natures of the Seven Governors. These O Hermes, are the seven races, species, and wheels.

And so, all these composite creatures containing immortality, but partaking of mortality, continued in this state for the duration of a period. They reproduced themselves out of themselves, for each was male and female.

But at the end of the period the knot of Destiny was untied by the will of God and the bond of all things was loosened. Let him that is endued with Mind know himself to be immortal and that the cause of death is the love of the body; and let him learn all things that are, for he who has recognized himself enters into the state of Good.

He who through the error of attachment loves his body, abides wandering in darkness, sensible and suffering the things of death, but he who realizes that the body is but the tomb of his soul, rises to immortality. The Great Dragon answered: Knowing only the body which is subject to death, they believe in death because they worship that substance which is the cause and reality of death. I am the Father of the Word--the Redeemer of all men--and in the nature of the wise the Word takes flesh.

By means of the Word, the world is saved. I, Thought Thoth --the Father of the Word, the Mind--come only unto men that are holy and good, pure and merciful, and that live piously and religiously, and my presence is an inspiration and a help to them, for when I come they immediately know all things and adore the Universal Father. Before such wise and philosophic ones die, they learn to renounce their senses, knowing that these are the enemies of their immortal souls. I become as a porter or doorkeeper, and shut out evil, protecting the wise from their own lower nature.

But to the wicked, the envious and the covetous, I come not, for such cannot understand the mysteries of Mind; therefore, I am unwelcome. I leave them to the avenging demon that they are making in their own souls, for evil each day increases itself and torments man more sharply, and each evil deed adds to the evil deeds that are gone before until finally evil destroys itself. The punishment of desire is the agony of unfulfillment. The evil passes to the dwelling place of the demon, and the senses, feelings, desires, and body passions return to their source, namely the Seven Governors, whose natures in the lower man destroy but in the invisible spiritual man give life.

It ascends the seven Rings upon which sit the Seven Governors and returns to each their lower powers in this manner: Upon the first ring sits the Moon, and to it is returned the ability to increase and diminish. Upon the second ring sits Mercury, and to it are returned machinations, deceit, and craftiness. Upon the third ring sits Venus, and to it are returned the lusts and passions. Upon the fourth ring sits the Sun, and to this Lord are returned ambitions.

Upon the fifth ring sits Mars, and to it are returned rashness and profane boldness. Upon the sixth ring sits Jupiter, and to it are returned the sense of accumulation and riches. And upon the seventh ring sits Saturn, at the Gate of Chaos, and to it are returned falsehood and evil plotting. Here, freed of all illusion, it dwells in the Light and sings praises to the Father in a voice which only the pure of spirit may understand.

Behold, O Hermes, there is a great mystery in the Eighth Sphere, for the Milky Way is the seed-ground of souls, and from it they drop into the Rings, and to the Milky Way they return again from the wheels of Saturn. But some cannot climb the seven-runged ladder of the Rings. So they wander in darkness below and are swept into eternity with the illusion of sense and earthiness. The rest await the Great Day when the wheels of the universe shall be stopped and the immortal sparks shall escape from the sheaths of substance.

Woe unto those who wait, for they must return again, unconscious and unknowing, to the seed-ground of stars, and await a new beginning. Those who are saved by the light of the mystery which I have revealed unto you, O Hermes, and which I now bid you to establish among men, shall return again to the Father who dwelleth in the White Light, and shall deliver themselves up to the Light and shall be absorbed into the Light, and in the Light they shall become Powers in God.

This is the Way of Good and is revealed only to them that have wisdom. I order you to go forth, to become as a guide to those who wander in darkness, that all men within whom dwells the spirit of My Mind The Universal Mind may be saved by My Mind in you, which shall call forth My Mind in them. Establish My Mysteries and they shall not fail from the earth, for I am the Mind of the Mysteries and until Mind fails which is never my Mysteries cannot fail.

Raising his eyes unto the heavens, Hermes blessed the Father of All Things and consecrated his life to the service of the Great Light. Be sober and thoughtful. Realize that your home is not in the earth but in the Light.

Why have you delivered yourselves over unto death, having power to partake of immortality? Repent, and change your minds. Depart from the dark light and forsake corruption forever. Prepare yourselves to climb through the Seven Rings and to blend your souls with the eternal Light. But others, casting themselves before the feet of Hermes, besought him to teach them the Way of Life.

He lifted them gently, receiving no approbation for himself, and staff in hand, went forth teaching and guiding mankind, and showing them how they might be saved. In the worlds of men, Hermes sowed the seeds of wisdom and nourished the seeds with the Immortal Waters. And at last came the evening of his life, and as the brightness of the light of earth was beginning to go down, Hermes commanded his disciples to preserve his doctrines inviolate throughout all ages.

The Vision of Poimandres he committed to writing that all men desiring immortality might therein find the way. In concluding his exposition of the Vision, Hermes wrote: My silence is filled with budding life and hope, and is full of good. My words are the blossoms of fruit of the tree of my soul. Since that day my Mind has been ever with me and in my own soul it hath given birth to the Word: For which cause, with all my soul and all my strength, I give praise and blessing unto God the Father, the Life and the Light, and the Eternal Good.

Although this image of the heavens came only from the artist's restless imagination, a new picture from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope bears remarkable similarities to the van Gogh work, complete with never-before-seen spirals of dust swirling across trillions of miles of interstellar space. This image, obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on February 8, , is Hubble's latest view of an expanding halo of light around a distant star, named V Monocerotis V Mon.

The illumination of interstellar dust comes from the red supergiant star at the middle of the image, which gave off a flashbulb-like pulse of light two years ago. V Mon is located about 20, light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros, placing the star at the outer edge of our Milky Way galaxy. Called a light echo, the expanding illumination of a dusty cloud around the star has been revealing remarkable structures ever since the star suddenly brightened for several weeks in early Though Hubble has followed the light echo in several snapshots, this new image shows swirls or eddies in the dusty cloud for the first time.

These eddies are probably caused by turbulence in the dust and gas around the star as they slowly expand away. The dust and gas were likely ejected from the star in a previous explosion, similar to the event, which occurred some tens of thousands of years ago. The surrounding dust remained invisible and unsuspected until suddenly illuminated by the brilliant explosion of the central star two years ago. The Hubble telescope has imaged V Mon and its light echo several times since the star's outburst in January , in order to follow the constantly changing appearance of the dust as the pulse of illumination continues to expand away from the star at the speed of light.

During the outburst event, the normally faint star suddenly brightened, becoming , times more luminous than our Sun. It was thus one of the brightest stars in the entire Milky Way, until it faded away again in April The star has some similarities to a class of objects called "novae," which suddenly increase in brightness due to thermonuclear explosions at their surfaces; however, the detailed behavior of V Mon, in particular its extremely red color, has been completely different from any previously known nova.

Nature's own piece of performance art, this structure will continue to change its appearance in coming years as the light from the stellar outburst continues to propagate outward and bounce off more distant black clouds of dust.

Astronomers expect the echoes to remain visible for at least the rest of the current decade. Mais bon il le fallait pour gagner en moindre bruit. The object is tilted toward Earth so that astronomers see the ring face-on.

The Hubble observations reveal that the nebula's shape is more complicated than astronomers thought. The blue gas in the nebula's center is actually a football-shaped structure that pierces the red doughnut-shaped material.

Hubble also uncovers the detailed structure of the dark, irregular knots of dense gas embedded along the inner rim of the ring. The knots look like spokes in a bicycle. The Hubble images have allowed the research team to match up the knots with the spikes of light around the bright, main ring, which are a shadow effect. The Ring Nebula is a well-known planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a Sun-like star. The tiny white dot in the center of the nebula is the star's hot core, called a white dwarf.

The nebula is about 2, light-years away in the constellation Lyra. The structure measures roughly one light-year across. The Hubble observations were taken Sept. In the image, the deep blue color in the center represents helium; the cyan color of the inner ring is the glow of hydrogen and oxygen; and the reddish color of the outer ring is from nitrogen and sulfur. Short 18 minute exposure - even with this short amount of exposure some small clusters of stars are visible in the lanes along with nebulosity and plenty of dust from which new stars will be born.

I hope to do a few hours on this target soon and get much more detail and reduce noise. This Galaxy lies some 2. The individual stars in the foreground reside within our own galaxy, positioned in the line of sight out toward M As you can see you cannot make out individual stars within the M31 itself, they are far too small. Any small points of light seen within the galaxy will be clusters of many thousands of stars or large nebulous regions.

However the overall glow of the galaxy is the combined light of a trillion suns all gravitationally bound together gracefully and imperceptibly swirling around the dense core of the galaxy over hundreds of millions of years. It is much larger than our own Milky Way galaxy which has an estimated billion suns and is about half the diameter of M I love the Fibonacci sequencing these galaxies adhere to, from the spirals in a petal to the spirals in a galaxy the laws of nature persist.

It takes the light from the stars within this galaxy 2. They happened upon a random speck of rock inhabited by a speck of carbon that thinks during its brief flicker of complex existence. This carbon being captured some of these ancient photons to reveal an image of a distant galaxy as it looked millions of years ago, when man kinds ancestors were climbing through the ancient forests of the prehistoric Earth.

A humbling thought indeed. I often feel that space is untouchable, far away, out of reach, yet in this way something from these distant and ancient stars has crossed the void and touched me.

The photons my eyes detect, the energy my brain interacts with came from them stars, emitted all that time ago, all that way away. I might never have known if it were not for certain inspirational human beings who sought to understand the truth of our circumstances.

The golden loop is made of sun-like stars that have been pulled deep into space, far from the galaxy's center. The galaxy is located approximately million light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pisces. The universe is full of such galaxies that are gravitationally stretched and pulled and otherwise distorted in gravitational tug-o'-wars with bypassing galaxies.

The companion galaxy doing the "taffy pulling" in this case, NGC , lies just out of the field of view in this image. A very faint bridge of stars extends to the unseen companion. The close encounter has compressed interstellar gas to trigger bursts of star formation seen in bright blue arcs extending around NGC 's center. The gravitational disruption of NGC began between million and million years ago, at the epoch when dinosaurs ruled the Earth. A new study unveils NGC , the largest region of star formation in the nearby galaxy M33, in its first deep, high-resolution view in X- rays.

This composite image from Chandra X-ray Observatory data colored blue , combined with optical light data from the Hubble Space Telescope red and green , shows a divided neighborhood where some hot, young, massive stars reside.

Throughout the cosmic metropolis, giant bubbles in the cool dust and warm gas are filled with diffuse, multi-million degree gas that emits X-rays. Scientists think these bubbles are generated and heated to X- ray temperatures when powerful stellar winds from the young massive stars collide and push aside the surrounding gas and dust. So, the vacated areas are immediately repopulated with the hotter material seen by Chandra. However, there is a difference between the two sides of this bifurcated stellar city.

On the western right side, the amount of hot gas found in the bubbles corresponds to about times the mass of the sun. This value and the brightness of the gas in X-rays imply that the western part of NGC is entirely powered by winds from the hot massive stars.

This result is interesting because previous modeling of other bubbles usually predicted them to be fainter than observed, so that additional heating from supernova remnants is required. The implication is that in this area of NGC , none or very few of the massive stars must have exploded as supernovas. The situation is different on the eastern left side of NGC On this side, the X-ray gas contains times the mass of the sun and winds from young stars cannot explain the brightness of the X-ray emission.

The bubbles on this side appear to be much older and were likely created and powered by young stars and supernovas in the past. A similar separation between east and west is seen in the optical results.

This implies that a massive wall of gas shields the relatively quiet region in the east from the active star formation in the west. This is the Great Orion Nebula which spans 14 light years across. This Nebula is a nursery for stars that are only 1 million years old. This makes them practically infants when you compare them to our own Sun, with an age of 5 billion years. The Nebula sits approximately 1, light years away from us. Against a stunning backdrop of thousands of galaxies, this odd-looking galaxy with the long streamer of stars appears to be racing through space, like a runaway pinwheel firework.

Dubbed the 'Tadpole', this spiral galaxy is unlike the textbook images of stately galaxies. Its distorted shape was caused by a small interloper, a very blue, compact, galaxy visible in the upper left corner of the more massive Tadpole.

The Tadpole resides about million light-years away in the constellation Draco. Seen shining through the Tadpole's disc, the tiny intruder is likely a hit and run galaxy that is now leaving the scene of the accident. Strong gravitational forces from the interaction created the long tail of stars and gas stretching out more than light-years. Numerous young blue stars and star clusters, spawned by the galaxy collision, are seen in the spiral arms, as well as in the long 'tidal' tail of stars.

Each of these clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars. Their colour is blue because they contain very massive stars, which are 10 times hotter and 1 million times brighter than our Sun. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. These clusters will eventually become old globular clusters similar to those found in essentially all halos of galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

Two prominent clumps of young bright blue stars are visible in the tidal tale and separated by a gap. These clumps of stars will likely become dwarf galaxies that orbit in the Tadpole's halo.

Behind the galactic carnage and torrent of star birth is another compelling picture: These galaxies represent twice the number of those found in the legendary Hubble Deep Field, the orbiting observatory's 'deepest' view of the heavens, taken in by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

They are a myriad of shapes and represent fossil samples of the Universe's billion-year evolution. In blue light, ACS discovered even fainter objects than those in the 'deep field'. The camera's vision is so sharp that astronomers can identify distant colliding galaxies, the 'building blocks' of galaxies, an exquisite 'Whitman's Sampler' of normal galaxies, and presumably extremely faraway galaxies. ACS made this observation on 1 and 9 April The colour image is constructed from three separate images taken in near-infrared, orange, and blue filters.

Taken a few weeks ago on an amazing spring afternoon by the riverside, here is a mystical reflection of the sun in the shallow, sparkling water of the rocky riverbed.

As soon as I saw this, with the sparkles and reflection on the water looking, to my eye, like a swirling nebula or star cluster that you would see in deep space, I instantly thought of the classic line from the end of Stanley Kubrick's film adaptation of Arthur C Clarke's brilliant novel A Space Odyssey , uttered by the main character, Dave Bowman, when he becomes one with the universe.

This is the Milky Way, our galaxy, our star continent. Our Sun is just an insignificant star amongst these, just one of hundreds of billions. Yet, without her, we would not be in existence. The closest star actually a binary star system of 2 stars to our Sun is Alpha Centauri, just 4.

Our Milky Way is a spiral galaxy that spans approximately , light years across. Our Sun solar system lies about 27, light years from the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Within our massive galaxy exists smaller, dwarf galaxies, which revolve within or around ours.

These are tiny in comparison, often only containing mere billions of stars. Our closest spiral galaxy undoubtedly the coolest looking, like our own is Andromeda, which is 2. Currently, the fastest unmanned manmade object is the Juno satellite, which will reach over , mph on its way to Jupiter, and has taken several years to climb to such speeds. The fastest manned object was the Apollo 10 at 24, mph. At this speed it would take us , years just to reach our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri.

Good luck hopstopping that one! Now they concede that there are hundreds of billions of galaxies and henceforth hundreds of billions of planets.

Yet…ours is the ONLY one known to contain life. And amazing life, at that. We are hundreds if not thousands of years away from conquering space travel and the opportunity to leave this planet of ours, whatever is left of it at that point. Really, think about it. This photo I got using the right perspective and angle to get the passing by cloud over the tree: Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.

From an email report I get. I, like many other people had been looking forward to comet ISON reappearing from behind the sun, creating photo opportunities even better than above.

Or if Flickr has buried the first comment box click here: Qianlong thirty-five years in is the 60 birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the Empress Dowager Niohuru 80 the following year is a birthday. Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Mongolia and other places all kings and chiefs had been asked to visit Chengde birthday.

Qianlong attached enormous importance to these two grand assembly, of Sterling Imperial Household Department imitation Maekura resident political and religious leader the Dalai Lama to build temple in Chengde Potala Palace in Lhasa. Qianlong Sanshiernian in March began, the original terms of three years for completion due to construction of the latter part of fire, until Sanshiliunian in August completed an area of Putuo case by a Tibetan Abdallah's translation, so the temple also known as Abdallah, Abdallah smaller than in Tibet because of their size, commonly known as small Potala Palace.

Putuo Temple of cases by the overall layout of the Potala Palace in Tibet is similar to no obvious central axis, the momentum can not keep up Tibet Abdallah, but the area of the broad mass of the structure of the temple of the great but only for the Mainland. All Temple layout points before and after the two parts: According to characteristic points can be divided into three parts: The south gate from the Tibetan city of Temple Terrace and the composition of the Han-style veranda.

City, Taiwan for the brick structure, three-hole open in the front arches, arches above a horizontal window blind, the puzzle pheasant dish. City Hall stage from veranda, is located around the Gallery, Gallery built-in window sills, solid walls on both sides of seal, Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep 2, Dan Yan glazed tile roof, the edge Shi green glazed tiles, for defending the God, left to the right order of four protective deities, Zhang Lu Peng defending the ancient god Mahakala Mahal Cannes La protective deities.

Front entrance a pair of stone lions, and then south for the five-hole stone bridge, entrance is located on both sides of waist door, there is connected to the wall. Gate the north tablets pavilions, flat rectangular three-bay, double eaves and yellow glazed Xieshan Ding, brick arch structure, and sealing solid wall, surrounded by open arches, under the Sumeru TOJO bearing.

Li Kiosk stone 3: Inscription with the Manchu, the Han, Mongolian, Tibetan and four kinds of text engraved on the Chinese language for the Qianlong personally. Tablets pavilions north of the tower for five doors, three arch shapes of white units, solid wall of windows blind, the puzzle parapet, white table-li five towers, from east to west, respectively black, white, yellow, green, red colored, each color represents a body of religious teaching.

Qing Dynasty statue Yellow Sect as the State religion, so a yellow center. After the amount of "Lotus solemn profession", which means Goddess of Mercy temple. White Hall station sub-units, balcony, spacious units, real sets, the shape varied body mass ranging from different functions. Storey one to four, two, three-person majority, most of lime wiping face, a red brick trim blind windows, glass puzzle roof tile on the eaves singled out Tangshui long.

White flat-topped platform for Tibetan Tibetan stone room shapes, building brick-concrete structure with Han Chinese French.

Some two white sets combined into a courtyard for Seng Fang; some stage, the Han-style temple built for temple, bell tower use; Some Taiwan-top stupa; Taiwan brick structure, some white solid, only as barrier Jing Zeng King and decorative effect.

White sets the overall effectiveness of group performance before the foot of the mountains of Tibet's Potala Palace, Fan Zi features. The south wall Split 2 turret is really white-Taiwan puzzle blind wall windows, starting at the top notch.

Could it be provided on both sides of white mesosphere, door, played veranda Hall, symmetrical configuration, for the monks out of use. Glass arch the north-gang sub-Temple, surrounded by Tibetan carved puzzle room wall, the wall is located three blind windows, east, south to a layer of Sengfang, West puzzle Deng Dao, north of monks from the roof veranda Hall, Dan Yan green glazed tile roof , 5 Ying lacking a broad prospect, into the deep 2, available for Palden Lhamo, four protective deities, big Brahma.

This hall was originally Sengfang is supreme Tantric yoga for five pairs of Mi Yue Yun pairs of empty body, like Huan Xifo amending the law. Tantric Huan Xifo statues are generally long, the table more than intellect, the most top-centered image, I like to change; multi-arm multi-legged table and vigorously more energy; foot monster, the table can Xiangyao town magic.

Gang sub-set of homes for the West Hall of the Northwest Temple, also known as the West-Gang Yu Temple, is through the hall, flat as a "factory"-shaped, just south of provision of doors, hokubo two hard mountain top and gray tiles. Available for the main statue Palden Lhamo, the original shrine in weighing the Three Realms hall, exhibition hall after the Cultural Revolution changed this.

Palden Lhamo is gold-bronze statues, high cm, body riding a mule, before and after two small statues Shoutou person, the chassis of the sea. The whole group of statues with pounds copper, gold, 57 2, employment According to "Palden Lhamo by the" records, Palden Lhamo to change as the Goddess of Mercy, is the Dalai Lama's defending God, an annual New Year's Day she was riding the sun lower bound of the parties to inspect the world, drive out demons, bless all sentient beings safe.

Tibetan Buddhists in the Tibetan calendar every year to October 15 Palden Lhamo to be summoned as Temple pulled from the big paraded in order to maintain the personnel calm, fine weather. Positive grass-roots level is a white sets, solid, high 17 meters, the lower part of puzzle granite stone, the upper part of brick, lime noodles, the wall is located three trapezoidal windows blind, East and West sides assemble a white stone steps directly to Taiwan at the top of Gordon Road.

Qian Foge the west, surrounded by Gallery now collapsed , Genei for the Mongolian princes presented to the Empress Dowager of the Buddha neutral "Qian Foge Inscription of" Thirty-five years of Qianlong imperial system. Genei a banner reads: Taitung White House for the dumb pit, Jin Miao incense to the emperor, when the monks of the avoided.

Bai Taiwan on Taiwan from red, high 25 meters wide and 58 meters on the next wide and 59 meters, seven, one to four solid, are set blind windows, the upper three spaced real window, blind window. Red Tainan surface perpendicular to the middle of inlay decoration glass shrines 6, yellow, and green and white, Chinese-style tactics, one marking the axis, two decorative role play.

Red-Taiwan puzzle parapet at the top of the wall under the three sides East, West, South decorative yellow glass shrines, pulling home under the eaves stone Drainage long trough. Red Taiwan inside of five to seven for the three attic, each layer 44, four surround, also known as towers. Group F, the south into the deep three, Tung Tianzhu four rows; in five north into the deep 4, Tung Tianzhu five rows; Group F, three rows of the east pass Tianzhu, into the deep 2; the west side of pass Tianzhu four rows deep into the two and a half.

Group F, east, west, south and north respectively banners "approach of taking by the Court", "Mahayana Miao-feng", "secret shengjing", "nirvana. Eastern Group House Sorai southerly from the stage, face the north, side three, three. Taiwan to build the northwest corner of the Red Eagle House, solid, from decorative effect. Group F France Sorai center in a hall owned by a square between the seven corners slightly incorporated into half of the double eaves and save tip overlying gold-fish-scale copper-watt, four-wave ridge decoration, French bell ding.

Ying-door swing enamel, Lime tower, for the red sandalwood in the shrines are available for Maitreya, east and west sides Rosewood Longevity tower home. Altar placed Babao, five for the coral tree. By the North Tree screen, a huge tapestry hanging in front to hang like a satin embroidered Buddhist high thirty feet wide, Yi Zhang , is no deposit. Pre-screen for the Buddha, and then the former for the Tsongkhapa, on both sides for the main hall as the Dalai Lama and Tsongkhapa, both copper sculpture, fine texture, fine technology, movements symmetry, vividly.

North and South in a hall banners as "net sex super ride," the second as "Miaodeyuancheng"; face the Southern Banner, "Pu should be fate. The twelfth lunar month 27, the first month 14 in this event organized by sending worship, all the monks in this chanting, drive out demons pray for peace. The Qing Dynasty, Mongolia, far away into the inside and outside the temple incenseqiu fo by an endless stream.

Hong Li was in this hall meeting with Miles and his entourage return Torghut leader Wo Baxi and preaching at a large-scale birthday celebrations. The bottom of the floor, encircled by three groups, video tone of darkness and light contrasts, resulting in strict and solemn religious atmosphere, is a gem of religious architecture in the Mainland. In , the United States large-scale international exposition held in Chicago, big Rockefeller in order to move gaze transactions, in adopted a Swede He set out into the Evans statement sent to the palace to the measured real painting, created in Chicago with this one Hall of the same size model, but also in China through various means to collect a large number of Buddhist statues, Buddhist implements, in , with the special launch to Chicago, a copy of the "method return a Temple" is a display, leading to emergence of the Chicago Exposition, Oriental Cultural Fever, Rockefeller the limelight, earning a lot of money, this is "yesterday" in comedy.

Today, Vince He determined Rockefeller should be duty-bound this was "forgotten" of the history, facing the East, saying that one can make the Chinese people a decent emotional words. The Swedish architect Maike Si Mr. Wu Lei and several other experts interested in Chinese culture established a foundation from Anna University, Indiana United States would "go a Temple France" all components bought in preparation for In the Stockholm International Culture Research Center "reconstruction" assembly.

Wu Lei in had been to Chengde, in consultation with the competent departments to inspect the method return a hall when Mr. This is a miracle. Imitation may be like, the end is not the original thing. Nostalgia born of the immensity of the Texan hills and the sierras of New Mexico: The unfolding of the desert is infinitely close to the timelessness of film The Mexicans, become Chicanos, act as guides on the visit to El Alamo to laud the heroes of the American nation so valiantly massacred by their own ancestors.

But hard as those ancestors fought, the division of labour won out in the end. Today it is their grandchildren and great-grandchildren who are there, on the same battlefield, to hymn the Americans who stole their lands. History is full of ruse and cunning. But so are the Mexicans who have crossed the border clandestinely to come and work here. Yet a Los-Angelic modernity, too -all the requisite gadgetry for a minimalist, extra-terrestrial comfort. In fact the whole city has the transparency and supernatural, otherworldly cleanness of a thing from outer space.

A symmetrical, luminous, overpowering abstraction. At every intersection in the Tabernacle area - all marble and roses, and evangelical marketing — an electronic cuckoo-clock sings out: And, beyond the lake, the Great Salt Lake Desert, where they had to invent the speed of prototype cars to cope with the absolute horizontality But the city itself is like a jewel, with its purity of air and its plunging urban vistas more breath taking even than those of Los Angeles.

What stunning brilliance, what modern veracity these Mormons show, these rich bankers, musicians, international genealogists, polygamists the Empire State in New York has something of this same funereal Puritanism raised to the nth power. It is the capitalist, transsexual pride of a people of mutants that gives the city its magic, equal and opposite to that of Las Vegas, that great whore on the other side of the desert. Geological - and hence metaphysical - monumentality, by contrast with the physical altitude of ordinary landscapes.

Upturned relief patterns, sculpted out by wind, water, and ice, dragging you down into the whirlpool of time, into the remorseless eternity of a slow-motion catastrophe. The very idea of the millions and hundreds of millions of years that were needed peacefully to ravage the surface of the earth here is a perverse one, since it brings with it an awareness of signs originating, long before man appeared, in a sort of pact of wear and erosion struck between the elements.

Among this gigantic heap of signs - purely geological in essence — man will have had no significance. The Indians alone perhaps interpreted them - a few of them. And yet they are signs. For the desert only appears uncultivated. This entire Navajo country, the long plateau which leads to the Grand Canyon, the cliffs overlooking Monument Valley, the abysses of Green River are all alive with a magical presence, which has nothing to do with nature the secret of this whole stretch of country is perhaps that it was once an underwater relief and has retained the surrealist qualities of an ocean bed in the open air.

What is man if the signs that predate him have such power? A human race has to invent sacrifices equal to the natural cataclysmic order that surrounds it. It is perhaps these reliefs, because they are no longer natural, which give the best idea of what a culture is.

Patronymic genesis as the depth of time, and the speed of sound as pure superficiality. There all the future biological commandments are being devised, within that architecture copied from the palace of Minos, its white marble staring out over the immensity of the Pacific. Extraordinary sites, capitals of fiction become reality. I looked for it in the speed of the screenplay, in the indifferent reflex of television, in the film of days and nights projected across an empty space, in the marvellously affectless succession of signs, images, faces, and ritual acts on the road; looked for what was nearest to the nuclear and enucleated universe, a universe which is virtually our own, right down to its European cottages.

I sought the finished form of the future catastrophe of the social in geology, in that upturning of depth that can be seen in the striated spaces, the reliefs of salt and stone, the canyons where the fossil river flows down, the immemorial abyss of slowness that shows itself in erosion and geology. I even looked for it in the verticality of the great cities. I knew all about this nuclear form, this future catastrophe when I was still in Paris, of course. But to understand it, you have to take to the road, to that travelling which achieves what Virilio calls the aesthetics of disappearance.

For the mental desert form expands before your very eyes, and this is the purified form of social desertification. Disaffection finds its pure form in the barrenness of speed. All that is cold and dead in desertification or social enucleation rediscovers its contemplative form here in the heat of the desert.

Here in the transversality of the desert and the irony of geology, the transpolitical finds its generic, mental space. The inhumanity of our ulterior, asocial, superficial world immediately finds its aesthetic form here, its ecstatic form. For the desert is simply that: They are places where humidity and fluids become rarefied, where the air is so pure that the influence of the stars descends direct from the constellations.

And, with the extermination of the desert Indians, an even earlier stage than that of anthropology became visible: The silence of the desert is a visual thing, too. A product of the gaze that stares out and finds nothing to reflect it. There can be no silence up in the mountains, since their very contours roar.

And for there to be silence, time itself has to attain a sort of horizontality; there has to be no echo of time in the future, but simply a sliding of geological strata one upon the other giving out nothing more than a fossil murmur. Here the terms of desire are turned upside down each day, and night annihilates them.

But wait for the dawn to rise, with the awakening of the fossil sounds, the animal silence. Speed creates pure objects.

It is itself a pure object, since it cancels out the ground and territorial reference-points, since it runs ahead of time to annul time itself, since it moves more quickly than its own cause and obliterates that cause by outstripping it. Speed is the triumph of effect over cause, the triumph of instantaneity over time as depth, the triumph of the surface arid pure objectality over the profundity of desire.

Speed creates a space of initiation, which may be lethal; its only rule is to leave no trace behind. Triumph of forgetting over memory, an uncultivated, amnesic intoxication. The superficiality and reversibility of a pure object in the pure geometry of the desert.

Driving like this produces a kind of invisibility, transparency, or transversality in things, simply by emptying them out. It is a sort of slow-motion suicide, death by anextenuation of forms - the delectable form of their disappearance. Speed is not a vegetal thing. It is nearer to the mineral, to refraction through a crystal, andit is already the site of a catastrophe, of a squandering of time.

Perhaps, though, its fascination is simply that of the void. There is no seduction here, for seduction requires a secret. Speed is simply the rite that initiates us into emptiness: Akin to the nostalgia for living forms that haunts geometry.

Deep down, the US, with its space, its technological refinement, its bluff good conscience, even in those spaces which it opens up for simulation, is the only remaining primitive society.

The fascinating thing is to travel through it as though it were the primitive society of the future, a society of complexity, hybridity, and the greatest intermingling, of a ritualism that is ferocious but whose superficial diversity lends it beauty, a society inhabited by a total Meta social fact with unforeseeable consequences, whose immanence is breath taking, yet lacking a past through which to reflect on this, and therefore fundamentally primitive.

Its primitivism has passed into the hyperbolic, inhuman character of a universe that is beyond us, that far outstrips its own moral, social, or ecological rationale. Only Puritans could have invented and developed this ecological and biological morality based on preservation — and therefore on discrimination -which is profoundly racial in nature.

Everything becomes an overprotected nature reserve, so protected indeed that there is talk today of denaturalizing Yosemite to give it back to Nature, as has happened with the Tasaday in the Philippines. A Puritan obsession with origins in the very place where the ground itself has already gone.

An obsession with finding aniche, a contact, precisely at the point where everything unfolds in an astral indifference. There is a sort of miracle in the insipidity of artificial paradises, so long as they achieve the greatness of an entire un culture. The desert is everywhere, preserving insignificance. A desert where the miracle of the car, of ice and whisky is daily re-enacted: A miracle of obscenity that is genuinely American: The profusion of sense, as against the deserts of meaninglessness.

It is metamorphic forms that are magical. Not the sylvan, vegetal forest, but the petrified, mineralized forest. The salt desert, whiter than snow, flatter than the geological formations, which ultimately testify to no human will, while keeping intact an image of upheaval.

This form of travel admits of no exceptions: This sort of travel creates its own peculiar type of event and innervation, so it also has its own special form of fatigue. Like a fibrillation of muscles, striated by the excess of heat and speed, by the excess of things seen or read, of places passed through and forgotten. The defibrillation of the body overloaded with empty signs, functional gestures, the blinding brilliance of the sky, and somnabulistic distances, is a very slow process.

Things suddenly become lighter, as culture, our culture, becomes more rarefied. And this spectral form of civilization which the Americans have invented, an ephemeral form so close to vanishing point, suddenly seems the best adapted to the probability - the probability only - of the life that lies in store for us. The form that dominates the American West, and doubtless all of American culture, is aseismic form: The only question in this journey is: A theoretical question here materialized in the objective conditions of a journey which is no longer a journey and therefore carries with it a fundamental rule: This is the key.

And the crucial moment is that brutal instant which reveals that the journey has no end, that there is no longer any reason for it to come to an end. Beyond a certain point, it is movement itself that changes. In this way, the centrifugal, eccentric point is reached where movement produces the vacuum that sucks you in. This moment of vertigo is also the moment of potential collapse. Not so much from the tiredness generated by the distance and the heat, as from the irreversible advance into the desert of time.

You seem to be using an unsupported browser. Please update to get the most out of Flickr. Explore Trending More More. Tags The Sun stars and deep space. The sun is loud by irina ch. Type "L" to see it properly. Prints and licensing are available. Do not re-use without permission. The first shot had me hooked! From there it was "Aaron, turn the light on! When the sun goes down, the stars come out to play by Carl Jones. Zodiacal Light by chazstevens1. Deep space, deep in the forest by Constantinos Hinis.

That's a total of 57 shots combined QSI wsg with Lodestar guider Filters: Listen to the Rolling Stones Visit my Into The Night Photography blog Eternity by Alexander Aldatov. What can they be? Their insects, animals, and reasoning pow'rs? Moonscape on Earth by Jonny Harvell.

A picture taken as we reached the summit of Mt Kinabalu, Borneo, at 5am. Timeless by Alexander Aldatov. Stay creative my Friends Best wishes! Imaged 14 March The Rift by jason jenkins. Poppenhaeger et al; Illustration: EVIL-evil does not exist as a source; evil is a product of ignorance.

I Got Your Back. The dreamer awakes next to me, she smiles. She relates the dream. They lock and squeeze. I am sure someone will see some deep artistic symbolism in the phrase "Big Terry and Nigel love getting car fixing tips from the guy next door whilst bent over looking at the car's engine.

Vampira V by Mark Berry. Here's the article I wrote for Bizarre Magazine So how did your famous horror host role come about? In the face of mount fabrication errors all mounts have them to some extent the pointing error residuals will be smallest in the neighborhood of the two alignment stars.

Therefore one strategy is to choose one of the two alignment stars to be in the area of the sky in which you plan to initially observe. If you then move to some new part of the sky and find that the error residuals have increased, one can align on a new object in that area. You can align on any type of object, including for the initial alignment objects, but stars and plans are best since their astrometric co-ordinates don't suffer the same uncertainties that extended objects, such as nebula and galaxies, do.

Argo Navis maintains a queue of alignment objects, and the default setting, which we recommend, is two objects deep. For true multi-star alignment, this is where TPAS comes into play.

Brilliant and great to hear that it was a new personal record observing run! Whilst I can't claim to be anything more than a novice. I can't believe how good this unit is. I've just finished a tour, to mag 10 of the LMC, which I cant even see naked eye, due to my light polluted back yard. I agree that the tweaking and playing around can be frustrating, but it's 9. Hi Darren, Thanks for the post and fabulous to hear you are getting such productive use from your Argo Navis.

Since most of us live in cities and large towns, your issues with light pollution are unfortunately the norm rather than the exception. However, it is amazing how many objects you can observe in less than optimal conditions such as this, particularly when you know the object you are looking for is in the eyepiece in the first place. Many a time I have been surprised to observe objects under such conditions that I had initially suspected would be impossible to see.

The majority of users also have work and family commitments, so more often than not, a few hours observing from their own backyard is a luxury in itself, particularly since we live in a world where spare time often comes at a premium.

Speaking of the LMC, you will be undoubtedly pleased to know that considerable effort went into the compilation of the catalogs and that the LMC and SMC are particularly well covered. Many thanks go to Andrew Murrell who acted as a consultant during the compilation of objects within the Magellanic Clouds and there is comparatively so little literature on objects within them that it got down to Andrew getting out the 20" reflector and observing them with him.

One can spend weeks within the SMC alone! Hi Rob, I just wanted to add a few tips to Gary's very detailed comments based on my practical experience of having used several Argo Navis units on dobs ranging from 8" to 25" over the past 5 years or so.

On "any" hand made dob there will always be "mount fabrication errors". If you are a fine wood craftsmen these will be minimal and likely go undetected in normal use of Argo Navis, however in most cases they can lead to detectable pointing inaccuracies caused by the mount.

On a couple of scopes I have seen they are significant. As Gary alluded to these will manifest as larger pointing errors when pointing to parts of the sky farthest away from your original alignment stars.

This is where TPAS is your very very best friend. Whilst its use and implementaion may appear a little daunting at first it is very easy to use and truly, can make a poorly made telescope look good. That's not casting any aspersions on your craftmanship, just a generalisation that it will offer a significant improvement in pointing accuracy in just about every case.

Gary can be very proud of the achievement he has made in putting something as complex, revolutionary and beneficial as TPAS, in the hands of amateur astronomers at a bargain price. It is important that you understand the "basic" operations and setup of Argo Navis as Gary has explained, before you start on TPAS, but my further advice to Gary's advice is to start using TPAS as soon as you think you can handle it. I would be turning atmospheric refraction "off".

If you are doing "normal" Deep Sky and Planetary observing it is not necessary to use it. Whilst it's a nice feature to have in some cases for certain specific purposes, it is not necessary in most normal observing situations. With refraction turned off and a good TPAS model established both my scopes point with an accuarcy better than 10' even very low down. When refraction modelling is "on", as Gary explained earlier, it is important to have the date, time and observing location accurately set.

If you change location and don't change the settings, with refraction "on" you can find your pointing out by a good bit. I find it far easier to turn refraction off and then I don't need to worry about changing observing locations.

With refraction off, I have observed as far apart as Coonabarabran and Albury with my location remaining set at my home address on the Central Coast and had excellent pointing accuracy at all times to all parts of the sky. If I had refraction on I would have undoubtedly had to adjust the observing locations to a fairly accurate degree. Hi John, Thanks for the post. As you are aware, refraction effects becoming larger as you near the horizon and most Dob owners shun this part of the sky. As it turns out, the NPAE and CA terms are hard to distinguish unless you take a reasonable number of samples spread over the sky but in particular having a good spread in Altitude, from near the zenith down to the horizon.

So I have continued to do that over many years. TPAS has changed a lot of things, all for the better, so I will remember to turn it on in future and accurately set the date, time and location parameters.

I guess it shows I don't point the scope down near the trees all that often: Gary and John, Thanks for the tips guys. Sorry I haven't been back in here to reply. Too busy sleeping, observing and parenting. I found a couple of factors in my pointing accuracy.

Firstly the rubber mats on the wet clay earth we have here in Coombell was a major part. I've removed the mats and the ground has pretty much dried out since the first couple of outings.

I still I reckon I'll should look at laying a slab I think. Still took all of what you guys said. And John yeah mate! I took up woodwork again since high school nearly 30 years ago late last year when I built the lil 8" truss dob for my boy's, And although I did take my time and tripple checked my measurements even remaking bits that I didn't feel happy with.

I looked at the project more as an engineering problem with cosmetics coming in second. However in saying that you have no problem placing objects in the center of FOV. Also the dobson hole effect is rather minimal you can scan around up near the zenith with relative ease. Gary, I'll have the measurements for the encoder cables when FWIW, a backlash I gave above of 3 arcmins was rather generous. It is actually around 40 arcsecs or about the width of Jupiter. Rob if you are using 10, step encoders which are the norm these days, you have a pointing resolution of 2.

Geoff, Yup I have and Yup I knew that. You only notice the backlash when your scanning around at the eyepiece but even then at around 40 arcmins it is nothing. I think you will see some in any truss dob. I know I have a mount error which puts the pointing accuracy out by about 16 arcmins on a degree spread, TPAS run should fix this.

However on saying that the two people so far who have tried my scope didn't pick it up. All 'n' all I'm pretty happy with the results of the build as well as the performance of the Argo Navis, both have been a real pleasure to use. I look forward to the next one: I am in a slight dilema. If I bought a Agos Navis would I be making the best use of my funds. I could buy a good 2nd hand scope or killer eyepices if I didnt buy the AN.

How useful would the Agos navi be on my minor Grab and go scope? Most people seem to have at least an 8 inch or 10 inch scope? SO I am not sure which direction will be the more productive, though I believe , either option will produce good results.

It would depend on if you ever want to read star charts again All the charts do now is give us a list to view I'm thinking i should get one after messing around with robs the other night I'm not sure about my large alt bearings though.

I dont think you should have too much trouble Graham. The kit might be a bit big for your scope, How big are your Alt bearings? I have the Obsession 15" kit on my scope and the Alt tangent arm is mm and my Alt bearings a 23" In anycase I'm sure Gary will be able to help with more info regards,CS. Hi Graham, Thanks for the post.

Indeed, retro-fitting Argo Navis systems to home-built telescopes is popular and if you email me at sales wildcard-innovations.

Often it is possible to improvise one of the off-the-shelf kits. As Rob mentioned, the kit used on the Obsession that we stock is a popular choice.

We also have some in-house machining capability here in Sydney and can fabricate custom components on demand, such as encoder ready Az pivot bolts and Alt encoder couplings, all at reasonable rates. We might be able to recommend something suitable if you could let me know by email the following - 1 The aperture of the primary 2 The type of Alt bearing employed i.

For the Az axis, please let me know the following dimensions - 1 The thickness of the ground board. Some photos of the scope can be useful. Once we have this information, we can supply more specific suggestions. Hi kev, It sounds like the funds should not go to killer eyepieces or other gear, since my aim is to enjoy the stars, rather than enjoy reading a map to find the stars! Thats a lot of cash to tie up in a small scope?

I hate watching the moths fly from my wallet but if the benefit is really there,I don't mind spending the cash. Hi, Argo Navis installations on "grab and go" scopes are popular, including on mounts such as the Tele Vue's, Giro 2's, Discmounts, various binocular mounts and the like. Many users are using these mounts with modest aperture scopes, such as small refractors. For example see here - http: Many owners are using their Argo Navis systems on telescopes in heavily light polluted urban environments and the ability to "find stuff" more easily, despite these less than optimal observing conditions, means they can can get the most out of their observing session.

For many, work, family and other time commitments means every minute spent at the eyepiece is precious time. For these people, an Argo Navis effectively buys them time. Charts still have their uses. You use the AN to find a faint galaxy and you can see more than one in the fov.

The AN reads 0. Am I really in the right place? Which of those stars in the fov is that tiny Abell planetary? Well , after an hour on the phone from Japan, with Gary, I bit the bullet There was no sales pressure just information. Gary had supplied rapid replies to my earlier emails and I can only say his service is well beyond top notch It was a real delight watching the moths leave my wallet.

I am looking forward to a product that no doubt has the same built in thoroughness that his service showed. My reason to buy, even though my scope is small ,was to gain quality viewing time in a hectic schedule with often mediocre weather. I am guessing star hopping can in the beginning be a slow tedious business , particularly if you are not part of a club.

You then can slowly locate the evening sky. I intend to locate the evening sky and then refer back to the star charts to reinforce my knowledge. Is that being too optimistic?: I apologise if I have taken the topic off thread. Looking forward for your report on your first night with the Argo-Navis My second night serious use of my AN.

Started off with an encoder check last time I forgot: That's strange - no change in the Az steps. Find the plug some way out of the Az encoder - push in and all fine now. Note to self - need better protection for that encoder and its plug since I travel with a couple of plastic stools stored inside the base. Line up Achernar and Antares for the two star align using an illuminated reticule 12mm eyepiece. And away I went for several hours on and off between watching some imaging work going on elsewhere.

Several hours were below zero deg C, bottomed at -6 deg C: AN kept on truckin': Hit targets across the sky pretty close to centre of FOV in a 35mm eyepiece. I put one on my 4" Apo on a alt-az mount. I thought it would be overkill, but after using it for six months, I can say it's brilliant. I estimate I observe twice as many objects per session now - the hunt from suburban skies with so few reference stars is much simpler. I only wish there was some sort of session capture, so you could go back and review your objects observed at the end of a session.

That's nitpicking though - it's a fantastic device. Hi Eric, Thanks for the post and great to hear you are ignoring the sub-zero temperatures and having fun! The Meade LX drivers seem to work but only as a fork mount but then doing that it positions itself as i,m in South Africa.

Its not really a big issue for me because if i keep playing with it i know i,ll crack it,eventally Hi Kev, Thanks for the post. When testing the interface, are you performing a real alignment by pointing to stars at night or a dummy alignment indoors during the day?

This can make all the difference. Gary Dennis from Broken Hill recieved his AN and ringing me this morning to show him to install and drive it. Dennis dont own a computer to print the user manual out so i suggested to go to the local library to print it. I reassured Dennis not to get to wrapped in the manual straight away , only to align and use the catalogue for starters.

He will enjoy the AN Next time observing we will send you a pic of all 3 Broken Hill equipped scopes in line Thanks again were all still clapping Hi Kev, Thanks for the post and for assisting Dennis. He telephoned yesterday and with regards the manual, I suggested if there was a copy shop in Broken Hill, then simply take the CDROM and have them print the first 30 or so pages double-sided in black and white. There is a copyright notice on the last page of the Manual permitting making a single copy for personal use.

I said if he had no luck in finding a copy shop, then to give me a call. I have subsequently checked the Yellow Pages and drew a blank as far as copy services in town. However, your suggestion of the library is a good one and I know some regional libraries have printers and copying machines for modest charges.

Usage of other features can be deferred to a later session once one is familiar with the basics of locating an object. Dennis also said he had modified the telescope so that the Az pivot bolt would need to be longer than the standard one supplied.

I suggested if he carefully measure the required dimensions, taking into account the clearance of the OTA over the encoder, we could machine him a custom replacement and simply swap it for the one he has. He said that he may be able to improvise the existing one using local resources. In any case, we are here to assist. Looking forward to the shot of three Broken Hill scopes parked wing-tip to wing-tip.

Thanks again for assisting Dennis. Gary Dennis got the first 60 pages of the manual copied. He will be up and observing by this weekend,So will we all Hi Kev, That's brilliant. Thank you Kev, you are a champion. The supplied bolt is machined in free cutting steel, so it is easy to work with. Look forward to your report. Once again, thank you so much for assisting Dennis.

In the new year I'll contact you with those measurements.. Hi Graham, Thanks and what a nice looking scope! If only it could talk. It even looks to me as if it wants a pair of encoders fitted! The clearance of the Az bolt looks as if it should be OK and the Alt bearing looks straight forward enough. In the New Year, drop us a line as you've indicated with the requested measurements and I am sure we can come up with an installation solution for you that will also be cost effective.

Cheers and Dennis says thanks Hi Kev, Thanks for the picture which is really appreciated. Looks great and I see that there is even a mounting stalk that one of you has fabricated to hold the unit. Thanks once again for assisting Dennis and it is great to know he is up and running. I've seen a couple of pictures of this mount kit, and from what I can remember it was pretty agricultural and didn't work very well slack and binding etc.

I'm sure the real thing must be better than I've seen. Has anyone got more recent experience with this mount kit?

Photo's would be great! Hi Jason The AN encoder kit on my 12" works well. I bought it from an owner who knew a good bit about tinkering. Here is a project of his for a stalk to mount the AN unit which includes plenty of mention of the encoder mounting: Then reinstalled basically as Scott had them previously.

They have worked flawlessly the two or three times I have used it since. Updates - He shows the alt encoder bracket tied down. I now leave that loose - it just sits on the pin L hook under gravity. I since added ebony star strips to the alt bearings, so I work with the tension springs in place, one spring hangs off the brass bolt which is the axis to the encoder.

He has another project in the IIS listings - for a fan mount http: Note that when I took the Az encoder off, I could leave the fan hang loose on the neoprene. Now I have to hold it up with an elastic tie from one side to the other to ensure the fan just clears the encoder as I go for the zenith. I have done two mods. First I have fitted a piece of "tin" to either side of the base, to just under halfway up the alt bearing.

This discourages side-to side movement, and hasn't affected handling. I have just completed a second project, suspending an eyepiece box up behind the scope with two steel bars bolted to the sides of the base. These add significant rigidity to the sides of the base. I'll get some photos of the encoders, as mounted, over the next week and post them.

I do understand the new GSOs have modified Alt tension arrangements so perhaps the encoder kit has required modifications? Wildcard Innovations can advise, I'm sure. Hi Eric, Thanks for the post. Here are some photographs and notes forwarded to us by customer Stephen J. Hi Eric, Thanks again for the post. Indeed, the new GSO scopes now come with a different Altitude bearing arrangement including new trunnions fabricated in aluminium that act as tensioning devices.

They come with thrust bearings inside and are adjustable in height. These first appeared on the GSO 16 truss pole scopes. We already have a kit available to suit these scopes. The user needs to unscrew one of the trunnions and ship it to us for modification and installation of the encoder coupler. See here for details - http: In Kev's case, he's trunnion arrived here in Sydney on a Friday and the complete system was shipped to him by Monday morning, including the re-machined trunnion. Thanks again for the post and I hope this coming week affords everyone the most transparent and steady of skies.

Had a good weekend with the Argo Navis on 12" dob at Snake Valley. I'm very happy with it for my purposes. Finderscope is now attracting cobwebs, Stellarium has been put into the background and the lappie is primarily playing music, green laser pointer is staying in pocket! Not the best conditions - set up on my usual half bricks on a plastic tarp on a few inch long grass - I could feel some rock'n'roll in the mount.

I'll be happier on a hard surface. But still aligned well with basic Fix Alt Ref and two stars. If I found the targets were coming up a bit far from centre of 35mm Panoptic, I just did a quick "Mode Align" on the object and carried on. Hope that is a reasonable approach to take. Randomly toured constellations or "20 deg around that spot" for non-stellars. Saw many new objects.

It made finding small planetaries a breeze! How is everyone else going? Indeed it is and it one approach that we recommend. In the face of finite geometric fabrication errors within the mount, the error residuals will be smallest in the vicinity of the alignment stars. So re-aligning in the region you are currently observing in can take advantage of this. That is what we like to hear. Fingers are crossed that this summer brings plenty of good observing opportunities!

I was intending to buy new, but a 2nd hand AN with encoders came up at a price too good to refuse. I'm half way through installing it some mods due to having a GSO scope but Lightbridge encoder kit and it's looking good so far. Gary I got offered a unit at a very good price by another maker and was wondering can I fit an argo to the supplied mounting hardware?

IT has step encoders? Another looming problem with my az mounting situation is my az bolt is glued thanks dad: Argo Navis is fully compatible with the encoders found on legacy DSC systems.

The encoder cable will also simply plug and play. The new 10, step encoders are the same height as their predecessors. You can find a mechanical drawing on our web site here - http: I gather your existing Az pivot bolt is not "encoder ready"? If you can remove it we can always create a custom encoder ready replacement for you.

One alternative is that you get a hole saw of the minimum diameter that allows the existing bolt to the cut out. Thanks for the post. The menus allow step counts up to 9,, steps. However, when using the encoder interface, one also needs to take into account the encoder sampling rate. The following may also be helpful. As you are aware, Argo Navis can be powered from a set of AA batteries. The encoders are the most power hungry devices in the system.

In order to conserve power, Argo Navis powers them on, samples them, then powers them off, thousands of times per second. Since the encoders are sampled, there is a maximum 'tick rate' at which the encoders can be turned and still read reliably.

In communications theory, the Nyquist Criteria says that one needs to sample a signal at least twice the rate at which the signal is changing, in order to sample it reliably. In this case, the maximum sampling rate is around 16, samples per second.

Hence the maximum slew rate should not exceed times a second for the Nyquist Criteria not to be violated. Working backwards, one can then determine by how much you can gear the encoders based on what your expected maximum slew rate is likely to be.

For a 10, step encoder geared 1: Therefore you can also work backwards and if you know in advance what your maximum slew rate will be you can then determine the max. Anecdotally, on a colleague's 20" Dob we use quite a lot, we have been running 56K steps on the Alt axis and 10K on the Az axis for many years and never seen an encoder sampling error message and this scope is purely PUSHTO.

On some other GOTO scopes, rather than via the encoder port, encoder data is supplied to Argo Navis via the serial port. On these scopes, step counts in the millions are not uncommon. We could supply an encoder-ready Az pivot bolt that would slip right into them. In this instance, the encoder would be mounted above the pivot bolt. Therefore you need to ensure that there is sufficient clearance as the edge of the OTA passes over where the top of where the encoder will be.

Check out the images in the Az installation instructions for a GSO truss 16 on our web site here to see what I mean - http: Gary, Thanks for the comprehensive post re encoder counts. Hi Gary was reading a post today in genearal discussion ,and with the leap second ,how does the Argo-Navis correct this I,m betting the answer is really simple Happy new year Gary and Cheers Hi Kev, We keep track of it in the firmware.

The 34 seconds tends to play a significant part in some solar system object calculations. There is a plethora of time standards that are arithmetically inter-related. People have been messing with time keeping for thousands of years. Back in Sept , there is a whole two weeks missing from the calendar when the English moved from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.

People actually came out in the street and protested "Give us back our two weeks". Well I got some encoders and cable for x-mass.. I was kindly given an encoder ready bolt.. Thankfully I smacked it out without much damage and was able to flip it to get a nice snug fit again..

The pole for the ago navis is 32 mm I'm planning to run the cable down the inside of the tube atm. Hi Graham, Happy New Year! That is excellent news. We look forward to hearing how you progress.

Same to you gary.. No tricks to putting the encoders into those nylon bushes in the bolt?.. Hi Graham, Once the bolt is in place, since it is the type that has a nylon sleeve in the well where the encoder goes, just push the encoder shaft tight into there by pressing carefully down.

No tricks involved and indeed it will be a tight fit. To remove, carefully pull the encoder vertically upward. Because of the forces involved, avoid performing this operation unnecessarily. This will then minimize the risk of ever damaging the encoder. Once the bolt is in place and secured, then it is time to push the encoder in. Also check that the OTA will clear the encoder as it swings over it. Normally the bushes aren't glued in there. If the fit is not tight enough, wrap a segment of Scotch tape around the encoder shaft to enlarge its O.

I completed mounting my encoders this arvo, and gave the AN its first run tonight. What a marvellous little device! Even though the moon is out, it's humid, and the light polution is terrible, I braved the mozzies for about two hours just having fun with the AN.

Will have to do some more reading of the manual to get a bit more efficient at using it, but so far, so good. Hi Jason, Great to hear you wouldn't let warm temperatures, light pollution and mosquitoes get in the way of a good night out! I might make up a bush and slightly oversize the hole in the mounting mounting bracket to allow a little bit of adjustment..

The tangent arm is 2mm brass I had a piece of lying around.. A little heavier than I would of hoped for. Hi Graham, Looks good. Rather than increase the overall circumference of the mounting hole, you might want to consider milling it into a slot whose major axis is parallel to the cross bar on the Alt trunnion.

That will allow you to move the encoder side to side. For the vertical axis, you might want to consider some mechanism to raise or lower the entire bracket itself. Rather than fasten it directly with wood screws onto the cross bar of the trunnion, possibly insert a couple of self-threading brass inserts into the crossbar first. Then fasten the bracket into the self-threading inserts using machine screws.

One can then adjust the bracket in the vertical direction and then fix it in place with appropriate washers and hex nuts. Scott Tannehill posted a procedure in PowerPoint format entitled "Version 4.

The 2mm brass for the tangent arm is a bit heavy-ish but should be fine. Refrain from fastening the far end solidly to the side of the rocker.

Use a shoulder screw on the side of the rocker and carefully mill then file a slot with a transition tolerance in the end of the tangent arm that just slides over the shoulder screw. Thanks for the great info gary. So its just sitting over the screw? Is to allow any movement of the alt encoder to be transfered to movent in the tangent arm rather than placeing undo strain on the encoder itself?

I think I'll use nylon bush like on your az bolts.. I hope to get a couple of mounting options turned up on the old mans lathe later this week. Indeed, just let it slide over the shoulder of the shoulder screw.

That way there won't be enable sideways force imparted to the encoder should the encoder not be exactly centered or if the bearings aren't perfectly circular. Rather than use a sleeve, do you have sufficient clearance for the edge of the optical tube to pass over the encoder if the head of the Az pivot bolt were above the inside base of the rocker? If so, consider drilling and tapping a hole in the side of the bolt to accept a socket head set screw. Then hold the encoder shaft in place by tightening up the set screw with an approriate size hex key.

Sorry gary I seemed to have confused things.. I might figure something to come of the top of the mirror box like you mention as I'm not happy with that little bracket I've made..

Hi Graham, No, it wasn't you. I am on the same page now. When you said 'bush' you really meant bush and not the sleeve inside the bolt. There are a few ways one can go here. You could use an off-the-shelf bronze bush. They come in a variety of I. You could use an off-the-shelf polymetric material bush from someone like Vesco Plastics http: You could use a bush made of any number of other materials, including acetal, from someone like Miniature Bearings http: Or you could get some appropriate O.

I'd recommend you start by looking at the bushes at Miniature Bearings Australia who are up in Qld and you can purchase from one-off online. If it wasn't for that segment, ideally you could have a bracket similar to the one you have but allow the bracket to slide back and forth across the top of the cross member and then mill a vertical slot in the bracket for the encoder shaft to allow the encoder to move up and down.

This is the opposite way around to what I suggested before, but the previous suggestion was based on you didn't do anything to that segment. Very happy to have my AN on order and due next week.: This thread has got many tips for AN users.

Thanks David, And welcome to the extended family of Argo Navis owners. For the absolute wealth of information in here for current and future Argo Navis owners, this thread has been made sticky.

Thanks Mike, And thank you to the forum members who have posted on this thread. We look forward to your future posts. Hi Dave, Thanks for the post. To the best of my knowledge, the "ASDX" designation is simply a suffix added by one of the Sydney based telescope shops.

We simply refer to them as the 'B' models and the previous generation as the 'A' models. Again, the 'A' and 'B' aren't official GSO differentiators, but at least this designation convention has the advantage of being extensible with future models.

So thanks to the great service Gary brings: I have the AN fully fitted on my scope.: D Pictures tell the story. Gary it all came together well. Have not used it out under the stars yet. But all tests inside worked perfectly. I used plumbing pipe fittings. I had to make it at a height good for observing. Then easy break down for transport. Phot's show fully fitted then last one mount ready for transport. I look froward to many great nights out under the stars again with the Argo Navis.: Well done and I like the new set up there Dave: The Argo Navis is a fantastic device.

I have been getting back into the visual side a bit lately and the Argo makes it even more enjoyable. Hi Dave, Thanks for the post and the great pictures! That's what we like to hear! Hope you get some clear skies down there over the long weekend. Hi Mick, Thanks for the post. After one has performed a star pointing test, TPAS can analyse and potentially compensate for many of the most common mount errors and can even report and refine any residual polar-misalignment.

With your G, what we would specifically recommend is to initially polar the scope in the way you prefer, either using a polar alignment scope or drift test. Then devote one evening, perhaps during full moon, to do an extended star pointing test.

This might entail sampling the positions of say 50 to stars across the entire sky from zenith to within about 10 degrees of the horizon. You can even start to put an initial pointing model in place which then starts improving your pointing performance straight away, easing the identification of stars during subsequent sampling.

The real magic of TPAS is that once you have a model in place, on a subsequent observing session you can re-synchronize the model on as few as perhaps two to five stars and your pointing performance will be as good as it was after the extended star sampling run.

A classic problem with GEM's is non-orthogonality between the Dec axis and the optical axis. This is because the human operator is responsible for mounting the OTA onto a dovetail or into the rings and if the OTA is not 'square' with respect the mount head, the telescope will tend to 'look' to one side compared to where the mount and the associated encoder system 'thinks' it is pointing. These are the most intersting part of the document.

So the graphics are interactive. The 'before' and 'after' cases are most dramatic. Whereas the raw pointing performance of this particular telescope was about Given the step encoder resolution is about 2. RMS is a statistical metric and popular in engineering applications. When we say a telescope has a raw pointing performance of RMS of So you can appreciate to get the mount errors down to the point where the pointing residual effectively becomes encoder resolution limited can be highly desirable for some users.

So, in a nutshell, rather than investing in the 10, step encoder solution, I recommend you stick for now with the step encoders and steep yourself in TPAS. There is a bit to absorb at first, but using the system in practice is relatively easy once one is familiar with the concepts. By the way, the techniques employed here are essentially identical to that which professional practitioners perform on all of the world's largest and most expensive telescopes and the lexicon - terms like RMS, Non-Perpendicular Axis Error, etc.

I see your az encoder is belt driven? Is that by choice or just the way the hardware is supplied for this type of scope? Yes it is belt driven. That is how Gary at Wildcard supplied the hardware. I'm sure Gary will have more details why the set up is how it is. I could not get out last night, but fingers x for tonight. It's very clear at the moment.: Hi Graham, For mounts where there is insufficient clearance for the OTA to pass over an encoder coupled directly into the Az pivot bolts, many of our kits use a pair of industrial timing pulleys and a timing belt, which creates a lower profile and shifts the encoder out of the way.

Timing pulleys and belts have close to zero backlash and are an ideal solution in situations such as this.

You can find copies of the installation instructions for the Sky-Watcher Dob kit on our web site here for the Az axis - http: First night out with the AN. I made some small mod's, see photo's. I changed to a bigger tube size and made it so the wires could go through the tubing. The only thing i had to re set on the AN was one directional arrow. Then then AN worked a treat for the next 6 hours. No re align through the night. Observed many many objects, way to many to list.

Very happy with the way the AN has come together: Hi Dave, Thanks for the post and the two new nice photos showing the rig. Great to hear the system is delivering objects on demand! A little time to spend on things this weekend I'm still not entirely happy with the encoder mounting bracket I made, a little concerned with how sturdy it will be over time When my father drilled out the ali I think it might of bent it a little as when i mounted it on top of the bearing trunion it didn't seem square to the outside, put it in the vice and bent it back it seems ok now.

The alt axis as far as i can tell is very close to where It needs to be , the black brass faceing plate there is slotted and the final mounting hole is yet to be drilled, I also have a small amount of adjustment in the tangent arm if needed. Hi Graham, Looks like you have been busy. Noticed where you have attempted to lighten up your brass tangent arm a little. I'm still not sure what you mean by fixeing the bottom end of the tangent arm?

Imagine for one moment that the far end of the Alt tangent arm was just totally unattached. It then would have several degrees of freedom. It could move toward or away from the side of the rocker e.

It could shift radially outward or inward from the center of the Alt axis for example, the bearing was not quite circular or encoder not centered. It could rotate around the Alt axis. However, any geometric error that results in a pointing error residual whereby, as a side effect, the tangent arm behaves as in either '1' or '2' cannot be circumvented by holding the far end of the tangent arm fixed.

Instead, the problem can only be fixed by correcting the mechanical source of the problem, say by re-centering the encoder.

The risk is that, should 1 or 2 be evident, if the far end of the tangent arm is fixed tight, then any irregularity, say from encoder not being centered, will result in a force being translated back up the tangent arm and thence ultimately be applying a sideways force or moment to the encoder shaft itself.

If the force is great enough, it could damage the encoder. Thus, use a slot carefully milled in the end of the tangent arm that slides over a locating pin or shoulder screw. The arm will then be free to float if '1' or '2' phenomena is evident but will not be free to rotate around the actual axis. Hope this textual explanation, for what is often best explained by a few sketches, is clear. If not, I will attempt to clarify further.

I have the scope in this article: I presume the altitude bearing is not perfectly circular. In any event, the end result is that my encoder assembly — attached as it is to the altitude bearing — also moves 8 mm to the side.

The photo above illustrates this shift. My solution was, again, to avoid screwing the encoder arm to the rocker box. This is actually the recommended technique for many telescopes, including the Obsession: This worked great in my case.

It just sits there without anything — other than gravity —holding it against screw-in hook other. I was just too lazy to take a new picture. I just drop it in place on the pin when I screw in the encoder each time I set up, and it can slide in and out as much as it wishes without affecting performance to the level I need.

I have done some work to reduce that sideways movement, but still do not restrict the arm moving in the direction of the axis of the encoder. Obviously the pin should be as close as possible to being parallel to the encoder axis. If it sloped up or down, that would be a problem. Drill the hole straight, tighten the pin up and eyeball it for being "true" was all that was done in this case. Hi Erick, Allowing the encoder arm to float will certainly ease the mechanical load on the encoder and on the encoder tangent arm.

Unfortunately with 8mm of lateral movement large pointing errors will eventuate. Whilst TPAS does a great job of compensating for mount errors, better pointing accuracy will result if the mechanical mount errors are minimised. That lateral movement of the scope on the altitude bearings is easily eliminated by "shimming" the altitude trunions with teflon pads.

My 10" scope had about 7mm of sideways movement before I fitted argo to it. I shimmed it with 3mm teflon pads either side and it is now perfect. I will post picks later today when I get home from work. A further improvement can be obtained by "bracing" the side of the rocker box with a 90 degree tapered brace, to reduce flexure of the sides of the rocker box. I fitted small plates to either side of the base which are screwed into the sides of the rocker base and go about half way up the trunions.

This has substantially reduced the sideways movement but does little for the flexing of the base. I'm working on solving that. Remember the joke - keep the tyres and change the car? I plan to keep the 12" mirror and change just about everything else - working on it! Thanks guys I'm understanding things a little better now I've milled some slots in the ends of my tangent arms now and will fit a small shoulder screw with a spacer that will do two things..

Hi Graham, Great, you are on-track. Haven't thought this all the way through as yet but what's the easy non-thinking! Erick, Once set up go to mode catalog. Messier objects and start at M1 then go to M2, M3 etc etc. Some will not be in the sky at the time but just move onto the next one. Record what you have observed then go back to ones you have missed if they have come up above the horizon. Gary will answer this one as I'm not sure but you maybe able to go to tour mode and them select Messier objects??

Be something you can do at Snake valley camp this March.: I would set all the Messier objects in an Excel spreadsheet. Sort them by declination and then delete those that have too northerly a declination for you to see from your latitude. Take the remaining targets and sort them by right ascension.

Work out which is the most westerly target that is visible at sunset and put this target first on the list. Then re sort the list by cutting and pasting so that everything follows in right ascension order from your first visible target on the list. Start your scope, wait for dark, align argo; and then just go through the targets in right ascension order by turning the detent wheel one click at a time. Everything in your list will be visible at the appropriate stages of the night this way and you just turn the wheel one click at a time.

I am pretty sure if you hunt around you will find a user defined catalogue of Messier Targets ready for uploading to AN, just for such a purpose. You read my mind, Dave! Yes, this weekend Mar 28 is the only weekend listed in to conduct a successful MM! Thanks John, that sounds like the approach.

I have located lists in "viewing order" with plenty of hints to deal with the difficult ones. Particularly M74 and M77 that have to be nabbed in dusk and M30 in dawn. I suspect our southerly latitude will make these early and late ones a great challenge. I can probably get a head start with the excel spreadsheet on this page: Hi Erick, Great to hear you want to perform a Messier Marathon.

As mentioned by other respondents, an optimal way to observe them is in ascending RA order. As you will be aware, with the rotation of the Earth, just as the sun and the stars rise in the East and set in the West, so do lines of Right Ascension.

For this reason, RA is measured in units of time and at any given fixed Azimuth and elevation, RA sweeps by at a sidereal rate. To use the catalog, you need to determine the starting point. On the night in question, perform a star alignment. Argo Navis should then identify the Messier object that is closest to where the telescope is pointing.

Continue this way for the rest of the night. You can depart the tour, say to look at other objects of opportunity and then rejoin it at any time. Good luck on your Marathon and I hope you get clear weather on the night! I get a very small deflection on one point on one of my alt axis..

I'm thinking its one or both of my alt bearings arn't exactly the same at this point.. Gary I reset the encoder resolution to 10 steps on both axis thats right isn't it? I finished making my stalk for mounting the unit.. If the movement of which you write is toward and away from the side of the rocker, then of course the arm will deflect less in distance if measured toward the encoder end, but the angle by which it deflects will be the same, irrespective from which end it is measured.

Now push the OTA downward in Altitude toward the horizon. Now sweep the OTA from that point toward the East, roughly following the celestial equator. RA left-hand value should be increasing on the display it will wrap at One you have established the signs, try the following test as well.

GUIDE back to one of the original two alignment stars. Note that the display shows close to 0. Does the display still show close to 0. Now GUIDE to a third star, well away from the original two in some other part of the sky, and check that the angular error residual of this third star is small. Hope you have some clear nights ahead! Highly recommend you perform the procedure for establishing them as I outlined in my previous post.

I think I pointed my sope around canis minor and swept to the east through az motion then back to the north through the same motion.. Hi Graham, Indeed, it sounds as if your current settings are for a configuration where the OTA is 'flipped' beyond the zenith. This means that you will be able to correctly identify objects or constellations, but that when you go to GUIDE to an object, the directions will want to steer you in the other direction. Both ways it still moves as per directions..

Do I have to have the mount set to fork?? There are what you are trying to determine. If it increases, i. Once the Alt encoder sign is established, you are going to perform a two star alignment and then point the OTA to the intersection of the meridian and celestial equator. As you sweep across the celestial equator toward the eastern horizon, RA should increase on the display. The above procedure will establish them for you, but in the worse case you can always simply try all four, recoding your results with pen and paper as you go.

AN was a great help tonight, tracking Saturn at around mag. I was swapping eyepieces, barlows. After each swap, I just had to carefully guide back to 0,0 and Saturn was always close enough to locate with a gentle search around that location! I'll check the pole sweep again.. I'm going from a point alittle east of canopus and sweeping down to the east through altitude motion.?.

desktop online slot

The receding side of the jet suf- fers from the opposite effect, and we see it moving in the sky more slowly han It truly Is. The diagram shown here illustrates the concept. Say a clpud of plasma Is ejected by a mlcroguasar, and it emits radio waves at two times At seconds apart. Mkroquasar jeti by contrast tan he followed in boiri directions.

TM ejecta shown here appear to cross trie shy at faster-trian-Irght speeds. This apparent asymmetry also can he explained as a relativistic illusion. A second galactic source of su- per uiniiial eject loiiiij GRf. Rupert and the late Robert M. Tingay Australia Teifccopc National Facil- ity. Tod ay we know" of about 20 microquasars in our galaxy — each an X-ra. These bianiTS noware beliei'ed simply tube quasars w-hose jets happen to point almo. Such an arrangement maxi- inize?: Vfight ihere likewise be tnkroMazars, X-ray binaries whose cis nearly coincide with our sight ines to them?

Vet, because of their fast variability, iiiicrobla: According tei lerome A. Certain acthic star-forming galiudcs like. Courtesy Robert Hjeliming and Michael Rupeo. Mult [wavelength monitoring — carried out frtmi space with the Kussi X-riy Timing bxploret, the BeppoSAX spacecraft, and the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment, and from the ground with telescopes worldwide — has captured miLro- quasar jets being fueled by accretion disks. M can be seen on the next page, a sudden drop in this binary's X-ray luminosity was quickly foUowed by out- bursts at infrared, and laler at radio, wavelengths.

The X-ray drop was first explained byTtmiaso Bciloni Observatory of Brera, Italy and his collaborators, who interpreted it m result- ing from the lillerit disappearance of hot dish gas into the black holes event hortwm. But the sys- tem has to get rid of angular momentum, so it expels jets to carry It away. The coropo- oenls within each panel are not drawn to scak; scade bars denote jet lengths. The sequence of events shows that material indeed was transferred From the disk to the jets.

Similar transitions preiumabfy take place in the distant quasars. Furthermorei In ciiiAscirH the variability will manifesE ii. Thus it may turn out that we can ohserve ihls pa rtiaibrly revealing jtianifestatinn of the di.

As these theo- rists and many others see it, many GRBi occur svhen a coHapitir the collap-Hlng core of a massive star ends iLs lile by cata. Thus niicroquasars conceiv- ably can help us understand nol only the most luminous astro- nomicLil obiecis hut also the most energetic ccisinic cTtplosicrnsL Seeing Black Holts Spin According 10 New Zealand mathematk-Ean Roy Patrick Kerr, black holes are characterized by only two parameten;, mass and spin — a sobering real Ezat ion that the late Kobe!

HCrihc cosmic black linles. Blach-hoie tpin may be an important power source for mkro- quasars, quasars, and the coNapsars fueling gamma ray bursts. Nuwak Yale University and Robert V. Hy conibfnirigthese data wtlh radid -velocity' nwaju rements, we now knci'w that this bUck-hoU binary moves through space at a rapid 1 50 kilometers per second. Currently locaiMl at 16' 54' Amateur observaiiont of this star are important to profes4ionai asuonofitersT yiHe visitiJe-iigh.

Currently no massive stars are forming in the galaclk halo. However, there are Lneikationi that piMljlic s. XTE II I is the first remnant found of a population of ven' massive stars that formed long ago in the distant reaches of our galaxy. The Microquasar Advantage MkreHquasars may he riny Jiid feeble when compared with quasars thcmscKicSr but their study presents several advaniagcs.

For one, in microquasars it is possible to see both the ap- proaching and receding Hides of the rviaiivisiic jets, while onh' the approaching irt is seen in quasars, i WTiy the discrepancy? Because the approaching side of a relaisvistic iel is Etoppler- boosted while the receding side is Doppler-dimmed, and in the remote quasan the Doppler factors are so exircme that the rfceding iets are redshifted to the point of invisibility'.

Phenomena that take hut a few- hours to unfold in a micrcKjMaMr can span more than a human lifetime in a quasar. In lriguingly, if we could eveniualJy detect not only proper motions but also spectral lines from he jets in mkrcKtuasars, we would have independerit measuremerts of the jet's rtinficin.

This wuiild enable us to use rtikruquijKirs lo determine astrononfiicaJ distances in a new, indepcndtril way; Mkroquasars have provided many new insights into astro- physical problems, w'hUe posing new challenges of their ow'ti — challenges that we can moei only with more powerful tele- scopes and deeper theoretical modeling. A computer anirnatlon showing the mkm- quasar and the Sun in their respective orbits can be ibuiKjl at hittp;i'. COM See us at N.

Sfesiier obfects that once appeared as a dim smudge, wiO take on mi Read what a new oistcener mjs: AtmI, uniihe deparfment store derKs. We've befin helping people pick the righi lele scope Since And ive can usually ship the right telescope tor you right away, since we normaffy Keep over lOOO scopes in stock!

Want aTeleVue tefescope or eyepiece? InKpondenr rnviqws hftl llks. You do the looklrsg. Tlney do the work. Io Sir H OT. MU wall u apachrcri-iatic ofibul iLlm for ito? Pkin lito EiKk bukKutito and: Frvn E-Imn to 40 Tvni. Iin dn Pyagup tiff lO' tatoB to?

Hu ctBdil enrd surer j. Having It All a true ali-purpose teicscope reituiius mythkalty elusive, these 4-wch refractors come fb5e. W[lJi it niusi carryout all your observing ami pholography of the nigh! Tliey yield fairor-iharp high -power views yet cart also provide panoramic vistas of star fieJds ihdl are second tn Jicine. We selected five new modelst intnsduced recently aitd readily available as of October Three tif the Iclt'scopci I tested are de- scribed this month, and the remaining two will follow iti the kmc issue, along with an overall summary.

The primary character- Lsttc I checked wa. In cases where ait apiionaJ held Hatlcncr or ftMial reducer wiis available, I took im- agsrs with it as well.

I also checked for vi- gnettirg — whether the leleserkpe or any supplied camera adapter introduced no- ticeable darkening of the field corners. CA Phone; 1 www. Althoogiti strictly speaking these arc not 4 -inch telescopes, iheir price and performance make them likely candidates for anyone consideriili; a tele! Aperture differences aside, [ found that each of the five tdesetjpe? A range of differcfil-stzc fcHziisers screw nnto the hack of the tubes, and there is a vast array of accessories.

You can build yoiir scope to order or purcha-se bundled sets of popular components. For our test, IfuEech Corp,. These refractors are unique for their modular construction. All photographs are by Alan Dyer.

Borg Meehan All Borg components are solid machined metal. The only exceptions I tested were the plislic lens cap and the cpiLonal ro- tary eyepiece holder. Precise focusiing is easy ivith Borg tele- scopes.

The ctirnpany uses helical fo- cusers, which operaie like the focus ring on a conventional camera lens. Indeed, there is even a scale marked in 0. The focuser supplied with our scope was smooth incl wobble feCi but I- could fee! Stars in the outer half of the field. The eyepieer and cross hairs can The Borg's objoctivo lontei are multicoated.

Tha tuba Compoirants are lined with velvet, and there's a jingle light haffit In the middle of tire main tube. Each ring has a flat sur- face drilled with three bolt holes, while Ihc other face has a. TO-nun-long bolt equipped with a targe lock knob. Although ihe Horg system is complex, 1 tpiickly became familiar with what adapters and rings attach to what.

My only curqpbjnl is that attaching a camera. Borg Optics [Respite its simple two- element obfective, the Borg provided very good color cor- rection. In focus, the Moon appears neu- tral white at high power W'ith no obvious color fringing.

A mild cj'an tint rims the lunar liirib only when the eyepiece is racked outside of focus, while a mild mdgcila tint appears inside of focus. At 23t x lupiter, a sen. Hacking through focus showed a cyan rim to the ditTraction pattern outside focus and a purpicdnagenid rtm inside.

This is classic perfnrmafice for a doubicl ED lens. W'hile ihest; aberrations disturbed tlie Siar-te. Stars are sharp pinpoints across alinoii an entire mm frameH remark- able for a simple doublet lens. CKx very slight magnifica- tion J and f! With or without rhe field llatteners I found the Borg a snap lo focus. Photo- graphs came hack ctinsistcntly sharp across the frame. Made of plastic, it holds four IVr-inch eyepieces. A lever flips the holder's diagonal mirror OLrt erf the way to send light straight through to another eyepiece lowec adaptefi or to a camera i upper adapter.

It provides generous aperture In a compact, lightweight package. Its rrioduLar components will squeeze into nookii and crannies of suitcases you can The optional rotary eyepiece holder IT 1, S57 is a woEtdcrliil aid to eclipse viewing.

With its good optical quality, the Borg lOOED serves well isan all-purpose visual telescope fur observers- on the go. Hut its performance really shines in photngra- phy The cor tier- lo-corner pinpoint stars that the field tlatteners provide make this an ideal iflcscope for imaging deep-sky star fields with mm and large-chip CCD cameras.

If other scopes and aatmgraphic lenses in the Borg catalog pn. D, North American skyshooters have some tempting new choices to Con- skier Resistance may be futile. The tesi elescqpc was yn loan from Orton. Vou car, however, remove the dewcap by unthreading it from the lens cell. And for even more compact packing, the focuscr can he unscrewed, making the main tube just 17! Even so, 1 found some eye- pieceMiagonal combinations would not reach focus. More critically, with the Astro- Physics ll'-inch dclapler inserted inlo tin- diago- nal I adding another 33 mm of Iwk spac- ing,h most th-inch eyepieces would not reach locus.

Switching to a low-profile inch. Tdapler one that adds little tr no back spacing hetjxrd. As such, oc- casionally iwitchaiig to a 2 -inch eyepiece required swapping adapter rings and di- agonaJs, a icdious process. This is a tcle-. However, the resulting siialhrw depth of field meant thal prominent color was ftLsi a smldKcn of a misfocus away.

Bright 1st -magnitude stars appeared clean white, svhh no halos from chramatic A single minute exposure pf the North Anterki Nebula on Kodak Supra film shows the reCprUirg power of the Orfon. Flashes of EUigcnta and cyan would appear in momcncs of poor seeing. Star tests ar k revealed a modest level of undercorrected spherical ajverra' tion, as well as very slight rftiscollimalion of the optics — star patterns jiust out of focus looked symirctricaJ only when placed off center in the high-power field.

In focus, bright stars exhibited a reason- ably sharp Airy disk surrounded by prominent first and second difTtactioni rings. The [Xruhle- Double, Epsilon Lyrae, appeared d. At the low end of the magnification range, all but the brightest stars appeared as cleanly defined points across the vast field of the mm Panopiic eyepiece. At low to iTinderaie powers the effects of residual aberrations went' completely un- detectable. Despite the Vixen's ioternaJ bghi baf- fles, the sky appeared to brighten as I moved the Moon out of the field of view.

The built-in field flattener, though just a ntcHdesi single-element lens, did its job. Stars were pinpoints almost to the very corners of a , mm film frame. This Is exceilent image flatness for such a fast telescope and equals or esteeth cite per- lormance of high-end apos seJing for percent more. Despite my cumments on gliost im- ages, I saw no evidence of flares or reflec- tions from stars in my guided pho- t. The only se- rious law wm.

From my firsthand experience with both mount and. You could spend a lot more than the 53, price tag of this combination without getting a signifi- cant iniprovcpnent In the photographs it will produce. The focal reducer'i tradeotf is vignetting of the frame conters. The glow amund Stars is horn a hazy sky, not the telescope. Then along Came refractors from Tele Vue and Astro -Physics the latter designed by Rtdynd Christen , and a refractor rev- olution began that continues to this day.

Our test unit wi,-! Comes with fitted hard'sheiicasa. One of thg newest members of the Tele Vue family, the NP suppresses stray light ef- fectively with t rough textured matte- blach finish Inside che tube and locuser, rather than with baffles, All lens elements are muhtkoat- ed tor maKimum light transmission.

Tq reach focus, the Bino Vue inuit be u-sed wnth its integrated 2x Barlow lerts. The NP ]fll dtJL-. Tde Vue suggests simply using an ultralow-power eyepiece such as a niin Plossl as a finder. The low-cost plastk Qullt-Pitlnl 5? The tube ring does nor readily accept piggybacked rings for a guidcscope. In- stead, aslrophulographers can scl up an NP in a. Only at the very corners of the frame do stars show just die slightest elongation.

In focus, stars appeared as light, sharp Airy disks, surrounded by a subtle inner dif- fraction ring and no other spurious fuzz — a textbook-perfect pattern. Saturn appeared etched into a dark sky. Here was pure unadu iterated light, just what an aptJ refracior should deliver. Low -power views showed no sign of flares or ghost images from bright ob- jects just outside the held. Test shots showed pinpoint stars across an entire mm frame, with jusi the slightest level of coma or astig- matUm hecoming visible toward the corners.

SlUL this vignetlLng was not severe and can be compensated for by clever image pnitcsaing. The 2-Snch focuser is nut wide enough to accommodate medi- um-format cameras, nor would the tele- scope's optical de. It can cruise ef- fortlessly from superwide -angle. Although it carries a premium price, the NP may he all the telescope many observers ever want. And xmlske some high-eind aptw wnth muhiycar-long waiting lines, the NP iUl is available now.

S Colestar 0 United wintitf.. World Wide Wcti fof deep-sk ' observ'f rs. As a complement to thal arlscle, now we'll explore some primacy' sources for limar and planetary observers. The best ephemeris generator Tve ever seen is online; the let Propulsion Laboratory's Horizons system see the bos of Internet addresses on page Although using this system to get the po!

Horizons also otters a variety of out- put options. Among the most useful is ihe ability to generate ephemerides for the times of risCs transit, and set of a ce- lestial body from your own. You can also determine planetary posi- tUsnji tor any given time interval while the body is above your local horizon. This allows you to generate ephemerides that contain data only for when you can ociuatly observe the ohjiect, making the printLid tables shorler than those in a tra- ditional ephemeris.

Iwr EfTi Kito 1. Jfs easy io find an early- s undersiaoding of plane- tary scietKe promoted in many online fo- ruiiis and even in popular recent bcKiks, despite the discipline having advanced substacilially in ihc last 20 years, further- mores press releases from various univer- sities and WAS A fivriueitiiy over. Amazing Maps While it's very u. In this arena, the L'. Although the maps unc sev- eral megabytes in size, thus takntg a while to down- load. AD to generate geotugital map. The digital ver- sioni of the images are nut as detailed as the original-s; in [act, they have been re- duced by' about a factor of 4.

Ncvcrihe- less, many of the images offer more detail than can be seen through an Earth- based telescope, W'hiie the Lunar Orbiler atlas cuntainii a gimd selection of high- resolution pho- tographs, it is almost useless lor di. Hccrn- ing low- relief features. This collection of ground- based photographs concentrates on the lunar terminator, where he shadows of sun rise or sunset accentuate topography.

In some cases, features as small as ] meter 15 feet high can be resolved. Unfortunately, the online version fads to preserve the fine detail of the original. Furthermore, the [PEG for- mal uf the pictures voids the posaibilily of people perlbiming weirthwhile image processing on them. Nevertheless, the atlas remains a convenient resource for check i rug your lunar uhservatiiin.

Ceplugiical Survey offers numeious planetary inapping tooils. In addition to searching publicationSn you can brow. Jtalcig of Spacehorne Imaging. Tf these hundreds of pictures only whet your appetite, a huge jiumber nf spacecraft images can be searched for and down- loaded at the PDS Catalogs and On-Line Data page.

You fill in the blanks to specify what object, which Vpyagen and whether or not you want GIF preview thumbnails. Press the search button and you can select images to download. Ffene are tVeb pages that will allow you to generate an ephemeris for any small body in the solar system, or yuii can download a tcjtt file containing orbital elements for those bodies.

Of particular note to those run- ning desktop- planetarium software: Its Central NchIc site offers Jtorne pitwerful utilities. This results in an output image without any lost area, at the expense of the need for a longer exposure. Of course, the extra exposure time is not a problem when the camera can guide itself! The Comet Let image was a 10 minute exposure wjih an Mi5. This is supplied in. Interior insulation Custom designea size Computer hook-up available.

You have yaur choke of cullingi method, such as searching by feature name. Space jjuard also keeps track of NED news as well as background information about science, impact rj. But when you want Tu go behind the he. Costruziont per Astronomia ; Via Canaletto N.

C0-flOM rfrjve and fl- wr diiplay. Explorer shines in its ability to display galaxies galore — 2S, of them — show- ing huw they cluster. Have you ever seen the Virgo Cluster from within it? You can with Explorer If you spy an interest tig- looldng galaxy in the held, move the cur- sor over it and basic informaLion will pop on the screen.

Explorer includes a llighi simulator, al- lowing ihe user to pilot a virtual space- ship through I be cosmos. Alas, I was disappointed that our virtual spaceship can travel al speeds greater than that of light. I opted not to copy the mmdes onto my hard drive during installation.

If ihe disc is already io the drive, it works fine, MovEe viewing requires Quict- Tiine S, which is included on the CD, As with Slurry Wight, Explcprer has a myriad of configurable options and dis- play features that can be turned off and on to your liking. So what about my opening quote? I can easily imagine Carl Sagan playing with Deep Space Ex- plorer for hours, perhaps even generating new animated sequences for a future in- carnation of Cownos.

There are no star charts and no c! Lontinually adapt to your shields. N'everthdess, retcidng interesting e- mail is always welcome. The col- lectHTn of news stories froni the Web. By signing up at hltp: As with the News Builclin, if you were iuhserlhed lo any AsfroAlerts in the past, ycsu'll have to sign op again.

Irdbnw prcfviiirx yciii wiili a tii. Aatmnonn' lab Leafhen '. The Samm diameter 9. Compact design allows it to be easily stored in an overheEid airline compartment. OR Oceanside Ffiota S: By design, Oeut Ls a book noi to be read as much as to be louked at, gawked over, and even scrutinized with a magnifying glass.

Although his may disappoint the data junkies out there, Brunicr obviously intended the Atim to celebrate aslro-anitheticii, not as- trophysics. AklrA Fujii's cnnsleitation photos are rcprcxluccd m Urge format 27 by 35 centimeters; lOli by 14 inches. This, coupled with his obvious talent for knowing juit how long to saturate film wjib slarllght, yields page after page of cele. Venr ArJas show- cases 30 constellations though iiiany more appear in and around the featured patterns as well as six high-profile deep- sky objects: The ilght-baud plages present Pujii's photos edge to edge.

FKtremely rich areas of the sky — Sagittarius, br example — earn two full-page photographs, in which case sh items are highlighted. The facing pages also contain facsimile charts of the photographs with a few more labels, bur not much more in for- mat Ion than can be found on the irans- parencEes.

The fifial tour pages ofler tips on get- ting. Apparently, it dicing suecesshilty make the translation into English — or, perhaps, it wasn't meant to, because tho. Naturally this sent me scanning for other spelling quirks. But ] 4 l1. Future editions mighi wnnt tn wnsid- er a spelling makeover.

A qiusar or black-hoEc candidate snigllt warrant a casual reference, hut I would argue that its nol on equal terms with bright stars, du. If something wasn't apparent in the large- scale phoujgraph. Open any page and the eye falls readily into realms ot slarcknuls, chains, clustcrSh and pockets of nebulae and galaxies.

Star colors, usually subtle to the naked eyi? Any decently guided long-cspusure photograph of the ScorpiLLs region, say, will give you an idea of the richnesi of the. Several celestial objects are highlighted for each photo.

Both books offer a se- lection of eidtlng storiesp a eripping writing style, and an inside look into the world of cosmic discovery. Hut there the similarities end. In 23 short essay's, Ke portrays astronomers whOp in the past four centuriei or so, made discoveries that somehow changed the course of science. The choice of sub- jects is neeefisarily a wry personal oncp and it should come as no aurpiise that Levys book contains stories on fellow comet hunters Such as Fdmond Halley, Charles hlessierp and Eugene Shoemaker, as well as on Qydt Tombaugh and Bart Bokp whose biographies he wrote.

Notwithstanding this personal fla'i'or, Coimic Discinvree? Painting by Joe Bergeron. According to Lev 7 , William Herschel iruilAted that the diacoYcry of Uranus in was not an accident but the result of the thor- oughness of his survey.

So luring can these feelings be that people have even faked discoveries. One of the many anecdotes in Levy's book is about the late 18th-century French physi- cian lean Auguste d'Angos, who made up a few comets to impnei-s hit- tontempo- rary Messier. Finally, Levy also stres. Without realizing what your obser- vations imply a nd how they may change Riddles and Answers Rvvlew by Govart Schilling Cosmic Discoveries: On the Cosmic Horizon JeWffy 0. Topics range from life on Mars and wlar neulrinos to gantma-ray bursts, extrasolar planers, and the origin, evolution, and fate of the universe.

Also, he takes a refreshingly criti- cal look at ideas that are often presented as Common wisdom. If his hook could be sent back to the 19lh century, an interested Way i Sky fi Telescope reader would has'-e no prublein in grasp- ing its contents. In this sense, Cosmfc [yjscoverief is reallv a classic bcwik. This is the world of present-day professional a. On the other hand. Bennett's book is pnihiibly die first to be outdated.

For instance, ihe chapter on solar neutrinos is already obsolete be- cause of the recent results from the Sud- bury Neutrino Observatory, which Cun- firmed the theory that neutrinos can change identity September , page IB. By locking back instead ot for- ward-. After all, past cosmic discoveries are here to stay, but the cosimic horiion Ls always moving.

Ttiirgs may be very different elsewhere in the mul- tivcrsc. We know that adequate conditions happened at least once. Such findings have added excitement and new fiiceis to ihr course.

Expertly written by top science journalist. Svit t 2 -Sp PT. Natiowt Aeroneodcs and Spflce Adminhtration, pages. Cpy- emment Prinmg Office. The records of planetary tApio- ratic. Ortly recently, thanks to thf increasing, sensitivity of asironomLcal instruments, ha-s I he veil hiding what lies in the dark, cold realm beyond Neptune been lifted. With firsthand knowiedge of the people and cvenLs, the author describes the chronology of discov- ery for these small objects and the continu- ing work to uildersEarid their nature.

Although there's plenty of valuable information here, iTiaTiy of the black-and-white photographs are poorlv reprnduecd. Stinking red lighte on the feel. Eyepiece A Computer hanji unil holder.

But this gjittering sphere, called SUTshine, is actually a high' tech Earth satellite that combino cutting-edge research with educational outreach. The miiTors aivering its surface reflect sunlight to observers on the ground just as a disco bail reflects the spotlight to the dance floor. By tracking the position of the stellite, researchers can monitor changes in atmospheric density due to solar heat- ing of the atmuspheie's outermost fringes.

Thousands of them have painsiakmgh' ground and polished the satcUilc's mtrrois by hand. Gilbert Moore, a year- old retired aerospace engineer and professor, came up with the idea in a. Then we try to find uiU how the density of the atmes- phcTC changes with the sunspot cvek. Siitlar maKiTmirn, bursts of charged particles flood interplanetary space and buffet Harih's protective mag- netic field. Such intense geomagnetic storfos can disrupt global radio commu- nications, overioad, power grids, and I rig- ger widespread auroral displays.

Ai the saiTte time, increases in the Sun's ex- treine-ultraviolec radiaticm aIho cause t he tiiemtoiphere, the rarelied region of the aimospherc extending about lOO to htH Starshine 3. It is nearly a meter wide and weighs 91 kitogrems. The therm ospherc is where aurnras occur and where many sateliites orbit , including the Irternatinnal Space Station and the Hubble Space Telescope.

On February lb, ZOtlfl, at burned up during reentry some 80 km above the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil Starshinc 2 was deployed on Decem- ber Two and a half months cariier, on Sep- tember 29ih, Siarshine 3 lifted off aboard an unmanned Athena [ rocket ftcun Ko- diak Island, Ala. The satellite is visible lo the naked eye after dti. Each school is gis'en three sets of mirrors to work on — two lo be mounted on a satellite and the third to be kept a-S a sciuvenEr.

Each mirror typically iakc. The task involves grinding ihe sur- face as flat as possible, then polishing it to a high degree of smooth ness, arid fi- nally checking its interference patlern with a glass flat lo ensure optical quality. S sunlight glinis off one mirror after an- other, During most passes, I see between two and five flashes.

You're not seeing the entire satellite — ju-st one mirror at a timer Atmospheric Drag Due to variations in the density of the thermosphere, no one can tell precisely when or where Starshines 1 and 5 witl take their destructive plunges back to Fa. Barring major solar outbursts.

Sky a Telescope i May 7 i amateur astronomers amateur astronomers m Jupitef. Jupiter arrd Mars were 37' apart. Sldrihinc 2 is CMpcclcd to reenter the at- mosphere sontetime this luncn.

Detailed instructionsi [in hosy to dsi the observa- tions arc given in Proiect Starshines Web site at www. Space Command tracked Starshire I by radar during its eight -month life- time. Lean and colleagttes Michael Pi- cone and Siteven Knowles are using these data to refine orbitabdecay prcditlion models for satellites and space debris.

So den- sity meis. Their initial findings were presented at the Artier lean Ceophvsical Union's con- ference in San Francisco feist fall. Slurshine oftersi a good opp. The project is fi- nanced through private donations of hardware, services, and raw materi- als, For example, the Ogden Astronomical Soci- ety in Ogden, Utah, do- nated about S i,tXtO worth of diamond paste to pol- ish the aluminum mir- rors.

The paste was left over from the club's telescope- making project. He is now working nn a prototype aiumini?: For Starshine 3 a series of balloons will be ejected and inflated by remote corn ml in he even!

Its orbit decayed sJowty at first, then faster as it descentfed to lower attitudes where the atmosphere betoimes more dense. Data courtesy Judith Lean. Perhaps one wouild eKjwcl hitn to have a doctorate in a. But in a held marked b ' inleresting charaefers, Robinson, like 19th-century naturalisl and author Henry Oavid Thorwu, has marehed to the beat of his own drum. His kinLwledge of astrtjnomy was forged the hard way, not by formial education but by hLs boundless appetite fur reading and bv his tws'n experiences and interac- tions with his contempOTiries, Born in in Vieriden.

He stayed in Connetikui to finish the school year, then headed west to Join his famih,'. In his new lown Robinson quickly made friends in the local asironomical enrnmunity by joining the Los.

An expert bird watcher and eclipse. W ffiaijonaf itiirrp, 2X Badm Lenj. That voice was tiie only rea-son 1 went to tlte offi-ce for the tncerviewC it belonged to Sky Publishijigs receptiirnkt, CaroLinCn wlvom Robliisint fernially met on his first diiy in Cambridge.

He got the iub as- ediEorial a. Their son, Leif r. Skv it 'fefettiipe still operates from 49 Bay State Roadf where it has for most of the jears since its founding in 94J. It was mainly npiicaJ'ba. And look it the telescopes available to amateurs then! Most amateurs had iheir ba-sic h- inch Kewnonian refleclor. Robinson saw his brst total eclipse of the Sun on july 2U, 3 , front Lewiston, Maine. E made studying eclipse weather a serious hohby after that experience," Nine years later Rohirson participated in what he calls the '"first eclipse nia.

ThLs rip was a harbinger: The ficKi big change was the eipiinsion of the News Notes departinent. Vsliat is Robin-son's most mcniio table day at Sit 7? We already had in press an article on Astro V, an ob- serving platfonti iha! I was very im- pressed al the way Leif niiniged ihf magazine after he took over the helm.

Famtlv is also an apt way to express how he feels about his own love of astronomy and of the editivrs, istronomers. Lr lin iiwdni in RiChfeld, MH Z3; 61 The largest annual event of its kirsd In the northeastern United States, NEAF attracted mort than 1, arnateur astronoiinefs and their families last yean For further details see the announrso' ment tela w.

August , page SH BBbbi Dh 1. HI IfliU - t. Bti jW tmtin Check US on the web at. Ver 1 CD f. I-'A 6 M fiAkh. H 94 14 Call 1 9. The ftomans called them Venus and Mars, and somelimes they were drawn into coniunifitlon. Flouring that the couple h under control, the Moon moves toward other responnibilitles on Feb- ruary 1 5th but is sellable to keep an eye on theiw,PlioiographJ by E.

According lo Homer, Aphrodite was married to rieplhaestos, the god of the forge, technology, and rraft. Ht- The ancients suspected that there h as smetht tig going on between Vfenuj and Afdrs— they tJff make d lovely pair.

By the Sth century H. These two planets billboard their passion in n comunctkin that er- Langles them in the tightest embrace an May ICIlh. Our tour also iiictudes expertly guided star-hops across the speciacukr southern sky.

Moke ynit reservations today! Coll toll ItH - 19 ;g visit viww. He represented the furi- sick and angry, Hephaestos svent o his ous iitsf for blood and the mindless rage foundry and crafted a snare, an invisible ol battle. He re- turned to his home. In- stalk'd the trap over his bed, and conspicuously de- parted. It slow- ly dcH'endcd and confined them while they napped. Hcphaesios to invite all ihe gods back to his house to see this color- ful divckisure of stur-crossed lovers.

For the aake of modesty, the goddesses de- clined to come, but many of the gods, in- cluding Hermes, Poseidon, and ApuHo, had a look. Hermes COnfeiiscd he would wJlingly iubrtiil to three tinKS the "number of endless fastenings" that jailed Arcs and the exposure that invited divine ridicule.

Ares wis fined fur transgressing the marital bond, and as soon as he was free, he departed for Thrace,. Athene Minerva, in Rome , the goddevs of wisdom and handicrafts, ollen went head-to-head with Ares. Athena, in fact, fmrtetied cities with the tipp Heat ion of intelligence and strategy' to the conduct of hosti]itie. Venus and iViars, O'!!! In the simpEest sense,. Although these gender-based distinc- tions live on in modern astronomy; in antiquity other cultures developed inde- pendently and treated the planets differ- ently.

During the New Kingdom period uf ancient Egypt H. When the Greeks first expresjied, in the metaphors of mylb, their thoughts about the forces that ruled their lives, they relied on the h? Mara was activated hy provocation and Venus by libido. Absorbing astrological doctrine from Mesopotamia, howev'er, Greece at- tributed to planets some of the same meaning they first a.

By the lime of Ptolemy in he 3nd centu- ry Ai'. MacrohiuiM the author uf CoiriFnenraiy on the. An- chored in archaic trad it ion, astrology Continued to as-sign familiar meaning tc Venus and Mars. In the 19lh century, fur exatnplcj a lypkal astrological guide indicated that Venus leverages such at- tributes as mirth, love, feasting, and pleasure, while Mars heralds warj com- motions and bloodshed.

Planet metaphors have not disappeared in the Space Age, however, T hey have fust cwilved. Never thek-s-s, Venus and Mara resurface in the way we talk about ourselves. Be- cause they' stiJ] operate so obviously as symbols of gender polarity, psychologist lohn Gray framed a phenomeiialJy hest- selhng guide tu relation! Turning to face east, wc can welcome Antarcs. High er up than Spica and almost as close to the meridian is another brilliant star, giiiger-coloined Arclurus.

It is a full magnitude brighter thaji Spica, which looks white or slightly blue-white. For mure than a centurv', skiuA'atchers have recognized a vast asteri. So far I have men tinned. The great heartland of galaxies, however, is tlie re- gion marked Virgo Galaxy Cluster on Qur map. In saine places here, the field of shew of a medium-size telescope can be pcEsitively teeming with these fireflies of the farthest night.

Lovely double stars abound, among them Cor Caroli and tiimma y Virgin is, otherwhse known as Porrima. The mighty globular duster M3, situated oo a line imagined from Aicturus to. Fiitcj Wforffcj fflttrf ttr A! So a star plotted halfway from rhe edge 10 the center can be found in the sky about halfway fropn horizontal to straight up.

As you're hoJding it now. The map has south down. About halfway Irqm there to the map's center is the bright star Spicar with the little constellation Corvus at its lower right, Go out and look south about halfway up the sky. If yau'rt far south Ql rhcf? Neil, make patterns Iriangtcs, lines, etc. Then I look for a sninll iruinglc of stars below the Eniddie star of the arc.

Try this rciutc yourself. If you star-hop carefully, the galaxy shciiild be visible as a little smudge of light — your rs'warst tor a wc ] -executed star- hop. When Early April - l a. Efiiy March - 2 nm. Next, look for Saturn -rivaling Mercury farther to the lower right of I he thax and the rwinlding star.

Vldebaran to their tower left. This bracing, after- sunset scene is not static, hoA'ewr, Within its heart, three separate pairings transpire as the central planets perform iheir do-si-dns. Ai midmonth the ciesceni Moon climbs the steep staircase of planets, and in late May Venus makes ati exciling approach lo lupiter, licftTnc considering these glorious in- teractions, k'l''s focus on each planet in- dwidually. May Events of Note 3 hAerfury is at greateft elortjiTion from the 5u i this evening.

IS Before dawn, ssteioid 15 Eunoma fmsg. I Mercury iii ibe firsi plane! Thb rtormally six-rttivti world Is easy lo sec as May opcTis, when It shines near magnitude 0 arid sets almost two hiiurs after snitdown. Telescopi- cally it us not yet 15" wide, and only slightly out of round. Zero -magni Hide Saturn ofifen.

Mars, a tiny 4"-wide dot in lel'ticopes, is no brighter ntsw than. Al- natb Beta Tauri and gelling bard to see beta use it is low. Jupiter is perched a full constellaliuil to the upper left of the lighlty hunched planets in Taurus.

This is ihe bsi mcstith until Scplembcr in which the planctK still ntagnitude -2, is high enough in a dark. Locni time of transFr telli when ohjects ctq: The red dot indkate: On May 26th the full MiKtn undergoes a pemini- hral ec 1 1 pse, slightly darkening its snuth- ern edge for viewers In Australia, New Zealand, and the Paeillc. S78 31st S" Planet disks at right have south up. Next are listed the visual magnitude and equatorial diameter.

Saturn's ring extent is 2 times its equato- rial diameter. This area is spangled with fairn stars when seen under a very dark sky. But cully three nf these stars are bright enough to make uur gatefold star chariH where they slraddle the meridian like a rotated L iust above Virpo. In and near this celesria] square, deep- sky eights abound. Sborlly after their mairLage, Ptole- my went off to war in response to diplo- matic intrigues that included the murder of his sister also named Berenice.

Out of fear fsir her husbanck her king-. When he returjied victorious, Beren- ice made good her vow. Her amber locks were shorn and placed in the temple of Aphrodite at Zephyr ium an ancient city near modern Mersin. Turkey , but they vanished shortly tht-neaftcr. The royal couple s oulrag. M53 looks nearly stellar through a small finder, but 1 4 x 70 binoc- ulars reveal a moderately bright, round, fuz7. Zgomlfig in on the three nnain stars of toma BerenicKj this chart includes fainter stars tc magniTudE 9.

A small scope at low power shows a subtle color coFiErsisl between the magnitude pfimary and the 6. They' are ac- tually blue-while and white, rcspcctivdy, but some observ-rrs see the companion star as blue-green. NGC 4S6S lies east of! Karachentsev and colleagues, l i. Switching to STx brings out some mot- tling across the core, hinting a. L the dark lane that runs along the galaxy's kngth. Two faint stars lie on either side of the galaxy's southeastern end. Both views are repro- duced with rvorth up and east to the left.

The paired galaxies MBS [right! It is easy to rfcogni? B-magnitudc companioU to the southeast that is vreU separated al l7x. The Black Eye gets its iianve from the prOTnuient dust lane that Irxsks so stun- ning in photographs. Observers have, been able to glimpse this feature in tele- scopes as small as 2A inches 60 mm. If your skj' is dark enough, you can try to spot nearby 4. These are iusl a handful of the deep- sky riches tangled in ihe strands of Berenice's Hair.

With the bdp of a good star atlas, joull find many moie to while away the hours on these warming nights of spring. Al its high- est this month is the constellation Crus, the Soulherri Cross. Over the centuries, the slow gsTation of Eiarth's poks precession has caused Crux to becutne invisible ern Mediterranean coast and the Near frevm most parts of the Northerti Hemi- East, hut there is no evidence that the sphere.

Around the time of Jesus it could be for earlv" Christians. No other constellation can match that claim. At the foot of the When to use the chart Early April - 10 p. Early May - S p,m. Note to self - need better protection for that encoder and its plug since I travel with a couple of plastic stools stored inside the base. Line up Achernar and Antares for the two star align using an illuminated reticule 12mm eyepiece.

And away I went for several hours on and off between watching some imaging work going on elsewhere. Several hours were below zero deg C, bottomed at -6 deg C: AN kept on truckin': Hit targets across the sky pretty close to centre of FOV in a 35mm eyepiece.

I put one on my 4" Apo on a alt-az mount. I thought it would be overkill, but after using it for six months, I can say it's brilliant. I estimate I observe twice as many objects per session now - the hunt from suburban skies with so few reference stars is much simpler.

I only wish there was some sort of session capture, so you could go back and review your objects observed at the end of a session. That's nitpicking though - it's a fantastic device. Hi Eric, Thanks for the post and great to hear you are ignoring the sub-zero temperatures and having fun! The Meade LX drivers seem to work but only as a fork mount but then doing that it positions itself as i,m in South Africa.

Its not really a big issue for me because if i keep playing with it i know i,ll crack it,eventally Hi Kev, Thanks for the post. When testing the interface, are you performing a real alignment by pointing to stars at night or a dummy alignment indoors during the day? This can make all the difference. Gary Dennis from Broken Hill recieved his AN and ringing me this morning to show him to install and drive it.

Dennis dont own a computer to print the user manual out so i suggested to go to the local library to print it. I reassured Dennis not to get to wrapped in the manual straight away , only to align and use the catalogue for starters. He will enjoy the AN Next time observing we will send you a pic of all 3 Broken Hill equipped scopes in line Thanks again were all still clapping Hi Kev, Thanks for the post and for assisting Dennis. He telephoned yesterday and with regards the manual, I suggested if there was a copy shop in Broken Hill, then simply take the CDROM and have them print the first 30 or so pages double-sided in black and white.

There is a copyright notice on the last page of the Manual permitting making a single copy for personal use. I said if he had no luck in finding a copy shop, then to give me a call. I have subsequently checked the Yellow Pages and drew a blank as far as copy services in town. However, your suggestion of the library is a good one and I know some regional libraries have printers and copying machines for modest charges.

Usage of other features can be deferred to a later session once one is familiar with the basics of locating an object. Dennis also said he had modified the telescope so that the Az pivot bolt would need to be longer than the standard one supplied.

I suggested if he carefully measure the required dimensions, taking into account the clearance of the OTA over the encoder, we could machine him a custom replacement and simply swap it for the one he has. He said that he may be able to improvise the existing one using local resources. In any case, we are here to assist. Looking forward to the shot of three Broken Hill scopes parked wing-tip to wing-tip. Thanks again for assisting Dennis.

Gary Dennis got the first 60 pages of the manual copied. He will be up and observing by this weekend,So will we all Hi Kev, That's brilliant. Thank you Kev, you are a champion. The supplied bolt is machined in free cutting steel, so it is easy to work with. Look forward to your report. Once again, thank you so much for assisting Dennis. In the new year I'll contact you with those measurements.. Hi Graham, Thanks and what a nice looking scope!

If only it could talk. It even looks to me as if it wants a pair of encoders fitted! The clearance of the Az bolt looks as if it should be OK and the Alt bearing looks straight forward enough. In the New Year, drop us a line as you've indicated with the requested measurements and I am sure we can come up with an installation solution for you that will also be cost effective.

Cheers and Dennis says thanks Hi Kev, Thanks for the picture which is really appreciated. Looks great and I see that there is even a mounting stalk that one of you has fabricated to hold the unit. Thanks once again for assisting Dennis and it is great to know he is up and running.

I've seen a couple of pictures of this mount kit, and from what I can remember it was pretty agricultural and didn't work very well slack and binding etc.

I'm sure the real thing must be better than I've seen. Has anyone got more recent experience with this mount kit? Photo's would be great! Hi Jason The AN encoder kit on my 12" works well. I bought it from an owner who knew a good bit about tinkering. Here is a project of his for a stalk to mount the AN unit which includes plenty of mention of the encoder mounting: Then reinstalled basically as Scott had them previously.

They have worked flawlessly the two or three times I have used it since. Updates - He shows the alt encoder bracket tied down.

I now leave that loose - it just sits on the pin L hook under gravity. I since added ebony star strips to the alt bearings, so I work with the tension springs in place, one spring hangs off the brass bolt which is the axis to the encoder. He has another project in the IIS listings - for a fan mount http: Note that when I took the Az encoder off, I could leave the fan hang loose on the neoprene. Now I have to hold it up with an elastic tie from one side to the other to ensure the fan just clears the encoder as I go for the zenith.

I have done two mods. First I have fitted a piece of "tin" to either side of the base, to just under halfway up the alt bearing. This discourages side-to side movement, and hasn't affected handling.

I have just completed a second project, suspending an eyepiece box up behind the scope with two steel bars bolted to the sides of the base. These add significant rigidity to the sides of the base. I'll get some photos of the encoders, as mounted, over the next week and post them. I do understand the new GSOs have modified Alt tension arrangements so perhaps the encoder kit has required modifications?

Wildcard Innovations can advise, I'm sure. Hi Eric, Thanks for the post. Here are some photographs and notes forwarded to us by customer Stephen J. Hi Eric, Thanks again for the post.

Indeed, the new GSO scopes now come with a different Altitude bearing arrangement including new trunnions fabricated in aluminium that act as tensioning devices.

They come with thrust bearings inside and are adjustable in height. These first appeared on the GSO 16 truss pole scopes. We already have a kit available to suit these scopes.

The user needs to unscrew one of the trunnions and ship it to us for modification and installation of the encoder coupler.

See here for details - http: In Kev's case, he's trunnion arrived here in Sydney on a Friday and the complete system was shipped to him by Monday morning, including the re-machined trunnion.

Thanks again for the post and I hope this coming week affords everyone the most transparent and steady of skies. Had a good weekend with the Argo Navis on 12" dob at Snake Valley. I'm very happy with it for my purposes. Finderscope is now attracting cobwebs, Stellarium has been put into the background and the lappie is primarily playing music, green laser pointer is staying in pocket!

Not the best conditions - set up on my usual half bricks on a plastic tarp on a few inch long grass - I could feel some rock'n'roll in the mount. I'll be happier on a hard surface.

But still aligned well with basic Fix Alt Ref and two stars. If I found the targets were coming up a bit far from centre of 35mm Panoptic, I just did a quick "Mode Align" on the object and carried on. Hope that is a reasonable approach to take. Randomly toured constellations or "20 deg around that spot" for non-stellars.

Saw many new objects. It made finding small planetaries a breeze! How is everyone else going? Indeed it is and it one approach that we recommend. In the face of finite geometric fabrication errors within the mount, the error residuals will be smallest in the vicinity of the alignment stars. So re-aligning in the region you are currently observing in can take advantage of this.

That is what we like to hear. Fingers are crossed that this summer brings plenty of good observing opportunities! I was intending to buy new, but a 2nd hand AN with encoders came up at a price too good to refuse. I'm half way through installing it some mods due to having a GSO scope but Lightbridge encoder kit and it's looking good so far.

Gary I got offered a unit at a very good price by another maker and was wondering can I fit an argo to the supplied mounting hardware? IT has step encoders? Another looming problem with my az mounting situation is my az bolt is glued thanks dad: Argo Navis is fully compatible with the encoders found on legacy DSC systems.

The encoder cable will also simply plug and play. The new 10, step encoders are the same height as their predecessors. You can find a mechanical drawing on our web site here - http: I gather your existing Az pivot bolt is not "encoder ready"? If you can remove it we can always create a custom encoder ready replacement for you.

One alternative is that you get a hole saw of the minimum diameter that allows the existing bolt to the cut out.

Thanks for the post. The menus allow step counts up to 9,, steps. However, when using the encoder interface, one also needs to take into account the encoder sampling rate. The following may also be helpful. As you are aware, Argo Navis can be powered from a set of AA batteries. The encoders are the most power hungry devices in the system. In order to conserve power, Argo Navis powers them on, samples them, then powers them off, thousands of times per second.

Since the encoders are sampled, there is a maximum 'tick rate' at which the encoders can be turned and still read reliably. In communications theory, the Nyquist Criteria says that one needs to sample a signal at least twice the rate at which the signal is changing, in order to sample it reliably. In this case, the maximum sampling rate is around 16, samples per second. Hence the maximum slew rate should not exceed times a second for the Nyquist Criteria not to be violated.

Working backwards, one can then determine by how much you can gear the encoders based on what your expected maximum slew rate is likely to be. For a 10, step encoder geared 1: Therefore you can also work backwards and if you know in advance what your maximum slew rate will be you can then determine the max. Anecdotally, on a colleague's 20" Dob we use quite a lot, we have been running 56K steps on the Alt axis and 10K on the Az axis for many years and never seen an encoder sampling error message and this scope is purely PUSHTO.

On some other GOTO scopes, rather than via the encoder port, encoder data is supplied to Argo Navis via the serial port. On these scopes, step counts in the millions are not uncommon. We could supply an encoder-ready Az pivot bolt that would slip right into them.

In this instance, the encoder would be mounted above the pivot bolt. Therefore you need to ensure that there is sufficient clearance as the edge of the OTA passes over where the top of where the encoder will be. Check out the images in the Az installation instructions for a GSO truss 16 on our web site here to see what I mean - http: Gary, Thanks for the comprehensive post re encoder counts. Hi Gary was reading a post today in genearal discussion ,and with the leap second ,how does the Argo-Navis correct this I,m betting the answer is really simple Happy new year Gary and Cheers Hi Kev, We keep track of it in the firmware.

The 34 seconds tends to play a significant part in some solar system object calculations. There is a plethora of time standards that are arithmetically inter-related. People have been messing with time keeping for thousands of years. Back in Sept , there is a whole two weeks missing from the calendar when the English moved from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.

People actually came out in the street and protested "Give us back our two weeks". Well I got some encoders and cable for x-mass.. I was kindly given an encoder ready bolt.. Thankfully I smacked it out without much damage and was able to flip it to get a nice snug fit again..

The pole for the ago navis is 32 mm I'm planning to run the cable down the inside of the tube atm. Hi Graham, Happy New Year! That is excellent news. We look forward to hearing how you progress.

Same to you gary.. No tricks to putting the encoders into those nylon bushes in the bolt?.. Hi Graham, Once the bolt is in place, since it is the type that has a nylon sleeve in the well where the encoder goes, just push the encoder shaft tight into there by pressing carefully down. No tricks involved and indeed it will be a tight fit. To remove, carefully pull the encoder vertically upward.

Because of the forces involved, avoid performing this operation unnecessarily. This will then minimize the risk of ever damaging the encoder. Once the bolt is in place and secured, then it is time to push the encoder in. Also check that the OTA will clear the encoder as it swings over it. Normally the bushes aren't glued in there. If the fit is not tight enough, wrap a segment of Scotch tape around the encoder shaft to enlarge its O. I completed mounting my encoders this arvo, and gave the AN its first run tonight.

What a marvellous little device! Even though the moon is out, it's humid, and the light polution is terrible, I braved the mozzies for about two hours just having fun with the AN. Will have to do some more reading of the manual to get a bit more efficient at using it, but so far, so good.

Hi Jason, Great to hear you wouldn't let warm temperatures, light pollution and mosquitoes get in the way of a good night out! I might make up a bush and slightly oversize the hole in the mounting mounting bracket to allow a little bit of adjustment.. The tangent arm is 2mm brass I had a piece of lying around.. A little heavier than I would of hoped for. Hi Graham, Looks good.

Rather than increase the overall circumference of the mounting hole, you might want to consider milling it into a slot whose major axis is parallel to the cross bar on the Alt trunnion. That will allow you to move the encoder side to side. For the vertical axis, you might want to consider some mechanism to raise or lower the entire bracket itself.

Rather than fasten it directly with wood screws onto the cross bar of the trunnion, possibly insert a couple of self-threading brass inserts into the crossbar first.

Then fasten the bracket into the self-threading inserts using machine screws. One can then adjust the bracket in the vertical direction and then fix it in place with appropriate washers and hex nuts.

Scott Tannehill posted a procedure in PowerPoint format entitled "Version 4. The 2mm brass for the tangent arm is a bit heavy-ish but should be fine. Refrain from fastening the far end solidly to the side of the rocker. Use a shoulder screw on the side of the rocker and carefully mill then file a slot with a transition tolerance in the end of the tangent arm that just slides over the shoulder screw. Thanks for the great info gary.

So its just sitting over the screw? Is to allow any movement of the alt encoder to be transfered to movent in the tangent arm rather than placeing undo strain on the encoder itself?

I think I'll use nylon bush like on your az bolts.. I hope to get a couple of mounting options turned up on the old mans lathe later this week. Indeed, just let it slide over the shoulder of the shoulder screw.

That way there won't be enable sideways force imparted to the encoder should the encoder not be exactly centered or if the bearings aren't perfectly circular. Rather than use a sleeve, do you have sufficient clearance for the edge of the optical tube to pass over the encoder if the head of the Az pivot bolt were above the inside base of the rocker? If so, consider drilling and tapping a hole in the side of the bolt to accept a socket head set screw. Then hold the encoder shaft in place by tightening up the set screw with an approriate size hex key.

Sorry gary I seemed to have confused things.. I might figure something to come of the top of the mirror box like you mention as I'm not happy with that little bracket I've made.. Hi Graham, No, it wasn't you. I am on the same page now. When you said 'bush' you really meant bush and not the sleeve inside the bolt. There are a few ways one can go here. You could use an off-the-shelf bronze bush. They come in a variety of I. You could use an off-the-shelf polymetric material bush from someone like Vesco Plastics http: You could use a bush made of any number of other materials, including acetal, from someone like Miniature Bearings http: Or you could get some appropriate O.

I'd recommend you start by looking at the bushes at Miniature Bearings Australia who are up in Qld and you can purchase from one-off online.

If it wasn't for that segment, ideally you could have a bracket similar to the one you have but allow the bracket to slide back and forth across the top of the cross member and then mill a vertical slot in the bracket for the encoder shaft to allow the encoder to move up and down. This is the opposite way around to what I suggested before, but the previous suggestion was based on you didn't do anything to that segment.

Very happy to have my AN on order and due next week.: This thread has got many tips for AN users. Thanks David, And welcome to the extended family of Argo Navis owners. For the absolute wealth of information in here for current and future Argo Navis owners, this thread has been made sticky. Thanks Mike, And thank you to the forum members who have posted on this thread. We look forward to your future posts. Hi Dave, Thanks for the post.

To the best of my knowledge, the "ASDX" designation is simply a suffix added by one of the Sydney based telescope shops. We simply refer to them as the 'B' models and the previous generation as the 'A' models. Again, the 'A' and 'B' aren't official GSO differentiators, but at least this designation convention has the advantage of being extensible with future models. So thanks to the great service Gary brings: I have the AN fully fitted on my scope.: D Pictures tell the story.

Gary it all came together well. Have not used it out under the stars yet. But all tests inside worked perfectly. I used plumbing pipe fittings. I had to make it at a height good for observing. Then easy break down for transport. Phot's show fully fitted then last one mount ready for transport. I look froward to many great nights out under the stars again with the Argo Navis.: Well done and I like the new set up there Dave: The Argo Navis is a fantastic device.

I have been getting back into the visual side a bit lately and the Argo makes it even more enjoyable. Hi Dave, Thanks for the post and the great pictures! That's what we like to hear! Hope you get some clear skies down there over the long weekend.

Hi Mick, Thanks for the post. After one has performed a star pointing test, TPAS can analyse and potentially compensate for many of the most common mount errors and can even report and refine any residual polar-misalignment. With your G, what we would specifically recommend is to initially polar the scope in the way you prefer, either using a polar alignment scope or drift test. Then devote one evening, perhaps during full moon, to do an extended star pointing test.

This might entail sampling the positions of say 50 to stars across the entire sky from zenith to within about 10 degrees of the horizon. You can even start to put an initial pointing model in place which then starts improving your pointing performance straight away, easing the identification of stars during subsequent sampling. The real magic of TPAS is that once you have a model in place, on a subsequent observing session you can re-synchronize the model on as few as perhaps two to five stars and your pointing performance will be as good as it was after the extended star sampling run.

A classic problem with GEM's is non-orthogonality between the Dec axis and the optical axis. This is because the human operator is responsible for mounting the OTA onto a dovetail or into the rings and if the OTA is not 'square' with respect the mount head, the telescope will tend to 'look' to one side compared to where the mount and the associated encoder system 'thinks' it is pointing.

These are the most intersting part of the document. So the graphics are interactive. The 'before' and 'after' cases are most dramatic. Whereas the raw pointing performance of this particular telescope was about Given the step encoder resolution is about 2.

RMS is a statistical metric and popular in engineering applications. When we say a telescope has a raw pointing performance of RMS of So you can appreciate to get the mount errors down to the point where the pointing residual effectively becomes encoder resolution limited can be highly desirable for some users.

So, in a nutshell, rather than investing in the 10, step encoder solution, I recommend you stick for now with the step encoders and steep yourself in TPAS.

There is a bit to absorb at first, but using the system in practice is relatively easy once one is familiar with the concepts. By the way, the techniques employed here are essentially identical to that which professional practitioners perform on all of the world's largest and most expensive telescopes and the lexicon - terms like RMS, Non-Perpendicular Axis Error, etc.

I see your az encoder is belt driven? Is that by choice or just the way the hardware is supplied for this type of scope? Yes it is belt driven. That is how Gary at Wildcard supplied the hardware. I'm sure Gary will have more details why the set up is how it is. I could not get out last night, but fingers x for tonight. It's very clear at the moment.: Hi Graham, For mounts where there is insufficient clearance for the OTA to pass over an encoder coupled directly into the Az pivot bolts, many of our kits use a pair of industrial timing pulleys and a timing belt, which creates a lower profile and shifts the encoder out of the way.

Timing pulleys and belts have close to zero backlash and are an ideal solution in situations such as this. You can find copies of the installation instructions for the Sky-Watcher Dob kit on our web site here for the Az axis - http: First night out with the AN.

I made some small mod's, see photo's. I changed to a bigger tube size and made it so the wires could go through the tubing. The only thing i had to re set on the AN was one directional arrow. Then then AN worked a treat for the next 6 hours. No re align through the night. Observed many many objects, way to many to list. Very happy with the way the AN has come together: Hi Dave, Thanks for the post and the two new nice photos showing the rig.

Great to hear the system is delivering objects on demand! A little time to spend on things this weekend I'm still not entirely happy with the encoder mounting bracket I made, a little concerned with how sturdy it will be over time When my father drilled out the ali I think it might of bent it a little as when i mounted it on top of the bearing trunion it didn't seem square to the outside, put it in the vice and bent it back it seems ok now.

The alt axis as far as i can tell is very close to where It needs to be , the black brass faceing plate there is slotted and the final mounting hole is yet to be drilled, I also have a small amount of adjustment in the tangent arm if needed.

Hi Graham, Looks like you have been busy. Noticed where you have attempted to lighten up your brass tangent arm a little. I'm still not sure what you mean by fixeing the bottom end of the tangent arm?

Imagine for one moment that the far end of the Alt tangent arm was just totally unattached. It then would have several degrees of freedom. It could move toward or away from the side of the rocker e. It could shift radially outward or inward from the center of the Alt axis for example, the bearing was not quite circular or encoder not centered.

It could rotate around the Alt axis. However, any geometric error that results in a pointing error residual whereby, as a side effect, the tangent arm behaves as in either '1' or '2' cannot be circumvented by holding the far end of the tangent arm fixed. Instead, the problem can only be fixed by correcting the mechanical source of the problem, say by re-centering the encoder. The risk is that, should 1 or 2 be evident, if the far end of the tangent arm is fixed tight, then any irregularity, say from encoder not being centered, will result in a force being translated back up the tangent arm and thence ultimately be applying a sideways force or moment to the encoder shaft itself.

If the force is great enough, it could damage the encoder. Thus, use a slot carefully milled in the end of the tangent arm that slides over a locating pin or shoulder screw. The arm will then be free to float if '1' or '2' phenomena is evident but will not be free to rotate around the actual axis. Hope this textual explanation, for what is often best explained by a few sketches, is clear.

If not, I will attempt to clarify further. I have the scope in this article: I presume the altitude bearing is not perfectly circular. In any event, the end result is that my encoder assembly — attached as it is to the altitude bearing — also moves 8 mm to the side. The photo above illustrates this shift.

My solution was, again, to avoid screwing the encoder arm to the rocker box. This is actually the recommended technique for many telescopes, including the Obsession: This worked great in my case.

It just sits there without anything — other than gravity —holding it against screw-in hook other. I was just too lazy to take a new picture. I just drop it in place on the pin when I screw in the encoder each time I set up, and it can slide in and out as much as it wishes without affecting performance to the level I need. I have done some work to reduce that sideways movement, but still do not restrict the arm moving in the direction of the axis of the encoder.

Obviously the pin should be as close as possible to being parallel to the encoder axis. If it sloped up or down, that would be a problem. Drill the hole straight, tighten the pin up and eyeball it for being "true" was all that was done in this case. Hi Erick, Allowing the encoder arm to float will certainly ease the mechanical load on the encoder and on the encoder tangent arm.

Unfortunately with 8mm of lateral movement large pointing errors will eventuate. Whilst TPAS does a great job of compensating for mount errors, better pointing accuracy will result if the mechanical mount errors are minimised. That lateral movement of the scope on the altitude bearings is easily eliminated by "shimming" the altitude trunions with teflon pads.

My 10" scope had about 7mm of sideways movement before I fitted argo to it. I shimmed it with 3mm teflon pads either side and it is now perfect. I will post picks later today when I get home from work. A further improvement can be obtained by "bracing" the side of the rocker box with a 90 degree tapered brace, to reduce flexure of the sides of the rocker box.

I fitted small plates to either side of the base which are screwed into the sides of the rocker base and go about half way up the trunions. This has substantially reduced the sideways movement but does little for the flexing of the base.

I'm working on solving that. Remember the joke - keep the tyres and change the car? I plan to keep the 12" mirror and change just about everything else - working on it! Thanks guys I'm understanding things a little better now I've milled some slots in the ends of my tangent arms now and will fit a small shoulder screw with a spacer that will do two things.. Hi Graham, Great, you are on-track.

Haven't thought this all the way through as yet but what's the easy non-thinking! Erick, Once set up go to mode catalog. Messier objects and start at M1 then go to M2, M3 etc etc. Some will not be in the sky at the time but just move onto the next one. Record what you have observed then go back to ones you have missed if they have come up above the horizon.

Gary will answer this one as I'm not sure but you maybe able to go to tour mode and them select Messier objects?? Be something you can do at Snake valley camp this March.: I would set all the Messier objects in an Excel spreadsheet.

Sort them by declination and then delete those that have too northerly a declination for you to see from your latitude. Take the remaining targets and sort them by right ascension. Work out which is the most westerly target that is visible at sunset and put this target first on the list.

Then re sort the list by cutting and pasting so that everything follows in right ascension order from your first visible target on the list. Start your scope, wait for dark, align argo; and then just go through the targets in right ascension order by turning the detent wheel one click at a time. Everything in your list will be visible at the appropriate stages of the night this way and you just turn the wheel one click at a time.

I am pretty sure if you hunt around you will find a user defined catalogue of Messier Targets ready for uploading to AN, just for such a purpose. You read my mind, Dave! Yes, this weekend Mar 28 is the only weekend listed in to conduct a successful MM! Thanks John, that sounds like the approach. I have located lists in "viewing order" with plenty of hints to deal with the difficult ones. Particularly M74 and M77 that have to be nabbed in dusk and M30 in dawn. I suspect our southerly latitude will make these early and late ones a great challenge.

I can probably get a head start with the excel spreadsheet on this page: Hi Erick, Great to hear you want to perform a Messier Marathon. As mentioned by other respondents, an optimal way to observe them is in ascending RA order. As you will be aware, with the rotation of the Earth, just as the sun and the stars rise in the East and set in the West, so do lines of Right Ascension. For this reason, RA is measured in units of time and at any given fixed Azimuth and elevation, RA sweeps by at a sidereal rate.

To use the catalog, you need to determine the starting point. On the night in question, perform a star alignment. Argo Navis should then identify the Messier object that is closest to where the telescope is pointing. Continue this way for the rest of the night. You can depart the tour, say to look at other objects of opportunity and then rejoin it at any time. Good luck on your Marathon and I hope you get clear weather on the night! I get a very small deflection on one point on one of my alt axis..

I'm thinking its one or both of my alt bearings arn't exactly the same at this point.. Gary I reset the encoder resolution to 10 steps on both axis thats right isn't it?

I finished making my stalk for mounting the unit.. If the movement of which you write is toward and away from the side of the rocker, then of course the arm will deflect less in distance if measured toward the encoder end, but the angle by which it deflects will be the same, irrespective from which end it is measured.

Now push the OTA downward in Altitude toward the horizon. Now sweep the OTA from that point toward the East, roughly following the celestial equator. RA left-hand value should be increasing on the display it will wrap at One you have established the signs, try the following test as well. GUIDE back to one of the original two alignment stars.

Note that the display shows close to 0. Does the display still show close to 0. Now GUIDE to a third star, well away from the original two in some other part of the sky, and check that the angular error residual of this third star is small. Hope you have some clear nights ahead! Highly recommend you perform the procedure for establishing them as I outlined in my previous post.

I think I pointed my sope around canis minor and swept to the east through az motion then back to the north through the same motion.. Hi Graham, Indeed, it sounds as if your current settings are for a configuration where the OTA is 'flipped' beyond the zenith. This means that you will be able to correctly identify objects or constellations, but that when you go to GUIDE to an object, the directions will want to steer you in the other direction.

Both ways it still moves as per directions.. Do I have to have the mount set to fork?? There are what you are trying to determine. If it increases, i. Once the Alt encoder sign is established, you are going to perform a two star alignment and then point the OTA to the intersection of the meridian and celestial equator. As you sweep across the celestial equator toward the eastern horizon, RA should increase on the display. The above procedure will establish them for you, but in the worse case you can always simply try all four, recoding your results with pen and paper as you go.

AN was a great help tonight, tracking Saturn at around mag. I was swapping eyepieces, barlows. After each swap, I just had to carefully guide back to 0,0 and Saturn was always close enough to locate with a gentle search around that location!

I'll check the pole sweep again.. I'm going from a point alittle east of canopus and sweeping down to the east through altitude motion.?. From your latitude there in Victoria, stars between approx. Canopus and the SCP are all circumpolar. So there is room for uncertainty in those polar regions when performing a check. Better to sweep along near the Celestial Equator. This time of year, think Orion's Belt, think Rigel, think Betelgeuse and even Sirius and Procyon as the starting points.

The purpose of this check is to ascertain the encoder direction sign for the Az encoder. As a side-effect of physically moving your Dob to the geographic South Pole, it will transform itself into an equatorial mount. I have a differant computer working now and can "slowly" scroll through the user manual,,the old one was a little awkward Hi Graham, Not south through Az motion.

East through As motion. Hadn't clicked you were up in Ballina! Hope the rain stops soon. I be headin east now and all seems well: P Well I have the unit pretty much picking out a few objects from popular deep sky which the bigger of are in the field of view in my 28 mm pretoria 55 dfov I could of aligned a little better but its good enough for now..

Its wants to initialize all the time now so I'm thinking the batteries have had enough of me Hi Graham, Great stuff! Well that means my scope is pretty much finished now.. It sure takes a while get everything just the way you like it but well worth the time. Looking forward to getting to know my way around the argo over time. It's onwards and upwards from here buddy: Had a wonderful night out here last night, the Argo worked flawlessly. Yeah mate it was a great night out..

I think I went in about 2. It looked very impressive from home and I get a little skyglow for some reason over that part of the sky. Hi Graham, Thanks for the post including the pictures. A really nice looking scope and your installation of the encoders and your stalk for your unit looks the part: You are most welcome and we wish you many fabulous nights ahead! Well that was fun.. It certainly is an assault on the old grey matter so many objects at your finger tips.. A tour of galaxys around leo just never wanted to end: D The unit worked flawlessly, all objects mostly centred in my 14 xw Though some objects from some of the more obscure catalouges just wern't there..

I set the limiting mag to 11 for my back yard which showed up everything pretty clearly , maybe could of went a little deeper but I suspect low surface brightness on some objects would be more of a problem from the burbs. Is there a way I can say tour planetarys and galaxys excludeing everything else?

Anyway great observing tool.. OK, I think I'm all setup, thanks Gary. Have uploaded a User Catalog containing 99 Messier objects. Added a flag to the name of each for "easy", "moderate", "difficult", as per the literature, so I have an explanation if I am having difficulty seeing the object.

Now I just need a clear night at camp and for everything to work! Excellent and sounds like you had a fabulous run! The ability to go back and forth so as to be able to compare and contrast so many objects at ease is something I like myself when using the unit. We were also fortunate to have a cloudless and mild night just north of Sydney which provided the opportunity to load the orbital elements for Comet Lulin into the Argo Navis and have a good look at it. Undoubtedly many of these would be surface brightness related.

The size of the object, which is usually reported, is also often a good indication. For example, some of the Local Group Dwarf Galaxies can have sizable integrated magnitudes but spread over such an area that the SB is very low.

Those that are obscured by the Milky Way can even be more challenging to find. As you see, you can select planetaries or galaxies or non-stellar but not a union of only planetaries and galaxies. However, it is a enhancement that might appear in the future. That's what we love to hear! Thanks again for the post! We've got our fingers crossed for you for that clear night!

Hope you get as good a night as we did in Sydney last night. Look forward to the report. By the way, I'm fairly sure my Argo went off daylight saving last weekend, not that it matters in its operation.

Did I spot it correctly? Haven't had time to check since. Hi Eric, Thanks for the post and congratulations! Sounds like you had a great night. See my tip on your other thread on how to ensure you get back to the last object you accessed in a particular catalog. Hi Eric, Your Argo Navis would not have changed its timezone off daylight saving last weekend.

Since Argo Navis internally uses UTC and since there is no concept of Daylight Saving for UTC, if your own part of the world observes Daylight Saving and goes onto it or comes off it, as far as operation of your Argo Navis is concerned, it matters not.

So in a nutshell, Argo Navis does not automatically change the time with Daylight Saving and since it stores internal time in terms of UTC, it has no need to. Just had a chance to check and yes, as is often the case, I didn't know what I was talking about, sorry. Hi Off the subject,could someone tell me if purchasing a Argo Navis to go on my EQ6 pro would be any help in locating Stars ,Messiers etc.

Im terrible at drift aligning and my polar adjustment is so so. So I need something that will take me exactly to objects I wish to photograph will the Argo Navis do this for me after just a 2 star alignment? The pointing accuracy is great and the user interface is simple and very efficient. When star-hopping I had no idea that I can see so many galaxies from my light polluted backyard. Being a beginner with about a year of observing history behind, I find use of Astro-Calendar at http: Then simply scroll through User Catalogue.

You need to register an account on CalSky. It supports the following CalSky objects: Hi Alex, Thanks for this contribution which I am sure many users will find very useful. I've installed it on a recently acquired NGT After heaps of discussions with Gary installation was truly plug and play.

Hi Geoff, Thanks for the post and it was great to chat with you yesterday. Thanks for adding an Argo Navis your second! Looks fabulous in the shed, so hope some clear skies come your way soon. Gary, Just wondering why the Argo doesn't have a 'Park' function so that scopes that don't move don't have to be realigned every time the Argo is turned off and on. Surely it can keep time well enough, and once a scope is parked and friction locks in place, a 'Park' function could be invoked before turning the unit off.

Then when turning back on, an 'Unpark' could be performed before undoing the friction locks. Who loves his AN, but would like to be able to park it! Hi Jason, Thanks for the post which is appreciated. We have had some requests for a park mode from some other users with equatorial mounts in domes and so it is definitely already on the list of possible future enhancements.

Just wanted to add my thoughts on the AN. After being a bit worried about my handyman skills I found that the installation was a piece of cake and was done in no time at all. Unfortunately, due to work and weather I've only had a couple of chances to actually use the AN, but when I did I found it very user friendly, I created a short list of objects to search for to use as a test run on my first night and had them all ticked off real quick, so for a relative novice like me, it's all very helpful though I still took some time just looking for and identifying constellations with my own eyes, as that is a new found skill I really don't want to lose I also have to comment on the fantastic after sales service from Gary.

I received a reply from him within minutes I already knew that he was away from this office at this time so I was not expecting a reply for a few days My problem was quickly resolved and I was up and running quickly due to Gary's help. Hi Steve, Fantastic to hear you are up and going and welcome to the extended family of Argo Navis owners!

Thank you very much for your kind comments which are greatly appreciated. Today is the 2 Year Anniversary of me buying my Argo Navis. I was out last with the telescope night again last night and was just amazed again how well it pointed all night. With a family and an ongoing struggle with health, the Argo Navis just allows me to see more in a shorter amount of time, which just suits me great. Probably about time to change the small backup battery to a new one.

Thanks Gary and Argo Navis for what it arguably the best accessory you could ever buy for a telescope. Hi Paul, Happy Anniversary! Thanks for the post and firstly sorry to hear that your health continues to be an ongoing issue. We wish you well. However, great to hear that Argo Navis helps makes your precious observing time all the more productive. The job of the internal lithium coin is is to maintain the time of day clock in the absence of any other power source.

Setup parameters are held in non-volatile RAM that does not use the lithium coin cell and can maintain its contents in the absence of power for a century or more. When the unit powers on, it checks whether the time of day clock has reset which indicates a power failure, possibly due to the lithium coin cell becoming depleted. It will then indicate this on the display for a couple of seconds.

Normally the coin cell is good for seven years or more, so no need to replace it for some time yet! Thanks again for the nice post which is really appreciated and we wish you and your family all the best. Just noticed that the links given in version 10 of the Argo user manual for updating Comet and Asteroid elements give a error. This seems to be the correct link for the comets: Thanks Geoff, Last night's earthquake across the Tasman was a reminder that even the world beneath our feet is shifting over time.

The virtual world of the Internet seems to be little different, with entire web sites shifting like the motion of tectonic plates. Thanks for the heads-up which is really appreciated and we will bring out a edition of the Manual with revised links in the coming weeks. I bought my AN about 3 years ago and put it on my 12"LB. Being an old fuddy duddy even older than Baby Boomers and brought up as a child when even a slide rule was high tech, I have an innate "fear" of all things electronic - I cant even change channels on the tele: Anyway, the AN hasn't had much use So I did, and there it all was - absolutely magic.

The AN even pointed me to a blue planetry nebula, which I had never seen. What I like best, is when after 30 mins, I have to go in and make the supper, and then emerge an hour later, all I have to do is turn the scope the number of clicks that AN says, and there sure enough is the last thing I was looking at - AN has remembered that the sky turns.: D Great stuff, Gary.

Hey, I am going to learn how to turn on the tele now!!: These are the types of stories we love to hear!!!

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To ensure quick processing of your order be sure to enter your zip code when asked to calculate shipping. We have a flat shipping rate of $20 for orders within the US. Losmandy G with heavy duty field tripod. Converted to Sidereal Technologies servo system, including Pittman servos, Servo 1 dual servo controller, wireless hand. Oct 01,  · Adding GoTo to a G11 Losmandy's Gemini is the obvious answer, the second cheapest solution is the Sidereal Technology controller.

Frequently asked questions

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There are two different 2" nosepieces included with this used camera. CCD and back - anyone? Community Forum Software by IP. All stainless steel hardware. Unique to every Losmandy mount is their precision dovetail and saddle system. If you are running the latest firmware you're done. If you're tired of messing around with equatorial mounts that just can't handle your observing and imaging requirements, the Losmandy G is definitely worth a look.

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The forums and support are in German. I've forgotten my password. Used Equipment Expand menu Collapse menu. If you're tired of messing around with equatorial mounts that just can't handle your observing and imaging requirements, the Losmandy G is definitely worth a look. Launch the ExploreStars App on your device and give the device a minute or two to upload the Celestial Database. I've forgotten my password.

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Homemade Telescope Mount Slewing and Imaging